Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1982-10-01
Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)
The stability of the strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1978-01-01
The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted
A class of solutions for the strong gravity equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1976-12-01
We solve the Einstein equation for strong gravity in the limit that weak gravity is neglected. The class of solutions we find reduces to the Schwarzschild solution (with the weak gravity Newtonian constant replaced by a strong coupling parameter) in the limit M 2 →0 where M is the mass of the strong gravity spin-2 meson. These solutions may be of relevance for the problem of defining temperature in hadronic physics
Exact solutions of strong gravity in generalized metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, R.; Smailagic, A.
1981-05-01
We consider classical solutions for the strong gravity theory of Salam and Strathdee in a wider class of metrics with positive, zero and negative curvature. It turns out that such solutions exist and their relevance for quark confinement is explored. Only metrics with positive curvature (spherical symmetry) give a confining potential in a simple picture of the scalar hadron. This supports the idea of describing the hadron as a closed microuniverse of the strong metric. (author)
Solutions to the strong-CP problem in a world with gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON
1992-01-01
We examine various solutions of the strong-CP problem to determine their sensitivity to possible violations of global symmetries by Plauck scale physics. While some solutions remain viable even in the face of such effects. Violations of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry by non-renormalizable operators of dimension less than 10 will generally shift the value of bar θ to values inconsistent with the experimental bound bar θ approx-lt 10 - 9. We show that it is possible to construct axion models where gauge symmetries protect PQ symmetry to the requisite level
Strong gravity and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1977-11-01
A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group
Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)
Lü, H; Mei, Jianwei; Pope, C N
2009-08-28
Recently Horava proposed a nonrelativistic renormalizable theory of gravitation, which reduces to Einstein's general relativity at large distances, and that may provide a candidate for a UV completion of Einstein's theory. In this Letter, we derive the full set of equations of motion, and then we obtain spherically symmetric solutions and discuss their properties. We also obtain solutions for the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmological metric.
Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity
Bambi, Cosimo
2017-01-01
This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.
General Relativity solutions in modified gravity
Motohashi, Hayato; Minamitsuji, Masato
2018-06-01
Recent gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers and a binary neutron star merger by LIGO and Virgo Collaborations associated with its optical counterpart constrain deviation from General Relativity (GR) both on strong-field regime and cosmological scales with high accuracy, and further strong constraints are expected by near-future observations. Thus, it is important to identify theories of modified gravity that intrinsically possess the same solutions as in GR among a huge number of theories. We clarify the three conditions for theories of modified gravity to allow GR solutions, i.e., solutions with the metric satisfying the Einstein equations in GR and the constant profile of the scalar fields. Our analysis is quite general, as it applies a wide class of single-/multi-field scalar-tensor theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter component, and any spacetime geometry including cosmological background as well as spacetime around black hole and neutron star, for the latter of which these conditions provide a necessary condition for no-hair theorem. The three conditions will be useful for further constraints on modified gravity theories as they classify general theories of modified gravity into three classes, each of which possesses i) unique GR solutions (i.e., no-hair cases), ii) only hairy solutions (except the cases that GR solutions are realized by cancellation between singular coupling functions in the Euler-Lagrange equations), and iii) both GR and hairy solutions, for the last of which one of the two solutions may be selected dynamically.
Exact solutions to quadratic gravity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Podolský, J.; Švarc, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 084025. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : quadratic gravity * exact solutions * Kundt spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084025
Exact solutions to quadratic gravity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Podolský, J.; Švarc, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 084025. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : quadratic gravity * exact solutions * Kundt spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals. aps .org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084025
Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.
1993-05-01
Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs
Exact Solutions in Three-Dimensional Gravity
García-Díaz, Alberto A.
2017-09-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Point particles; 3. Dust solutions; 4. AdS cyclic symmetric stationary solutions; 5. Perfect fluid static stars; 6. Static perfect fluid stars with Λ; 7. Hydrodynamic equilibrium; 8. Stationary perfect fluid with Λ; 9. Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies; 10. Dilaton-inflaton FRW cosmologies; 11. Einstein–Maxwell solutions; 12. Nonlinear electrodynamics black hole; 13. Dilaton minimally coupled to gravity; 14. Dilaton non-minimally coupled to gravity; 15. Low energy 2+1 string gravity; 16. Topologically massive gravity; 17. Bianchi type spacetimes in TMG; 18. Petrov type N wave metrics; 19. Kundt spacetimes in TMG; 20. Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes; References; Index.
Electrovacuum solutions in nonlocal gravity
Fernandes, Karan; Mitra, Arpita
2018-05-01
We consider the coupling of the electromagnetic field to a nonlocal gravity theory comprising of the Einstein-Hilbert action in addition to a nonlocal R □-2R term associated with a mass scale m . We demonstrate that in the case of the minimally coupled electromagnetic field, real corrections about the Reissner-Nordström background only exist between the inner Cauchy horizon and the event horizon of the black hole. This motivates us to consider the modified coupling of electromagnetism to this theory via the Kaluza ansatz. The Kaluza reduction introduces nonlocal terms involving the electromagnetic field to the pure gravitational nonlocal theory. An iterative approach is provided to perturbatively solve the equations of motion to arbitrary order in m2 about any known solution of general relativity. We derive the first-order corrections and demonstrate that the higher order corrections are real and perturbative about the external background of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. We also discuss how the Kaluza reduced action, through the inclusion of nonlocal electromagnetic fields, could also be relevant in quantum effects on curved backgrounds with horizons.
Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity
Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A
2017-01-01
A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...
Strong Gravity Effects of Rotating Black Holes: Quasiperiodic Oscillations
Aliev, Alikram N.; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir
2012-01-01
We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: The orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which ...
Scaling solutions for dilaton quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henz, T.; Pawlowski, J.M., E-mail: j.pawlowski@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de; Wetterich, C.
2017-06-10
Scaling solutions for the effective action in dilaton quantum gravity are investigated within the functional renormalization group approach. We find numerical solutions that connect ultraviolet and infrared fixed points as the ratio between scalar field and renormalization scale k is varied. In the Einstein frame the quantum effective action corresponding to the scaling solutions becomes independent of k. The field equations derived from this effective action can be used directly for cosmology. Scale symmetry is spontaneously broken by a non-vanishing cosmological value of the scalar field. For the cosmology corresponding to our scaling solutions, inflation arises naturally. The effective cosmological constant becomes dynamical and vanishes asymptotically as time goes to infinity.
Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions
Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean
2014-05-01
Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing
Seismic diagnosis from gravity modes strongly affected by rotation
Prat, Vincent; Mathis, Stéphane; Lignières, François; Ballot, Jérôme; Culpin, Pierre-Marie
2017-10-01
Most of the information we have about the internal rotation of stars comes from modes that are weakly affected by rotation, for example by using rotational splittings. In contrast, we present here a method, based on the asymptotic theory of Prat et al. (2016), which allows us to analyse the signature of rotation where its effect is the most important, that is in low-frequency gravity modes that are strongly affected by rotation. For such modes, we predict two spectral patterns that could be confronted to observed spectra and those computed using fully two-dimensional oscillation codes.
A strong coupling simulation of Euclidean quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, B.; Hamburg Univ.
1984-12-01
Relying on Regge calculus a systematic numerical investigation of models of 4d Euclidean gravity is proposed. The scale a = 1 0 is set by fixing the expectation value of a length. Possible universality of such models is discussed. The strong coupling limit is defined by taking Planck mass msub(p) -> 0 (in units of 1 0 -1 ). The zero order approximation msub(p) = 0 is called 'fluctuating space' and investigated numerically in two 4d models. Canonical dimensions are realized and both models give a negative expectation value for the scalar curvature density. (orig.)
Strong gravity effects in accreting black-hole systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niedzwiecki, A.
2006-01-01
I briefly review current status of studying effects of strong gravity in X-ray astronomy. Matter accreting onto a black hole probes the relativistic region of space-time and the high-energy radiation it produces should contain signatures of strong gravity effects. Current X-ray observations provide the evidence that the observed emission originates, in some cases, at a distance of a few gravitational radii from a black hole. Moreover, certain observations invoke interpretations favouring rapid rotation of the black hole. Some observational properties of black hole systems are supposed to result from the lack of a material surface in these objects. I consider further effects, specific for the black hole environment, which can be studied in X-ray data. Bulk motion Comptonization, which would directly reveal converging flow of matter plunging into a black hole, is unlikely to be important in formation of X-ray spectra. Similarly, Penrose processes are unlikely to give observational effects, although this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far for all plausible radiative mechanisms. (author)
Bouncing cosmological solutions from f(R,T) gravity
Shabani, Hamid; Ziaie, Amir Hadi
2018-05-01
In this work we study classical bouncing solutions in the context of f(R,T)=R+h(T) gravity in a flat FLRW background using a perfect fluid as the only matter content. Our investigation is based on introducing an effective fluid through defining effective energy density and pressure; we call this reformulation as the " effective picture". These definitions have been already introduced to study the energy conditions in f(R,T) gravity. We examine various models to which different effective equations of state, corresponding to different h(T) functions, can be attributed. It is also discussed that one can link between an assumed f(R,T) model in the effective picture and the theories with generalized equation of state ( EoS). We obtain cosmological scenarios exhibiting a nonsingular bounce before and after which the Universe lives within a de-Sitter phase. We then proceed to find general solutions for matter bounce and investigate their properties. We show that the properties of bouncing solution in the effective picture of f(R,T) gravity are as follows: for a specific form of the f(R,T) function, these solutions are without any future singularities. Moreover, stability analysis of the nonsingular solutions through matter density perturbations revealed that except two of the models, the parameters of scalar-type perturbations for the other ones have a slight transient fluctuation around the bounce point and damp to zero or a finite value at late times. Hence these bouncing solutions are stable against scalar-type perturbations. It is possible that all energy conditions be respected by the real perfect fluid, however, the null and the strong energy conditions can be violated by the effective fluid near the bounce event. These solutions always correspond to a maximum in the real matter energy density and a vanishing minimum in the effective density. The effective pressure varies between negative values and may show either a minimum or a maximum.
Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators
El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...
Rotating solutions in critical Lovelock gravities
Cvetič, M.; Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.
2017-02-01
For appropriate choices of the coupling constants, the equations of motion of Lovelock gravities up to order n in the Riemann tensor can be factorized such that the theories admit a single (A)dS vacuum. In this paper we construct two classes of exact rotating metrics in such critical Lovelock gravities of order n in d = 2 n + 1 dimensions. In one class, the n angular momenta in the n orthogonal spatial 2-planes are equal, and hence the metric is of cohomogeneity one. We construct these metrics in a Kerr-Schild form, but they can then be recast in terms of Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. The other class involves metrics with only a single non-vanishing angular momentum. Again we construct them in a Kerr-Schild form, but in this case it does not seem to be possible to recast them in Boyer-Lindquist form. Both classes of solutions have naked curvature singularities, arising because of the over rotation of the configurations.
Rotating solutions in critical Lovelock gravities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Cvetič
2017-02-01
Full Text Available For appropriate choices of the coupling constants, the equations of motion of Lovelock gravities up to order n in the Riemann tensor can be factorized such that the theories admit a single (AdS vacuum. In this paper we construct two classes of exact rotating metrics in such critical Lovelock gravities of order n in d=2n+1 dimensions. In one class, the n angular momenta in the n orthogonal spatial 2-planes are equal, and hence the metric is of cohomogeneity one. We construct these metrics in a Kerr–Schild form, but they can then be recast in terms of Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. The other class involves metrics with only a single non-vanishing angular momentum. Again we construct them in a Kerr–Schild form, but in this case it does not seem to be possible to recast them in Boyer–Lindquist form. Both classes of solutions have naked curvature singularities, arising because of the over rotation of the configurations.
First-order discrete Faddeev gravity at strongly varying fields
Khatsymovsky, V. M.
2017-11-01
We consider the Faddeev formulation of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by a kind of d-dimensional tetrad (typically d = 10) and a non-Riemannian connection. This theory is invariant w.r.t. the global, but not local, rotations in the d-dimensional space. There can be configurations with a smooth or flat metric, but with the tetrad that changes abruptly at small distances, a kind of “antiferromagnetic” structure. Previously, we discussed a first-order representation for the Faddeev gravity, which uses the orthogonal connection in the d-dimensional space as an independent variable. Using the discrete form of this formulation, we considered the spectrum of (elementary) area. This spectrum turns out to be physically reasonable just on a classical background with large connection like rotations by π, that is, with such an “antiferromagnetic” structure. In the discrete first-order Faddeev gravity, we consider such a structure with periodic cells and large connection and strongly changing tetrad field inside the cell. We show that this system in the continuum limit reduces to a generalization of the Faddeev system. The action is a sum of related actions of the Faddeev type and is still reduced to the GR action.
Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M. El-Naggar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.
Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)
2016-02-15
The modified theories of gravity, especially the f(R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f(R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f(R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f(R) models.
Towards strong field tests of beyond Horndeski gravity theories
Sakstein, Jeremy; Babichev, Eugeny; Koyama, Kazuya; Langlois, David; Saito, Ryo
2017-03-01
Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class encompass a wide range of scalar-tensor theories that will be tested on cosmological scales over the coming decade. In this work, we investigate the possibility of testing them in the strong field regime by looking at the properties of compact objects—neutron, hyperon, and quark stars—embedded in an asymptotically de Sitter space-time, for a specific subclass of theories. We extend previous works to include slow rotation and find a relation between the dimensionless moment of inertia (I ¯ =I c2/GNM3 ) and the compactness C =GNM /R c2 (an I ¯-C relation), independent of the equation of state, that is reminiscent of but distinct from the general relativity prediction. Several of our equations of state contain hyperons and free quarks, allowing us to revisit the hyperon puzzle. We find that the maximum mass of hyperon stars can be larger than 2 M⊙ for small values of the beyond Horndeski parameter, thus providing a resolution of the hyperon puzzle based on modified gravity. Moreover, stable quark stars exist when hyperonic stars are unstable, which means that the phase transition from hyperon to quark stars is predicted just as in general relativity (GR), albeit with larger quark star masses. Two important and potentially observable consequences of some of the theories we consider are the existence of neutron stars in a range of masses significantly higher than in GR and I ¯-C relations that differ from their GR counterparts. In the former case, we find objects that, if observed, could not be accounted for in GR because they violate the usual GR causality condition. We end by discussing several difficult technical issues that remain to be addressed in order to reach more realistic predictions that may be tested using gravitational wave searches or neutron star observations.
The stability of vacuum solutions in generalised gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madsen, M.S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre); Low, R.J. (Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic (UK). Dept. of Mathematics)
1990-05-10
The stability of the Ricci-flat solutions of a large class of generalised gravity theories is examined. It is shown by use of complementary methods that all such solutions are stable in a given theory if that theory admits a truncation to a quadratic theory in which the solution is stable. In particular, this means that the exterior Schwarzschild solution is stable in any gravity theory constructed purely from the Ricci scalar, provided that it exists in that theory. (orig.).
The stability of vacuum solutions in generalised gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madsen, M.S.; Low, R.J.
1990-01-01
The stability of the Ricci-flat solutions of a large class of generalised gravity theories is examined. It is shown by use of complementary methods that all such solutions are stable in a given theory if that theory admits a truncation to a quadratic theory in which the solution is stable. In particular, this means that the exterior Schwarzschild solution is stable in any gravity theory constructed purely from the Ricci scalar, provided that it exists in that theory. (orig.)
Three-dimensional dilatonic gravity's rainbow: Exact solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossein Hendi, Seyed; Eslam Panah, Behzad; Panahiyan, Shahram
2016-01-01
Deep relations of dark energy scenario and string theory results into dilaton gravity, on the one hand, and the connection between quantum gravity and gravity's rainbow, on the other hand, motivate us to consider three-dimensional dilatonic black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow. We obtain two classes of the solutions, which are polynomial and logarithmic forms. We also calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and examine the first law of thermodynamics for both classes. In addition, we study thermal stability and show that one of the classes is thermally stable while the other one is unstable.
From thermodynamics to the solutions in gravity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou
2014-01-01
In a recent work, we present a new point of view to the relation of gravity and thermodynamics, in which we derive the Schwarzschild solution through thermodynamic considerations by the aid of the Misner–Sharp mass in an adiabatic system. In this Letter we continue to investigate the relation between gravity and thermodynamics for obtaining solutions via thermodynamics. We generalize our studies on gravi-thermodynamics in Einstein gravity to modified gravity theories. By using the first law with the assumption that the Misner–Sharp mass is the mass for an adiabatic system, we reproduce the Boulware–Deser–Cai solution in Gauss–Bonnet gravity. Using this gravi-thermodynamic thought, we obtain a NEW class of solution in F(R) gravity in an n-dimensional (n≥3) spacetime which permits three-type (n−2)-dimensional maximally symmetric subspace, as an extension of our recent three-dimensional black hole solution, and four-dimensional Clifton–Barrow solution in F(R) gravity
From thermodynamics to the solutions in gravity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongsheng Zhang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In a recent work, we present a new point of view to the relation of gravity and thermodynamics, in which we derive the Schwarzschild solution through thermodynamic considerations by the aid of the Misner–Sharp mass in an adiabatic system. In this Letter we continue to investigate the relation between gravity and thermodynamics for obtaining solutions via thermodynamics. We generalize our studies on gravi-thermodynamics in Einstein gravity to modified gravity theories. By using the first law with the assumption that the Misner–Sharp mass is the mass for an adiabatic system, we reproduce the Boulware–Deser–Cai solution in Gauss–Bonnet gravity. Using this gravi-thermodynamic thought, we obtain a NEW class of solution in F(R gravity in an n-dimensional (n≥3 spacetime which permits three-type (n−2-dimensional maximally symmetric subspace, as an extension of our recent three-dimensional black hole solution, and four-dimensional Clifton–Barrow solution in F(R gravity.
Kundt solutions of minimal massive 3D gravity
Deger, Nihat Sadik; Sarıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür
2015-11-01
We construct Kundt solutions of minimal massive gravity theory and show that, similar to topologically massive gravity (TMG), most of them are constant scalar invariant (CSI) spacetimes that correspond to deformations of round and warped (A)dS. We also find an explicit non-CSI Kundt solution at the merger point. Finally, we give their algebraic classification with respect to the traceless Ricci tensor (Segre classification) and show that their Segre types match with the types of their counterparts in TMG.
Strong gravitational lensing in f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campigotto, M.C.; Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Fatibene, L., E-mail: martacostanza.campigotto@to.infn.it, E-mail: antonaldo.diaferio@unito.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: lorenzo.fatibene@unito.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Torino, Via C. Alberto 10, 10123, Torino (Italy)
2017-06-01
We discuss the phenomenology of gravitational lensing in the purely metric f (χ) gravity, an f ( R ) gravity where the action of the gravitational field depends on the source mass. We focus on the strong lensing regime in galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in clusters of galaxies. By adopting point-like lenses and using an approximate metric solution accurate to second order of the velocity field v / c , we show how, in the f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity, the same light deflection can be produced by lenses with masses smaller than in General Relativity (GR); this mass difference increases with increasing impact parameter and decreasing lens mass. However, for sufficiently massive point-like lenses and small impact parameters, f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} and GR yield indistinguishable light deflection angles: this regime occurs both in observed galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in the central regions of galaxy clusters. In the former systems, the GR and f (χ) masses are compatible with the mass of standard stellar populations and little or no dark matter, whereas, on the scales of the core of galaxy clusters, the presence of substantial dark matter is required by our point-like lenses both in GR and in our approximate f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} solution. We thus conclude that our approximate metric solution of f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} is unable to describe the observed phenomenology of the strong lensing regime without the aid of dark matter.
Brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems
Bergshoeff, E; Collinucci, A; Gran, U; Roest, D; Vandoren, S; Lukierski, J; Sorokin, D
2005-01-01
We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2, R).
On the universal hydrodynamics of strongly coupled CFTs with gravity duals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan
2009-01-01
It is known that the solutions of pure classical 5D gravity with AdS 5 asymptotics can describe strongly coupled large N dynamics in a universal sector of 4D conformal gauge theories. We show that when the boundary metric is flat we can uniquely specify the solution by the boundary stress tensor. We also show that in the Fefferman-Graham coordinates all these solutions have an integer Taylor series expansion in the radial coordinate (i.e. no log terms). Specifying an arbitrary stress tensor can lead to two types of pathologies, it can either destroy the asymptotic AdS boundary condition or it can produce naked singularities. We show that when solutions have no net angular momentum, all hydrodynamic stress tensors preserve the asymptotic AdS boundary condition, though they may produce naked singularities. We construct solutions corresponding to arbitrary hydrodynamic stress tensors in Fefferman-Graham coordinates using a derivative expansion. In contrast to Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates here the constraint equations simplify and at each order it is manifestly Lorentz covariant. The regularity analysis, becomes more elaborate, but we can show that there is a unique hydrodynamic stress tensor which gives us solutions free of naked singularities. In the process we write down explicit first order solutions in both Fefferman-Graham and Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates for hydrodynamic stress tensors with arbitrary η/s. Our solutions can describe arbitrary (slowly varying) velocity configurations. We point out some field-theoretic implications of our general results.
Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Pakdemirli
Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.
McVittie solution in f(T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bejarano, Cecilia; Jose Guzman, Maria [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-12-15
We show that McVittie geometry, which describes a black hole embedded in a FLRW universe, not only solves the Einstein equations but also remains as a non-deformable solution of f(T) gravity. This search for GR solutions that survive in f(T) gravity is facilitated by a null tetrad approach. We also show that flat FLRW geometry is a consistent solution of f(T) dynamical equations not only for T = -6H{sup 2} but also for T = 0, which could be a manifestation of the additional degrees of freedom involved in f(T) theories. (orig.)
McVittie solution in f(T) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejarano, Cecilia; Jose Guzman, Maria; Ferraro, Rafael
2017-01-01
We show that McVittie geometry, which describes a black hole embedded in a FLRW universe, not only solves the Einstein equations but also remains as a non-deformable solution of f(T) gravity. This search for GR solutions that survive in f(T) gravity is facilitated by a null tetrad approach. We also show that flat FLRW geometry is a consistent solution of f(T) dynamical equations not only for T = -6H 2 but also for T = 0, which could be a manifestation of the additional degrees of freedom involved in f(T) theories. (orig.)
5D Lovelock gravity: New exact solutions with torsion
Cvetković, B.; Simić, D.
2016-10-01
Five-dimensional Lovelock gravity is investigated in the first order formalism. A new class of exact solutions is constructed: the Bañados, Teitelboim, Zanelli black rings with and without torsion. We show that our solution with torsion exists in a different sector of the Lovelock gravity, as compared to the Lovelock Chern-Simons sector or the one investigated by Canfora et al. The conserved charges of the solutions are found using Nester's formula, and the results are confirmed by the canonical method. We show that the theory linearized around the background with torsion possesses two additional degrees of freedom with respect to general relativity.
Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity.
Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico
2014-04-25
Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.
Strong Binary Pulsar Constraints on Lorentz Violation in Gravity
Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas; Barausse, Enrico
2014-01-01
Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.
Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzin, E; Cardoso, V; Raposo, G; Pani, P
2017-01-01
The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects. (paper)
Exact Solutions in 3D New Massive Gravity
Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.
2011-01-01
We show that the field equations of new massive gravity (NMG) consist of a massive (tensorial) Klein-Gordon-type equation with a curvature-squared source term and a constraint equation. We also show that, for algebraic type D and N spacetimes, the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) can be thought of as the “square root” of the massive Klein-Gordon-type equation. Using this fact, we establish a simple framework for mapping all types D and N solutions of TMG into NMG. Finally, we present new examples of types D and N solutions to NMG.
6D supergravity. Warped solution and gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luedeling, C
2006-07-15
We consider compactified six-dimensional gauged supergravity and find the general warped solution with four-dimensional maximal symmetry. Important features of the solution such as the number and position of singularities are determined by a free holomorphic function. Furthermore, in a particular torus compactification we derive the supergravity coupling of brane fields by the Noether procedure and investigate gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The effective Kaehler potential is not sequestered, yet tree level gravity mediation is absent as long as the superpotential is independent of the radius modulus. (orig.)
6D supergravity. Warped solution and gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luedeling, C.
2006-07-01
We consider compactified six-dimensional gauged supergravity and find the general warped solution with four-dimensional maximal symmetry. Important features of the solution such as the number and position of singularities are determined by a free holomorphic function. Furthermore, in a particular torus compactification we derive the supergravity coupling of brane fields by the Noether procedure and investigate gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The effective Kaehler potential is not sequestered, yet tree level gravity mediation is absent as long as the superpotential is independent of the radius modulus. (orig.)
A perturbative solution for gravitational waves in quadratic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neto, Edgard C de Rey; Aguiar, Odylio D; Araujo, Jose C N de
2003-01-01
We find a gravitational wave solution to the linearized version of quadratic gravity by adding successive perturbations to Einstein's linearized field equations. We show that only the Ricci-squared quadratic invariant contributes to give a different solution to those found in Einstein's general relativity. The perturbative solution is written as a power series in the β parameter, the coefficient of the Ricci-squared term in the quadratic gravitational action. We also show that, for monochromatic waves of a given angular frequency ω, the perturbative solution can be summed out to give an exact solution to the linearized version of quadratic gravity, for 0 1/2 . This result may lead to implications for the predictions for gravitational wave backgrounds of cosmological origin
Planck-scale physics and solutions to the strong CP-problem without axion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, Z.G.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Senjanovic, G.
1992-12-01
We analyse the impact of quantum gravity on the possible solutions to the strong CP problem which utilize the spontaneously broken discrete symmetries, such as parity and time reversal invariance. We find that the stability of the solution under Planck scale effects provides an upper limit on the scale Λ of relevant symmetry breaking. This result is mode dependent and the bound is most restrictive for the seesaw type models of fermion masses, with Λ 6 GeV. (author). 32 refs
Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Che-Yu [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei (China); LeCosPA, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Stanford University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)
2018-01-15
The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite. (orig.)
Black hole solutions in mimetic Born-Infeld gravity.
Chen, Che-Yu; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin
2018-01-01
The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity. Furthermore, in this case, the maximal proper time for a timelike radially-infalling observer to reach the singularity is found to be infinite.
Progress towards CSR RL06 GRACE gravity solutions
Save, Himanshu
2017-04-01
The GRACE project plans to re-processes the GRACE mission data in order to be consistent with the first gravity products released by the GRACE-FO project. The next generation Release-06 (RL06) gravity products from GRACE will include the improvements in GRACE Level-1 data products, background gravity models and the processing methodology. This paper will outline the planned improvements for CSR - RL06 and discuss the preliminary results. This paper will discuss the evolution of the quality of the GRACE solutions, especially over the past few years. We will also discuss the possible challenges we may face in connecting/extending the measurements of mass fluxes from the GRACE era to the GRACE-FO era due quality of the GRACE solutions from recent years.
Scaling solutions for dilaton quantum gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Henz
2017-06-01
The field equations derived from this effective action can be used directly for cosmology. Scale symmetry is spontaneously broken by a non-vanishing cosmological value of the scalar field. For the cosmology corresponding to our scaling solutions, inflation arises naturally. The effective cosmological constant becomes dynamical and vanishes asymptotically as time goes to infinity.
The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)
2017-11-15
Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)
A rotating charged black hole solution in f (R) gravity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In the context of f (R) theories of gravity, we address the problem of finding a rotating charged black hole solution in the case of constant curvature. A new metric is obtained by solving the field equations and we show that its behaviour is typical of a rotating charged source. In addition, we analyse the ...
Kundt spacetimes as solutions of topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chow, David D K; Pope, C N; Sezgin, Ergin [George P and Cynthia W Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)
2010-05-21
We obtain new solutions of topologically massive gravity. We find the general Kundt solutions, which in three dimensions are spacetimes admitting an expansion-free null geodesic congruence. The solutions are generically of algebraic type II, but special cases are types III, N or D. Those of type D are the known spacelike-squashed AdS{sub 3} solutions and of type N are the known AdS pp-waves or new solutions. Those of types II and III are the first known solutions of these algebraic types. We present explicitly the Kundt solutions that are constant scalar invariant (CSI) spacetimes, for which all scalar polynomial curvature invariants are constant, whereas for the general case, we reduce the field equations to a series of ordinary differential equations. The CSI solutions of types II and III are deformations of spacelike-squashed AdS{sub 3} and the round AdS{sub 3}, respectively.
f(R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Subhra [Presidency University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Chakraborty, Subenoy [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India)
2017-08-15
The scalar-tensor f(R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f(R) gravity formalism. These f(R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R) = R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat. (orig.)
Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers
Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian
2015-04-01
Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the
Nonperturbative Dynamics of Strong Interactions from Gauge/Gravity Duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigoryan, Hovhannes [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
2008-08-01
This thesis studies important dynamical observables of strong interactions such as form factors. It is known that Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory which describes strong interactions. For large energies, one can apply perturbative techniques to solve some of the QCD problems. However, for low energies QCD enters into the nonperturbative regime, where di erent analytical or numerical tools have to be applied to solve problems of strong interactions. The holographic dual model of QCD is such an analytical tool that allows one to solve some nonperturbative QCD problems by translating them into a dual ve-dimensional theory de ned on some warped Anti de Sitter (AdS) background. Working within the framework of the holographic dual model of QCD, we develop a formalism to calculate form factors and wave functions of vector mesons and pions. As a result, we provide predictions of the electric radius, the magnetic and quadrupole moments which can be directly veri ed in lattice calculations or even experimentally. To nd the anomalous pion form factor, we propose an extension of the holographic model by including the Chern-Simons term required to reproduce the chiral anomaly of QCD. This allows us to nd the slope of the form factor with one real and one slightly o -shell photon which appeared to be close to the experimental ndings. We also analyze the limit of large virtualities (when the photon is far o -shell) and establish that predictions of the holographic model analytically coincide with those of perturbative QCD with asymptotic pion distribution amplitude. We also study the e ects of higher dimensional terms in the AdS/QCD model and show that these terms improve the holographic description towards a more realistic scenario. We show this by calculating corrections to the vector meson form factors and corrections to the observables such as electric radii, magnetic and quadrupole moments.
Hoffmann-Infeld black-hole solutions in Lovelock gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aiello, MatIas [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Giribet, Gaston [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2005-07-07
Five-dimensional black holes are studied in Lovelock gravity coupled to Hoffmann-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. It is shown that some of these solutions present a double peak behaviour of the temperature as a function of the horizon radius. This feature suggests that the evaporation process, though drastic for a period, leads to an eternal black-hole remnant. In fact, the form of the caloric curve corresponds to the existence of a plateau in the evaporation rate, which implies that black holes of intermediate scales turn out to be unstable. The geometrical aspects, such as the absence of conical singularity, the structure of horizons, etc are also discussed. In particular, solutions that are asymptotically AdS arise for special choices of the parameters, corresponding to charged solutions of five-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity.
Hoffmann-Infeld black-hole solutions in Lovelock gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiello, MatIas; Ferraro, Rafael; Giribet, Gaston
2005-01-01
Five-dimensional black holes are studied in Lovelock gravity coupled to Hoffmann-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. It is shown that some of these solutions present a double peak behaviour of the temperature as a function of the horizon radius. This feature suggests that the evaporation process, though drastic for a period, leads to an eternal black-hole remnant. In fact, the form of the caloric curve corresponds to the existence of a plateau in the evaporation rate, which implies that black holes of intermediate scales turn out to be unstable. The geometrical aspects, such as the absence of conical singularity, the structure of horizons, etc are also discussed. In particular, solutions that are asymptotically AdS arise for special choices of the parameters, corresponding to charged solutions of five-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity
On pseudoparticle solutions in the Poincare gauge theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, E.W.
1983-12-01
The dynamical structure of the Poincare gauge field theory coupled to matter fields and some of its implications for a quantum theory of gravity are investigated. Essentially, the method of Belavin et al. for generating instanton solutions in Yang-Mills theory is transferred to the gravitational gauge model. The results are as follows: For configurations obeying a modified double duality Ansatz for the curvature the metrical background is determined by Einstein-type field equations coupled almost canonically to the stress-energy content of external fields. Exact electrovac solutions with non-trivial torsion are derived from the duality Ansatz. In a Euclidean space-time the corresponding pseudoparticle solutions are expected to play a dominant role in the quantization of gravity via Feynman's method of path integrals. (author)
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gold, Roman
2011-01-01
black hole, but in general a non-negligible amount may form an accretion disk around the merger remnant. Depending on the initial eccentricity, we find that a disk of substantial mass is left behind. We give strong evidence that the disk masses for a considerable range of eccentricities are generically large enough to power a short gamma-ray burst. Furthermore we find strong tidal interactions, when the neutron stars orbit close to each other, exerting a strong perturbation on the internal dynamics of the stars. We demonstrate that this effect modifies the gravitational waveform in a characteristic way. Our results emphasize the potential of gravitational waves from eccentric neutron star binaries to constrain models for the unknown equation of state of the neutron star material.
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gold, Roman
2011-09-27
to the black hole, but in general a non-negligible amount may form an accretion disk around the merger remnant. Depending on the initial eccentricity, we find that a disk of substantial mass is left behind. We give strong evidence that the disk masses for a considerable range of eccentricities are generically large enough to power a short gamma-ray burst. Furthermore we find strong tidal interactions, when the neutron stars orbit close to each other, exerting a strong perturbation on the internal dynamics of the stars. We demonstrate that this effect modifies the gravitational waveform in a characteristic way. Our results emphasize the potential of gravitational waves from eccentric neutron star binaries to constrain models for the unknown equation of state of the neutron star material.
Fluid/gravity correspondence and the CFM black brane solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casadio, R. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cavalcanti, R.T. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)
2016-10-15
We consider the lower bound for the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio, obtained from the fluid/gravity correspondence, in order to constrain the post-Newtonian parameter of brane-world metrics. In particular, we analyse the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) effective solutions for the gravity side of the correspondence and argue that including higher-order terms in the hydrodynamic expansion can lead to a full agreement with the experimental bounds, for the Eddington-Robertson-Schiff post-Newtonian parameter in the CFM metrics. This lends further support to the physical relevance of the viscosity-to-entropy ratio lower bound and fluid/gravity correspondence. Hence we show that CFM black branes are, effectively, Schwarzschild black branes. (orig.)
Mixing of two solutions combined by gravity drainage.
Leuptow, R M; Smith, K; Mockros, L F
1995-01-01
A variety of medical therapies require the mixing of solutions from two separate bags before use. One scenario for the mixing is to drain the solution from one bag into the other by gravity through a short connecting tube. The degree of mixing in the lower bag depends on the relative densities of the two solutions, the geometry of the two bags and the connecting tube, and the placement of the connecting tube. Solutions with densities differing by as much as 12% were mixed by draining the solution from an upper bag into a lower bag for a particular geometric configuration. The two solutions had different electrical conductivities, and the conductivity of the combined solution as it exited from the lower bag was used as a measure of the effectiveness of mixing. When the more dense solution was drained from the upper bag into the less dense solution in a lower bag, mixing was very effective. The incoming jet of high density solution entrained the low density solution. Flow visualization indicated that the incoming jet penetrated to the bottom of the lower bag, and resulting large vortical structures enhanced mixing. When the less dense solution was drained from the upper bag into the more dense solution in the lower bag mixing was less effective. The buoyancy force reduced the momentum of the incoming jet such that it did not penetrate to the bottom of the lower bag, resulting in stratification of the solutions.
21 CFR 864.9320 - Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9320 Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations. (a) Identification. A copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations is a device...
Gravity discharge vessel revisited: An explicit Lambert W function solution
Digilov, Rafael M.
2017-07-01
Based on the generalized Poiseuille equation modified by a kinetic energy correction, an explicit solution for the time evolution of a liquid column draining under gravity through an exit capillary tube is derived in terms of the Lambert W function. In contrast to the conventional exponential behavior, as implied by the Poiseuille law, a new analytical solution gives a full account for the volumetric flow rate of a fluid through a capillary of any length and improves the precision of viscosity determination. The theoretical consideration may be of interest to students as an example of how implicit equations in the field of physics can be solved analytically using the Lambert function.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...
Accelerated FRW solutions in Chern-Simons gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cataldo, Mauricio; Crisostomo, Juan; Gomez, Fernando; Salgado, Patricio; Campo, Sergio del; Quinzacara, Cristian C.
2014-01-01
We consider a five-dimensional Einstein-Chern-Simons action which is composed of a gravitational sector and a sector of matter where the gravitational sector is given by a Chern-Simons gravity action instead of the Einstein-Hilbert action and where the matter sector is given by the so-called perfect fluid. It is shown that (i) the Einstein-Chern-Simons (EChS) field equations subject to suitable conditions can be written in a similar way to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations; (ii) these equations have solutions that describe an accelerated expansion for the three possible cosmological models of the universe, namely, spherical expansion, flat expansion, and hyperbolic expansion when α a parameter of the theory, is greater than zero. This result allows us to conjecture that these solutions are compatible with the era of dark energy and that the energy-momentum tensor for the field h a , a bosonic gauge field from the Chern-Simons gravity action, corresponds to a form of positive cosmological constant. It is also shown that the EChS field equations have solutions compatible with the era of matter: (i) In the case of an open universe, the solutions correspond to an accelerated expansion (α > 0) with a minimum scale factor at initial time that, when time goes to infinity, the scale factor behaves as a hyperbolic sine function. (ii) In the case of a flat universe, the solutions describe an accelerated expansion whose scale factor behaves as an exponential function of time. (iii) In the case of a closed universe there is found only one solution for a universe in expansion, which behaves as a hyperbolic cosine function of time. (orig.)
Exact solutions and critical chaos in dilaton gravity with a boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fitkevich, Maxim [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Levkov, Dmitry [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, Yegor [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)
2017-04-19
We consider (1+1)-dimensional dilaton gravity with a reflecting dynamical boundary. The boundary cuts off the region of strong coupling and makes our model causally similar to the spherically-symmetric sector of multidimensional gravity. We demonstrate that this model is exactly solvable at the classical level and possesses an on-shell SL(2, ℝ) symmetry. After introducing general classical solution of the model, we study a large subset of soliton solutions. The latter describe reflection of matter waves off the boundary at low energies and formation of black holes at energies above critical. They can be related to the eigenstates of the auxiliary integrable system, the Gaudin spin chain. We argue that despite being exactly solvable, the model in the critical regime, i.e. at the verge of black hole formation, displays dynamical instabilities specific to chaotic systems. We believe that this model will be useful for studying black holes and gravitational scattering.
Static solutions in Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crisóstomo, J.; Gomez, F.; Mella, P.; Quinzacara, C.; Salgado, P., E-mail: jcrisostomo@udec.cl, E-mail: fernagomez@udec.cl, E-mail: patriciomella@udec.cl, E-mail: cristian.cortesq@uss.cl, E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)
2016-06-01
In this paper we study static solutions with more general symmetries than the spherical symmetry of the five-dimensional Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity. In this context, we study the coupling of the extra bosonic field h{sup a} with ordinary matter which is quantified by the introduction of an energy-momentum tensor field associated with h{sup a}. It is found that exist (i) a negative tangential pressure zone around low-mass distributions (μ < μ{sub 1}) when the coupling constant α is greater than zero; (ii) a maximum in the tangential pressure, which can be observed in the outer region of a field distribution that satisfies μ < μ{sub 2}; (iii) solutions that behave like those obtained from models with negative cosmological constant. In such a situation, the field h{sup a} plays the role of a cosmological constant.
Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity II
Mourad, J.; Steer, D. A.
2014-06-01
This paper is a sequel to JCAP 12 (2013) 004 and is also devoted to translation-invariant solutions of ghost-free massive gravity in its moving frame formulation. Here we consider a mass term which is linear in the vielbein (corresponding to a β3 term in the 4D metric formulation) in addition to the cosmological constant. We determine explicitly the constraints, and from the initial value formulation show that the time-dependent solutions can have singularities at a finite time. Although the constraints give, as in the β1 case, the correct number of degrees of freedom for a massive spin two field, we show that the lapse function can change sign at a finite time causing a singular time evolution. This is very different to the β1 case where time evolution is always well defined. We conclude that the β3 mass term can be pathological and should be treated with care.
Solving the strongly coupled 2D gravity III. String suspectibility and topological N-point functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.-L.; Roussel, J.-F.
1996-01-01
For pt.II see ibid., vol 426, p.140-86, 1994. We spell out the derivation of novel features, put forward earlier in a letter, of two-dimensional gravity in the strong coupling regime, at C L =7, 13, 19. Within the operator approach previously developed, they neatly follow from the appearance of a new cosmological term/marginal operator, different from the standard weak-coupling one, that determines the world-sheet interaction. The corresponding string susceptibility is obtained and found real contrary to the continuation of the KPZ formula. Strongly coupled (topological like) models - only involving zero-mode degrees of freedom - are solved up to sixth order, using the Ward identities which follow from the dependence upon the new cosmological constant. They are technically similar to the weakly coupled ones, which reproduce the matrix model results, but gravity and matter quantum numbers are entangled differently. (orig.)
Spherically symmetric solutions of general second-order gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitt, B.
1988-01-01
The general second-order gravity theory, whose Lagrangian includes higher powers of the curvature, is considered in arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that spherically symmetric solutions are static, except in certain, special, unphysical cases. Spherically symmetric solutions are found and classified. Each theory's solutions fall into a number of distinct branches, which may represent finite space with two singular boundaries, or an asymptotically either flat or (anti--)de Sitter space with one singular boundary. A theory may contain at most one branch of solutions in which all singularities are hidden by event horizons. Such horizons generally emit Hawking radiation, though in certain cases the horizon may have zero temperature. Black holes do not necessarily radiate away all their mass: they may terminate in a zero-temperature black hole, a naked singularity, or a hot black hole in equilibrium with a ''cosmological'' event horizon. The thermodynamics of black-hole solutions is discussed; entropy is found to be an increasing function of horizon area, and the first law is shown to hold
Vacuum solutions of Bianchi cosmologies in quadratic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deus, Juliano Alves de; Muller, Daniel
2011-01-01
Full text: In this work we solve numerically the vacuum solutions of field equations of Bianchi homogeneous universes in the context of Semiclassical theory. Our interest is to study the quadratic theory of gravity with regard in the cosmological description of our universe in periods of intense fields. Bianchi cosmologies are anisotropic homogeneous cosmological models, but can include the isotropic models as particular cases (Bianchi I, VII and IX include homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann models plane, hyperbolic and spherical, respectively). Homogeneous models are good cosmological representations of our universe. With focus in solutions for intense fields, like the early universe, where isotropy is not necessarily required, the adopted scenario is the vacuum solutions, where the geometry is dominant in determining the gravitation. Still following in this way, the Semiclassical theory, which considers quantum matter fields propagating in classical geometrical background, is addressed to give the field equations. This formalism leads to fourth-order ordinary differential equations, in contrast to second-order equations from General Relativity. The Lagrangian of the theory is quadratic in the Ricci scalar and in the Ricci tensor. The equations system is highly non-linear and can be only numerically solved, except perhaps for few particular cases. We obtained numerical solutions for Bianchi V II A evolving to Minkowski and to de Sitter solutions, and also to singularities. The both first and second solutions were obtained choosing initial conditions near from respective exact vacuum solutions from Einstein theory, which are also exact solutions of the quadratic theory. Other Bianchi types are still under study. (author)
Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-11-15
We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)
Prospects for Probing Strong Gravity with a Pulsar-Black Hole System
Wex, N.; Liu, K.; Eatough, R. P.; Kramer, M.; Cordes, J. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.
2012-01-01
The discovery of a pulsar (PSR) in orbit around a black hole (BH) is expected to provide a superb new probe of relativistic gravity and BH properties. Apart from a precise mass measurement for the BH, one could expect a clean verification of the dragging of space-time caused by the BH spin. In order to measure the quadrupole moment of the BH for testing the no-hair theorem of general relativity (GR), one has to hope for a sufficiently massive BH. In this respect, a PSR orbiting the super-massive BH in the center of our Galaxy would be the ultimate laboratory for gravity tests with PSRs. But even for gravity theories that predict the same properties for BHs as GR, a PSR-BH system would constitute an excellent test system, due to the high grade of asymmetry in the strong field properties of these two components. Here we highlight some of the potential gravity tests that one could expect from different PSR-BH systems.
Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization
Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.
2012-09-01
The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4
Static wormhole solution for higher-dimensional gravity in vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dotti, Gustavo; Oliva, Julio; Troncoso, Ricardo
2007-01-01
A static wormhole solution for gravity in vacuum is found for odd dimensions greater than four. In five dimensions the gravitational theory considered is described by the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet action where the coupling of the quadratic term is fixed in terms of the cosmological constant. In higher dimensions d=2n+1, the theory corresponds to a particular case of the Lovelock action containing higher powers of the curvature, so that in general, it can be written as a Chern-Simons form for the AdS group. The wormhole connects two asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes each with a geometry at the boundary locally given by RxS 1 xH d-3 . Gravity pulls towards a fixed hypersurface located at some arbitrary proper distance parallel to the neck. The causal structure shows that both asymptotic regions are connected by light signals in a finite time. The Euclidean continuation of the wormhole is smooth independently of the Euclidean time period, and it can be seen as instanton with vanishing Euclidean action. The mass can also be obtained from a surface integral and it is shown to vanish
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1994-03-01
Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs
A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.
Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D
2003-08-28
Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.
Iterative solution of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1991-10-01
Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Suppose T:K→K is a strongly accretive map such that for each f is an element of K the equation Tx=f has a solution in K. It is proved that each of the two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to a solution of the equation Tx=f. Furthermore, our method shows that such a solution is necessarily unique. Explicit error estimates are given. Our results resolve in the affirmative two open problems (J. Math. Anal. Appl. Vol 151(2) (1990), p. 460) and generalize important known results. (author). 32 refs
Algebraic solutions of anti-self-dual gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheftel, M.B.
2011-01-01
Full text: (author)It is considered a four-dimensional PDE: complex Monge-Amp'ere equation (CMA), solutions of which govern anti-self-dual gravity, i.e. determine anti-self-dual Ricci-flat Kahler metrics, solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations with the Euclidean signature. It is used simultaneously two mutually complex conjugate pairs of partner symmetries of CMA related by a recursion relation. For both pairs of partner symmetries, using Lie equations, it is introduced explicitly group parameters as additional variables, replacing symmetry characteristics and their complex conjugates by derivatives of the unknown with respect to group parameters. It is studied the resulting system of six equations in the eight-dimensional space, that includes CMA, four equations of the recursion between partner symmetries and one integrability condition of this system. It is used point symmetries of this extended system for performing its symmetry reduction with respect to group parameters that facilitates solving the extended system. This procedure does not imply a reduction in the number of physical variables and hence it is ended up with orbits of non-invariant solutions of CMA, generated by one partner symmetry, not used in the reduction. These solutions are determined by six linear equations with constant coefficients in the five-dimensional space which are obtained by a three-dimensional Legendre transformation of the reduced extended system. It is presented an example of algebraic solutions that govern Legendre-transformed Ricci-flat Kahler metrics with no Killing vectors. It is defined as a set of roots of a homogeneous polynomial of degree 6 in the six complex variables which determines a four-dimensional compact manifold in a five-dimensional complex projective space
An unusual cosmological solution in the context of higher-derivative gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accioly, A.J.
1988-01-01
A general vacuum solution to the higher-derivative gravity field equations is presented in case of a model that exhibits symmetries of the Goedel-type. The solution possesses unusual properties. (author) [pt
Solution of the strong CP problem in models with scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimopoulos, S.
1978-01-01
A possible solution to the strong CP problem is pointed out within the context of a Weinberg--Salam model with two Higgs fields coupled in a Peccei--Quinn symmetric fashion. This is done by extending the colour group to a bigger simple group which is broken at some very high energy. The model contains a heavy axion. No old or new U(1) problem re-emerges. 31 references
Gravity flow and solute dispersion in variably saturated sand
Kumahor, Samuel K.; de Rooij, Gerrit H.; Vogel, Hans-Joerg
2014-05-01
Solute dispersion in porous media depends on the structure of the velocity field at the pore scale. Hence, dispersion is expected to change with water content and with mean flow velocity. We performed laboratory experiments using a column of repacked fine-grained quartz sand (0.1-0.3 mm grain size) with a porous plate at the bottom to controle the water potential at the lower boundary. We established gravity flow conditions - i.e. constant matric potential and water content throughout the column - for a number of different irrigation rates. We measured breakthrough curves during unit gradient flow for an inert tracer which could be described by the convection-dispersion equation. As the soil water content decreased we observed an initially gradual increase in dispersivity followed by an abrupt increase below a threshold water content (0.19) and pressure head (-38 hPa). This phenomena can be explained by the geometry of phase distribution which was simulated based on Xray-CT images of the porous structure.
Infinite derivative gravity : non-singular cosmology & blackhole solutions
Mazumdar, Anupam
2017-01-01
Both Einstein's theory of General Relativity and Newton's theory of gravity possess a short dis- tance and small time scale catastrophe. The blackhole singularity and cosmological Big Bang singularity problems highlight that current theories of gravity are incomplete description at early times and
Orbifolds and Exact Solutions of Strongly-Coupled Matrix Models
Córdova, Clay; Heidenreich, Ben; Popolitov, Alexandr; Shakirov, Shamil
2018-02-01
We find an exact solution to strongly-coupled matrix models with a single-trace monomial potential. Our solution yields closed form expressions for the partition function as well as averages of Schur functions. The results are fully factorized into a product of terms linear in the rank of the matrix and the parameters of the model. We extend our formulas to include both logarithmic and finite-difference deformations, thereby generalizing the celebrated Selberg and Kadell integrals. We conjecture a formula for correlators of two Schur functions in these models, and explain how our results follow from a general orbifold-like procedure that can be applied to any one-matrix model with a single-trace potential.
Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, Alikram N; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir
2013-01-01
We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs. (paper)
Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González–Díaz (paper)
Static and radiating solutions of Lovelock gravity in the presence of a perfect fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.
2009-01-01
We present a general solution of third order Lovelock gravity in the presence of a specific type II perfect fluid. This solution for linear equation of state, p=w(ρ-4B) contains all the known solutions of third order Lovelock gravity in the literature and some new static and radiating solutions for different values of w and B. Specially, we consider the properties of static and radiating solutions for w=0 and w=(n-2) -1 with B=0 and B≠0. These solutions are asymptotically flat for B=0, while they are asymptotically (anti-)de Sitter for B≠0. The new static solutions for these choices of B and w present black holes with one or two horizons, extreme black holes or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. The static solution with w=0 and vanishing geometrical mass (m=0) may present a black hole with two inner and outer horizons. This is a peculiar feature of the third order Lovelock gravity, which does not occur in lower order Lovelock gravity. We also, investigate the properties of radiating solutions for these values of B and w, and compare the singularity strengths of them with the known radiating solutions of third order Lovelock gravity.
Exact vacuum solution to conformal Weyl gravity and galactic rotation curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannheim, P.D.; Kazanas, D.
1989-01-01
The complete, exact exterior solution for a static, spherically symmetric source in locally conformal invariant Weyl gravity is presented. The solution includes the familiar exterior Schwarzschild solution as a special case and contains an extra gravitational potential term which grows linearly with distance. The obtained solution provides a potential explanation for observed galactic rotation curves without the need for dark matter. The solution also has some interesting implications for cosmology. 9 refs
Modeling of gravity-imbibition and gravity-drainage processes: Analytic and numerical solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, N.; Jensen, O.K.; Nielsen, B.
1991-01-01
A matrix/fracture exchange model for a fractured reservoir simulator is described. Oil/water imbibition is obtained from a diffusion equation with water saturation as the dependent variable. Gas/oil gravity drainage and imbibition are calculated by taking into account the vertical saturation...... distribution in the matrix blocks....
On the stability of the cosmological solutions in f(R, G) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Sáez-Gómez, Diego
2012-01-01
Modified gravity is one of the most promising candidates for explaining the current accelerating expansion of the Universe, and even its unification with the inflationary epoch. Nevertheless, the wide range of models capable of explaining the phenomena of dark energy imposes that current research focuses on a more precise study of the possible effects of modified gravity on both cosmological and local levels. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of a type of modified gravity, the so-called f(R, G) gravity, and we perform a deep analysis on the stability of important cosmological solutions. This not only can help to constrain the form of the gravitational action, but also facilitate a better understanding of the behavior of the perturbations in this class of higher order theories of gravity, which will lead to a more precise analysis of the full spectrum of cosmological perturbations in future. (paper)
Surface-gravity inequalities and generic conditions for strong cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago-German, Wenceslao
2003-01-01
Transforming Penrose's intuitive picture of a strong cosmic censorship principle - that generically forbids the appearance of locally naked space-time singularities - into a formal mathematical proof, remains at present, one of the most outstanding unsolved mathematical problems from the theory of gravitational collapse. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that we do not possess yet a clear-cut understanding of the hypothesis needed for the establishment of some sort of strong cosmic censorship theorem. What we have is a selected list of solutions, which at first sight seem to go against cosmic censorship, but at the end they fail in some way. However, the space of solutions of Einstein's field equations is vast. In this article, we plan to increase one's intuition by establishing a link between certain inequalities for Cauchy-horizon stability and a set of generic conditions, such as a reasonable equation of state, which determines whether or not the space-time is asymptotically flat, an energy condition, and a hypothesis over the class of metrics on which Einstein's field equations ought to be solved to ensure strong cosmic censorship inside black holes. With these tools in hand we examine the Cauchy-horizon stability of the theory created by Born and Infeld, whose action principle has been used as a prototype in superstring theory, and the singularity-free Bardeen black-hole model
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
Big Explosions, Strong Gravity: Making Girl Scouts ACEs of Space through Chandra Outreach
Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lochner, J. C.; Ganguly, R.; Feaga, L. M.; Ford, K. E. S.
2005-12-01
Thanks to two years of Chandra E/PO funding we have carried out a number of successful activities with the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland, focusing on girls in the 11-17 year age range. Our reasons for targeting this age range include the general decline in interest in math and science that occurs at or after children reach this critical age (meaning that we reach them early enough to have a positive effect). We initially target girls due to their underrepresentation in science, but the actitivities are all gender-neutral and highly adaptable to other groups. The program includes two components, in collaboration with Girl Scouts of Central Maryland. The first component is a well-established one-day Girl Scout patch activity entitled Big Explosions and Strong Gravity (BESG) where the girls earn a patch for their badge sash. The four BESG activities, mostly adapted from existing E/PO material, are available on the World Wide Web for use by others. The activities cover the electromagnetic spectrum as a tool for astronomy, the cosmic abundance of the elements and the supernova origin of many of the elements, black holes and their detection, and supernova explosions/stellar evolution. Thus far approximately 200 girls and their parents have participated in BESG and it has now become part of the council culture. The second activity is new and is part of the relatively new Girl Scout Studio 2B program, which is a girl-led program for the 11-17 year age range. Based on several meetings with small groups of girls and adults, we have formed a Studio 2B "club" called the ACE of Space Club (Astronomical Cosmic Exploration). We'll describe our experiences interacting with the Girl Scouts in this girl-led program.
On pseudoparticle solutions in Yang's theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, E.W.
1980-03-01
Within the framework of differential geometry, Yang's parallel-displacement gauge theory is considered with respect to ''pure'' gravitational fields. In a four-dimensional Riemannian manifold it is shown that the double self-dual solutions obey Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological term, whereas the double anti-self-dual configurations satisfy the Rainich conditions of Wheeler's geometrodynamics. Conformal methods reveal that the gravitational analogue of the ''instanton'' or pseudoparticle solution of Yang-Mills theory was already known to Riemann. (author)
Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1983-01-01
In this paper it is argued that Newton's gravitational constant G is calculable, and a specific calculation of G for a class of gauge theories is given. A brief review of past studies of G, especially its scale invariance, scalar fields, and the quantization of gravity, is given. A formula for G that expresses in precise terms the author's philosophy that gravity is induced as a result of quantum fluctuations, as well as a Feynam diagram representing the formula, is derived. Finally, such a calculation of G in the real world, though not yet possible, is anticipated
LINKING TESTS OF GRAVITY ON ALL SCALES: FROM THE STRONG-FIELD REGIME TO COSMOLOGY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Tessa [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Skordis, Constantinos, E-mail: tessa.baker@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2015-03-20
The current effort to test general relativity (GR) employs multiple disparate formalisms for different observables, obscuring the relations between laboratory, astrophysical, and cosmological constraints. To remedy this situation, we develop a parameter space for comparing tests of gravity on all scales in the universe. In particular, we present new methods for linking cosmological large-scale structure, the cosmic microwave background, and gravitational waves with classic PPN tests of gravity. Diagrams of this gravitational parameter space reveal a noticeable untested regime. The untested window, which separates small-scale systems from the troubled cosmological regime, could potentially hide the onset of corrections to GR.
Strong Constraints on Cosmological Gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A
Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P. G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, I.
2017-12-01
The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart (GRB 170817A) to the gravitational-wave signal (GW170817) from the merger of two neutron stars opens a completely new arena for testing theories of gravity. We show that this measurement allows us to place stringent constraints on general scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, while allowing us to place an independent bound on the graviton mass in bimetric theories of gravity. These constraints severely reduce the viable range of cosmological models that have been proposed as alternatives to general relativistic cosmology.
The de Sitter spacetime as an attractor solution in fourth-order gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, H.-J.
1988-01-01
We investigate the general vacuum solution of fourth-order gravity, and include the Bach tensor. For L 2 = 1.3μR 2 + 1/2αC 2 the expanding de Sitter spacetime is an attractor in the set of axially symmetric Bianchi type-I models if and only if αμ ≤ 0 or α > 4μ holds. It will be argued that this result holds true for a large class of inhomogeneous models. As a byproduct, a new closed-form cosmological solution, is obtained. It is also shown that the de Sitter spacetime is an attractor for the Bach-Einstein gravity with a minimally coupled scalar field φ. Specialised to Einstein gravity (i.e. α = 0 above) this conformal equivalence remains a non-trivial one. (author)
Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves and wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio
2016-01-01
In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering, in addition, a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such a potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which are traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials, which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild space-time. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter. (paper)
Solution of the strong CP problem by color exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.M.; Zee, A.
1985-08-01
We present a new way to solve the strong CP problem in models with a spontaneously broken CP invariance. It is simpler than existing non-Peccei-Quinn approaches. It predicts the existence of light (i.e. weak scale) colored Higgs bosons which could be seen in colliders. 25 refs., 3 figs
Cosmological Solutions of Tensor–Vector Theories of Gravity by ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We consider tensor–vector theories by varying the space-time–matter coupling constant (varying Einstein velocity) in a spatially flat FRW universe.We examine the dynamics of this model by dynamical system method assuming a CDM background and we find some exact solutions by considering the character of critical ...
Cosmological Solutions of Tensor–Vector Theories of Gravity by ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We consider tensor–vector theories by varying the space- time–matter coupling ... solutions by considering the character of critical points of the theory and their stability .... light (Magueijo 2003) that has arisen from the possibility of varying fine structure constant. ... Vector-like dark energy displays a series of properties that.
GRIM5-C1: Combination solution of the global gravity field to degree and order 120
Gruber, Thomas; Bode, Albert; Reigber, Christoph; Schwintzer, Peter; Balmino, Georges; Biancale, Richard; Lemoine, Jean-Michel
2000-12-01
The new satellite Earth gravity field model GRIM5-S1 was recently prepared in a joint GFZ and GRGS effort. Based on this satellite solution and terrestrial and altimetric gravity anomalies from NIMA, a combined model GRIM5-C1, with full variance-covariance matrix up to degree and order 120, was computed. Surface gravity and altimetric gravity data are corrected for several systematic effects, such as ellipsoidal corrections and aliasing. A weighting scheme for gravity anomalies, according to their given standard deviations was developed. From each data set full normal equations were set up and finally combined with the GRIM5-S1 normals. To take into account good information from the satellite-only model a procedure was developed to identify such coefficients and appropriately weighed them in the final normal equation system. Internal error propagation and comparisons to external data sets show, that the GRIM5-C1 model represents the best state of long wavelength gravity field models.
Exact solution in the cosmological chaotic inflation model with induced gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wenfu
2004-01-01
We present a new, exact solution in the cosmological chaotic inflation model with induced gravity. The spectral index of the scalar density fluctuations, n s , is computed, and is consistent with the analyses of BOOMERANG data. The effective cosmological constant Λ eff tends to zero when inflation ends
Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...
Analytic rotating black-hole solutions in N-dimensional f(T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nashed, G.G.L. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt); El Hanafy, W. [The British University in Egypt, Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, Cairo (Egypt); Egyptian Relativity Group (ERG), Cairo (Egypt)
2017-02-15
A non-diagonal vielbein ansatz is applied to the N-dimension field equations of f(T) gravity. An analytical vacuum solution is derived for the quadratic polynomial f(T)=T+εT{sup 2} and an inverse relation between the coupling constant ε and the cosmological constant Λ. Since the induced metric has off-diagonal components, it cannot be removed by a mere coordinate transformation, the solution has a rotating parameter. The curvature and torsion scalars invariants are calculated to study the singularities and horizons of the solution. In contrast to general relativity, the Cauchy horizon differs from the horizon which shows the effect of the higher order torsion. The general expression of the energy-momentum vector of f(T) gravity is used to calculate the energy of the system. Finally, we have shown that this kind of solution satisfies the first law of thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) gravitational theories. (orig.)
Combination of GRACE monthly gravity field solutions from different processing strategies
Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian
2018-02-01
We combine the publicly available GRACE monthly gravity field time series to produce gravity fields with reduced systematic errors. We first compare the monthly gravity fields in the spatial domain in terms of signal and noise. Then, we combine the individual gravity fields with comparable signal content, but diverse noise characteristics. We test five different weighting schemes: equal weights, non-iterative coefficient-wise, order-wise, or field-wise weights, and iterative field-wise weights applying variance component estimation (VCE). The combined solutions are evaluated in terms of signal and noise in the spectral and spatial domains. Compared to the individual contributions, they in general show lower noise. In case the noise characteristics of the individual solutions differ significantly, the weighted means are less noisy, compared to the arithmetic mean: The non-seasonal variability over the oceans is reduced by up to 7.7% and the root mean square (RMS) of the residuals of mass change estimates within Antarctic drainage basins is reduced by 18.1% on average. The field-wise weighting schemes in general show better performance, compared to the order- or coefficient-wise weighting schemes. The combination of the full set of considered time series results in lower noise levels, compared to the combination of a subset consisting of the official GRACE Science Data System gravity fields only: The RMS of coefficient-wise anomalies is smaller by up to 22.4% and the non-seasonal variability over the oceans by 25.4%. This study was performed in the frame of the European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM; http://www.egsiem.eu) project. The gravity fields provided by the EGSIEM scientific combination service (ftp://ftp.aiub.unibe.ch/EGSIEM/) are combined, based on the weights derived by VCE as described in this article.
Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-01-01
We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale
Towards a dynamical solution of the strong CP problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schierholz, G.
1994-01-01
One may argue that QCD solves the strong CP problem by itself. To test this idea, a lattice simulation suggests itself. In view of the difficulty of such a calculation we have, as a first step, investigated the problem in the CP 3 model. The CP 3 model is in many respects similar to QCD. In this talk I present some first results of our calculation. Among other things it is shown that the model has a first order deconfining phase transition in θ and that the critical value of θ decreases towards zero as β is taken to infinity. This suggests that θ is tuned to zero in the continuum limit. ((orig.))
Some exact solutions with torsion in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canfora, F.; Giacomini, A.; Willison, S.
2007-01-01
Exact solutions with torsion in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity are derived. These solutions have a cross product structure of two constant curvature manifolds. The equations of motion give a relation for the coupling constants of the theory in order to have solutions with nontrivial torsion. This relation is not the Chern-Simons combination. One of the solutions has an AdS 2 xS 3 structure and is so the purely gravitational analogue of the Bertotti-Robinson space-time where the torsion can be seen as the dual of the covariantly constant electromagnetic field
Gravity and Displacement Variations in the Areas of Strong Earthquakes in the East of Russia
Timofeev, V. Yu.; Kalish, E. N.; Stus', Yu. F.; Ardyukov, D. G.; Valitov, M. G.; Timofeev, A. V.; Nosov, D. A.; Sizikov, I. S.; Boiko, E. V.; Gornov, P. Yu.; Kulinich, R. G.; Kolpashchikova, T. N.; Proshkina, Z. N.; Nazarov, E. O.; Kolmogorov, V. G.
2018-05-01
The modern gravimetry methods are capable of measuring gravity with an accuracy of up to 10-10 of the normal value, which is commensurate with the accuracy of the up-to-date methods of displacement measurements by satellite geodesy. Significant changes, e.g., in the coseismic displacements of the Earth's surface are recorded in the zones of large earthquakes. These changes should manifest themselves in the variations of gravity. Absolute measurements have been conducted by various modifications of absolute ballistic gravimeters GABL since the mid-1970s at the Klyuchi point (Novosibirsk) in the south of the West Siberian plate. Monitoring observations have been taking place in the seismically active regions since the 1990s. In this paper we consider the results of the long-term measurements of the variations in gravity and recent crustal displacements for different types of earthquakes (the zones of shear, extension, and compression). In the seismically active areas in the east of Russia, the longest annual series of absolute measurements starting from 1992 was recorded in the southeastern segment of Baikal region. In this area, the Kultuk earthquake with magnitude 6.5 occurred on August 27, 2008, at a distance of 25 km from the observation point of the Talaya seismic station. The measurements in Gornyi (Mountainous) Altai have been conducted since 2000. A strikeslip earthquake with magnitude 7.5 took place in the southern segment of the region on September 27, 2003. The effects of the catastrophic M = 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of March 11, 2011 were identified in Primor'e in the far zone of the event. The empirical data are consistent with the results of modeling based on the seismological data. The coseismic variations in gravity are caused by the combined effect of the changes in the elevation of the observation point and crustal deformation.
Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Klosko, S. M.
1993-01-01
A new method has been developed to provide a direct test of the error calibrations of gravity models based on actual satellite observations. The basic approach projects the error estimates of the gravity model parameters onto satellite observations, and the results of these projections are then compared with data residual computed from the orbital fits. To allow specific testing of the gravity error calibrations, subset solutions are computed based on the data set and data weighting of the gravity model. The approach is demonstrated using GEM-T3 to show that the gravity error estimates are well calibrated and that reliable predictions of orbit accuracies can be achieved for independent orbits.
C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Kun, E-mail: mengkun@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Liu, E-mail: lzhao@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2017-02-15
The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.
Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1981-12-01
A coherent and reasonable account of gravitational physics is shown to be possible. The three non-gravitational interactions are described by a scale and conformal invariant and asymptotically free Yang-Mills theory with massless fermions. Conformal invariance is required so that the gravitational sector of the theory is given by the Weyl action. The theory is renormalizable and has a unitary S-matrix. Possible breakdown of causality is observable only at the Planck length. In this theory, Einstein's theory of gravity is induced as an effective long-distance theory. An R 2 term is also induced with a finite and physically desired sign
Strong constraints on cosmological gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P.G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, Ignacy
2017-01-01
Roč. 119, č. 25 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 251301. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000437 Grant - others:OP VVV - CoGraDS(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000437 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alternative gravity theories, * dark energy * graviational waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Cosmic string solution in a Born-Infeld type theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocha, W.J. da; Guimaraes, M.E.X.
2009-01-01
Full text. Advances in the formal structure of string theory point to the emergence, and necessity, of a scalar-tensorial theory of gravity. It seems that, at least at high energy scales, the Einstein's theory is not enough to explain the gravitational phenomena. In other words, the existence of a scalar (gravitational) field acting as a mediator of the gravitational interaction together with the usual purely rank-2 tensorial field is, indeed, a natural prediction of unification models as supergravity, superstrings and M-theory. This type of modified gravitation was first introduced in a different context in the 60's in order to incorporate the Mach's principle into relativity, but nowadays it acquired different sense in cosmology and gravity theories. Although such unification theories are the most acceptable, they all exist in higher dimensional spaces. The compactification from these higher dimensions to the 4-dimensional physics is not unique and there exist many effective theories of gravity which come from the unification process. Each of them must, of course, satisfy some predictions. Here, in this paper, we will deal with one of them. The so-called NDL theory. One important assumption in General Relativity is that all field interact in the same way with gravity. This is the so called Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). It is well known, with good accuracy, that this is true when we concern with matter to matter interaction, i.e, the Weak Equivalence Principle(WEP) is tested. But, until now, there is no direct observational confirmation of this affirmation to the gravity to gravity interaction. In an extension of the field theoretical description of General Relativity constructed by is used to propose an alternative field theory of gravity. In this theory gravitons propagate in a different spacetime. The velocity of propagation of the gravitational waves in this theory does not coincide with the General Relativity predictions. (author)
Holographic thermalization and generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in massive gravity
Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing
2017-02-01
We investigate the effect of massive graviton on the holographic thermalization process. Before doing this, we first find out the generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity by directly solving the gravitational equations. Then, we study the thermodynamics of these Vaidya-AdS solutions by using the Misner-Sharp energy and unified first law, which also shows that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. Moreover, we adopt the two-point correlation function at equal time to explore the thermalization process in the dual field theory, and to see how the graviton mass parameter affects this process from the viewpoint of AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results show that the graviton mass parameter will increase the holographic thermalization process.
Holographic thermalization and generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Ya-Peng, E-mail: huyp@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzengphysics@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Hai-Qing, E-mail: H.Q.Zhang@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands)
2017-02-10
We investigate the effect of massive graviton on the holographic thermalization process. Before doing this, we first find out the generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity by directly solving the gravitational equations. Then, we study the thermodynamics of these Vaidya-AdS solutions by using the Misner–Sharp energy and unified first law, which also shows that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. Moreover, we adopt the two-point correlation function at equal time to explore the thermalization process in the dual field theory, and to see how the graviton mass parameter affects this process from the viewpoint of AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results show that the graviton mass parameter will increase the holographic thermalization process.
Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity
Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Correa, R. A. C.; Lobato, R. V.
2017-07-01
Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f(R,T) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T-dependence in f(R,T) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.
Holographic thermalization and generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing
2017-01-01
We investigate the effect of massive graviton on the holographic thermalization process. Before doing this, we first find out the generalized Vaidya-AdS solutions in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity by directly solving the gravitational equations. Then, we study the thermodynamics of these Vaidya-AdS solutions by using the Misner–Sharp energy and unified first law, which also shows that the massive gravity is in a thermodynamic equilibrium state. Moreover, we adopt the two-point correlation function at equal time to explore the thermalization process in the dual field theory, and to see how the graviton mass parameter affects this process from the viewpoint of AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results show that the graviton mass parameter will increase the holographic thermalization process.
Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moraes, P.H.R.S.; Correa, R.A.C.; Lobato, R.V., E-mail: moraes.phrs@gmail.com, E-mail: fis04132@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.lobato@icranet.org [ITA-Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f ( R , T ) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T -dependence in f ( R , T ) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.
Sectors of solutions in three-dimensional gravity and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fjelstad, Jens; Hwang, Stephen
2002-01-01
We examine the connection between three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant and two-dimensional CFT via the Chern-Simons formulation. A set of generalized spectral flow transformations are shown to yield new sectors of solutions. One implication is that the microscopic calculation of the entropy of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is corrected by a multiplicative factor with the result that it saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking expression
Sectors of solutions in three-dimensional gravity and black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fjelstad, Jens E-mail: jens.fjelstad@kau.se; Hwang, Stephen E-mail: stephen.hwang@kau.se
2002-04-29
We examine the connection between three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant and two-dimensional CFT via the Chern-Simons formulation. A set of generalized spectral flow transformations are shown to yield new sectors of solutions. One implication is that the microscopic calculation of the entropy of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is corrected by a multiplicative factor with the result that it saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking expression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moutsopoulos, George
2013-01-01
We solve the equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a potentially non-vanishing cosmological constant for homogeneous metrics without isotropy. We only reproduce known solutions. We also discuss their homogeneous deformations, possibly with isotropy. We show that de Sitter space and hyperbolic space cannot be infinitesimally homogeneously deformed in TMG. We clarify some of their Segre–Petrov types and discuss the warped de Sitter spacetime. (paper)
Moutsopoulos, George
2013-06-01
We solve the equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a potentially non-vanishing cosmological constant for homogeneous metrics without isotropy. We only reproduce known solutions. We also discuss their homogeneous deformations, possibly with isotropy. We show that de Sitter space and hyperbolic space cannot be infinitesimally homogeneously deformed in TMG. We clarify some of their Segre-Petrov types and discuss the warped de Sitter spacetime.
Exact solutions for scalar field cosmology in f(R) gravity
Maharaj, S. D.; Goswami, R.; Chervon, S. V.; Nikolaev, A. V.
2017-09-01
We study scalar field FLRW cosmology in the content of f(R) gravity. Our consideration is restricted to the spatially flat Friedmann universe. We derived the general evolution equations of the model, and showed that the scalar field equation is automatically satisfied for any form of the f(R) function. We also derived representations for kinetic and potential energies, as well as for the acceleration in terms of the Hubble parameter and the form of the f(R) function. Next we found the exact cosmological solutions in modified gravity without specifying the f(R) function. With negligible acceleration of the scalar curvature, we found that the de Sitter inflationary solution is always attained. Also we obtained new solutions with special restrictions on the integration constants. These solutions contain oscillating, accelerating, decelerating and even contracting universes. For further investigation, we selected special cases which can be applied with early or late inflation. We also found exact solutions for the general case for the model with negligible acceleration of the scalar curvature in terms of special Airy functions. Using initial conditions which represent the universe at the present epoch, we determined the constants of integration. This allows for the comparison of the scale factor in the new solutions with that for current stage of the universe evolution in the ΛCDM model.
Elliptic solutions of generalized Brans-Dicke gravity with a non-universal coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alimi, J.M.; Reverdy, V. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Golubtsova, A.A. [Observatoire de Paris, Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTh), Meudon (France); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-10-15
We study a model of the generalized Brans-Dicke gravity presented in both the Jordan and in the Einstein frames, which are conformally related. We show that the scalar field equations in the Einstein frame are reduced to the geodesics equations on the target space of the nonlinear sigma model. The analytical solutions in elliptical functions are obtained when the conformal couplings are given by reciprocal exponential functions. The behavior of the scale factor in the Jordan frame is studied using numerical computations. For certain parameters the solutions can describe an accelerated expansion. We also derive an analytical approximation in exponential functions. (orig.)
Anisotropic, time-dependent solutions in maximally Gauss-Bonnet extended gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitaura, Takayuki; Wheeler, J.T.
1991-01-01
In an arbitrary number of dimensions, we find the full exact anisotropic, time-dependent, diagonal-metric solutions to maximally Gauss-Bonnet extended gravity theory. This class of theories for which the lagrangian is an arbitrary linear combination of dimensionally extnded Euler forms, is the most general gravitational theory in which the field equations contain no more than second derivatives of the metric. We show that the space-time exponentially approaches an asymptotic state of constant, anisotropic curvature and prove three theorems concerning two generic types of singularities. The first theorem gives conditions for the existence of Kasner-like curvature singularities. For these the metric diverges as tsup(p i ) where Σp i = 2 k max -1 and k max is the highest power of the curvature in the lagrangian. Other critical point singularities can arise from the polynomial nature of the theory. The remaining theorems demonstrate that the generic solution is extendible at all of these other critical points and that the generic critical points occur at moments of extremal volume density of space-time. We give an explicit coordinate transformation which produces a smooth extension through the critical point. The space-time may therefore alternately expand and contract for many cycles before expanding forever or contracting to a singularity. Many particular cases are treated in detail including several power series solutions, the generalized Kasner solution to general relativity with or without cosmological constant, the perturbative solution for quadratic string gravity, and five-dimensional extended gravity. (orig.)
Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for the thermally forced gravity waves in atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ziliang
2008-01-01
By introducing a new transformation, a new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system, which extends Fan's direct algebraic method to the case when r > 4. The solutions of a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a higher degree nonlinear term and Fan's direct algebraic method of obtaining exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations are applied to the combined KdV-mKdV-GKdV equation, which is derived from a simple incompressible non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equation with the influence of thermal forcing and is applied to investigate internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. As a result, by taking advantage of the new first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a fifth-degree nonlinear term and an eighth-degree nonlinear term, periodic wave solutions associated with the Jacobin elliptic function and the bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions are obtained under the effect of thermal forcing. Most importantly, the mechanism of propagation and generation of the periodic waves and the solitary waves is analysed in detail according to the values of the heating parameter, which show that the effect of heating in atmosphere helps to excite westerly or easterly propagating periodic internal gravity waves and internal solitary waves in atmosphere, which are affected by the local excitation structures in atmosphere. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the solitary wave solution and Jacobin periodic solution are shown by some figures under the consideration of heating interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)
2014-07-01
This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.
Treatment of infectious skin defects or ulcers with electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution.
Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K; Harii, K
1997-01-01
A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.
Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin, E-mail: chienichiang@berkeley.edu, E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2012-12-01
We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.
Exact solution to the 'auxiliary extra-dimension' model of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, S.F.; Rosen, Rachel A.
2011-01-01
The 'auxiliary extra-dimension' model was proposed in order to provide a geometrical interpretation to modifications of general relativity, in particular to non-linear massive gravity. In this context, the theory was shown to be ghost free to third order in perturbations, in the decoupling limit. In this work, we exactly solve the equation of motion in the extra dimension, to obtain a purely 4-dimensional theory. Using this solution, it is shown that the ghost appears at the fourth order and beyond. We explore potential modifications to address the ghost issue and find that their consistent implementation requires going beyond the present framework.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tajahmad, Behzad [University of Tabriz, Faculty of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-15
In this paper, we present the Noether symmetries of flat FRW spacetime in the context of a new action in teleparallel gravity which we construct based on the f(R) version. This modified action contains a coupling between the scalar field potential and magnetism. Also, we introduce an innovative approach, the beyond Noether symmetry (B.N.S.) approach, for exact solutions which carry more conserved currents than the Noether approach. By data analysis of the exact solutions, obtained from the Noether approach, late-time acceleration and phase crossing are realized, and some deep connections with observational data such as the age of the universe, the present value of the scale factor as well as the state and deceleration parameters are observed. In the B.N.S. approach, we consider the dark energy dominated era. (orig.)
New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sundell, Per; Yin, Yihao [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago de Chile (Chile)
2017-01-11
We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in https://arxiv.org/abs/1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by a sum of generalized Petrov type-D tensors that are Kerr-like or 2-brane-like in the asymptotic AdS{sub 4} region, and the twistor space connection is smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.
Remarks on the Taub-NUT solution in Chern–Simons modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brihaye, Yves, E-mail: yves.brihaye@umons.ac.be [Physique-Mathématique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Radu, Eugen [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and CIDMA, Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)
2017-01-10
We discuss the generalization of the NUT spacetime in General Relativity (GR) within the framework of the (dynamical) Einstein–Chern–Simons (ECS) theory with a massless scalar field. These configurations approach asymptotically the NUT spacetime and are characterized by the ‘electric’ and ‘magnetic’ mass parameters and a scalar ‘charge’. The solutions are found both analytically and numerically. The analytical approach is perturbative around the Einstein gravity background. Our results indicate that the ECS configurations share all basic properties of the NUT spacetime in GR. However, when considering the solutions inside the event horizon, we find that in contrast to the GR case, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajahmad, Behzad
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the Noether symmetries of flat FRW spacetime in the context of a new action in teleparallel gravity which we construct based on the f(R) version. This modified action contains a coupling between the scalar field potential and magnetism. Also, we introduce an innovative approach, the beyond Noether symmetry (B.N.S.) approach, for exact solutions which carry more conserved currents than the Noether approach. By data analysis of the exact solutions, obtained from the Noether approach, late-time acceleration and phase crossing are realized, and some deep connections with observational data such as the age of the universe, the present value of the scale factor as well as the state and deceleration parameters are observed. In the B.N.S. approach, we consider the dark energy dominated era. (orig.)
Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi dust solutions in f (R) gravity
Sussman, Roberto A.; Jaime, Luisa G.
2017-12-01
We derive a class of non-static inhomogeneous dust solutions in f(R) gravity described by the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric. The field equations are fully integrated for all parameter subcases and compared with analogous subcases of LTB dust solutions of GR. Since the solutions do not admit regular symmetry centres, we have two possibilities: (i) a spherical dust cloud with angle deficit acting as the source of a vacuum Schwarzschild-like solution associated with a global monopole, or (ii) fully regular dust wormholes without angle deficit, whose rest frames are homeomorphic to the Schwarzschild-Kruskal manifold or to a 3d torus. The compatibility between the LTB metric and generic f(R) ansatzes furnishes an ‘inverse procedure’ to generate LTB solutions whose sources are found from the f(R) geometry. While the resulting fluids may have an elusive physical interpretation, they can be used as exact non-perturbative toy models in theoretical and cosmological applications of f(R) theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburg, J. E.
2008-01-01
Progress on the GEMS (Gravity Electro-Magnetism-Strong), theory is presented as well as its application to space problems. The GEMS theory is now validated through the Standard Model of physics. Derivation of the value of the Gravitation constant based on the observed variation of α with energy: results in the formula G congruent with (ℎ/2π)c/M ηc 2 exp(-1/(1.61α)), where α is the fine structure constant,(ℎ/2π), is Planck's constant, c, is the speed of light, and M ηc is the mass of the η cc Charmonium meson that is shown to be identical to that derived from the GEM postulates. Covariant formulation of the GEM theory is now possible through definition of the spacetime metric tensor as a portion of the EM stress tensor normalized by its own trace: g ab = 4(F c a F cb )/(F ab F ab ), it is found that this results in a massless ground state vacuum and a Newtonian gravitation potential φ = 1/2 E 2 /B 2 . It is also found that a Lorentz or flat-space metric is recovered in the limit of a full spectrum ZPF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbarz, Alan, E-mail: alan-at@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA, IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina and Instituto de Física de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata IFLP-UNLP, C.C. 67 (Argentina); Giribet, Gaston, E-mail: gaston-at@df.uba.ar, E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Goya, Andrés, E-mail: gaston-at@df.uba.ar, E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA, IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leston, Mauricio, E-mail: mauricio-at@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio IAFE-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, C.C. 67 Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-03-26
We consider critical gravity in three dimensions; that is, the New Massive Gravity theory formulated about Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with the specific value of the graviton mass for which it results dual to a two-dimensional conformai field theory with vanishing central charge. As it happens with Kerr black holes in four-dimensional critical gravity, in three-dimensional critical gravity the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes have vanishing mass and vanishing angular momentum. However, provided suitable asymptotic conditions are chosen, the theory may also admit solutions carrying non-vanishing charges. Here, we give simple examples of exact solutions that exhibit falling-off conditions that are even weaker than those of the so-called Log-gravity. For such solutions, we define the quasilocal stress-tensor and use it to compute conserved charges. Despite the drastic deformation of AdS{sub 3} asymptotic, these solutions have finite mass and angular momentum, which are shown to be non-zero.
Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Papaloizou, John C. B.
2018-04-01
The spectrum of oscillation modes of a star provides information not only about its material properties (e.g. mean density), but also its symmetries. Spherical symmetry can be broken by rotation and/or magnetic fields. It has been postulated that strong magnetic fields in the cores of some red giants are responsible for their anomalously weak dipole mode amplitudes (the "dipole dichotomy" problem), but a detailed understanding of how gravity waves interact with strong fields is thus far lacking. In this work, we attack the problem through a variety of analytical and numerical techniques, applied to a localised region centred on a null line of a confined axisymmetric magnetic field which is approximated as being cylindrically symmetric. We uncover a rich variety of phenomena that manifest when the field strength exceeds a critical value, beyond which the symmetry is drastically broken by the Lorentz force. When this threshold is reached, the spatial structure of the g-modes becomes heavily altered. The dynamics of wave packet propagation transitions from regular to chaotic, which is expected to fundamentally change the organisation of the mode spectrum. In addition, depending on their frequency and the orientation of field lines with respect to the stratification, waves impinging on different parts of the magnetised region are found to undergo either reflection or trapping. Trapping regions provide an avenue for energy loss through Alfvén wave phase mixing. Our results may find application in various astrophysical contexts, including the dipole dichotomy problem, the solar interior, and compact star oscillations.
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
Spacetime structure of static solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity: Neutral case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torii, Takashi; Maeda, Hideki
2005-01-01
We study the spacetime structures of the static solutions in the n-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-Λ system systematically. We assume the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient α is non-negative and a cosmological constant is either positive, zero, or negative. The solutions have the (n-2)-dimensional Euclidean submanifold, which is the Einstein manifold with the curvature k=1, 0, and -1. We also assume 4α-tilde/l 2 ≤1, where l is the curvature radius, in order for the sourceless solution (M=0) to be defined. The general solutions are classified into plus and minus branches. The structures of the center, horizons, infinity, and the singular point depend on the parameters α, l 2 , k, M, and branches complicatedly so that a variety of global structures for the solutions are found. In our analysis, the M-tilde-r diagram is used, which makes our consideration clear and enables easy understanding by visual effects. In the plus branch, all the solutions have the same asymptotic structure at infinity as that in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant. For the negative-mass parameter, a new type of singularity called the branch singularity appears at nonzero finite radius r=r b >0. The divergent behavior around the singularity in Gauss-Bonnet gravity is milder than that around the central singularity in general relativity. There are three types of horizons: inner, black hole, and cosmological. In the k=1,0 cases, the plus-branch solutions do not have any horizon. In the k=-1 case, the radius of the horizon is restricted as r h h >√(2α-tilde)) in the plus (minus) branch. The black hole solution with zero or negative mass exists in the plus branch even for the zero or positive cosmological constant. There is also the extreme black hole solution with positive mass. We briefly discuss the effect of the Gauss-Bonnet corrections on black hole formation in a collider and the possibility of the violation of the third law of the black hole thermodynamics
Dark matter and dark energy from the solution of the strong CP problem.
Mainini, Roberto; Bonometto, Silvio A
2004-09-17
The Peccei-Quinn (PQ) solution of the strong CP problem requires the existence of axions, which are viable candidates for dark matter. If the Nambu-Goldstone potential of the PQ model is replaced by a potential V(|Phi|) admitting a tracker solution, the scalar field |Phi| can account for dark energy, while the phase of Phi yields axion dark matter. If V is a supergravity (SUGRA) potential, the model essentially depends on a single parameter, the energy scale Lambda. Once we set Lambda approximately equal to 10(10) GeV at the quark-hadron transition, |Phi| naturally passes through values suitable to solve the strong CP problem, later growing to values providing fair amounts of dark matter and dark energy.
Strong solutions for an incompressible Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system with different densities
Li, Yinghua; Huang, Mingxia
2018-06-01
In this paper, we investigate a coupled Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system describing a diffuse interface model for two-phase flow of viscous incompressible fluids with different densities in a bounded domain Ω \\subset R^N(N=2,3). We prove the existence and uniqueness of local strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem when the initial density function ρ _0 has a positive lower bound.
A solution of the strong CP problem in models with scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimopoulos, S.
1979-01-01
A possible solution to the strong CP problem within the context of a Weinberg-Salam model with two Higgs fields coupled in a Peccei-Quinn symmetric fashion is pointed out. This is done by extending the colour group to a bigger simple group which is broken at some very high energy. The model contains a heavy axion. No old or new U(1) problem re-emerges. (Auth.)
Self-similar solutions for implosion and reflection of strong and weak shocks in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desai, B.N.; Chavda, L.K.
1980-06-01
We present an improved approximation scheme for finding approximate solutions in analytic form to the self-similar equations of gas dynamics. The method gives better agreement with exact results not only for the weak shocks which were considered previously but also for strong shocks for which the previous method gave poor results. We have considered various shock configurations in spherical and cylindrical geometries. (author)
Strong pairing approximation in comparison with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lunyov A.V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Results of the Strong Pairing Approximation (SPA as a method with the exact particle number conservation are compared with those of the quasiparticle method (QM. It is shown that SPA comes to the same equations as QM for the gap parameter, chemical potential and one- and two-quasiparticle states. Calculations are performed for 14864Gd84 as an example, and compared with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian.
Local strong solutions to the stochastic compressible Navier-Stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Breit, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Hofmanová, M.
2018-01-01
Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 313-345 ISSN 0360-5302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluids * local strong solutions * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605302.2018.1442476
Nonelectrolyte NRTL-NRF model to study thermodynamics of strong and weak electrolyte solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haghtalab, Ali, E-mail: haghtala@modares.ac.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaeian, Abolfazl; Mazloumi, Seyed Hossein [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-03-15
An electrolyte activity coefficient model is proposed by combining non-electrolyte NRTL-NRF local composition model and Pitzer-Debye-Hueckel equation as short-range and long-range contributions, respectively. With two adjustable parameters per each electrolyte, the present model is applied to correlation of the mean activity coefficients of more than 150 strong aqueous electrolyte solutions at 298.15 K. Also the results of the present model are compared with the other local composition models such as electrolyte-NRTL, electrolyte-NRTL-NRF and electrolyte-Wilson-NRF models. Moreover, the present model is used for prediction of the osmotic coefficient of several aqueous binary electrolytes systems at 298.15 K. Also the present activity coefficient model is adopted for representation of nonideality of the acid gases, as weak gas electrolytes, soluble in alkanolamine solutions. The model is applied for calculation of solubility and heat of absorption (enthalpy of solution) of acid gas in the two {l_brace}(H{sub 2}O + MDEA + CO{sub 2}) and (H{sub 2}O + MDEA + H{sub 2}S){r_brace} systems at different conditions. The results demonstrate that the present model can be successfully applied to study thermodynamic properties of both strong and weak electrolyte solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Jaroš
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider \\(n\\-dimensional cyclic systems of second order differential equations \\[(p_i(t|x_{i}'|^{\\alpha_i -1}x_{i}'' = q_{i}(t|x_{i+1}|^{\\beta_i-1}x_{i+1},\\] \\[\\quad i = 1,\\ldots,n, \\quad (x_{n+1} = x_1 \\tag{\\(\\ast\\}\\] under the assumption that the positive constants \\(\\alpha_i\\ and \\(\\beta_i\\ satisfy \\(\\alpha_1{\\ldots}\\alpha_n \\gt \\beta_1{\\ldots}\\beta_n\\ and \\(p_i(t\\ and \\(q_i(t\\ are regularly varying functions, and analyze positive strongly increasing solutions of system (\\(\\ast\\ in the framework of regular variation. We show that the situation for the existence of regularly varying solutions of positive indices for (\\(\\ast\\ can be characterized completely, and moreover that the asymptotic behavior of such solutions is governed by the unique formula describing their order of growth precisely. We give examples demonstrating that the main results for (\\(\\ast\\ can be applied to some classes of partial differential equations with radial symmetry to acquire accurate information about the existence and the asymptotic behavior of their radial positive strongly increasing solutions.
Lauriola, I.; Felisa, G.; Petrolo, D.; Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.
2018-05-01
We present an investigation on the combined effect of fluid rheology and permeability variations on the propagation of porous gravity currents in axisymmetric geometry. The fluid is taken to be of power-law type with behaviour index n and the permeability to depend from the distance from the source as a power-law function of exponent β. The model represents the injection of a current of non-Newtonian fluid along a vertical bore hole in porous media with space-dependent properties. The injection is either instantaneous (α = 0) or continuous (α > 0). A self-similar solution describing the rate of propagation and the profile of the current is derived under the assumption of small aspect ratio between the current average thickness and length. The limitations on model parameters imposed by the model assumptions are discussed in depth, considering currents of increasing/decreasing velocity, thickness, and aspect ratio, and the sensitivity of the radius, thickness, and aspect ratio to model parameters. Several critical values of α and β discriminating between opposite tendencies are thus determined. Experimental validation is performed using shear-thinning suspensions and Newtonian mixtures in different regimes. A box filled with ballotini of different diameter is used to reproduce the current, with observations from the side and bottom. Most experimental results for the radius and profile of the current agree well with the self-similar solution except at the beginning of the process, due to the limitations of the 2-D assumption and to boundary effects near the injection zone. The results for this specific case corroborate a general model for currents with constant or time-varying volume of power-law fluids propagating in porous domains of plane or radial geometry, with uniform or varying permeability, and the possible effect of channelization. All results obtained in the present and previous papers for the key parameters governing the dynamics of power-law gravity
A self-tuning exact solution and the non-existence of horizons in 5d gravity-scalar system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Chuan-Jie; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste
2000-05-01
We present an exact thick domain wall solution with naked singularities to five dimensional gravity coupled with a scalar field with exponential potential. In our solution we found exactly the special coefficient of the exponent as coming from compactification of string theory with cosmological constant. We show that this solution is self-tuning when a 3-brane is included. In searching for a solution with horizon we found a similar exact solution with fine-tuned exponent coefficient with an integration constant. Failing to find a solution with horizon we prove the non-existence of horizons. These naked singularities actually can't be resolved by horizon. We also comment on the physical relevance of this solution. (author)
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-01-01
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.
Ito, Kazufumi
1987-01-01
The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.
Exact Solution of a Strongly Coupled Gauge Theory in 0 +1 Dimensions
Krishnan, Chethan; Kumar, K. V. Pavan
2018-05-01
Gauged tensor models are a class of strongly coupled quantum mechanical theories. We present the exact analytic solution of a specific example of such a theory: namely, the smallest colored tensor model due to Gurau and Witten that exhibits nonlinearities. We find explicit analytic expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenstates, and the former agree precisely with previous numerical results on (a subset of) eigenvalues of the ungauged theory. The physics of the spectrum, despite the smallness of N , exhibits rudimentary signatures of chaos. This Letter is a summary of our main results: the technical details will appear in companion paper [C. Krishnan and K. V. Pavan Kumar, Complete solution of a gauged tensor model, arXiv:1804.10103].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nungesser, Ernesto; Rendall, Alan D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2009-05-21
A proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this, it is seen that the deep results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nungesser, Ernesto; Rendall, Alan D
2009-01-01
A proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this, it is seen that the deep results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; 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Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; 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Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; 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van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; 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Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2013-07-16
A search for microscopic black holes has been performed in a same-sign dimuon final state using 1.3 fb^-1 of proton-proton collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model and the results are used to derive exclusion contours in the context of a low scale gravity model.
Comptonization in Ultra-Strong Magnetic Fields: Numerical Solution to the Radiative Transfer Problem
Ceccobello, C.; Farinelli, R.; Titarchuk, L.
2014-01-01
We consider the radiative transfer problem in a plane-parallel slab of thermal electrons in the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field (B approximately greater than B(sub c) approx. = 4.4 x 10(exp 13) G). Under these conditions, the magnetic field behaves like a birefringent medium for the propagating photons, and the electromagnetic radiation is split into two polarization modes, ordinary and extraordinary, that have different cross-sections. When the optical depth of the slab is large, the ordinary-mode photons are strongly Comptonized and the photon field is dominated by an isotropic component. Aims. The radiative transfer problem in strong magnetic fields presents many mathematical issues and analytical or numerical solutions can be obtained only under some given approximations. We investigate this problem both from the analytical and numerical point of view, provide a test of the previous analytical estimates, and extend these results with numerical techniques. Methods. We consider here the case of low temperature black-body photons propagating in a sub-relativistic temperature plasma, which allows us to deal with a semi-Fokker-Planck approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The problem can then be treated with the variable separation method, and we use a numerical technique to find solutions to the eigenvalue problem in the case of a singular kernel of the space operator. The singularity of the space kernel is the result of the strong angular dependence of the electron cross-section in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Results. We provide the numerical solution obtained for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the space operator, and the emerging Comptonization spectrum of the ordinary-mode photons for any eigenvalue of the space equation and for energies significantly lesser than the cyclotron energy, which is on the order of MeV for the intensity of the magnetic field here considered. Conclusions. We derived the specific intensity of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, R.E.
1996-01-01
A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution's concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the 'Poisoned Tube Tank' because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service
Vector theory of gravity: Universe without black holes and solution of dark energy problem
Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.
2017-12-01
We propose an alternative theory of gravity which assumes that background geometry of the Universe is fixed four dimensional Euclidean space and gravity is a vector field A k in this space which breaks the Euclidean symmetry. Direction of A k gives the time coordinate, while perpendicular directions are spatial coordinates. Vector gravitational field is coupled to matter universally and minimally through the equivalent metric f ik which is a functional of A k . We show that such assumptions yield a unique theory of gravity, it is free of black holes and, to the best of our knowledge, passes all available tests. For cosmology our theory predicts the same evolution of the Universe as general relativity with cosmological constant and zero spatial curvature. However, the present theory provides explanation of the dark energy as energy of longitudinal gravitational field induced by the Universe expansion and yields, with no free parameters, the value of {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }}=2/3≈ 0.67 which is consistent with the recent Planck result {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }}=0.686+/- 0.02. Such close agreement with cosmological data indicates that gravity has a vector, rather than tensor, origin. We demonstrate that gravitational wave signals measured by LIGO are compatible with vector gravity. They are produced by orbital inspiral of massive neutron stars which can exist in the present theory. We also quantize gravitational field and show that quantum vector gravity is equivalent to QED. Vector gravity can be tested by making more accurate measurement of the time delay of radar signal traveling near the Sun; by improving accuracy of the light deflection experiments; or by measuring propagation direction of gravitational waves relative to laser interferometer arms. Resolving the supermassive object at the center of our Galaxy with VLBA could provide another test of gravity and also shed light on the nature of dark matter.
Sarris, Theo S.; Close, Murray; Abraham, Phillip
2018-03-01
A test using Rhodamine WT and heat as tracers, conducted over a 78 day period in a strongly heterogeneous alluvial aquifer, was used to evaluate the utility of the combined observation dataset for aquifer characterization. A highly parameterized model was inverted, with concentration and temperature time-series as calibration targets. Groundwater heads recorded during the experiment were boundary dependent and were ignored during the inversion process. The inverted model produced a high resolution depiction of the hydraulic conductivity and porosity fields. Statistical properties of these fields are in very good agreement with estimates from previous studies at the site. Spatially distributed sensitivity analysis suggests that both solute and heat transport were most sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity and porosity fields and less sensitive to dispersivity and thermal distribution factor, with sensitivity to porosity greatly reducing outside the monitored area. The issues of model over-parameterization and non-uniqueness are addressed through identifiability analysis. Longitudinal dispersivity and thermal distribution factor are highly identifiable, however spatially distributed parameters are only identifiable near the injection point. Temperature related density effects became observable for both heat and solute, as the temperature anomaly increased above 12 degrees centigrade, and affected down gradient propagation. Finally we demonstrate that high frequency and spatially dense temperature data cannot inform a dual porosity model in the absence of frequent solute concentration measurements.
Fragile to strong crossover at the Widom line in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallo, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Corradini, D.; Rovere, M., E-mail: rovere@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)
2013-11-28
We study by molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical properties of an aqueous solution of NaCl at a concentration of 0.67 mol/kg upon supercooling. In a previous study of the same ionic solution, we have located the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and determined the Widom line connected to the liquid-liquid transition. We present here the results obtained from the study of the self-intermediate scattering function in a large range of temperatures and densities approaching the LLCP. The structural relaxation is in agreement with the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the region of mild supercooling. In the deeper supercooled region the α-relaxation time as function of temperature deviates from the MCT power law prediction showing a crossover from a fragile to a strong behavior. This crossover is found upon crossing the Widom line. The same trend was found in bulk water upon supercooling and it appears almost unchanged by the interaction with ions apart from a shift in the thermodynamic plane toward lower pressures and higher temperatures. These results show that the phenomenology of supercooled water transfers from bulk to solution where the study of the supercooled region is experimentally less difficult.
Byrne, Michael
1999-01-01
Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...
Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2012-10-12
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity models contain higher-order operators suppressed by a characteristic scale, which is required to be parametrically smaller than the Planck scale. We show that recomputed synchrotron radiation constraints from the Crab Nebula suffice to exclude the possibility that this scale is of the same order of magnitude as the Lorentz breaking scale in the matter sector. This highlights the need for a mechanism that suppresses the percolation of Lorentz violation in the matter sector and is effective for higher-order operators as well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Gledson Goulart
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the equation for the gravity wave spectra in mean atmosphere is analytically solved without linearization by the Adomian decomposition method. As a consequence, the nonlinear nature of problem is preserved and the errors found in the results are only due to the parameterization. The results, with the parameterization applied in the simulations, indicate that the linear solution of the equation is a good approximation only for heights shorter than ten kilometers, because the linearization the equation leads to a solution that does not correctly describe the kinetic energy spectra.
Dadhich, Naresh; Pons, Josep M
We study static black hole solutions in Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the topology of the product of two spheres, [Formula: see text], in higher dimensions. There is an unusual new feature of the Gauss-Bonnet black hole: the avoidance of a non-central naked singularity prescribes a mass range for the black hole in terms of [Formula: see text]. For an Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black hole a limited window of negative values for [Formula: see text] is also permitted. This topology encompasses black strings, branes, and generalized Nariai metrics. We also give new solutions with the product of two spheres of constant curvature.
Geodesically complete BTZ-type solutions of 2 + 1 Born–Infeld gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazeia, D; Losano, L; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D
2017-01-01
We study Born–Infeld gravity coupled to a static, non-rotating electric field in 2 + 1 dimensions and find exact analytical solutions. Two families of such solutions represent geodesically complete, and hence nonsingular, spacetimes. Another family represents a point-like charge with a singularity at the center. Despite the absence of rotation, these solutions resemble the charged, rotating BTZ solution of general relativity but with a richer structure in terms of horizons. The nonsingular character of the first two families turn out to be attached to the emergence of a wormhole structure on their innermost region. This seems to be a generic prediction of extensions of general relativity formulated in metric-affine (or Palatini) spaces, where metric and connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir; Adami, H., E-mail: hamed.adami@yahoo.com
2017-01-15
In this paper we study the near horizon symmetry algebra of the non-extremal black hole solutions of the Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity, which are stationary but are not necessarily spherically symmetric. We define the extended off-shell ADT current which is an extension of the generalized ADT current. We use the extended off-shell ADT current to define quasi-local conserved charges such that they are conserved for Killing vectors and asymptotically Killing vectors which depend on dynamical fields of the considered theory. We apply this formalism to the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) and obtain conserved charges of a spacetime which describes near horizon geometry of non-extremal black holes. Eventually, we find the algebra of conserved charges in Fourier modes. It is interesting that, similar to the Einstein gravity in the presence of negative cosmological constant, for the GMMG model also we obtain the Heisenberg algebra as the near horizon symmetry algebra of the black flower solutions. Also the vacuum state and all descendants of the vacuum have the same energy. Thus these zero energy excitations on the horizon appear as soft hairs on the black hole.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.R. Setare
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the near horizon symmetry algebra of the non-extremal black hole solutions of the Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity, which are stationary but are not necessarily spherically symmetric. We define the extended off-shell ADT current which is an extension of the generalized ADT current. We use the extended off-shell ADT current to define quasi-local conserved charges such that they are conserved for Killing vectors and asymptotically Killing vectors which depend on dynamical fields of the considered theory. We apply this formalism to the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG and obtain conserved charges of a spacetime which describes near horizon geometry of non-extremal black holes. Eventually, we find the algebra of conserved charges in Fourier modes. It is interesting that, similar to the Einstein gravity in the presence of negative cosmological constant, for the GMMG model also we obtain the Heisenberg algebra as the near horizon symmetry algebra of the black flower solutions. Also the vacuum state and all descendants of the vacuum have the same energy. Thus these zero energy excitations on the horizon appear as soft hairs on the black hole.
Removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions by strongly basic polystyrene anion exchange resins.
Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew
2009-05-30
The removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions onto the strongly basic polystyrene anion exchangers of type 1 (Amberlite IRA-900) and type 2 (Amberlite IRA-910) was investigated. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/dm(3) initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (q(e,cal)) and the rate constant of the first order adsorption (k(1)) were determined. The pseudo-second order kinetic constants (k(2)) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/q(t) vs. t, 1/q(t) vs. 1/t, 1/t vs. 1/q(t) and q(t)/t vs. q(t) for type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 of the pseudo-second order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, solution pH and temperature on tartrazine removal was also discussed. The FTIR spectra of pure anion exchangers and those loaded with tartrazine were recorded, too.
Numerical path integral solution to strong Coulomb correlation in one dimensional Hooke's atom
Ruokosenmäki, Ilkka; Gholizade, Hossein; Kylänpää, Ilkka; Rantala, Tapio T.
2017-01-01
We present a new approach based on real time domain Feynman path integrals (RTPI) for electronic structure calculations and quantum dynamics, which includes correlations between particles exactly but within the numerical accuracy. We demonstrate that incoherent propagation by keeping the wave function real is a novel method for finding and simulation of the ground state, similar to Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method, but introducing new useful tools lacking in DMC. We use 1D Hooke's atom, a two-electron system with very strong correlation, as our test case, which we solve with incoherent RTPI (iRTPI) and compare against DMC. This system provides an excellent test case due to exact solutions for some confinements and because in 1D the Coulomb singularity is stronger than in two or three dimensional space. The use of Monte Carlo grid is shown to be efficient for which we determine useful numerical parameters. Furthermore, we discuss another novel approach achieved by combining the strengths of iRTPI and DMC. We also show usefulness of the perturbation theory for analytical approximates in case of strong confinements.
Massive gravity from bimetric gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)
The Role of Testimony in Young Children's Solution of a Gravity-Driven Invisible Displacement Task
Bascandziev, Igor; Harris, Paul L.
2010-01-01
Previous research has shown that young children make a perseverative, gravity-oriented, error when asked to predict the final location of a ball dropped down an S-shaped opaque tube (Hood, 1995). We asked if providing children with verbal information concerning the role that the tubes play, in determining the ball's trajectory would improve their…
Hughes, Kyle M.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.
2017-01-01
This work presents an automated method of calculating mass (or time) optimal gravity-assist trajectories without a priori knowledge of the flyby-body combination. Since gravity assists are particularly crucial for reaching the outer Solar System, we use the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, as example destinations for this work. Catalogs are also provided that list the most attractive trajectories found over launch dates ranging from 2024 to 2038. The tool developed to implement this method, called the Python EMTG Automated Trade Study Application (PEATSA), iteratively runs the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG), a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in-house trajectory optimization tool. EMTG finds gravity-assist trajectories with impulsive maneuvers using a multiple-shooting structure along with stochastic methods (such as monotonic basin hopping) and may be run with or without an initial guess provided. PEATSA runs instances of EMTG in parallel over a grid of launch dates. After each set of runs completes, the best results within a neighborhood of launch dates are used to seed all other cases in that neighborhood---allowing the solutions across the range of launch dates to improve over each iteration. The results here are compared against trajectories found using a grid-search technique, and PEATSA is found to outperform the grid-search results for most launch years considered.
Parshad, Rana; Bayazit, Derviş; Barlow, Nathaniel S.; Prasad, V. Ramchandra
2011-01-01
We consider a reduced form pricing model for mortgage backed securities, formulated as a non-linear partial differential equation. We prove that the model possesses a weak solution. We then show that under additional regularity assumptions on the initial data, we also have a mild solution. This mild solution is shown to be a strong solution via further regularity arguments. We also numerically solve the reduced model via a Fourier spectral method. Lastly, we compare our numerical solution to real market data. We observe interestingly that the reduced model captures a number of recent market trends in this data, that have escaped previous models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenmoku, M; Matsuyama, T; Sato, R; Uchida, S
2002-01-01
We have studied classical and quantum solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity theory. Quantum theory is defined through the local conserved angular momentum and mass operators in the case of spherically symmetric spacetime. The de Broglie-Bohm interpretation is applied to the wavefunction and we derive the differential equations for the metric. By solving these equations, we obtain the quantum effect for the metric and compare them with the classical metric. In particular, the quantum effect on the metric for the closed de Sitter universe is estimated quantitatively
Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard
2012-09-01
The main objective of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission consists of determining the temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field. These variations are captured by time series of gravity field models of limited resolution at, e.g., monthly intervals. We present a new time series of monthly models, which was computed with the so-called Celestial Mechanics Approach (CMA), developed at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The secular and seasonal variations in the monthly models are tested for statistical significance. Calibrated errors are derived from inter-annual variations. The time-variable signal can be extracted at least up to degree 60, but the gravity field coefficients of orders above 45 are heavily contaminated by noise. This is why a series of monthly models is computed up to a maximum degree of 60, but only a maximum order of 45. Spectral analysis of the residual time-variable signal shows a distinctive peak at a period of 160 days, which shows up in particular in the C20 spherical harmonic coefficient. Basic filter- and scaling-techniques are introduced to evaluate the monthly models. For this purpose, the variability over the oceans is investigated, which serves as a measure for the noisiness of the models. The models in selected regions show the expected seasonal and secular variations, which are in good agreement with the monthly models of the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). The results also reveal a few small outliers, illustrating the necessity for improved data screening. Our monthly models are available at the web page of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandre, Jean; Pasipoularides, Pavlos
2011-01-01
In this note we examine whether spherically symmetric solutions in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity can reproduce Newton's Law in the IR limit λ→1. We adopt the position that the auxiliary field A is independent of the space-time metric [J. Alexandre and P. Pasipoularides, Phys. Rev. D 83, 084030 (2011).][J. Greenwald, V. H. Satheeshkumar, and A. Wang, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 12 (2010) 007.], and we assume, as in [A. M. da Silva, Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 055011 (2011).], that λ is a running coupling constant. We show that under these assumptions, spherically symmetric solutions fail to restore the standard Newtonian physics in the IR limit λ→1, unless λ does not run, and has the fixed value λ=1. Finally, we comment on the Horava and Melby-Thompson approach [P. Horava and C. M. Melby-Thompson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 064027 (2010).] in which A is assumed as a part of the space-time metric in the IR.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shang Yadong
2005-01-01
In this paper, the evolution equations with strong nonlinear term describing the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave are studied. Firstly, based on the qualitative theory and bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, all of the explicit and exact solutions of solitary waves are obtained by qualitative seeking the homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits for a class of Lienard equations. Then the singular travelling wave solutions, periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle functions type are also obtained on the basis of the relationships between the hyperbolic functions and that between the hyperbolic functions with the triangle functions. The varieties of structure of exact solutions of the generalized long-short wave equation with strong nonlinear term are illustrated. The methods presented here also suitable for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in multidimensions
Vayenas, Constantinos G
2012-01-01
This book shows that the strong interaction forces, which keep hadrons and nuclei together, are relativistic gravitational forces exerted between very small particles in the mass range of neutrinos. First, this book considers the problematic motion of two charged particles under the influence of electrostatic and gravitational forces only, which shows that bound states are formed by following the same semi-classical methodology used by Bohr to describe the H atom. This approach is also coupled with Newton's gravitational law and with Einstein's special relativity. The results agree with experi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Abdinov, O. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others
2016-03-07
A search is conducted for new physics in multijet final states using 3.6 inverse femtobarns of data from proton-proton collisions at √s=13 TeV taken at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector. Events are selected containing at least three jets with scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (H{sub T}) greater than 1 TeV. No excess is seen at large H{sub T} and limits are presented on new physics: models which produce final states containing at least three jets and having cross sections larger than 1.6 fb with H{sub T}> 5.8 TeV are excluded. Limits are also given in terms of new physics models of strong gravity that hypothesize additional space-time dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melendez L, L.
2004-01-01
In the first part of this work, starting from Einstein's equations of the Classical General Relativity, a new kind of solutions for the Mixmaster model are explored. By dispensing with the extension to the complex variable field, which is usual in problems such as the Laplace equation or the harmonic oscillator, in a similar manner to that of Quantum Mechanics, the equations appear to have solutions that belong to the complex General Relativity. A first integral is performed by establishing a separation of the first derivatives. Then a second integral is obtained once the respective equations with separate variables are found and whose integrals provide a family of complex solutions. However, reality conditions do not seem to be easily imposed at this stage. Above all, it is significant that the classical Einstein's equations for the debatably integrable Mixmaster model present complex solutions. In the second part of this work, following a specific strategy in which the cosmological time variables are operated upon, a new family of solutions to the empty Taub universe is found. Among the characteristics of such a family, it stands the positive acceleration provided by the tri-curvature property of this universe to two of the three scale factors of the Taub model. This effect of the tri-curvature results not in a restoring force such as normal gravity but in the conversion of the Taub cosmology into an accelerating universe. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijing Shao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here, we combine these tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse (DEF, which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs. First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOSs for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Since the binary-pulsar bounds depend on the NS mass and the EOS, we find that current pulsar-timing observations leave scalarization windows, i.e., regions of parameter space where scalarization can still be prominent. Then, we investigate if these scalarization windows could be closed and if pulsar-timing constraints could be improved by laser-interferometer GW detectors, when spontaneous (or dynamical scalarization sets in during the early (or late stages of a binary NS (BNS evolution. For the early inspiral of a BNS carrying constant scalar charge, we employ a Fisher-matrix analysis to show that Advanced LIGO can improve pulsar-timing constraints for some EOSs, and next-generation detectors, such as the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope, will be able to improve those bounds for all eleven EOSs. Using the late inspiral of a BNS, we estimate that for some of the EOSs under consideration, the onset of dynamical scalarization can happen early enough to improve the constraints on the DEF parameters obtained by combining the five binary pulsars. Thus, in the near future, the complementarity of pulsar timing and direct observations of GWs on the ground will be extremely valuable in probing gravity theories in the strong-field regime.
Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2018-05-01
We elaborate on the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, for constructing exact solutions with quasiperiodic structure in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. Such solutions are described by generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections and (effective) matter sources with coefficients depending on all spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generation and integration functions and (effective) matter sources. There are studied effective free energy functionals and nonlinear evolution equations for generating off-diagonal quasiperiodic deformations of black hole and/or homogeneous cosmological metrics. The physical data for such functionals are stated by different values of constants and prescribed symmetries for defining quasiperiodic structures at cosmological scales, or astrophysical objects in nontrivial gravitational backgrounds some similar forms as in condensed matter physics. It is shown how quasiperiodic structures determined by general nonlinear, or additive, functionals for generating functions and (effective) sources may transform black hole like configurations into cosmological metrics and inversely. We speculate on possible implications of quasiperiodic solutions in dark energy and dark matter physics. Finally, it is concluded that geometric methods for constructing exact solutions consist an important alternative tool to numerical relativity for investigating nonlinear effects in astrophysics and cosmology.
Massive bosons interacting with gravity: No standard solutions in Robertson-Walker space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zecca, A.
2009-01-01
The problem of the interaction of boson and gravitational field is formulated in the Robertson-Walker space-time. It consist the simultaneous solution of the boson and of the Einstein field equation whose source is the energy momentum tensor of the boson field. By direct verification it is shown that the problem does not admit solutions in the class of massive standard solutions, previously determined, of the boson field equation. Also there cannot be solutions, in case of massive interacting boson, that are superpositions of standard solutions. The case of massless boson field is left open. The result is essentially due to the very special form of the Einstein tensor in Robertson-Walker metric.
Communication: Strong laser alignment of solvent-solute aggregates in the gas-phase
Trippel, Sebastian; Wiese, Joss; Mullins, Terry; Küpper, Jochen
2018-03-01
Strong quasi-adiabatic laser alignment of the indole-water-dimer clusters, an amino-acid chromophore bound to a single water molecule through a hydrogen bond, was experimentally realized. The alignment was visualized through ion and electron imaging following strong-field ionization. Molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions showed a clear suppression of the electron yield in the plane of the ionizing laser's polarization, which was analyzed as strong alignment of the molecular cluster with ⟨cos2 θ2D⟩ ≥ 0.9.
Renormalization group equation and scaling solutions for f(R) gravity in exponential parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo
2016-01-01
We employ the exponential parametrization of the metric and a ''physical'' gauge fixing procedure to write a functional flow equation for the gravitational effective average action in an f(R) truncation. The background metric is a four-sphere and the coarse-graining procedure contains three free parameters. We look for scaling solutions, i.e. non-Gaussian fixed points for the function f. For a discrete set of values of the parameters, we find simple global solutions of quadratic polynomial form. For other values, global solutions can be found numerically. Such solutions can be extended in certain regions of parameter space and have two relevant directions. We discuss the merits and the shortcomings of this procedure. (orig.)
BPS-kink and more global solutions of the Chern-Simons (super)gravity term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grumiller, D.
2004-01-01
We study the supersymmetry of the Kaluza-Klein reduced gravitational Chern-Simons term in two dimensions and propose supergravity transformations that allow for some supersymmetry of the kink solution. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juergen Saal
2007-02-01
Full Text Available It is proved under mild regularity assumptions on the data that the Navier-Stokes equations in bounded and unbounded noncylindrical regions admit a unique local-in-time strong solution. The result is based on maximal regularity estimates for the in spatial regions with a moving boundary obtained in [16] and the contraction mapping principle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aribindi Satyanarayan Rao
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In a Banach space, if u is a Stepanov almost periodic solution of a certain nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a Stepanov almost periodic forcing function, then u,u′,…,u (n−2 are all strongly almost periodic and u (n−1 is weakly almost periodic.
Domains of analyticity for response solutions in strongly dissipative forced systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corsi, Livia; Feola, Roberto; Gentile, Guido
2013-01-01
We study the ordinary differential equation εx ¨ +x . +εg(x)=εf(ωt), where g and f are real-analytic functions, with f quasi-periodic in t with frequency vector ω. If c 0 ∈R is such that g(c 0 ) equals the average of f and g′(c 0 ) ≠ 0, under very mild assumptions on ω there exists a quasi-periodic solution close to c 0 with frequency vector ω. We show that such a solution depends analytically on ε in a domain of the complex plane tangent more than quadratically to the imaginary axis at the origin
Pt-catalyzed ozonation of aqueous phenol solution using high-gravity rotating packed bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yu, Yue-Hwa
2009-01-01
In this study, a high-gravity rotating packed bed (HGRPB or HG) was used as a catalytic ozonation (Cat-OZ) reactor to decompose phenol. The operation of HGRPB system was carried out in a semi-batch apparatus which combines two major parts, namely the rotating packed bed (RPB) and photo-reactor (PR). The high rotating speed of RPB can give a high volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient with one or two orders of magnitude higher than those in the conventional packed beds. The platinum-containing catalyst (Dash 220N, Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 ) and activated alumina (γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were packed in the RPB respectively to adsorb molecular ozone and the target pollutant of phenol on the surface to catalyze the oxidation of phenol. An ultra violet (UV) lamp (applicable wavelength λ = 200-280 nm) was installed in the PR to enhance the self-decomposition of molecular ozone in water to form high reactive radical species. Different combinations of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with the HGRPB for the degradation of phenol were tested. These included high-gravity OZ (HG-OZ), HG catalytic OZ (HG-Cat-OZ), HG photolysis OZ (HG-UV-OZ) and HG-Cat-OZ with UV (HG-Cat-UV-OZ). The decomposition efficiency of total organic compound (η TOC ) of HG-UV-OZ with power of UV (P UV ) of 16 W is 54% at applied dosage of ozone per volume sample m A,in = 1200 mg L -1 (reaction time t = 20 min), while that of HG-OZ without the UV irradiation is 24%. After 80 min oxidation (m A,in = 4800 mg L -1 ), the η TOC of HG-UV-OZ is as high as 94% compared to 82% of HG-OZ process. The values of η TOC for HG-Cat-OZ process with m S = 42 g are 56% and 87% at m A,in = 1200 and 4800 mg L -1 , respectively. By increasing the catalyst mass to 77 g, the η TOC for the HG-Cat-OZ process reaches 71% and 90% at m A,in = 1200 and 4800 mg L -1 , respectively. The introduction of Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 as well as UV irradiation in the HG-OZ process can enhance the η TOC of phenol significantly, while γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibits
Robustness of strong solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bella, P.; Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 362, 1-2 (2015), s. 281-303 ISSN 0025-5831 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * smooth solution * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00208-014-1119-2
An analytical approach to the solution of in-itself strong focusing beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulin, A.; Ticar, I.; Zoric, T.; Znidarsic, K.; Bezic, N.
1981-01-01
The aim of this paper is a description of the problem, how to represent the high current, high current density charged particle beam with straightforward analytical expressions. The principal difficulties in the solution of differential equation for stationary, axial and radial distribution of charged particles in the high current, high current density beam are mentioned. In all the derivations, an accomplished space charge effects compensation with suitable combined beam of oppositely charged particles is assumed. (author)
Strong Federations: An Interoperable Blockchain Solution to Centralized Third-Party Risks
Dilley, Johnny; Poelstra, Andrew; Wilkins, Jonathan; Piekarska, Marta; Gorlick, Ben; Friedenbach, Mark
2016-01-01
Bitcoin, the first peer-to-peer electronic cash system, opened the door to permissionless, private, and trustless transactions. Attempts to repurpose Bitcoin's underlying blockchain technology have run up against fundamental limitations to privacy, faithful execution, and transaction finality. We introduce \\emph{Strong Federations}: publicly verifiable, Byzantine-robust transaction networks that facilitate movement of any asset between disparate markets, without requiring third-party trust. \\...
On Analytical Solutions of f(R) Modified Gravity Theories in FLRW Cosmologies
Domazet, Silvije; Radovanović, Voja; Simonović, Marko; Štefančić, Hrvoje
2013-02-01
A novel analytical method for f(R) modified theories without matter in Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes is introduced. The equation of motion for the scale factor in terms of cosmic time is reduced to the equation for the evolution of the Ricci scalar R with the Hubble parameter H. The solution of equation of motion for actions of the form of power law in Ricci scalar R is presented with a detailed elaboration of the action quadratic in R. The reverse use of the introduced method is exemplified in finding functional forms f(R), which leads to specified scale factor functions. The analytical solutions are corroborated by numerical calculations with excellent agreement. Possible further applications to the phases of inflationary expansion and late-time acceleration as well as f(R) theories with radiation are outlined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salinic, Slavisa [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljevo (RS)
2010-10-15
In this paper, an analytical solution for the problem of finding profiles of gravity flow discharge chutes required to achieve maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction is obtained by application of variational calculus. The model of a particle which moves down a rough curve in a uniform gravitational field is used to obtain a solution of the problem for various boundary conditions. The projection sign of the normal reaction force of the rough curve onto the normal to the curve and the restriction requiring that the tangential acceleration be non-negative are introduced as the additional constraints in the form of inequalities. These inequalities are transformed into equalities by introducing new state variables. Although this is fundamentally a constrained variational problem, by further introducing a new functional with an expanded set of unknown functions, it is transformed into an unconstrained problem where broken extremals appear. The obtained equations of the chute profiles contain a certain number of unknown constants which are determined from a corresponding system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The obtained results are compared with the known results from the literature. (orig.)
Gomes, Cláudio Luís Nina; Ribeiro Filho, José Dantas; Faleiros, Rafael Resende; Dantas, Fernanda Timbó D'el Rey; Amorim, Lincoln da Silva; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira
2014-01-01
Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following tr...
Xu, Qiuju; Belmonte, Andrew; deForest, Russ; Liu, Chun; Tan, Zhong
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study a fitness gradient system for two populations interacting via a symmetric game. The population dynamics are governed by a conservation law, with a spatial migration flux determined by the fitness. By applying the Galerkin method, we establish the existence, regularity and uniqueness of global solutions to an approximate system, which retains most of the interesting mathematical properties of the original fitness gradient system. Furthermore, we show that a Turing instability occurs for equilibrium states of the fitness gradient system, and its approximations.
Branca, C; Galli, G; Magazù, S; Maisano, G; Migliardo, F
2002-01-01
Neutron-scattering measurements have been performed on trehalose/H sub 2 O and sucrose/H sub 2 O mixtures by using the spectrometer MIBEMOL at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB, Saclay) as a function of temperature and concentration. In order to characterize the different rigidities of both the disaccharide/H sub 2 O mixtures, we have evaluated the R sub 1 (T sub g) parameter connected to the 'strong-fragile' classification of the systems according to Angell's nomenclature. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mugica R, C.A.; Valle G, E. del
2005-01-01
In 2002, E. del Valle and Ernest H. Mund developed a technique to solve numerically the Neutron transport equations in discrete ordinates and hexagonal geometry using two nodal schemes type finite element weakly discontinuous denominated WD 5,3 and WD 12,8 (of their initials in english Weakly Discontinuous). The technique consists on representing each hexagon in the union of three rhombuses each one of which it is transformed in a square in the one that the methods WD 5,3 and WD 12,8 were applied. In this work they are solved the mentioned equations of transport using the same discretization technique by hexagon but using two nodal schemes type finite element strongly discontinuous denominated SD 3 and SD 8 (of their initials in english Strongly Discontinuous). The application in each case as well as a reference problem for those that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described. It is carried out a comparison with the obtained results by del Valle and Mund for different discretization meshes so much angular as spatial. (Author)
Strong solutions to a Navier–Stokes–Lamé system on a domain with a non-flat boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukavica, Igor; Ziane, Mohammed; Tuffaha, Amjad
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider a Navier–Stokes–Lamé system modeling a fluid–structure interaction. For a general domain, we establish local well-posedness for strong solutions in which initial velocity u 0 belongs to H 1 while the initial data (w 0 , w 1 ) for the elasticity equation belongs to (H 3/2+k , H 1/2+k ) for any k in (0, k 0 ) where k 0 is an explicit positive constant
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.
2012-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 4 (2012), s. 717-730 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : suitable weak solution * weak-strong uniqueness * compressible Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-011-0091-9
A matrix integral solution to two-dimensional Wp-gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, M.; Moerbeke, P. van; Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve
1992-01-01
The p th Gel'fand-Dickey equation and the string equation [L.P.] = 1 have a common solution τ experessible in terms of an integral over n x n Hermitean matrices (for large n). the integrand being a perturbation of a Gaussian. generalizing Kontsevich's inegral beyond the KdV-case; it is equivalent to showing that τ is a vacuum vector for a Q p + -algebra, generated from the coefficients of the vertex operator. This connectionis established via a quadratic identity involving the wave function and the vertex operator, which is disguised differential version of the Fay identity. The latter is also the key to the spectral theory for the two compatible symplectic structures of KdV in terms of the stress-energy tensor associated with the Virasoro algebra. Given a differential operator L=D p +q 2 (t)D p-2 +...+q p (t), with D=d/dx, t=(t 1 , t 2 , t 3 , ...), x=t 1 , consider the deformation equations dL/dt n =[(L n/p ) + , L] n=1, 2, ..., n≠0(mod p) (p-reduced KP-equation) of L, for which there exists a differential operator P (possibly of infinite order) such that [L, P]=1 (string equation). In this note, we give a complete solution to this problem. (orig./HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weger, M.; Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Peter, M.; Santi, G.
1995-01-01
We solve the Eliashberg equations for the case of an explicit vector k dependence of the interactions, and of the resulting self-energies Σ 1 ( vector k,ω), Σ 2 ( vector k,ω). We consider a strong energy-dependence of the electron-electron scattering-rate τ ee -1 , which is associated with a strong energy-dependence of the electron-phonon matrix element g(k,k'). We characterize this energy-dependence by a cutoff ξ 1 , which is of the order of the phonon frequency ω ph . We find that we can account for a large number of unexpected features of the superconductivity of the cuprates by the BCS electron-phonon theory, if we consider very large values of the McMillan coupling constant λ ph , and small values of the cutoff ξ 1 . Specifically, the Coulomb interaction is found not to depress T c ; the isotope effect is strongly reduced when ξ 1 ph . We find solutions in which the gap function Δ( vector k,ω) has extended s-wave symmetry but is very anisotropic. We suggest that the underlying cause of the strong energy-dependence is a very small electronic screening parameter at the Fermi surface; the electron-phonon matrix element g is abnormally large, and this accounts for the high transition temperatures of the cuprates. An order of magnitude estimate suggests that the electron-phonon mechanism can account for transition temperatures up to about 200 K. We thus propose a very-strong-coupling theory, in which the renormalization functions, in particular the energy-renormalization X, depend very strongly on the superconducting gap Δ, and thus display a very strong temperature-dependence between T c and T=0. An experimental manifestation of the very strong coupling with a small cutoff is a zero bias anomaly sometimes observed in tunneling experiments. (orig.)
Solution to the strong CP problem with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong, O.C.; Wright, B.D.
1998-01-01
We demonstrate that a certain class of low scale supersymmetric open-quotes Nelson-Barrclose quotes type models can solve the strong and supersymmetric CP problems, while at the same time generating sufficient weak CP violation in the K 0 -bar K 0 system. In order to prevent one-loop corrections to bar θ which violate bounds coming from the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM), one needs a scheme for the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters which can naturally give sufficient squark degeneracies and proportionality of trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters to Yukawa couplings. We show that a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking sector can provide the needed degeneracy and proportionality, though that proves to be a problem for generic Nelson-Barr models. The workable model we consider here has the Nelson-Barr mass texture enforced by a gauge symmetry; one also expects a new U(1) gauge superfield with mass in the TeV range. The resulting model is predictive. We predict a measureable neutron EDM and the existence of extra vector-like quark superfields which can be discovered at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Because the 3x3 Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is approximately real, the model also predicts a flat unitarity triangle and the absence of substantial CP violation in the B system at future B factories. We discuss the general issues pertaining to the construction of such a workable model and how they lead to the successful strategy. A detailed renormalization group study is then used to establish the feasibility of the model considered. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setare, M R; Kamali, V
2011-01-01
We show that a BTZ black hole solution of cosmological topological massive gravity has a hidden conformal symmetry. In this regard, we consider the wave equation of a massless scalar field propagating in BTZ spacetime and find that the wave equation could be written in terms of the SL(2, R) quadratic Casimir. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual conformal field theories (CFTs) could be read directly. Moreover, we compute the microscopic entropy of the dual CFT by the Cardy formula and find a perfect match to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a BTZ black hole. Then, we consider Galilean conformal algebras (GCA), which arises as a contraction of relativistic conformal algebras (x → εx, t → t, ε → 0). We show that there is a correspondence between GCA 2 on the boundary and contracted BTZ in the bulk. For this purpose we obtain the central charges and temperatures of GCA 2 . Then, we compute the microscopic entropy of the GCA 2 by the Cardy formula and find a perfect match to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a BTZ black hole in a non-relativistic limit. The absorption cross section of a near-region scalar field also matches the microscopic absorption cross section of the dual GCA 2 . So we find further evidence that shows correspondence between a contracted BTZ black hole and two-dimensional GCA.
Antigravity: Spin-gravity coupling in action
Plyatsko, Roman; Fenyk, Mykola
2016-08-01
The typical motions of a spinning test particle in Schwarzschild's background which show the strong repulsive action of the highly relativistic spin-gravity coupling are considered using the exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations. An approximated approach to choice solutions of these equations which describe motions of the particle's proper center of mass is developed.
Devaraju, B.; Weigelt, M.; Mueller, J.
2017-12-01
In order to suppress the impact of aliasing errors on the standard monthly GRACE gravity-field solutions, co-estimating sub-monthly (daily/two-day) low-degree solutions has been suggested as a solution. The maximum degree of the low-degree solutions is chosen via the Colombo-Nyquist rule of thumb. However, it is now established that the sampling of satellites puts a restriction on the maximum estimable order and not the degree - modified Colombo-Nyquist rule. Therefore, in this contribution, we co-estimate low-order sub-monthly solutions, and compare and contrast them with the low-degree sub-monthly solutions. We also investigate their efficacies in dealing with aliasing errors.
Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2010-01-01
We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.
A novel solution to the Klein–Gordon equation in the presence of a strong rotating electric field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Raicher
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The Klein–Gordon equation in the presence of a strong electric field, taking the form of the Mathieu equation, is studied. A novel analytical solution is derived for particles whose asymptotic energy is much lower or much higher than the electromagnetic field amplitude. The condition for which the new solution recovers the familiar Volkov wavefunction naturally follows. When not satisfied, significant deviation from the Volkov wavefunction is demonstrated. The new condition is shown to differ by orders of magnitudes from the commonly used one. As this equation describes (neglecting spin effects the emission processes and the particle motion in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED cascades, our results suggest that the standard theoretical approach towards this phenomenon should be revised.
A novel solution to the Klein–Gordon equation in the presence of a strong rotating electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raicher, E., E-mail: erez.raicher@mail.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Department of Applied Physics, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Eliezer, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Nuclear Fusion Institute, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Zigler, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2015-11-12
The Klein–Gordon equation in the presence of a strong electric field, taking the form of the Mathieu equation, is studied. A novel analytical solution is derived for particles whose asymptotic energy is much lower or much higher than the electromagnetic field amplitude. The condition for which the new solution recovers the familiar Volkov wavefunction naturally follows. When not satisfied, significant deviation from the Volkov wavefunction is demonstrated. The new condition is shown to differ by orders of magnitudes from the commonly used one. As this equation describes (neglecting spin effects) the emission processes and the particle motion in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) cascades, our results suggest that the standard theoretical approach towards this phenomenon should be revised.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikashina, V.A.; Venitsianov, E.V.; Ivanov, V.A.; Gur'yanova, L.N.; Nikolaev, N.P.; Baturova, L.L.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow
1993-01-01
A program 'Countercurrent' is developed for the simulation of a continuous ion-exchange extraction of strontium from the strongly mineralized solutions containing NaCl and CaCl 2 using carboxylic cation exchanger KB-4 in countercurrent columns. The use of the program allows one to calculate the consitions of Ca and Sr separation depending on the modes of operation at the stage of sorption as well as regeneration, to calculate a residual Sr content on an overloaded sorbent and Sr separation on an incompletely regenerated KB-4, and to find the optimal separation conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shabani, Hamid [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, Amir Hadi [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kahnooj Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-05-15
Very recently, Josset and Perez (Phys. Rev. Lett. 118:021102, 2017) have shown that a violation of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) could result in an accelerated expansion state via the appearance of an effective cosmological constant, in the context of unimodular gravity. Inspired by this outcome, in this paper we investigate cosmological consequences of a violation of the EMT conservation in a particular class of f(R,T) gravity when only the pressure-less fluid is present. In this respect, we focus on the late time solutions of models of the type f(R,T) = R + βΛ(-T). As the first task, we study the solutions when the conservation of EMT is respected, and then we proceed with those in which violation occurs. We have found, provided that the EMT conservation is violated, that there generally exist two accelerated expansion solutions of which the stability properties depend on the underlying model. More exactly, we obtain a dark energy solution for which the effective equation of state depends on the model parameters and a de Sitter solution. We present a method to parametrize the Λ(-T) function, which is useful in a dynamical system approach and has been employed in the model. Also, we discuss the cosmological solutions for models with Λ(-T) = 8πG(-T){sup α} in the presence of ultra-relativistic matter. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, G E
2005-01-01
Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhard, N.R.
1979-01-01
The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory
2002-01-01
We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; He, Xu; Gitsis, Emmanouil; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Kim, Nayoung; Wang, Jing
2015-01-01
Dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied due to its importance for their technical applications, toxic effects, and environmental impacts. Common electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, promote agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. On the contrary, we discovered that acetic electrolytes enhanced the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl functional group through the strong hydrogen bond, which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrometry, dispersion observations and aerosolization-quantification method. When concentrations of acetate electrolytes such as ammonium acetate (CH 3 CO 2 NH 4 ) and sodium acetate (CH 3 CO 2 Na) were lower than 0.03 mol per liter, MWCNT suspensions showed better dispersion and had higher mobility in porous media. The effects by the acetic environment are also applicable to other nanoparticles with the carboxyl functional group, which was demonstrated with polystyrene latex particles as an example
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; He, Xu; Gitsis, Emmanouil; Kuo, Yu-Ying [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering (Switzerland); Kim, Nayoung [EMPA, Building Energy Materials and Components (Switzerland); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering (Switzerland)
2015-10-15
Dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied due to its importance for their technical applications, toxic effects, and environmental impacts. Common electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, promote agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. On the contrary, we discovered that acetic electrolytes enhanced the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl functional group through the strong hydrogen bond, which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrometry, dispersion observations and aerosolization-quantification method. When concentrations of acetate electrolytes such as ammonium acetate (CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}NH{sub 4}) and sodium acetate (CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Na) were lower than 0.03 mol per liter, MWCNT suspensions showed better dispersion and had higher mobility in porous media. The effects by the acetic environment are also applicable to other nanoparticles with the carboxyl functional group, which was demonstrated with polystyrene latex particles as an example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konovalov, N.V.
The accuracy of the calculation of the characteristics of a radiation field in a plane layer is investigated by solving the transfer equation in dependence on the error in the specification of the scattering indicatrix. It is shown that a small error in the specification of the indicatrix can lead to a large error in the solution at large optical depths. An estimate is given for the region of optical thicknesses for which the emission field can be determined with sufficient degree of accuracy from the transfer equation with a known error in the specification of the indicatrix. For an estimation of the error involved in various numerical methods, and also for a determination of the region of their applicability, the results of calculations of problems with strongly anisotropic indicatrix are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikashina, V.A.; Guryanova, L.N.; Baturova, L.L.; Venetsianov, E.V.; Ivanov, V.A.; Nikolaev, N.P.
1993-01-01
The program open-quotes Countercurrentclose quotes is developed for the simulation of a continuous ion-exchange extraction of strontium from strongly mineralized NaCl and CaCl 2 solutions using a KB-4 carboxylic cation-exchanger in the countercurrent columns. The program allows one to Calculate the conditions of Ca and Sr separation depending on the mode of operation at the sorption and regeneration stages, the residual Sr content on the overloaded sorbent, and the Sr separation on incompletely regenerated KB-4. It also makes it possible to find the optimal separation conditions. The program open-quotes Countercurrentclose quotes can be also used to simulate other ion-exchange processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Xuebing, E-mail: xuebinghu2010@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2015-02-28
Graphical abstract: By adding an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide undergoes fast aggregation from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method and forms the stable floccules when the pH value of the filtrate is about 1.7. The acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers plays a role in the aggregation of the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide. - Highlights: • The novel and high-efficient method for separating graphene oxide was showed. • Graphene oxide undergoes aggregation and forms the floccules when pH value is ∼1.7. • The acid–base interaction plays a role in the aggregation of graphene oxide. - Abstract: In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accioly, A.J.
1987-01-01
A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt
Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Yazici, Enis
2014-01-01
We show that a geometric techniques can be elaborated and applied for constructing generic off-diagonal exact solutions in $f(R,T)$--modified gravity for systems of gravitational-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. The corresponding classes of metrics and generalized connections are determined by generating and integration functions which depend, in general, on all space and time coordinates and may possess, or not, Killing symmetries. For nonholonomic constraints resulting in Levi-Civita configurations, we can extract solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. We show that the constructions simplify substantially for metrics with at least one Killing vector. There are provided and analyzed some examples of exact solutions describing generic off-diagonal modifications to black hole/ellipsoid and solitonic configurations.
Consistency of orthodox gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
1997-01-01
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Riley, Douglas A.
We study the three-dimensional incompressible Navier- Stokes equations in a domain of the form W'×(0,e) . First, we assume W' is a C3 bounded domain and impose no-slip boundary conditions on 6W'×(0,e ) , and periodic conditions on W'×0,e . Physically, this models fluid flow through a pipe with cross-section W' where the inlet and outlet conditions are assumed periodic. Secondly, we assume W'=(0,l4) ×(0,l5) and impose periodic boundary conditions. This problem is of interest mathematically, and has been more widely considered than the pipe flow problem. For both sets of boundary conditions, we show that a strong solution exists for all time with conditions on the initial data and forcing. We start by recalling that if the forcing function and initial condition do not depend on x3, then a global strong solution exists which also does not depend on x3. Here (x1,x2,x3) ∈W≡W'×( 0,e) . With this observation as motivation, and using an additive decomposition introduced by Raugel and Sell, we split the initial data and forcing into a portion independent of x3 and a remainder. In our first result, we impose a smallness condition on the remainder and assume the forcing function is square- integrable in time as a function into L2(W) . With these assumptions, we prove a global existence theorem that does not require a smallness condition on e or on the portion of the initial condition and forcing independent of x3. However, these quantities do affect the allowable size of the remainder. For our second result, we assume the forcing is only bounded in time as a function into L2(W) . In this case, we need a smallness condition on the initial data, the forcing, and e to obtain global existence. The interesting observation is that the allowable sizes for the initial data and forcing grow as e-->0 . Thus, we obtain a `thin-domain' result as originally obtained by Raugel and Sell. In fact, our results allow the portion of the initial data and forcing independent of x3 to
Gravity-driven pH adjustment for site-specific protein pKa measurement by solution-state NMR
Li, Wei
2017-12-01
To automate pH adjustment in site-specific protein pKa measurement by solution-state NMR, I present a funnel with two caps for the standard 5 mm NMR tube. The novelty of this simple-to-build and inexpensive apparatus is that it allows automatic gravity-driven pH adjustment within the magnet, and consequently results in a fully automated NMR-monitored pH titration without any hardware modification on the NMR spectrometer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, J.M., E-mail: jmzhao@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People' s Republic of China (China); Tan, J.Y., E-mail: tanjy@hit.edu.cn [School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People' s Republic of China (China); Liu, L.H., E-mail: lhliu@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People' s Republic of China (China); School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People' s Republic of China (China)
2013-01-01
A new second order form of radiative transfer equation (named MSORTE) is proposed, which overcomes the singularity problem of a previously proposed second order radiative transfer equation [J.E. Morel, B.T. Adams, T. Noh, J.M. McGhee, T.M. Evans, T.J. Urbatsch, Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 214 (1) (2006) 12-40 (where it was termed SAAI), J.M. Zhao, L.H. Liu, Second order radiative transfer equation and its properties of numerical solution using finite element method, Numer. Heat Transfer B 51 (2007) 391-409] in dealing with inhomogeneous media where some locations have very small/zero extinction coefficient. The MSORTE contains a naturally introduced diffusion (or second order) term which provides better numerical property than the classic first order radiative transfer equation (RTE). The stability and convergence characteristics of the MSORTE discretized by central difference scheme is analyzed theoretically, and the better numerical stability of the second order form radiative transfer equations than the RTE when discretized by the central difference type method is proved. A collocation meshless method is developed based on the MSORTE to solve radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media. Several critical test cases are taken to verify the performance of the presented method. The collocation meshless method based on the MSORTE is demonstrated to be capable of stably and accurately solve radiative transfer in strongly inhomogeneous media, media with void region and even with discontinuous extinction coefficient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schupp, P.
2007-01-01
Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)
Cady, John W.
1977-01-01
An equation derived for the vertical gravity field due to a body with polygonal cross section and finite strike length. The equations consists of the 2-dimensional equation of Talwani, Worzel, and Landisman (1959), with the addition of end corrections. Equations for the magnetic field due to a similar body were derived by Shuey and Pasquale (1973). They coined the term "2 1/2-dimensional" to describe the geometry.
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Piecuch, Christopher G.; Landerer, Felix W.; Ponte, Rui M.
2018-05-01
Monthly ocean bottom pressure solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), derived using surface spherical cap mass concentration (MC) blocks and spherical harmonics (SH) basis functions, are compared to tide gauge (TG) monthly averaged sea level data over 2003-2015 to evaluate improved gravimetric data processing methods near the coast. MC solutions can explain ≳ 42% of the monthly variance in TG time series over broad shelf regions and in semi-enclosed marginal seas. MC solutions also generally explain ˜5-32 % more TG data variance than SH estimates. Applying a coastline resolution improvement algorithm in the GRACE data processing leads to ˜ 31% more variance in TG records explained by the MC solution on average compared to not using this algorithm. Synthetic observations sampled from an ocean general circulation model exhibit similar patterns of correspondence between modeled TG and MC time series and differences between MC and SH time series in terms of their relationship with TG time series, suggesting that observational results here are generally consistent with expectations from ocean dynamics. This work demonstrates the improved quality of recent MC solutions compared to earlier SH estimates over the coastal ocean, and suggests that the MC solutions could be a useful tool for understanding contemporary coastal sea level variability and change.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aros, Rodrigo; Contreras, Mauricio
2006-01-01
In this work the Poincare-Chern-Simons and anti-de Sitter-Chern-Simons gravities are studied. For both, a solution that can be cast as a black hole with manifest torsion is found. Those solutions resemble Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-AdS solutions, respectively
Comparing scalar-tensor gravity and f(R)-gravity in the Newtonian limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.; Troisi, A.
2010-01-01
Recently, a strong debate has been pursued about the Newtonian limit (i.e. small velocity and weak field) of fourth order gravity models. According to some authors, the Newtonian limit of f(R)-gravity is equivalent to the one of Brans-Dicke gravity with ω BD =0, so that the PPN parameters of these models turn out to be ill-defined. In this Letter, we carefully discuss this point considering that fourth order gravity models are dynamically equivalent to the O'Hanlon Lagrangian. This is a special case of scalar-tensor gravity characterized only by self-interaction potential and that, in the Newtonian limit, this implies a non-standard behavior that cannot be compared with the usual PPN limit of General Relativity. The result turns out to be completely different from the one of Brans-Dicke theory and in particular suggests that it is misleading to consider the PPN parameters of this theory with ω BD =0 in order to characterize the homologous quantities of f(R)-gravity. Finally the solutions at Newtonian level, obtained in the Jordan frame for an f(R)-gravity, reinterpreted as a scalar-tensor theory, are linked to those in the Einstein frame.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetz, G.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the plane-wave solutions for the equations governing the motion of a self-gravitating isothermal fluid in Newtonian hydrodynamics are generated by a sine-Gordon equation which is solvable by an 'inverse scattering' transformation. A transformation procedure is outlined by means of which one can construct solutions of the gravity system out of a pair of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, which are interrelated via an auto-Baecklund transformation. In general the solutions to the gravity system are obtained in a parametric representation in terms of characteristic coordinates. All solutions of the gravity system generated by the one-and two-soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation can be constructed explicitly. These might provide models for the evolution of flat structures as they are predicted to arise in the process of galaxy formation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung, Nguyen M
1999-01-01
An existence and uniqueness theorem for generalized solutions of the first initial-boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems in bounded domains is established. The question of estimates in Sobolev spaces of the derivatives with respect to time of the generalized solution is discussed. It is shown that the smoothness of generalized solutions with respect to time is independent of the structure of the boundary of the domain but depends on the coefficients of the right-hand side. Results on the smoothness of the generalized solution and its asymptotic behaviour in a neighbourhood of a conical boundary point are also obtained
De Sitter space in gauge/gravity duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilia Anguelova
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate gauge/gravity duality for gauge theories in de Sitter space. More precisely, we study a five-dimensional consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity, which encompasses a wide variety of gravity duals of strongly coupled gauge theories, including the Maldacena–Nunez solution and its walking deformations. We find several solutions of the 5d theory with dS4 spacetime and nontrivial profiles for (some of the scalars along the fifth (radial direction. In the process, we prove that one of the equations of motion becomes dependent on the others, for nontrivial warp factor. This dependence reduces the number of field equations and, thus, turns out to be crucial for the existence of solutions with (AdS4 spacetime. Finally, we comment on the implications of our dS4 solutions for building gravity duals of Glueball Inflation.
Simon, N; Décaudin, B; Lannoy, D; Barthélémy, C; Lemdani, M; Odou, P
2011-12-01
Gravity-fed infusion (GFI) systems are acknowledged as being unable to keep their flow-rate constant. This may affect drug plasma levels such as aminoglycosides. Numerous factors have previously been cited, but their relative importance has never been quantified so far. The objective of this work is to identify the main factors that influence GFI in vitro outflow and to propose a mathematical model of flow-rate evolution as a function of time. In this model, pressure loss and infusion device creep have been considered as the main variation factors. Concomitantly, two experiments were undertaken. Firstly, the flow-rate evolution of an in vitro infusion of 250 mL of dextrose 5% was assessed. Secondly, the creep occurring on an infusion device was measured through a stress relaxation experiment. The experimental infusion flow-rate decreased by as much as 28.5% over 1 h. Simulated and experimental data are well correlated (r = 0.987; P model should help to explain the differences observed in drug plasma levels with gravity-fed devices.
Totani, Tomonori
2017-10-01
In standard general relativity the universe cannot be started with arbitrary initial conditions, because four of the ten components of the Einstein's field equations (EFE) are constraints on initial conditions. In the previous work it was proposed to extend the gravity theory to allow free initial conditions, with a motivation to solve the cosmological constant problem. This was done by setting four constraints on metric variations in the action principle, which is reasonable because the gravity's physical degrees of freedom are at most six. However, there are two problems about this theory; the three constraints in addition to the unimodular condition were introduced without clear physical meanings, and the flat Minkowski spacetime is unstable against perturbations. Here a new set of gravitational field equations is derived by replacing the three constraints with new ones requiring that geodesic paths remain geodesic against metric variations. The instability problem is then naturally solved. Implications for the cosmological constant Λ are unchanged; the theory converges into EFE with nonzero Λ by inflation, but Λ varies on scales much larger than the present Hubble horizon. Then galaxies are formed only in small Λ regions, and the cosmological constant problem is solved by the anthropic argument. Because of the increased degrees of freedom in metric dynamics, the theory predicts new non-oscillatory modes of metric anisotropy generated by quantum fluctuation during inflation, and CMB B -mode polarization would be observed differently from the standard predictions by general relativity.
Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang
2018-05-14
In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Heyrovská, Raji
2013-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 6 (2013), s. 1895-1901 ISSN 1040-0400 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Solution thermodynamics * Aqueous electrolytes * Partial electrolytic dissociation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2013
Cosmology and modifications of gravity at large distances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziour, R.
2010-01-01
In the framework of General Relativity, the observed current acceleration of the expansion of the Universe requires the presence of a Dark Energy component, whose nature is not well understood. In order to explain the acceleration of the Universe without introducing such a tantalizing source of energy, other gravitation theories have been designed. This thesis is devoted to the study of some of these modified gravity theories, as well as to the observation methods that could constrain them. The first part of this thesis presents a review of modified gravity theories and their motivations. The second part is devoted to the study of the massive gravity theories and of the so-called Vainshtein's mechanism, which allows some of the solutions of Massive Gravity to strongly differ from General Relativity at cosmological scales while satisfying the experimental constraints inside the solar system. For the first time, the validity of the Vainshtein's mechanism is demonstrated, through the study of specific spherically symmetric solutions. The third part deals with scalar modification of gravity; a new model of this sort is presented, inspired by the Vainshtein's mechanism in Massive Gravity. Finally, the fourth part discusses local, astrophysical and cosmological observations that might constrain modified gravity theories. (author)
Scalar QNMs for higher dimensional black holes surrounded by quintessence in Rastall gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graca, J.P.M.; Lobo, Iarley P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2018-02-15
The spacetime solution for a black hole, surrounded by an exotic matter field, in Rastall gravity, is calculated in an arbitrary d-dimensional spacetime. After this, we calculate the scalar quasinormal modes of such solution, and study the shift on the modes caused by the modification of the theory of gravity, i.e., by the introduction of a new term due to Rastall. We conclude that the shift strongly depends on the kind of exotic field one is studying, but for a low density matter that supposedly pervades the universe, it is unlikely that Rastall gravity will cause an instability for the probe field. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertog, Thomas; Hollands, Stefan
2005-01-01
We study the stability of designer gravity theories, in which one considers gravity coupled to a tachyonic scalar with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. We construct Hamiltonian generators of the asymptotic symmetries using the covariant phase space method of Wald et al and find that they differ from the spinor charges except when W = 0. The positivity of the spinor charge is used to establish a lower bound on the conserved energy of any solution that satisfies boundary conditions for which W has a global minimum. A large class of designer gravity theories therefore have a stable ground state, which the AdS/CFT correspondence indicates should be the lowest energy soliton. We make progress towards proving this by showing that minimum energy solutions are static. The generalization of our results to designer gravity theories in higher dimensions involving several tachyonic scalars is discussed
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
Shuler, Robert
2018-04-01
The goal of this paper is to take a completely fresh approach to metric gravity, in which the metric principle is strictly adhered to but its properties in local space-time are derived from conservation principles, not inferred from a global field equation. The global field strength variation then gains some flexibility, but only in the regime of very strong fields (2nd-order terms) whose measurement is now being contemplated. So doing provides a family of similar gravities, differing only in strong fields, which could be developed into meaningful verification targets for strong fields after the manner in which far-field variations were used in the 20th century. General Relativity (GR) is shown to be a member of the family and this is demonstrated by deriving the Schwarzschild metric exactly from a suitable field strength assumption. The method of doing so is interesting in itself because it involves only one differential equation rather than the usual four. Exact static symmetric field solutions are also given for one pedagogical alternative based on potential, and one theoretical alternative based on inertia, and the prospects of experimentally differentiating these are analyzed. Whether the method overturns the conventional wisdom that GR is the only metric theory of gravity and that alternatives must introduce additional interactions and fields is somewhat semantical, depending on whether one views the field strength assumption as a field and whether the assumption that produces GR is considered unique in some way. It is of course possible to have other fields, and the local space-time principle can be applied to field gravities which usually are weak-field approximations having only time dilation, giving them the spatial factor and promoting them to full metric theories. Though usually pedagogical, some of them are interesting from a quantum gravity perspective. Cases are noted where mass measurement errors, or distributions of dark matter, can cause one
Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models
Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.
2018-04-01
Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.
2017-08-01
Ligand- or voltage-driven stochastic gating—the structural rearrangements by which the channel switches between its open and closed states—is a fundamental property of biological membrane channels. Gating underlies the channel's ability to respond to different stimuli and, therefore, to be functionally regulated by the changing environment. The accepted understanding of the gating effect on the solute flux through the channel is that the mean flux is the product of the flux through the open channel and the probability of finding the channel in the open state. Here, using a diffusion model of channel-facilitated transport, we show that this is true only when the gating is much slower than the dynamics of solute translocation through the channel. If this condition breaks, the mean flux could differ from this simple estimate by orders of magnitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2015-02-01
Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose; Ferraro, Rafael
2015-01-01
Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)
Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You
2017-01-01
A novel, unexplored nonperturbative deep-strong coupling (npDSC) achieved in superconducting circuits has been studied in the anisotropic Rabi model by the generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA). Energy levels are evaluated analytically from the reformulated Hamiltonian and agree well with numerical ones under a wide range of coupling strength. Such improvement ascribes to deformation effects in the displaced-squeezed state presented by the squeezed momentum variance, which...
Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan
2011-01-01
Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...
On wormholes and black holes solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a K-massless scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estevez-Delgado, J; Zannias, T
2007-01-01
We investigate the nature of black holes and wormholes admitted by a K-essence model involving a massless scalar field φ, minimally coupled to gravity. Via Weyl's formalism, we show that any axial wormhole of the theory can be generated by a unique pair of harmonic functions: U(λ) = π/2 C + C arctan(λ/λ 0 ), φ(λ) = π/2 D + D arctan(λ/λ 0 ) where λ is one of the oblate coordinate, λ 0 > 0 and (C, D) real parameters. The properties of the wormholes depends crucially upon the values of the parameters (C, D). Whenever (C, D) are chosen so that 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2 the wormhole is spherical, while for the case where 2C 2 - kD 2 = -4 or 2C 2 - kD 2 = -6 the wormhole throat possesses toroidal topology. Those two families of wormholes exhaust all regular static and axisymmetric wormholes admitted by this theory. For completeness we add that whenever (C, D) satisfy 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2l with l ≥ 3/2 one still generates a spacetime possessing two asymptotically flat but the throat connecting the two ends contains a string like singularity. For the refined case where 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2l with l = 4,5, ... the resulting spacetime represents a multi-sheeted configuration which even though free of curvature singularities nevertheless the spacetime topology is distinct to so far accepted wormhole topology. Spacetimes generated by the pair (U(λ), φ(λ)) and parameters (C, D) subject to 2C 2 - kD 2 = -2l with l 2 bifurcating, regular Killing horizon necessary possesses a constant exterior scalar field. Under the assumption that the event horizon of any static black hole of this theory is a Killing horizon, the results show that the only static black hole admitted by this K-essence model, is the Schwarzschild black hole
Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity
Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank
2012-09-01
The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Galli, G.; Magazu' , S.; Maisano, G.; Migliardo, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita' di Messina, PO Box 55, 98166 Messina (Italy)
2002-07-01
Neutron-scattering measurements have been performed on trehalose/H{sub 2}O and sucrose/H{sub 2}O mixtures by using the spectrometer MIBEMOL at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB, Saclay) as a function of temperature and concentration. In order to characterize the different rigidities of both the disaccharide/H{sub 2}O mixtures, we have evaluated the R{sub 1}(T{sub g}) parameter connected to the 'strong-fragile' classification of the systems according to Angell's nomenclature. (orig.)
Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You
2017-12-01
An unexplored nonperturbative deep strong coupling (npDSC) achieved in superconducting circuits has been studied in the anisotropic Rabi model by the generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation. Energy levels are evaluated analytically from the reformulated Hamiltonian and agree well with numerical ones in a wide range of coupling strength. Such improvement ascribes to deformation effects in the displaced-squeezed state presented by the squeezed momentum variance, which are omitted in previous displaced states. The atom population dynamics confirms the validity of our approach for the npDSC strength. Our approach offers the possibility to explore interesting phenomena analytically in the npDSC regime in qubit-oscillator experiments.
Malekzadeh Moghani, Mahdy; Khomami, Bamin
2016-01-01
Macromolecules with ionizable groups are ubiquitous in biological and synthetic systems. Due to the complex interaction between chain and electrostatic decorrelation lengths, both equilibrium properties and micro-mechanical response of dilute solutions of polyelectrolytes (PEs) are more complex than their neutral counterparts. In this work, the bead-rod micromechanical description of a chain is used to perform hi-fidelity Brownian dynamics simulation of dilute PE solutions to ascertain the self-similar equilibrium behavior of PE chains with various linear charge densities, scaling of the Kuhn step length (lE) with salt concentration cs and the force-extension behavior of the PE chain. In accord with earlier theoretical predictions, our results indicate that for a chain with n Kuhn segments, lE ˜ cs-0.5 as linear charge density approaches 1/n. Moreover, the constant force ensemble simulation results accurately predict the initial non-linear force-extension region of PE chain recently measured via single chain experiments. Finally, inspired by Cohen's extraction of Warner's force law from the inverse Langevin force law, a novel numerical scheme is developed to extract a new elastic force law for real chains from our discrete set of force-extension data similar to Padè expansion, which accurately depicts the initial non-linear region where the total Kuhn length is less than the thermal screening length.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.
2016-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 3 (2016), s. 1539-1562 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * motion of rigid body * strong solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11589
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karnland, O.
1998-01-01
A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)
1997-12-01
A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density 37 refs, 15 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)
1998-01-01
A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.). 14 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karnland, O.
1997-12-01
A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density
Cosmology in general massive gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L.
2014-01-01
We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w eff has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w eff from -1. Taking into account current limits on w eff and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w eff form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-01-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...
Discrete Lorentzian quantum gravity
Loll, R.
2000-01-01
Just as for non-abelian gauge theories at strong coupling, discrete lattice methods are a natural tool in the study of non-perturbative quantum gravity. They have to reflect the fact that the geometric degrees of freedom are dynamical, and that therefore also the lattice theory must be formulated
Kashiwabara, Takahito
Strong solutions of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations under non-linearized slip or leak boundary conditions are investigated. We show that the problems are formulated by a variational inequality of parabolic type, to which uniqueness is established. Using Galerkin's method and deriving a priori estimates, we prove global and local existence for 2D and 3D slip problems respectively. For leak problems, under no-leak assumption at t=0 we prove local existence in 2D and 3D cases. Compatibility conditions for initial states play a significant role in the estimates.
Gravity signatures of terrane accretion
Franco, Heather; Abbott, Dallas
1999-01-01
In modern collisional environments, accreted terranes are bracketed by forearc gravity lows, a gravitational feature which results from the abandonment of the original trench and the initiation of a new trench seaward of the accreted terrane. The size and shape of the gravity low depends on the type of accreted feature and the strength of the formerly subducting plate. Along the Central American trench, the accretion of Gorgona Island caused a seaward trench jump of 48 to 66 km. The relict trench axes show up as gravity lows behind the trench with minimum values of -78 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -49 mgal (S of Gorgona) respectively. These forearc gravity lows have little or no topographic expression. The active trench immediately seaward of these forearc gravity lows has minimum gravity values of -59 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -58 mgal (S of Gorgona), respectively. In the north, the active trench has a less pronounced gravity low than the sediment covered forearc. In the Mariana arc, two Cretaceous seamounts have been accreted to the Eocene arc. The northern seamount is most likely a large block, the southern seamount may be a thrust slice. These more recent accretion events have produced modest forearc topographic and gravity lows in comparison with the topographic and gravity lows within the active trench. However, the minimum values of the Mariana forearc gravity lows are modest only by comparison to the Mariana Trench (-216 mgal); their absolute values are more negative than at Gorgona Island (-145 to -146 mgal). We speculate that the forearc gravity lows and seaward trench jumps near Gorgona Island were produced by the accretion of a hotspot island from a strong plate. The Mariana gravity lows and seaward trench jumps (or thrust slices) were the result of breaking a relatively weak plate close to the seamount edifice. These gravity lows resulting from accretion events should be preserved in older accreted terranes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, D.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiao, W.T. [College of Education, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Vocational and Technical College of Building Materials, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)
2015-03-05
Highlights: • Hardness of dendrite of TiZr-based BMGMCs increases. • Strong work-hardening behavior is obtained after solid solution strengthening. • Lattice distortions of dendrite suffering from rapid cooling are detected. - Abstract: A series of TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) with distinguished mechanical properties are successfully fabricated by adding different volume fractions of Ta (Ti{sub 38.8}Zr{sub 28.8}Cu{sub 6.2}Be{sub 16.2}Nb{sub 10} as the basic composition, denoted as Ta{sub 0.0}–Ta{sub 8.0}). Along with the growth of precipitated phase, typical dendritic morphology is fully developed in the TiZr-based BMGMCs of Ta{sub 8.0}. Energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of the dendrites and glass matrix indicates that the metallic elements of Nb and Ta should preferentially form solid solution into dendrites. The chaotic structure of high-temperature precipitate phase is trapped down by the rapid cooling of the copper-mould. The detected lattice distortions in the dendrites are attributed to the strong solid solution strengthening of the metallic elements of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta. These lattice distortions increase the resistance of the dislocation motion and pin the dislocations, thus the strength and hardness of dendrite increase. Dendrites create a strong barrier for the shear band propagation and generate multiple shear bands after solid solution strengthening, thereby providing the TiZr-based BMGMCs with greatly improved capacity to sustain plastic deformation and resistance to brittle fracture. Thus, the TiZr-based BMGMCs possess distinguished work-hardening capability. Among these TiZr-based BMGMCs, the sample Ta{sub 0.5} possesses the largest plastic strain (ε{sub p}) at 20.3% and ultimate strength (σ{sub max}) of 2613 MPa during compressive loading. In addition, the sample of Ta{sub 0.5} exhibits work-hardening up to an ultrahigh tensile strength of 1680 MPa during the tensile process, and then progressively
Veeraraghavan, Srikant; Mazziotti, David A
2014-03-28
We present a density matrix approach for computing global solutions of restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory, based on semidefinite programming (SDP), that gives upper and lower bounds on the Hartree-Fock energy of quantum systems. While wave function approaches to Hartree-Fock theory yield an upper bound to the Hartree-Fock energy, we derive a semidefinite relaxation of Hartree-Fock theory that yields a rigorous lower bound on the Hartree-Fock energy. We also develop an upper-bound algorithm in which Hartree-Fock theory is cast as a SDP with a nonconvex constraint on the rank of the matrix variable. Equality of the upper- and lower-bound energies guarantees that the computed solution is the globally optimal solution of Hartree-Fock theory. The work extends a previously presented method for closed-shell systems [S. Veeraraghavan and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 89, 010502-R (2014)]. For strongly correlated systems the SDP approach provides an alternative to the locally optimized Hartree-Fock energies and densities with a certificate of global optimality. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of C2, CN, Cr2, and NO2.
Lujan, Richard E.
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Alvarez, Enrique
2004-01-01
Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...
Gerhardt, Claus
2018-01-01
A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...
Lü, Boqiang; Shi, Xiaoding; Zhong, Xin
2018-06-01
We are concerned with the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional (2D) nonhomogeneous incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum as far-field density. It is proved that if the initial density decays not too slow at infinity, the 2D Cauchy problem of the density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations on the whole space admits a unique global strong solution. Note that the initial data can be arbitrarily large and the initial density can contain vacuum states and even have compact support. Furthermore, we also obtain the large time decay rates of the spatial gradients of the velocity and the pressure, which are the same as those of the homogeneous case.
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
Signatures of chaos and non-integrability in two-dimensional gravity with dynamical boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fitkevich Maxim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a model of two-dimensional dilaton gravity with a boundary. In the bulk our model coincides with the classically integrable CGHS model; the dynamical boundary cuts of the CGHS strong-coupling region. As a result, classical dynamics in our model reminds that in the spherically-symmetric gravity: wave packets of matter fields either reflect from the boundary or form black holes. We find large integrable sector of multisoliton solutions in this model. At the same time, we argue that the model is globally non-integrable because solutions at the verge of black hole formation display chaotic properties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
The relativistic gravity train
Seel, Max
2018-05-01
The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.
Vaidya spacetime in massive gravity's rainbow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaghoub Heydarzade
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the energy dependent deformation of massive gravity using the formalism of massive gravity's rainbow. So, we will use the Vainshtein mechanism and the dRGT mechanism for the energy dependent massive gravity, and thus analyze a ghost free theory of massive gravity's rainbow. We study the energy dependence of a time-dependent geometry, by analyzing the radiating Vaidya solution in this theory of massive gravity's rainbow. The energy dependent deformation of this Vaidya metric will be performed using suitable rainbow functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopleva, N.P.
1996-01-01
The problems of application of nonperturbative quantization methods in the theories of the gauge fields and gravity are discussed. Unification of interactions is considered in the framework of the geometrical gauge fields theory. Vacuum conception in the unified theory of interactions and instantons role in the vacuum structure are analyzed. The role of vacuum solutions of Einstein equations in definition of the gauge field vacuum is demonstrated
Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio
Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.
1982-01-01
Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.
Pipinos, Savas
2010-01-01
This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…
F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)
1999-01-01
textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on
Flipped spinfoam vertex and loop gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto [CPT, CNRS Case 907, Universite de la Mediterranee, F-13288 Marseille (France); Rovelli, Carlo [CPT, CNRS Case 907, Universite de la Mediterranee, F-13288 Marseille (France)], E-mail: rovelli@cpt.univ-mrs.fr
2008-07-21
We introduce a vertex amplitude for 4d loop quantum gravity. We derive it from a conventional quantization of a Regge discretization of euclidean general relativity. This yields a spinfoam sum that corrects some difficulties of the Barrett-Crane theory. The second class simplicity constraints are imposed weakly, and not strongly as in Barrett-Crane theory. Thanks to a flip in the quantum algebra, the boundary states turn out to match those of SO(3) loop quantum gravity-the two can be identified as eigenstates of the same physical quantities-providing a solution to the problem of connecting the covariant SO(4) spinfoam formalism with the canonical SO(3) spin-network one. The vertex amplitude is SO(3) and SO(4)-covariant. It rectifies the triviality of the intertwiner dependence of the Barrett-Crane vertex, which is responsible for its failure to yield the correct propagator tensorial structure. The construction provides also an independent derivation of the kinematics of loop quantum gravity and of the result that geometry is quantized.
Taub-NUT black holes in third order Lovelock gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S.H.; Dehghani, M.H.
2008-01-01
We consider the existence of Taub-NUT solutions in third order Lovelock gravity with cosmological constant, and obtain the general form of these solutions in eight dimensions. We find that, as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and in contrast with the Taub-NUT solutions of Einstein gravity, the metric function depends on the specific form of the base factors on which one constructs the circle fibration. Thus, one may say that the independence of the NUT solutions on the geometry of the base space is not a robust feature of all generally covariant theories of gravity and is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We find that when Einstein gravity admits non-extremal NUT solutions with no curvature singularity at r=N, then there exists a non-extremal NUT solution in third order Lovelock gravity. In 8-dimensional spacetime, this happens when the metric of the base space is chosen to be CP 3 . Indeed, third order Lovelock gravity does not admit non-extreme NUT solutions with any other base space. This is another property which is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We also find that the third order Lovelock gravity admits extremal NUT solution when the base space is T 2 xT 2 xT 2 or S 2 xT 2 xT 2 . We have extended these observations to two conjectures about the existence of NUT solutions in Lovelock gravity in any even-dimensional spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
The effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions and vital reaction was studied using the facility of Underground Gravity-free Experiment Center Co. On the effect on osteoblast shape and gene expression, although fluorochrome reacting with Ca was well taken into cells, no significant difference in Ca content in cells was observed before/after falling. Expression of genes related to cell propagation was controlled under micro-gravity. Protoplast fusion of Lentinus was unaffected by micro-gravity. The mRNA fragments of gravity sensitive mutant of rice plant were affected by micro-gravity. Paramecium was set swimming in solutions with different specific gravities. The reaction behavior of Paramecium was affected by the difference in specific gravity between cell bodies and solutions. The water content metabolism functions of a mouse with needle stimulus, in particular excretory, were slightly promoted by micro- gravity. The cortisol level in blood of a falling mouse group rose showing strong stress. As the preliminary study on the geotaxis of insects, motion of bagworm was observed. 12 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.
Black holes in pure Lovelock gravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen; Ohta, Nobuyoshi
2006-01-01
Lovelock gravity is a fascinating extension of general relativity, whose action consists of dimensionally extended Euler densities. Compared to other higher order derivative gravity theories, Lovelock gravity is attractive since it has a lot of remarkable features such as the fact that there are no more than second order derivatives with respect to the metric in its equations of motion, and that the theory is free of ghosts. Recently, in the study of black strings and black branes in Lovelock gravity, a special class of Lovelock gravity is considered, which is named pure Lovelock gravity, where only one Euler density term exists. In this paper we study black hole solutions in the special class of Lovelock gravity and associated thermodynamic properties. Some interesting features are found, which are quite different from the corresponding ones in general relativity
Butterfly effect in 3D gravity
Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.
2017-11-01
We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isham, C.
1989-01-01
Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.
1984-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Topological gravity with minimal matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Keke
1991-01-01
Topological minimal matter, obtained by twisting the minimal N = 2 supeconformal field theory, is coupled to two-dimensional topological gravity. The free field formulation of the coupled system allows explicit representations of BRST charge, physical operators and their correlation functions. The contact terms of the physical operators may be evaluated by extending the argument used in a recent solution of topological gravity without matter. The consistency of the contact terms in correlation functions implies recursion relations which coincide with the Virasoro constraints derived from the multi-matrix models. Topological gravity with minimal matter thus provides the field theoretic description for the multi-matrix models of two-dimensional quantum gravity. (orig.)
Semiclassical unimodular gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiol, Bartomeu; Garriga, Jaume
2010-01-01
Classically, unimodular gravity is known to be equivalent to General Relativity (GR), except for the fact that the effective cosmological constant Λ has the status of an integration constant. Here, we explore various formulations of unimodular gravity beyond the classical limit. We first consider the non-generally covariant action formulation in which the determinant of the metric is held fixed to unity. We argue that the corresponding quantum theory is also equivalent to General Relativity for localized perturbative processes which take place in generic backgrounds of infinite volume (such as asymptotically flat spacetimes). Next, using the same action, we calculate semiclassical non-perturbative quantities, which we expect will be dominated by Euclidean instanton solutions. We derive the entropy/area ratio for cosmological and black hole horizons, finding agreement with GR for solutions in backgrounds of infinite volume, but disagreement for backgrounds with finite volume. In deriving the above results, the path integral is taken over histories with fixed 4-volume. We point out that the results are different if we allow the 4-volume of the different histories to vary over a continuum range. In this ''generalized'' version of unimodular gravity, one recovers the full set of Einstein's equations in the classical limit, including the trace, so Λ is no longer an integration constant. Finally, we consider the generally covariant theory due to Henneaux and Teitelboim, which is classically equivalent to unimodular gravity. In this case, the standard semiclassical GR results are recovered provided that the boundary term in the Euclidean action is chosen appropriately
Radion and holographic brane gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro
2002-01-01
The low energy effective theory for the Randall-Sundrum two-brane system is investigated with an emphasis on the role of the nonlinear radion in the brane world. The equations of motion in the bulk are solved using a low energy expansion method. This allows us, through the junction conditions, to deduce the effective equations of motion for gravity on the brane. It is shown that the gravity on the brane world is described by a quasi-scalar-tensor theory with a specific coupling function ω(Ψ)=3Ψ/2(1-Ψ) on the positive tension brane and ω(Φ)=-3Φ/2(1+Φ) on the negative tension brane, where Ψ and Φ are nonlinear realizations of the radion on the positive and negative tension branes, respectively. In contrast with the usual scalar-tensor gravity, the quasi-scalar-tensor gravity couples with two kinds of matter; namely, the matter on both positive and negative tension branes, with different effective gravitational coupling constants. In particular, the radion disguised as the scalar fields Ψ and Φ couples with the sum of the traces of the energy-momentum tensor on both branes. In the course of the derivation, it is revealed that the radion plays an essential role in converting the nonlocal Einstein gravity with generalized dark radiation to local quasi-scalar-tensor gravity. For completeness, we also derive the effective action for our theory by substituting the bulk solution into the original action. It is also shown that quasi-scalar-tensor gravity works as a hologram at low energy in the sense that the bulk geometry can be reconstructed from the solution of quasi-scalar-tensor gravity
Nonsingular universe in massive gravity's rainbow
Hendi, S. H.; Momennia, M.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-06-01
One of the fundamental open questions in cosmology is whether we can regard the universe evolution without singularity like a Big Bang or a Big Rip. This challenging subject stimulates one to regard a nonsingular universe in the far past with an arbitrarily large vacuum energy. Considering the high energy regime in the cosmic history, it is believed that Einstein gravity should be corrected to an effective energy dependent theory which could be acquired by gravity's rainbow. On the other hand, employing massive gravity provided us with solutions to some of the long standing fundamental problems of cosmology such as cosmological constant problem and self acceleration of the universe. Considering these aspects of gravity's rainbow and massive gravity, in this paper, we initiate studying FRW cosmology in the massive gravity's rainbow formalism. At first, we show that although massive gravity modifies the FRW cosmology, but it does not itself remove the big bang singularity. Then, we generalize the massive gravity to the case of energy dependent spacetime and find that massive gravity's rainbow can remove the early universe singularity. We bring together all the essential conditions for having a nonsingular universe and the effects of both gravity's rainbow and massive gravity generalizations on such criteria are determined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melendez L, L
2004-07-01
In the first part of this work, starting from Einstein's equations of the Classical General Relativity, a new kind of solutions for the Mixmaster model are explored. By dispensing with the extension to the complex variable field, which is usual in problems such as the Laplace equation or the harmonic oscillator, in a similar manner to that of Quantum Mechanics, the equations appear to have solutions that belong to the complex General Relativity. A first integral is performed by establishing a separation of the first derivatives. Then a second integral is obtained once the respective equations with separate variables are found and whose integrals provide a family of complex solutions. However, reality conditions do not seem to be easily imposed at this stage. Above all, it is significant that the classical Einstein's equations for the debatably integrable Mixmaster model present complex solutions. In the second part of this work, following a specific strategy in which the cosmological time variables are operated upon, a new family of solutions to the empty Taub universe is found. Among the characteristics of such a family, it stands the positive acceleration provided by the tri-curvature property of this universe to two of the three scale factors of the Taub model. This effect of the tri-curvature results not in a restoring force such as normal gravity but in the conversion of the Taub cosmology into an accelerating universe. (Author)
Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Bei Lok
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamon, Raphael
2010-06-29
Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamon, Raphael
2010-01-01
Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem. Furthermore, we
Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske
2010-01-01
We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.
Magnetic vortices in gauge/gravity duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strydom, Migael
2014-07-18
We study strongly-coupled phenomena using gauge/gravity duality, with a particular focus on vortex solutions produced by magnetic field and time-dependent problems in holographic models. The main result is the discovery of a counter-intuitive effect where a strong non-abelian magnetic field induces the formation of a triangular vortex lattice ground state in a simple holographic model. Gauge/gravity duality is a powerful theoretical tool that has been used to study strongly-coupled systems ranging from the quark-gluon plasma produced at particle colliders to condensed matter theories. The most important idea is that of duality: a strongly coupled quantum field theory can be studied by investigating the properties of a particular gravity background described by Einstein's equations. One gravity background we study in this dissertation is AdS-Schwarzschild with an SU(2) gauge field. We switch on the gauge field component that gives the field theory an external magnetic field. When the magnetic field is above a critical value, we find that the system is unstable, indicating a superconducting phase transition. We find the instability in two ways. Firstly, we do a quasinormal mode analysis, studying fluctuations about the background. Secondly, we rewrite the equations in Schroedinger form and numerically find that, as the magnetic field is increased, the potential deepens until it is capable of supporting a bound state. Next we show that the resulting superconducting ground state is a triangular vortex lattice. This is done by performing a perturbative expansion in a small parameter proportional to the condensate size. After solving the equations to third order, we use the holographic dictionary to calculate the total energy of different lattice solutions and identify the minimum energy state. In addition, we show that the result holds in an AdS-hard wall model as well, which is dual to a confining theory. Next we extend the simple gravity model to include a
Moduli space of Chern-Simons gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soda, Jiro; Yamanaka, Yuki
1990-09-01
Conformally invariant (2+1)-dimensional gravity, Chern-Shimons gravity, is studied. Its solution space, moduli space, is investigated using the linearization method. The dimension of moduli space is determined as 18g - 18 for g > 1,6 for g = 1 and 0 for g = 0. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our investigation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawter, Amanda R.; Garcia, Whitney L.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Bowden, Mark E.; Saslow, Sarah A.; Qafoku, Nikolla
2018-09-15
At the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, radionuclide (Tc-99/I-129) laden liquid wastes have been discharged to ground, resulting in vadose zone contamination, which provides a continuous source of these contaminants to groundwater. The presence of multiple contaminants increases the complexity of finding viable remediation technologies to sequester vadose zone contaminants in situ and protect groundwater. Although previous studies have shown the efficiency of zero valent iron (ZVI) and sulfur modified iron (SMI) in reducing mobile Tc(VII) to immobile Tc(IV) and iodate incorporation into calcite, the coupled effects from simultaneously using these remedial technologies have not been previously studied. In this first-of-a-kind laboratory study, we used two efficient reductants (i.e., ZVI and SMI) and calcite-forming solutions to simultaneously remove aqueous Tc(VII) and iodate via reduction and incorporation, respectively. The results confirmed that Tc(VII) was rapidly removed from the aqueous phase via reduction to Tc(IV). ZVI removed Tc(VII) faster than SMI, although both had removed the same amount by the end of the experiments. Most of the aqueous iodate was rapidly transformed to iodide, and therefore was not incorporated into calcite, but instead remained in the aqueous phase. The iodate reduction to iodide was much faster than iodate incorporation into calcite, suggesting that this remedial pathway is not efficient in removing aqueous iodate when strong reductants are present. Other experiments suggested that iodate removal via calcite precipitation should occur first and then reductants should be added for Tc(VII) removal. Although ZVI can negatively impact microbial populations and thereby inhibit natural attenuation mechanisms, only changes in the makeup of the microbial community were observed. However, these changes in the microbial community may have an impact on remediation efforts in the long term that could not be seen in a short
Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matas, Andrew
2016-01-01
Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware–Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G.
2012-01-01
The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)
Generalized Vaidya spacetime for cubic gravity
Ruan, Shan-Ming
2016-03-01
We present a kind of generalized Vaidya solution of a new cubic gravity in five dimensions whose field equations in spherically symmetric spacetime are always second order like the Lovelock gravity. We also study the thermodynamics of its spherically symmetric apparent horizon and get its entropy expression and generalized Misner-Sharp energy. Finally, we present the first law and second law hold in this gravity. Although all the results are analogous to those in Lovelock gravity, we in fact introduce the contribution of a new cubic term in five dimensions where the cubic Lovelock term is just zero.
Granular Superconductors and Gravity
Noever, David; Koczor, Ron
1999-01-01
As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Young Song
2004-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of
Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Kieweg, Sarah L
2013-06-01
HIV/AIDS is a growing global pandemic. A microbicide is a formulation of a pharmaceutical agent suspended in a delivery vehicle, and can be used by women to protect themselves against HIV infection during intercourse. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) computational model of a shear-thinning power-law fluid spreading under the influence of gravity to represent the distribution of a microbicide gel over the vaginal epithelium. This model, accompanied by a new experimental methodology, is a step in developing a tool for optimizing a delivery vehicle's structure/function relationship for clinical application. We compare our model with experiments in order to identify critical considerations for simulating 3D free-surface flows of shear-thinning fluids. Here we found that neglecting lateral spreading, when modeling gravity-induced flow, resulted in up to 47% overestimation of the experimental axial spreading after 90 s. In contrast, the inclusion of lateral spreading in 3D computational models resulted in rms errors in axial spreading under 7%. In addition, the choice of the initial condition for shape in the numerical simulation influences the model's ability to describe early time spreading behavior. Finally, we present a parametric study and sensitivity analysis of the power-law parameters' influence on axial spreading, and to examine the impact of changing rheological properties as a result of dilution or formulation conditions. Both the shear-thinning index (n) and consistency (m) impacted the spreading length and deceleration of the moving front. The sensitivity analysis showed that gels with midrange m and n values (for the ranges in this study) would be most sensitive (over 8% changes in spreading length) to 10% changes (e.g., from dilution) in both rheological properties. This work is applicable to many industrial and geophysical thin-film flow applications of non-Newtonian fluids; in addition to biological applications in microbicide drug delivery.
High-resolution gravity model of Venus
Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.
1992-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba
2004-01-01
We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes
Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity
Smolin, Lee
2010-01-01
We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.
Acoustic-gravity nonlinear structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Jovanović
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A catalogue of nonlinear vortex structures associated with acoustic-gravity perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Besides the previously known Kelvin-Stewart cat's eyes, dipolar and tripolar structures, new solutions having the form of a row of counter-rotating vortices, and several weakly two-dimensional vortex chains are given. The existence conditions for these nonlinear structures are discussed with respect to the presence of inhomogeneities of the shear flows. The mode-coupling mechanism for the nonlinear generation of shear flows in the presence of linearly unstable acoustic-gravity waves, possibly also leading to intermittency and chaos, is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegedűs, Árpád; Konczer, József [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)
2016-08-09
In this paper, we solved numerically the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) equations corresponding to some twist-2 single trace operators with even spin from the sl(2) sector of AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence. We describe all technical details of the numerical method which are necessary to implement it in C++ language. In the S=2,4,6,8 cases, our numerical results confirm the analytical results, known in the literature for the first 4 coefficients of the strong coupling expansion for the anomalous dimensions of twist-2 operators. In the case of the Konishi operator, due to the high precision of the numerical data we could give numerical predictions to the values of two further coefficients, as well. The strong coupling behaviour of the coefficients c{sub a,n} in the power series representation of the P {sub a}-functions is also investigated. Based on our numerical data, in the regime, where the index of the coefficients is much smaller than λ{sup 1/4}, we conjecture that the coefficients have polynomial index dependence at strong coupling. This allows one to propose a strong coupling series representation for the P-functions being valid far enough from the real short cut. In the paper the qualitative strong coupling behaviour of the P-functions at the branch points is also discussed.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
Rheological measurements in reduced gravity
Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.
1999-01-01
Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.
Lorentzian wormholes in Lovelock gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehghani, M. H.; Dayyani, Z.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the n-dimensional Lorentzian wormhole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. In contrast to Einstein gravity and as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we find that the wormhole throat radius r 0 has a lower limit that depends on the Lovelock coefficients, the dimensionality of the spacetime, and the shape function. We study the conditions of having normal matter near the throat, and find that the matter near the throat can be normal for the region r 0 ≤r≤r max , where r max depends on the Lovelock coefficients and the shape function. We also find that the third order Lovelock term with negative coupling constant enlarges the radius of the region of normal matter, and conclude that the higher order Lovelock terms with negative coupling constants enlarge the region of normal matter near the throat.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kawasaki Masahiro
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The plateau of 7Li abundance as a function of the iron abundance by spectroscopic observations of metal-poor halo stars (MPHSs indicates its primordial origin. The observed abundance levels are about a factor of three smaller than the primordial 7Li abundance predicted in the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN model. This discrepancy might originate from exotic particle and nuclear processes operating in BBN epoch. Some particle models include heavy (m >> 1 GeV long-lived colored particles which would be confined inside exotic heavy hadrons, i.e., strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs. We have found reactions which destroy 7Be and 7Li during BBN in the scenario of BBN catalyzed by a long-lived sub-strongly interacting massive particle (sub-SIMP, X. The reactions are non radiative X captures of 7 Be and 7Li which can be operative if the X particle interacts with nuclei strongly enough to drive 7 Be destruction but not strongly enough to form a bound state with 4 He of relative angular momentum L = 1. We suggest that 7Li problem can be solved as a result of a new process beyond the standard model through which the observable signature was left on the primordial Li abundance.
Experimental tests of relativistic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault
2000-01-01
The confrontation between Einstein's gravitation theory and experimental results, notably binary pulsar data, is summarized and its significance discussed. Experiment and theory agree at the 10 -3 level or better. All the basic structures of Einstein's theory (coupling of gravity matter; propagation and self-interaction of the gravitational field, including in strong field conditions) have been verified. However, the theoretical possibility that scalar couplings be naturally driven toward zero by the cosmological expansion suggests that the present agreement between Einstein's theory and experiment might be compatible with the existence of a long-range scalar contribution to gravity (such as the dilation field, or a moduli field, of string theory). This provides a new theoretical paradigm, and new motivations for improving the experimental tests of gravity
Light fermions in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger
2011-01-01
We study the impact of quantum gravity, formulated as a quantum field theory of the metric, on chiral symmetry in a fermionic matter sector. Specifically we address the question of whether metric fluctuations can induce chiral symmetry breaking and bound state formation. Our results based on the functional renormalization group indicate that chiral symmetry is left intact even at strong gravitational coupling. In particular, we found that asymptotically safe quantum gravity where the gravitational couplings approach a non-Gaußian fixed point generically admits universes with light fermions. Our results thus further support quantum gravity theories built on fluctuations of the metric field such as the asymptotic-safety scenario. A study of chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational quantum effects may also serve as a significant benchmark test for other quantum gravity scenarios, since a completely broken chiral symmetry at the Planck scale would not be in accordance with the observation of light fermions in our universe. We demonstrate that this elementary observation already imposes constraints on a generic UV completion of gravity. (paper)
Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity
Dvali, Gia
2010-01-01
We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...
Quintic quasi-topological gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cisterna, Adolfo [Vicerrectoría académica, Universidad Central de Chile,Toesca 1783 Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile,Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Guajardo, Luis; Hassaïne, Mokhtar [Instituto de Matemática y Física, Universidad de Talca,Casilla 747, Talca (Chile); Oliva, Julio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla, 160-C, Concepción (Chile)
2017-04-11
We construct a quintic quasi-topological gravity in five dimensions, i.e. a theory with a Lagrangian containing R{sup 5} terms and whose field equations are of second order on spherically (hyperbolic or planar) symmetric spacetimes. These theories have recently received attention since when formulated on asymptotically AdS spacetimes might provide for gravity duals of a broad class of CFTs. For simplicity we focus on five dimensions. We show that this theory fulfils a Birkhoff’s Theorem as it is the case in Lovelock gravity and therefore, for generic values of the couplings, there is no s-wave propagating mode. We prove that the spherically symmetric solution is determined by a quintic algebraic polynomial equation which resembles Wheeler’s polynomial of Lovelock gravity. For the black hole solutions we compute the temperature, mass and entropy and show that the first law of black holes thermodynamics is fulfilled. Besides of being of fourth order in general, we show that the field equations, when linearized around AdS are of second order, and therefore the theory does not propagate ghosts around this background. Besides the class of theories originally introduced in https://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4773, the general geometric structure of these Lagrangians remains an open problem.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2008-01-01
In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...
Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity
Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin
2017-12-01
The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.
Dumbser, Michael; Guercilena, Federico; Köppel, Sven; Rezzolla, Luciano; Zanotti, Olindo
2018-04-01
We present a strongly hyperbolic first-order formulation of the Einstein equations based on the conformal and covariant Z4 system (CCZ4) with constraint-violation damping, which we refer to as FO-CCZ4. As CCZ4, this formulation combines the advantages of a conformal and traceless formulation, with the suppression of constraint violations given by the damping terms, but being first order in time and space, it is particularly suited for a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) implementation. The strongly hyperbolic first-order formulation has been obtained by making careful use of first and second-order ordering constraints. A proof of strong hyperbolicity is given for a selected choice of standard gauges via an analytical computation of the entire eigenstructure of the FO-CCZ4 system. The resulting governing partial differential equations system is written in nonconservative form and requires the evolution of 58 unknowns. A key feature of our formulation is that the first-order CCZ4 system decouples into a set of pure ordinary differential equations and a reduced hyperbolic system of partial differential equations that contains only linearly degenerate fields. We implement FO-CCZ4 in a high-order path-conservative arbitrary-high-order-method-using-derivatives (ADER)-DG scheme with adaptive mesh refinement and local time-stepping, supplemented with a third-order ADER-WENO subcell finite-volume limiter in order to deal with singularities arising with black holes. We validate the correctness of the formulation through a series of standard tests in vacuum, performed in one, two and three spatial dimensions, and also present preliminary results on the evolution of binary black-hole systems. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first successful three-dimensional simulations of moving punctures carried out with high-order DG schemes using a first-order formulation of the Einstein equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froissart, Marcel
1976-01-01
Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triyanta; Zen, F. P.; Supardi; Wardaya, A. Y.
2010-01-01
Gauge theory, under the framework of quantum field theory, has successfully described three fundamental interactions: electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. Problems of describing the gravitational interaction in a similar manner has not been satisfied yet until now. Teleparallel gravity (TG) is one proposal describing gravitational field as a gauge field. This theory is quite new and it is equivalent to Einstein's general relativity. But as gravitational field in TG is expressed by torsion, rather than curvature, it gives an alternative framework for solving problems on gravity. This paper will present solution of the dynamical equation of abelian vector fields under the framework of TG in the Bianchi type I spacetime.
Minimal theory of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-01-01
We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than) −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.
Minimal theory of massive gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio De Felice
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.
Is quantum gravity unpredictable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1984-01-01
An investigation of Hawking's proposal that the inclusion of topologically non-trivial manifolds in the functional integral of quantum gravity leads to the loss of quantum coherence is carried out. We discuss some of the problems associated with Hawking's Dollar-matrix theory, including the breakdown of the connection between symmetry principles and conservation laws. It is proposed to use Kaluza-Klein theories to study this issue, since these theories contain well-defined euclidean instantons. These can be used to perform explicit semiclassical calculations of the effects of space-time foam. A general method is presented for constructing Kaluza-Klein instantons based on solutions of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. It is argued that none of these will lead to a breakdown of quantum mechanics. The physical effects of space-time foam are discussed in some detail using explicit instantons of a four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. (orig.)
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-02-22
We study the dynamics of gravitational lumps. By a lump, we mean a metric configuration that asymptotes to a flat space-time. Such lumps emerge in string theory as strong coupling descriptions of D-branes. We provide a physical argument that the broken global symmetries of such a background, generated by certain large diffeomorphisms, constrain the dynamics of localized modes. These modes include the translation zero modes and any localized tensor modes. The constraints we find are gravitational analogues of those found in brane physics. For the example of a Taub-NUT metric in eleven-dimensional supergravity, we argue that a critical value for the electric field arises from standard gravity without higher derivative interactions.
Gravity and domain wall problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.
1992-11-01
It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs
Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammedi, N.
1990-01-01
The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given
2D gravity and random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.
1990-01-01
Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods
Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity.
Meibohm, J; Pawlowski, J M
2016-01-01
We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad
2014-12-03
We study linearized equations of motion of the newly proposed three dimensional gravity, known as minimal massive gravity, using its metric formulation. We observe that the resultant linearized equations are exactly the same as that of TMG by making use of a redefinition of the parameters of the model. In particular the model admits logarithmic modes at the critical points. We also study several vacuum solutions of the model, specially at a certain limit where the contribution of Chern-Simons term vanishes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoutens, K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY
1991-11-01
We briefly review some results in the theory of quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge. We compare them with similar results in the analogous but simpler cases of d = 2 induced gauge theories and d = 2 induced gravity
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...
Cadiz, California Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, R.
1979-01-01
The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted
Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
Dualities and emergent gravity: Gauge/gravity duality
de Haro, Sebastian
2017-08-01
In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', from the physics literature, cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. I argue that the former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and that AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense of background-independence. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. It suggests some directions for possible generalisations of gauge/gravity dualities. The interpretation of dualities is discussed; and the so-called 'internal' vs. 'external' viewpoints are articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de
1990-01-01
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)
Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberati, S. [International School for Advanced Study (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-05-15
Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)
Quantum Gravity phenomenology: achievements and challenges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberati, S; Maccione, L
2011-01-01
Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E 2 /M 2 Pl ) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La, H.
1992-01-01
A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint
Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1990-01-01
We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.
Induced quantum conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.
1988-11-01
Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2003-01-01
Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"
MacKeown, P. K.
1984-01-01
Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)
Noether symmetry approach in f(G,T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamir, M.F.; Ahmad, Mushtaq [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Lahore Campus (Pakistan)
2017-01-15
We explore the recently introduced modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity (Sharif and Ikram in Eur Phys J C 76:640, 2016), f(G,T) pragmatic with G, the Gauss-Bonnet term, and T, the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Noether symmetry approach has been used to develop some cosmologically viable f(G,T) gravity models. The Noether equations of modified gravity are reported for flat FRW universe. Two specific models have been studied to determine the conserved quantities and exact solutions. In particular, the well known deSitter solution is reconstructed for some specific choice of f(G,T) gravity model. (orig.)
Review of lattice supersymmetry and gauge-gravity duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joseph, Anosh
2015-12-01
We review the status of recent investigations on validating the gauge-gravity duality conjecture through numerical simulations of strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric thermal gauge theories. In the simplest setting, the gauge-gravity duality connects systems of D0-branes and black hole geometries at finite temperature to maximally supersymmetric gauged quantum mechanics at the same temperature. Recent simulations show that non-perturbative gauge theory results give excellent agreement with the quantum gravity predictions, thus proving strong evidence for the validity of the duality conjecture and more insight into quantum black holes and gravity.
Anisotropic deformations of spatially open cosmology in massive gravity theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazuet, Charles; Volkov, Mikhail S. [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Mukohyama, Shinji, E-mail: charles.mazuet@lmpt.univ-tours.fr, E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, 606-8502, Kyoto (Japan)
2017-04-01
We combine analytical and numerical methods to study anisotropic deformations of the spatially open homogeneous and isotropic cosmology in the ghost free massive gravity theory with flat reference metric. We find that if the initial perturbations are not too strong then the physical metric relaxes back to the isotropic de Sitter state. However, the dumping of the anisotropies is achieved at the expense of exciting the Stueckelberg fields in such a way that the reference metric changes and does not share anymore with the physical metric the same rotational and translational symmetries. As a result, the universe evolves towards a fixed point which does not coincide with the original solution, but for which the physical metric is still de Sitter. If the initial perturbation is strong, then its evolution generically leads to a singular anisotropic state or, for some parameter values, to a decay into flat spacetime. We also present an infinite dimensional family of new homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in the theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deser, S.
1987-01-01
We obtain the Einstein action plus quadratic curvature corrections generated by closed bosonic, heterotic and supersymmetric strings by matching the four-graviton amplitude (to first order in the slope parameter and fourth power of momenta) with an effective local gravitational action. The resulting corrections are first shown to be of the Gauss-Bonnet form. It is then noted that, by the very nature of the slope expansion, the field-redefinition theorem applies. Consequently, only the curvature-squared term is determined, while squares of its contractions are explicitly seen not to contribute. This latter property has a generalization to all orders which implies that the effective gravitational action is unavoidably ghost-free. The properties of solutions to these corrected theories are then examined. First neglecting dilatons, we find the explicit 'Schwarzschild' metrics. Both asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions are present. The latter are however shown to be unstable. The former have horizons and singularities which are respectively smaller and less violent than in Einstein gravity; the correct sign of the slope parameter also ensures absence of naked singularities. When dilatons are included, the cosmological vacua are gratifyingly excluded. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pope, C.N.
1980-02-01
The material contained in this thesis is concerned with the functional integral approach to the quantum theory of gravity. It seems to be necessary to work with metrics of positive definite signature (Euclidean metrics) and then analytically continue the result back to the Lorentzian regime. The dominant contributions to the functional integral come from metrics which are stationary points of the action, i.e. classical solutions of the Euclideanized Einstein equations. These are known as Gravitational Instantons. Boundary conditions have to be placed upon the metrics included in the functional integral, and these are determined by the physical problem being considered. Three types of boundary condition have arisen in this context, corresponding to (i) zero temperature physics, and the calculation of particle scattering amplitudes, (ii) finite temperature effects, such as black hole radiance, and (iii) the study of the structure of the gravitational vacuum on Planck length scales. Instantons in the first category are asymptotically flat in all four directions, those in the second are asymptotically flat in three directions and periodic in the fourth, and those which arise in studying the gravitational vacuum are compact without boundaries. Much of the thesis is concerned with considering these various kinds of instanton, and particularly with the effects of their non-trivial topology. One way in which this can be investigated is by means of the various topological index theorems, and these are applied to a variety of situations. Self-dual metrics seem to have particular significance in quantum gravity, and they are discussed in detail. Finally, some recent work on the calculation of the propagation of particles in the gravitational vacuum is described. (author)
Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.
1973-01-01
A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.
Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1983-01-01
We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action
Generalized modified gravity in large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aslan, Onder; Demir, Durmus A.
2006-01-01
We discuss effective interactions among brane matter induced by modifications of higher-dimensional Einstein gravity through the replacement of Einstein-Hilbert term with a generic function f(R,R AB R AB ,R ABCD R ABCD ) of the curvature tensors. We determine gravi-particle spectrum of the theory, and perform a comparative analysis of its predictions with those of the Einstein gravity within Arkani-Hamed-Dvali-Dimopoulos (ADD) setup. We find that this general higher-curvature quantum gravity theory contributes to scatterings among both massive and massless brane matter (in contrast to much simpler generalization of the Einstein gravity, f(R), which influences only the massive matter), and therefore, can be probed via various scattering processes at present and future colliders and directly confronted with the ADD expectations. In addition to collision processes which proceed with tree-level gravi-particle exchange, effective interactions among brane matter are found to exhibit a strong sensitivity to higher-curvature gravity via the gravi-particle loops. Furthermore, particle collisions with missing energy in their final states are found to be sensitive to additional gravi-particles not found in Einstein gravity. In general, road to a correct description of quantum gravity above Fermi energies depends crucially on if collider and other search methods end up with a negative or positive answer for the presence of higher-curvature gravitational interactions
Results from a U.S. Absolute Gravity Survey,
1982-01-01
National Bureau of Standards. La . ... ,., 831A08 NOV -2- 1. Introduction We have recently completed an absolute gravity survey at twelve sites in the...Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) and the Istituto di Metrologia -7- "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC) [Marson and Alasia, 1978, 19801. All three...for ab- solute measurements of the earth’s gravity, Metrologia , in press, 1982. L 4 !" Table 1. Gravity values transferred to the floor in gal (cm
Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salam, A.
1977-01-01
Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation
The electrical network of maize root apex is gravity dependent.
Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Comparini, Diego; Monetti, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mugnai, Sergio; Baluška, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano
2015-01-15
Investigations carried out on maize roots under microgravity and hypergravity revealed that gravity conditions have strong effects on the network of plant electrical activity. Both the duration of action potentials (APs) and their propagation velocities were significantly affected by gravity. Similarly to what was reported for animals, increased gravity forces speed-up APs and enhance synchronized electrical events also in plants. The root apex transition zone emerges as the most active, as well as the most sensitive, root region in this respect.
Extrasolar planets as a probe of modified gravity
Vargas dos Santos, Marcelo; Mota, David F.
2017-01-01
We propose a new method to test modified gravity theories, taking advantage of the available data on extrasolar planets. We computed the deviations from the Kepler third law and use that to constrain gravity theories beyond General Relativity. We investigate gravity models which incorporate three screening mechanisms: the Chameleon, the Symmetron and the Vainshtein. We find that data from exoplanets orbits are very sensitive to the screening mechanisms putting strong constraints in the parame...
High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
B. Giddings, Steven; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian; Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz
2010-01-01
We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena...... and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra...... a physical scattering process, and ultraplanckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne'eman, Y.
1998-01-01
The relatively simple Fibre-Bundle geometry of a Yang-Mills gauge theory - mainly the clear distinction between base and fibre - made it possible, between 1953 and 1971, to construct a fully quantized version and prove that theory's renormalizability; moreover, nonperturbative (topological) solutions were subsequently found in both the fully symmetric and the spontaneously broken modes (instantons, monopoles). Though originally constructed as a model formalism, it became in 1974 the mathematical mold holding the entire Standard Model (i.e. QCD and the Electroweak theory). On the other hand, between 1974 and 1984, Einstein's theory was shown to be perturbatively nonrenormalizable. Since 1974, the search for Quantum Gravity has therefore provided the main motivation for the construction of Gauge Theories of Gravity. Earlier, however, in 1958-76 several such attempts were initiated, for aesthetic or heuristic reasons, to provide a better understanding of the algebraic structure of GR. A third motivation has come from the interest in Unification, making it necessary to bring GR into a form compatible with an enlargement of the Standard Model. Models can be classified according to the relevant structure group in the fibre. Within the Poincare group, this has been either the R 4 translations, or the Lorentz group SL(2, C) - or the entire Poincare SL(2, C) x R 4 . Enlarging the group has involved the use of the Conformal SU(2, 2), the special Affine SA(4, R) = SL(4, R) x R 4 or Affine A(4, R) groups. Supergroups have included supersymmetry, i.e. the graded-Poincare group (n =1...8 m its extensions) or the superconformal SU(2, 2/n). These supergravity theories have exploited the lessons of the aesthetic-heuristic models - Einstein-Cartan etc. - and also achieved the Unification target. Although perturbative renormalizability has been achieved in some models, whether they satisfy unitarity is not known. The nonperturbative Ashtekar program has exploited the understanding of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.D.
1988-01-01
This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant
Gravity interpretation via EULDPH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, V.
2003-01-01
Euler's homogeneity equation for determining the coordinates of the source body especially to estimate the depth (EULDPH) is discussed at this paper. This method is applied to synthetic and high-resolution real data such as gradiometric or microgravity data. Low-quality gravity data especially in the areas with a complex geology structure has rarely been used. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are computed from absolute gravity data after the required corrections. Bouguer anomaly is transferred to residual gravity anomaly. The gravity gradients are estimated from residual anomaly values. Bouguer anomaly is the gravity gradients, using EULDPH. The coordinates of the perturbing body will be determined. Two field examples one in the east of Tehran (Mard Abad) where we would like to determine the location of the anomaly (hydrocarbon) and another in the south-east of Iran close to the border with Afghanistan (Nosrat Abad) where we are exploring chromite are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, Ruth
2007-01-01
only for starting researchers in this area, but also any researcher interested in the details of computing more general brane propagators. However, the book must be used with some caution as a guide to Randall-Sundrum theory, as it has a rather unusual perspective on the subject, and does not set it in a broader context. For example, it is well known in brane cosmology that the most general bulk solution contains a black hole, which is not discussed, the book preferring to immediately focus on the case of a pure AdS bulk. There is also no real discussion of how Randall-Sundrum links into string theory or phenomenology. One other problem with the book is that it does not reference the literature appropriately, I woould have expected a more comprehensive and accurate set of references accompanying a book which appears to be aimed at starting researchers in a subject. The later stages of the book, in which the author deals in detail with the normalization of the graviton propagator, are rather involved and technical. A student would find this material rather heavy-going; however, the fine points of the discussion of Green's functions will be of use to those dealing with perturbations around more general branes. In summary, the book is a tightly focused discussion of gravity in maximally symmetric Randall-Sundrum braneworlds. It will be useful as a companion text to starting researchers in the area, and other researchers should also find the more technical discussions of some use. However, one should note that the perspective of the book is somewhat narrow. (book review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2006-01-01
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed
Improvements in GRACE Gravity Fields Using Regularization
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.
2008-12-01
The unconstrained global gravity field models derived from GRACE are susceptible to systematic errors that show up as broad "stripes" aligned in a North-South direction on the global maps of mass flux. These errors are believed to be a consequence of both systematic and random errors in the data that are amplified by the nature of the gravity field inverse problem. These errors impede scientific exploitation of the GRACE data products, and limit the realizable spatial resolution of the GRACE global gravity fields in certain regions. We use regularization techniques to reduce these "stripe" errors in the gravity field products. The regularization criteria are designed such that there is no attenuation of the signal and that the solutions fit the observations as well as an unconstrained solution. We have used a computationally inexpensive method, normally referred to as "L-ribbon", to find the regularization parameter. This paper discusses the characteristics and statistics of a 5-year time-series of regularized gravity field solutions. The solutions show markedly reduced stripes, are of uniformly good quality over time, and leave little or no systematic observation residuals, which is a frequent consequence of signal suppression from regularization. Up to degree 14, the signal in regularized solution shows correlation greater than 0.8 with the un-regularized CSR Release-04 solutions. Signals from large-amplitude and small-spatial extent events - such as the Great Sumatra Andaman Earthquake of 2004 - are visible in the global solutions without using special post-facto error reduction techniques employed previously in the literature. Hydrological signals as small as 5 cm water-layer equivalent in the small river basins, like Indus and Nile for example, are clearly evident, in contrast to noisy estimates from RL04. The residual variability over the oceans relative to a seasonal fit is small except at higher latitudes, and is evident without the need for de-striping or
Gravity and strong force: potentially linked by Quantum Wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goradia, Sh.G.
2004-01-01
If Newtonian gravitation is modified to use surface-to-surface separation between particles, can have the strength of nuclear force between nucleons. This may be justified by possible existence of quantum wormholes in particles. All gravitational interactions would be between coupled wormholes, emitting graviton flux in proportional to particle size, allowing for the point-like treatment above. When le wormholes are 1 Planck length apart, the resultant force is 10 40 times the normal gravitational strength for nucleons. Additionally, the invisible quantum wormholes may form binary effects imparting we properties to all particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity: third edition Quantum Gravity: third edition
Rovelli, Carlo
2012-09-01
The request by Classical and Quantum Gravity to review the third edition of Claus Kiefer's 'Quantum Gravity' puts me in a slightly awkward position. This is a remarkably good book, which every person working in quantum gravity should have on the shelf. But in my opinion quantum gravity has undergone some dramatic advances in the last few years, of which the book makes no mention. Perhaps the omission only attests to the current vitality of the field, where progress is happening fast, but it is strange for me to review a thoughtful, knowledgeable and comprehensive book on my own field of research, which ignores what I myself consider the most interesting results to date. Kiefer's book is unique as a broad introduction and a reliable overview of quantum gravity. There are numerous books in the field which (often notwithstanding titles) focus on a single approach. There are also countless conference proceedings and article collections aiming to be encyclopaedic, but offering disorganized patchworks. Kiefer's book is a careful and thoughtful presentation of all aspects of the immense problem of quantum gravity. Kiefer is very learned, and brings together three rare qualities: he is pedagogical, he is capable of simplifying matter to the bones and capturing the essential, and he offers a serious and balanced evaluation of views and ideas. In a fractured field based on a major problem that does not yet have a solution, these qualities are precious. I recommend Kiefer's book to my students entering the field: to work in quantum gravity one needs a vast amount of technical knowledge as well as a grasp of different ideas, and Kiefer's book offers this with remarkable clarity. This novel third edition simplifies and improves the presentation of several topics, but also adds very valuable new material on quantum gravity phenomenology, loop quantum cosmology, asymptotic safety, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, analogue gravity, the holographic principle, and more. This is a testament
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, Seyed Hossein [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, Shahram; Panah, Behzad Eslam [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-06-15
In this paper, we consider two first order corrections to both the gravity and the gauge sides of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity: Gauss-Bonnet gravity and quadratic Maxwell invariant as corrections. We obtain horizonless magnetic solutions by implying a metric representing a topological defect. We analyze the geometric properties of the solutions and investigate the effects of both corrections, and find that these solutions may be interpreted as magnetic branes. We study the singularity condition and find a nonsingular spacetime with a conical geometry. We also investigate the effects of different parameters on the deficit angle of spacetime near the origin. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Panahiyan, Shahram; Panah, Behzad Eslam
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider two first order corrections to both the gravity and the gauge sides of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity: Gauss-Bonnet gravity and quadratic Maxwell invariant as corrections. We obtain horizonless magnetic solutions by implying a metric representing a topological defect. We analyze the geometric properties of the solutions and investigate the effects of both corrections, and find that these solutions may be interpreted as magnetic branes. We study the singularity condition and find a nonsingular spacetime with a conical geometry. We also investigate the effects of different parameters on the deficit angle of spacetime near the origin. (orig.)
Gravity settling of precipitated magnetite and ferric floc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, N.S.; Loft, P.R.
1983-06-01
A comparison is presented of the gravity settling performance of ferric floc and magnetite, both in batch settling tests, and on a continuous gravity settler. The precipitation of magnetite from solution on a continuous basis was also demonstrated, and the process was shown not to be significantly affected by the presence of a wide range of chemical species. (U.K.)
Gravity model development for precise orbit computations for satellite altimetry
Marsh, James G.; Lerch, Francis, J.; Smith, David E.; Klosko, Steven M.; Pavlis, Erricos
1986-01-01
Two preliminary gravity models developed as a first step in reaching the TOPEX/Poseidon modeling goals are discussed. They were obtained by NASA-Goddard from an analysis of exclusively satellite tracking observations. With the new Preliminary Gravity Solution-T2 model, an improved global estimate of the field is achieved with an improved description of the geoid.
The regular cosmic string in Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: franco@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-09-22
It is shown that Born-Infeld gravity -a high energy deformation of Einstein gravity-removes the singularities of a cosmic string. The respective vacuum solution results to be free of conical singularity and closed timelike curves. The space ends at a minimal circle where the curvature invariants vanish; but this circle cannot be reached in a finite proper time.
Bouguer gravity anomalies for terrain modeling | Orupabo | Journal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Gravity anomalies have been applied in geodesy to determine the geoid, and the associated composition and crustal properties of the earth. Applications of solution of the gravity inversion problems include the study of crustal dynamics as a result of the extraction of fluids in the form of oil, gas and water from ...
Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy
2015-01-01
Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology
Two Curriculum-Relevant/Open Day Physics Experiments Concerning Gravity
Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Young, Clive; Matkin, Judy; Ponikwer, Fiona
2013-01-01
Gravity is an intangible abstract force when considered theoretically and yet we are affected by it constantly. The apparently "strong" nature of gravity, which in the layperson's mind causes him or her to stick to the Earth, is belied by the fact that it is the weakest of the fundamental forces. Demonstrations that allow pupils,…
Verification of f(R-gravity in binary pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dyadina Polina
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We develop the parameterized post-Keplerian approach for class of analytic f (R-gravity models. Using the double binary pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 data we obtain restrictions on the parameters of this class of f (R-models and show that f (R-gravity is not ruled out by the observations in strong field regime.
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
Cosmological dynamics of mimetic gravity
Dutta, Jibitesh; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tamanini, Nicola; Vagnozzi, Sunny
2018-02-01
We present a detailed investigation of the dynamical behavior of mimetic gravity with a general potential for the mimetic scalar field. Performing a phase-space and stability analysis, we show that the scenario at hand can successfully describe the thermal history of the universe, namely the successive sequence of radiation, matter, and dark-energy eras. Additionally, at late times the universe can either approach a de Sitter solution, or a scaling accelerated attractor where the dark-matter and dark-energy density parameters are of the same order, thus offering an alleviation of the cosmic coincidence problem. Applying our general analysis to various specific potential choices, including the power-law and the exponential ones, we show that mimetic gravity can be brought into good agreement with the observed behavior of the universe. Moreover, with an inverse square potential we find that mimetic gravity offers an appealing unified cosmological scenario where both dark energy and dark matter are characterized by a single scalar field, and where the cosmic coincidence problem is alleviated.
Solid holography and massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolàs, Oriol
2016-01-01
Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.
Solid holography and massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-02-17
Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.
Negative mass solitons in gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram
2006-01-01
We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z p spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn
2017-11-01
We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Concha
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
The covariant formulation of f ( T ) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krššák, Martin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
2016-01-01
We show that the well-known problem of frame dependence and violation of local Lorentz invariance in the usual formulation of f ( T ) gravity is a consequence of neglecting the role of spin connection. We re-formulate f ( T ) gravity starting from, instead of the ‘pure tetrad’ teleparallel gravity, the covariant teleparallel gravity, using both the tetrad and the spin connection as dynamical variables, resulting in a fully covariant, consistent, and frame-independent version of f ( T ) gravity, which does not suffer from the notorious problems of the usual, pure tetrad, f ( T ) theory. We present the method to extract solutions for the most physically important cases, such as the Minkowski, the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) and the spherically symmetric ones. We show that in covariant f ( T ) gravity we are allowed to use an arbitrary tetrad in an arbitrary coordinate system along with the corresponding spin connection, resulting always in the same physically relevant field equations. (paper)
Acoustic-gravity modons in the atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Stenflo
Full Text Available It is shown that the equations governing low-frequency acoustic-gravity waves in a stable stratified atmosphere can have localized dipole-vortex solutions (modons. They propagate in the horizontal direction with a speed that is larger than that of all possible linear internal waves.
Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity
Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.
2011-01-01
We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature
Combined analysis of magnetic and gravity anomalies using normalized source strength (NSS)
Li, L.; Wu, Y.
2017-12-01
Gravity field and magnetic field belong to potential fields which lead inherent multi-solution. Combined analysis of magnetic and gravity anomalies based on Poisson's relation is used to determinate homology gravity and magnetic anomalies and decrease the ambiguity. The traditional combined analysis uses the linear regression of the reduction to pole (RTP) magnetic anomaly to the first order vertical derivative of the gravity anomaly, and provides the quantitative or semi-quantitative interpretation by calculating the correlation coefficient, slope and intercept. In the calculation process, due to the effect of remanent magnetization, the RTP anomaly still contains the effect of oblique magnetization. In this case the homology gravity and magnetic anomalies display irrelevant results in the linear regression calculation. The normalized source strength (NSS) can be transformed from the magnetic tensor matrix, which is insensitive to the remanence. Here we present a new combined analysis using NSS. Based on the Poisson's relation, the gravity tensor matrix can be transformed into the pseudomagnetic tensor matrix of the direction of geomagnetic field magnetization under the homologous condition. The NSS of pseudomagnetic tensor matrix and original magnetic tensor matrix are calculated and linear regression analysis is carried out. The calculated correlation coefficient, slope and intercept indicate the homology level, Poisson's ratio and the distribution of remanent respectively. We test the approach using synthetic model under complex magnetization, the results show that it can still distinguish the same source under the condition of strong remanence, and establish the Poisson's ratio. Finally, this approach is applied in China. The results demonstrated that our approach is feasible.
Generalisation for regular black holes on general relativity to f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Para Campus Universitario de Abaetetuba, Faculdade de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Abaetetuba, Para (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, PPGF, Belem, Para (Brazil); Fabris, Julio C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Junior, Ednaldo L.B. [Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, PPGF, Belem, Para (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para, Campus Universitario de Tucurui, Faculdade de Engenharia da Computacao, Tucurui, Para (Brazil); Marques, Glauber T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia ICIBE - LASIC, Belem, PA (Brazil)
2016-05-15
IIn this paper, we determine regular black hole solutions using a very general f(R) theory, coupled to a nonlinear electromagnetic field given by a Lagrangian L{sub NED}. The functions f(R) and L{sub NED} are in principle left unspecified. Instead, the model is constructed through a choice of the mass function M(r) presented in the metric coefficients. Solutions which have a regular behaviour of the geometric invariants are found. These solutions have two horizons, the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon. All energy conditions are satisfied in the whole space-time, except the strong energy condition (SEC), which is violated near the Cauchy horizon.We present also a new theorem related to the energy conditions in f(R) gravity, re-obtaining the well-known conditions in the context of general relativity when the geometry of the solution is the same. (orig.)
f(T) teleparallel gravity and cosmology.
Cai, Yi-Fu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
2016-10-01
Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications. In particular, we study cosmological solutions arising from f (T) gravity, both at the background and perturbation levels, in different eras along the cosmic expansion. The f (T) gravity construction can provide a theoretical interpretation of the late-time universe acceleration, alternative to a cosmological constant, and it can easily accommodate with the regular thermal expanding history including the radiation and cold dark matter dominated phases. Furthermore, if one traces back to very early times, for a certain class of f (T) models, a sufficiently long period of inflation can be achieved and hence can be investigated by cosmic microwave background observations-or, alternatively, the Big Bang singularity can be avoided at even earlier moments due to the appearance of non-singular bounces. Various observational constraints, especially the bounds coming from the large-scale structure data in the case of f (T) cosmology, as well as the behavior of gravitational waves, are described in detail. Moreover, the spherically symmetric and black hole solutions of the theory are reviewed. Additionally, we discuss various extensions of the f (T) paradigm. Finally, we consider the relation with other modified gravitational theories, such as those based on curvature, like f (R) gravity, trying to illuminate the subject of which formulation, or combination of formulations, might be more suitable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iver Brevik
2012-11-01
Full Text Available A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shownthat, based on a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found forquantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions mayincorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition inthe cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided.
Unitarity bounds on low scale quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkins, Michael; Calmet, Xavier
2010-01-01
We study the unitarity of models with low scale quantum gravity both in four dimensions and in models with a large extra-dimensional volume. We find that models with low scale quantum gravity have problems with unitarity below the scale at which gravity becomes strong. An important consequence of our work is that their first signal at the Large Hadron Collider would not be of a gravitational nature such as graviton emission or small black holes, but rather would be linked to the mechanism which fixes the unitarity problem. We also study models with scalar fields with non-minimal couplings to the Ricci scalar. We consider the strength of gravity in these models and study the consequences for inflation models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We show that a single scalar field with a large non-minimal coupling can lower the Planck mass in the TeV region. In that model, it is possible to lower the scale at which gravity becomes strong down to 14 TeV without violating unitarity below that scale. (orig.)
Universe before Planck time: A quantum gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1983-01-01
A model for quantum gravity can be constructed by treating the conformal degree of freedom of spacetime as a quantum variable. An isotropic, homogeneous cosmological solution in this quantum gravity model is presented. The spacetime is nonsingular for all the three possible values of three-space curvature, and agrees with the classical solution for time scales larger than the Planck time scale. A possibility of quantum fluctuations creating the matter in the universe is suggested
Scale-Invariant Rotating Black Holes in Quadratic Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guido Cognola
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Black hole solutions in pure quadratic theories of gravity are interesting since they allow the formulation of a set of scale-invariant thermodynamics laws. Recently, we have proven that static scale-invariant black holes have a well-defined entropy, which characterizes equivalent classes of solutions. In this paper, we generalize these results and explore the thermodynamics of rotating black holes in pure quadratic gravity.
Action growth for black holes in modified gravity
Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio
2018-02-01
The general form of the action growth for a large class of static black hole solutions in modified gravity which includes F (R ) -gravity models is computed. The cases of black hole solutions with nonconstant Ricci scalar are also considered, generalizing the results previously found and valid only for black holes with constant Ricci scalar. An argument is put forward to provide a physical interpretation of the results, which seem tightly connected with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics.
Testing modified gravity with globular clusters: the case of NGC 2419
Llinares, Claudio
2018-05-01
The dynamics of globular clusters has been studied in great detail in the context of general relativity as well as with modifications of gravity that strongly depart from the standard paradigm such as Modified Newtonian Dynamics. However, at present there are no studies that aim to test the impact that less extreme modifications of gravity (e.g. models constructed as alternatives to dark energy) have on the behaviour of globular clusters. This Letter presents fits to the velocity dispersion profile of the cluster NGC 2419 under the symmetron-modified gravity model. The data show an increase in the velocity dispersion towards the centre of the cluster which could be difficult to explain within general relativity. By finding the best-fitting solution associated with the symmetron model, we show that this tension does not exist in modified gravity. However, the best-fitting parameters give a model that is inconsistent with the dynamics of the Solar system. Exploration of different screening mechanisms should give us the chance to understand if it is possible to maintain the appealing properties of the symmetron model when it comes to globular clusters and at the same time recover the Solar system dynamics properly.
Holographic Fermi and Non-Fermi Liquids with Transitions in Dilaton Gravity
Iizuka, Norihiro; Narayan, Prithvi; Trivedi, Sandip P
2012-01-01
We study the two-point function for fermionic operators in a class of strongly coupled systems using the gauge-gravity correspondence. The gravity description includes a gauge field and a dilaton which determines the gauge coupling and the potential energy. Extremal black brane solutions in this system typically have vanishing entropy. By analyzing a charged fermion in these extremal black brane backgrounds we calculate the two-point function of the corresponding boundary fermionic operator. We find that in some region of parameter space it is of Fermi liquid type. Outside this region no well-defined quasi-particles exist, with the excitations acquiring a non-vanishing width at zero frequency. At the transition, the two-point function can exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviour.
A nonlinear scenario for development of vortex layer instability in gravity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, V. P.
2007-01-01
A Hamiltonian version of contour dynamics is formulated for models of constant-vorticity plane flows with interfaces. The proposed approach is used as a framework for a nonlinear scenario for instability development. Localized vortex blobs are analyzed as structural elements of a strongly perturbed wall layer of a vorticity-carrying fluid with free boundary in gravity field. Gravity and vorticity effects on the geometry and velocity of vortex structures are examined. It is shown that compactly supported nonlinear solutions (compactons) are candidates for the role of particle-like vortex structures in models of flow breakdown. An analysis of the instability mechanism demonstrates the possibility of a self-similar collapse. It is found that the vortex shape stabilizes at the final stage of the collapse, while the vortex sheet strength on its boundary increases as (t 0 - t) -1 , where t 0 is the collapse time
Cosmology of Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, Sayan K.; Sen, Anjan A.
2011-08-01
We discuss the cosmology of recently proposed Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity. In particular, we derive the modified Hubble equation that reduces to the standard HL gravity case in appropriate limit. We show how the bounce solutions in this theory are modified due to nonlinear effect of f(R) gravity. In addition we find that the solutions exist when the Universe can make turn around for large scale-factor. Therefore, in principle, the Universe in this set-up can show cyclic behavior. (orig.)
Cosmology of Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakrabarti, Sayan K. [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sen, Anjan A. [Centre of Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Dehli (India)
2011-08-15
We discuss the cosmology of recently proposed Horava-Lifshitz f(R) gravity. In particular, we derive the modified Hubble equation that reduces to the standard HL gravity case in appropriate limit. We show how the bounce solutions in this theory are modified due to nonlinear effect of f(R) gravity. In addition we find that the solutions exist when the Universe can make turn around for large scale-factor. Therefore, in principle, the Universe in this set-up can show cyclic behavior. (orig.)
Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adami, H.; Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-15
In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory. (orig.)
Classical and quantum integrability of 2D dilaton gravities in Euclidean space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergamin, L; Grumiller, D; Kummer, W; Vassilevich, D V
2005-01-01
Euclidean dilaton gravity in two dimensions is studied exploiting its representation as a complexified first order gravity model. All local classical solutions are obtained. A global discussion reveals that for a given model only a restricted class of topologies is consistent with the metric and the dilaton. A particular case of string motivated Liouville gravity is studied in detail. Path integral quantization in generic Euclidean dilaton gravity is performed non-perturbatively by analogy to the Minkowskian case
Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity
Adami, H.; Setare, M. R.
2016-04-01
In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montani, Giovanni; Ruffini, Remo; Zalaletdinov, Roustam
2003-01-01
A model for the static weak-field macroscopic medium is analysed and the equation for the macroscopic gravitational potential is derived. This is a biharmonic equation which is a non-trivial generalization of the Poisson equation of Newtonian gravity. In the case of strong gravitational quadrupole polarization, it essentially holds inside a macroscopic matter source. Outside the source the gravitational potential fades away exponentially. The equation is equivalent to a system of the Poisson equation and the non-homogeneous modified Helmholtz equations. The general solution to this system is obtained by using the Green function method and it is not limited to Newtonian gravity. In the case of insignificant gravitational quadrupole polarization, the equation for macroscopic gravitational potential becomes the Poisson equation with the matter density renormalized by a factor including the value of the quadrupole gravitational polarization of the source. The general solution to this equation obtained by using the Green function method is limited to Newtonian gravity
Noether's stars in f (R) gravity
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2018-05-01
The Noether Symmetry Approach can be used to construct spherically symmetric solutions in f (R) gravity. Specifically, the Noether conserved quantity is related to the gravitational mass and a gravitational radius that reduces to the Schwarzschild radius in the limit f (R) → R. We show that it is possible to construct the M- R relation for neutron stars depending on the Noether conserved quantity and the associated gravitational radius. This approach enables the recovery of extreme massive stars that could not be stable in the standard Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff based on General Relativity. Examples are given for some power law f (R) gravity models.
Bejarano, Cecilia; Ferraro, Rafael; Guzmán, María José
2014-01-01
Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of theories of gravity. Fil: Bejarano, Cecilia Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciónes Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio. - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de Astronomía y Fí...
Europe's Preparation For GOCE Gravity Field Recovery
Suenkel, H.; Suenkel, H.
2001-12-01
The European Space Agency ESA is preparing for its first dedicated gravity field mission GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) with a proposed launch in fall 2005. The mission's goal is the mapping of the Earth's static gravity field with very high resolution and utmost accuracy on a global scale. GOCE is a drag-free mission, flown in a circular and sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude between 240 and 250 km. Each of the two operational phases will last for 6 months. GOCE is based on a sensor fusion concept combining high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG). The transformation of the GOCE sensor data into a scientific product of utmost quality and reliability requires a well-coordinated effort of experts in satellite geodesy, applied mathematics and computer science. Several research groups in Europe do have this expertise and decided to form the "European GOCE Gravity Consortium (EGG-C)". The EGG-C activities are subdivided into tasks such as standard and product definition, data base and data dissemination, precise orbit determination, global gravity field model solutions and regional solutions, solution validation, communication and documentation, and the interfacing to level 3 product scientific users. The central issue of GOCE data processing is, of course, the determination of the global gravity field model using three independent mathematical-numerical techniques which had been designed and pre-developed in the course of several scientific preparatory studies of ESA: 1. The direct solution which is a least squares adjustment technique based on a pre-conditioned conjugated gradient method (PCGM). The method is capable of efficiently transforming the calibrated and validated SST and SGG observations directly or via lumped coefficients into harmonic coefficients of the gravitational potential. 2. The time-wise approach considers both SST and SGG data as a time series. For an idealized
a Perturbation Approach to Translational Gravity
Julve, J.; Tiemblo, A.
2013-05-01
Within a gauge formulation of 3+1 gravity relying on a nonlinear realization of the group of isometries of space-time, a natural expansion of the metric tensor arises and a simple choice of the gravity dynamical variables is possible. We show that the expansion parameter can be identified with the gravitational constant and that the first-order depends only on a diagonal matrix in the ensuing perturbation approach. The explicit first-order solution is calculated in the static isotropic case, and its general structure is worked out in the harmonic gauge.
Ehrenfest's principle in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.
1991-01-01
The Ehrenfest principle d t = is proposed as (part of) a definition of the time variable in canonical quantum gravity. This principle selects a time direction in superspace, and provides a conserved, positive definite probability measure. An exact solution of the Ehrenfest condition is obtained, which leads to constant-time surfaces in superspace generated by the operator d/dτ=ΛθxΛ, where Λ is the gradient operator in superspace, and θ is the phase of the Wheeler-DeWitt wavefunction Φ; the constant-time surfaces are determined by this solution up to a choice of initial t=0 surface. This result holds throughout superspace, including classically forbidden regions and in the neighborhood of caustics; it also leads to ordinary quantum field theory and classical gravity in regions of superspace where the phase satisfies vertical stroked t θvertical stroke>>vertical stroked t ln(Φ * Φ)vertical stroke and (d t θ) 2 >>vertical stroked t 2 θvertical stroke. (orig.)
Gravity Probe B orbit determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shestople, P; Ndili, A; Parkinson, B W; Small, H; Hanuschak, G
2015-01-01
The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s −1 . Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.
1985-01-01
We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ambjørn
1995-07-01
Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.
Loop quantum gravity: an outside view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolai, Hermann; Peeters, Kasper; Zamaklar, Marija
2005-01-01
We review aspects of loop quantum gravity in a pedagogical manner, with the aim of enabling a precise but critical assessment of its achievements so far. We emphasize that the off-shell ('strong') closure of the constraint algebra is a crucial test of quantum spacetime covariance, and thereby of the consistency, of the theory. Special attention is paid to the appearance of a large number of ambiguities, in particular in the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint. Developing suitable approximation methods to establish a connection with classical gravity on the one hand, and with the physics of elementary particles on the other, remains a major challenge. (topical review)
Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Bei Lok
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein-Langevin equation, which has in addition sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bi-tensor which describes the fluctuations of quantum matter fields in curved spacetimes. In the first part, we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to their correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman-Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods which are convenient for computations. It also brings out the open systems concepts and the statistical and stochastic contents of the theory such as dissipation, fluctuations, noise, and decoherence. We then focus on the properties of the stress-energy bi-tensor. We obtain a general expression for the noise kernel of a quantum field defined at two distinct points in an arbitrary curved spacetime as products of covariant derivatives of the quantum field's Green function. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity theory. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime. We offer an analytical solution of the Einstein-Langevin equation and compute the two-point correlation functions for the linearized Einstein tensor and for the metric perturbations. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, we discuss the backreaction
Charged black holes in quadratic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matyjasek, Jerzy; Tryniecki, Dariusz
2004-01-01
Iterative solutions to fourth-order gravity describing static and electrically charged black holes are constructed. The obtained solutions are parametrized by two integration constants which are related to the electric charge and the exact location of the event horizon. Special emphasis is put on the extremal black holes. It is explicitly demonstrated that in the extremal limit the exact location of the (degenerate) event horizon is given by r + =|e|. Similarly to the classical Reissner-Nordstroem solution, the near-horizon geometry of the charged black holes in quadratic gravity, when expanded into the whole manifold, is simply that of Bertotti and Robinson. Similar considerations have been carried out for boundary conditions of the second type which employ the electric charge and the mass of the system as seen by a distant observer. The relations between results obtained within the framework of each method are briefly discussed
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...
Carroll versus Galilei gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-03-30
We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Ruth M
2006-01-01
A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday
Altered orientation and flight paths of pigeons reared on gravity anomalies: a GPS tracking study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole Blaser
Full Text Available The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.
Gravity model improvement using GEOS-3 (GEM 9 and 10)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.; Wagner, C. A.
1977-01-01
The use of collocation permitted GEM 9 to be a larger field than previous derived satellite models, GEM 9 having harmonics complete to 20 x 20 with selected higher degree terms. The satellite data set has approximately 840,000 observations, of which 200,000 are laser ranges taken on 9 satellites equipped with retroreflectors. GEM 10 is complete to 22 x 22 with selected higher degree terms out to degree and order 30 amounting to a total of 592 coefficients. Comparisons with surface gravity and altimeter data indicate a substantial improvement in GEM 9 over previous satellite solutions; GEM 9 is in even closer agreement with surface data than the previously published GEM 6 solution which contained surface gravity. In particular the free air gravity anomalies calculated from GEM 9 and a surface gravity solution are in excellent agreement for the high degree terms.
Garland, G D; Wilson, J T
2013-01-01
The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp
Non Newtonian gravity creeping flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratton, J.; Mahajan, S.M.; Minotti, F.
1988-11-01
We derive the governing equations for creeping gravity currents of non Newtonian liquids having a power law rheology, using a lubrication approximation. We consider unidirectional and axisymmetric currents. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. However, many solutions are closely analogous to those for Newtonian rheology; in particular the spreading relations can also be expressed as power laws of time, with exponents that depend on the rheological index. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as the ones describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General travelling wave solutions are given, and analytic formulae for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism, that allows the systematic derivation of self similar solutions, is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. Present results are closely analogous to those for Newtonian liquids; all the solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows. This happens because the power law rheology, like the Newtonian constitutive relation, involves a single dimensional parameter. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self similar. Although the spreading relations are rheology-dependent, in most cases the dependence is rather weak. The present results may be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power law rheology. (author). 17 refs
Virtual Gravity and the Duality of Reality
Harokopos, E
2003-01-01
It is shown that a hypothesis about gravity having a virtual cause implies there are two primary reference frames, a reality and a functional virtual reality and an equivalence principle relating the two is postulated. A mathematical expression relating the primary reference frames to the state of reality provides an explanation of particle-wave duality and resolves the controversy about the speed of gravity. A model for motion, time and particle formation is briefly discussed, in which the hypothesis about the virtual cause of gravity and supporting postulates are valid. It is further shown that such model provides solutions to unsolved paradoxes and a unification of consistent but contradictory ancient theories of matter and motion. Finally, a reference is made about the basis for devising experiments and testing the predictions of the model.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity beyond spherical symmetry
Moschella, U.; Novello, M.
2017-04-01
We construct several exact solutions for a recently proposed geometric scalar theory of gravity. We focus on a class of axisymmetric geometries and a big-bang-like geometry and discuss their Lorentzian character. The axisymmetric solutions are parametrized by an integer angular momentum l . The l =0 (spherical) case gives rise to the Schwarzschild geometry. The other solutions have naked singular surfaces. While not a priori obvious, all the solutions that we present here are globally Lorentzian. The Lorentzian signature appears to be a robust property of the disformal geometries solving the vacuum geometric scalar theory of gravity equations.
A black hole with torsion in 5D Lovelock gravity
Cvetković, B.; Simić, D.
2018-03-01
We analyze static spherically symmetric solutions of five dimensional (5D) Lovelock gravity in the first order formulation. In the Riemannian sector, when torsion vanishes, the Boulware–Deser black hole represents a unique static spherically symmetric black hole solution for the generic choice of the Lagrangian parameters. We show that a special choice of the Lagrangian parameters, different from the Lovelock Chern–Simons gravity, leads to the existence of a static black hole solution with torsion, the metric of which is asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS). We calculate the conserved charges and thermodynamical quantities of this black hole solution.
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Nelson, George
2004-01-01
Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…
General relativity and gauge gravity theories of higher order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopleva, N.P.
1998-01-01
It is a short review of today's gauge gravity theories and their relations with Einstein General Relativity. The conceptions of construction of the gauge gravity theories with higher derivatives are analyzed. GR is regarded as the gauge gravity theory corresponding to the choice of G ∞4 as the local gauge symmetry group and the symmetrical tensor of rank two g μν as the field variable. Using the mathematical technique, single for all fundamental interactions (namely variational formalism for infinite Lie groups), we can obtain Einstein's theory as the gauge theory without any changes. All other gauge approaches lead to non-Einstein theories of gravity. But above-mentioned mathematical technique permits us to construct the gauge gravity theory of higher order (for instance SO (3,1)-gravity) so that all vacuum solutions of Einstein equations are the solutions of the SO (3,1)-gravity theory. The structure of equations of SO(3,1)-gravity becomes analogous to Weeler-Misner geometrodynamics one
Automated borehole gravity meter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.
1984-01-01
An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2011-01-01
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.
TeV gravity in four dimensions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D.H.
2008-01-01
We describe a model in which the fundamental scale M * of the theory which unifies gravity and quantum mechanics is in the TeV range, but without requiring additional spacetime dimensions. The weakness of gravity at low energies is due to a large vacuum expectation of a dilaton like field. The model requires a small dimensionless parameter (the self-coupling of the dilaton) but no fine-tuning. We discuss in detail the dynamical assumptions about non-perturbative quantum gravity required within the model. We observe that M * could be quite small, less than a TeV, and that the model could lead to copious strong coupling effects at the LHC. However, semiclassical black holes will not be produced
Venus: radar determination of gravity potential.
Shapiro, I I; Pettengill, G H; Sherman, G N; Rogers, A E; Ingalls, R P
1973-02-02
We describe a method for the determination of the gravity potential of Venus from multiple-frequency radar measurements. The method is based on the strong frequency dependence of the absorption of radio waves in Venus' atmosphere. Comparison of the differing radar reflection intensities at several frequencies yields the height of the surface relative to a reference pressure contour; combination with measurements of round-trip echo delays allows the pressure, and hence the gravity potential contour, to be mapped relative to the mean planet radius. Since calibration data from other frequencies are unavailable, the absorption-sensitive Haystack Observatory data have been analyzed under the assumption of uniform surface reflectivity to yield a gravity equipotential contour for the equatorial region and a tentative upper bound of 6 x 10(-4) on the fractional difference of Venus' principal equatorial moments of inertia. The minima in the equipotential contours appear to be associated with topographic minima.
Quasi-topological Ricci polynomial gravities
Li, Yue-Zhou; Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.
2018-02-01
Quasi-topological terms in gravity can be viewed as those that give no contribution to the equations of motion for a special subclass of metric ansätze. They therefore play no rôle in constructing these solutions, but can affect the general perturbations. We consider Einstein gravity extended with Ricci tensor polynomial invariants, which admits Einstein metrics with appropriate effective cosmological constants as its vacuum solutions. We construct three types of quasi-topological gravities. The first type is for the most general static metrics with spherical, toroidal or hyperbolic isometries. The second type is for the special static metrics where g tt g rr is constant. The third type is the linearized quasitopological gravities on the Einstein metrics. We construct and classify results that are either dependent on or independent of dimensions, up to the tenth order. We then consider a subset of these three types and obtain Lovelock-like quasi-topological gravities, that are independent of the dimensions. The linearized gravities on Einstein metrics on all dimensions are simply Einstein and hence ghost free. The theories become quasi-topological on static metrics in one specific dimension, but non-trivial in others. We also focus on the quasi-topological Ricci cubic invariant in four dimensions as a specific example to study its effect on holography, including shear viscosity, thermoelectric DC conductivities and butterfly velocity. In particular, we find that the holographic diffusivity bounds can be violated by the quasi-topological terms, which can induce an extra massive mode that yields a butterfly velocity unbound above.
Emergent universe with wormholes in massive gravity
Paul, B. C.; Majumdar, A. S.
2018-03-01
An emergent universe (EU) scenario is proposed to obtain a universe free from big-bang singularity. In this framework the present universe emerged from a static Einstein universe phase in the infinite past. A flat EU scenario is found to exist in Einstein’s gravity with a non-linear equation of state (EoS). It has been shown subsequently that a physically realistic EU model can be obtained considering cosmic fluid composed of interacting fluids with a non-linear equation of state. It results a viable cosmological model accommodating both early inflation and present accelerating phases. In the present paper, the origin of an initial static Einstein universe needed in the EU model is explored in a massive gravity theory which subsequently emerged to be a dynamically evolving universe. A new gravitational instanton solution in a flat universe is obtained in the massive gravity theory which is a dynamical wormhole that might play an important role in realizing the origin of the initial state of the emergent universe. The emergence of a Lorentzian universe from a Euclidean gravity is understood by a Wick rotation τ = i t . A universe with radiation at the beginning finally transits into the present observed universe with a non-linear EoS as the interactions among the fluids set in. Thus a viable flat EU scenario where the universe stretches back into time infinitely, with no big bang is permitted in a massive gravity.
Discussion of entanglement entropy in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Chen-Te
2018-01-01
We study entanglement entropy in gravity theory with quantum effects. A simplest model is a two dimensional Einstein gravity theory. We use an n-sheet manifold to obtain an area term of entanglement entropy by summing over all background fields. Based on AdS/CFT correspondence, strongly coupled conformal field theory is expected to describe perturbative quantum gravity theory. An ultraviolet complete quantum gravity theory should not depend on a choice of an entangling surface. To analysis the problem explicitly, we analyze two dimensional conformal field theory. We find that a coefficient of a universal term of entanglement entropy is independent of a choice of an entangling surface in two dimensional conformal field theory for one interval to show a tentative evidence. Finally, we discuss that translational invariance in a quantum system at zero temperature, size goes to infinity and no mass scales, except for cut-off, possibly be a necessary condition in quantum gravity theory by ruing out a volume law of entanglement entropy. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.
Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent
2017-01-01
Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)
Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-06-15
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)
Lifshitz black branes and DC transport coefficients in massive Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity
Kuang, Xiao-Mei; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios; Wu, Jian-Pin; Zhou, Zhenhua
2018-03-01
We construct analytical Lifshitz massive black brane solutions in massive Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory. We also study the thermodynamics of these black brane solutions and obtain the thermodynamical stability conditions. On the dual nonrelativistic boundary field theory with Lifshitz symmetry, we analytically compute the DC transport coefficients, including the electric conductivity, thermoelectric conductivity, and thermal conductivity. The novel property of our model is that the massive term supports the Lifshitz black brane solutions with z ≠1 in such a way that the DC transport coefficients in the dual field theory are finite. We also find that the Wiedemann-Franz law in this dual boundary field theory is violated, which indicates that it may involve strong interactions.
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishii Takaaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.
Can chaos be observed in quantum gravity?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittrich, Bianca; Höhn, Philipp A.; Koslowski, Tim A.; Nelson, Mike I.
2017-01-01
Full general relativity is almost certainly ‘chaotic’. We argue that this entails a notion of non-integrability: a generic general relativistic model, at least when coupled to cosmologically interesting matter, likely possesses neither differentiable Dirac observables nor a reduced phase space. It follows that the standard notion of observable has to be extended to include non-differentiable or even discontinuous generalized observables. These cannot carry Poisson-algebraic structures and do not admit a standard quantization; one thus faces a quantum representation problem of gravitational observables. This has deep consequences for a quantum theory of gravity, which we investigate in a simple model for a system with Hamiltonian constraint that fails to be completely integrable. We show that basing the quantization on standard topology precludes a semiclassical limit and can even prohibit any solutions to the quantum constraints. Our proposed solution to this problem is to refine topology such that a complete set of Dirac observables becomes continuous. In the toy model, it turns out that a refinement to a polymer-type topology, as e.g. used in loop gravity, is sufficient. Basing quantization of the toy model on this finer topology, we find a complete set of quantum Dirac observables and a suitable semiclassical limit. This strategy is applicable to realistic candidate theories of quantum gravity and thereby suggests a solution to a long-standing problem which implies ramifications for the very concept of quantization. Our work reveals a qualitatively novel facet of chaos in physics and opens up a new avenue of research on chaos in gravity which hints at deep insights into the structure of quantum gravity.
Can chaos be observed in quantum gravity?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dittrich, Bianca, E-mail: bdittrich@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Höhn, Philipp A., E-mail: p.hoehn@univie.ac.at [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Koslowski, Tim A., E-mail: koslowski@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Nelson, Mike I., E-mail: mike@aims.edu.gh [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, P.O Box LG 197, Legon, Accra (Ghana)
2017-06-10
Full general relativity is almost certainly ‘chaotic’. We argue that this entails a notion of non-integrability: a generic general relativistic model, at least when coupled to cosmologically interesting matter, likely possesses neither differentiable Dirac observables nor a reduced phase space. It follows that the standard notion of observable has to be extended to include non-differentiable or even discontinuous generalized observables. These cannot carry Poisson-algebraic structures and do not admit a standard quantization; one thus faces a quantum representation problem of gravitational observables. This has deep consequences for a quantum theory of gravity, which we investigate in a simple model for a system with Hamiltonian constraint that fails to be completely integrable. We show that basing the quantization on standard topology precludes a semiclassical limit and can even prohibit any solutions to the quantum constraints. Our proposed solution to this problem is to refine topology such that a complete set of Dirac observables becomes continuous. In the toy model, it turns out that a refinement to a polymer-type topology, as e.g. used in loop gravity, is sufficient. Basing quantization of the toy model on this finer topology, we find a complete set of quantum Dirac observables and a suitable semiclassical limit. This strategy is applicable to realistic candidate theories of quantum gravity and thereby suggests a solution to a long-standing problem which implies ramifications for the very concept of quantization. Our work reveals a qualitatively novel facet of chaos in physics and opens up a new avenue of research on chaos in gravity which hints at deep insights into the structure of quantum gravity.
Unitarity problems in 3D gravity theories
Alkac, Gokhan; Basanisi, Luca; Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram
2017-07-01
We revisit the problem of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity theories, which has been an obstacle in providing a viable dual two-dimensional conformal field theory for bulk gravity in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Chiral gravity, which is a particular limit of cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG), suffers from perturbative log-modes with negative energies inducing a nonunitary logarithmic boundary field theory. We show here that any f (R ) extension of TMG does not improve the situation. We also study the perturbative modes in the metric formulation of minimal massive gravity—originally constructed in a first-order formulation—and find that the massive mode has again negative energy except in the chiral limit. We comment on this issue and also discuss a possible solution to the problem of negative-energy modes. In any of these theories, the infinitesimal dangerous deformations might not be integrable to full solutions; this suggests a linearization instability of AdS spacetime in the direction of the perturbative log-modes.
Galileon as a local modification of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Trincherini, Enrico
2009-01-01
In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model, the 'self-accelerating' solution is plagued by a ghost instability, which makes the solution untenable. This fact, as well as all interesting departures from general relativity (GR), are fully captured by a four-dimensional effective Lagrangian, valid at distances smaller than the present Hubble scale. The 4D effective theory involves a relativistic scalar π, universally coupled to matter and with peculiar derivative self-interactions. In this paper, we study the connection between self-acceleration and the presence of ghosts for a quite generic class of theories that modify gravity in the infrared. These theories are defined as those that at distances shorter than cosmological, reduce to a certain generalization of the DGP 4D effective theory. We argue that for infrared modifications of GR locally due to a universally coupled scalar, our generalization is the only one that allows for a robust implementation of the Vainshtein effect--the decoupling of the scalar from matter in gravitationally bound systems--necessary to recover agreement with solar-system tests. Our generalization involves an internal Galilean invariance, under which π's gradient shifts by a constant. This symmetry constrains the structure of the π Lagrangian so much so that in 4D there exist only five terms that can yield sizable nonlinearities without introducing ghosts. We show that for such theories in fact there are ''self-accelerating'' de Sitter solutions with no ghostlike instabilities. In the presence of compact sources, these solutions can support spherically symmetric, Vainshtein-like nonlinear perturbations that are also stable against small fluctuations. We investigate a possible infrared completion of these theories at scales of order of the Hubble horizon, and larger. There are however some features of our theories that may constitute a problem at the theoretical or phenomenological level: the presence of superluminal excitations; the
Generalized string theory mapping relations between gravity and gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.
2003-01-01
A previous study of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theories, imposed by the relationship of closed and open strings, are here extended in the light of general relativity and Yang-Mills theory as effective field theories. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the traditional KLT mapping in this effective setting. A generalized mapping between the effective Lagrangians of gravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented, and the corresponding operator relations between gauge and gravity theories at the tree level are further explored. From this generalized mapping remarkable diagrammatic relations are found, linking diagrams in gravity and Yang-Mills theory, as well as diagrams in pure effective Yang-Mills theory. Also the possibility of a gravitational coupling to an antisymmetric field in the gravity scattering amplitude is considered, and shown to allow for mixed open-closed string solutions, i.e., closed heterotic strings
Towards a unified gauge theory of gravitational and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hehl, F.W.; Sijacki, D.
1980-01-01
The space-time properties of leptons and hadrons is studied and it is found necessary to extend general relativity to the gauge theory based on the four-dimensional affine group. This group translates and deforms the tetrads of the locally Minkowskian space-time. Its conserved currents, momentum, and hypermomentum, act as sources in the two field equations of gravity. A Lagrangian quadratic in torsion and curvature allows for the propagation of two independent gauge fields: translational e-gravity mediated by the tetrad coefficients, and deformational GAMMA-gravity mediated by the connection coefficients. For macroscopic matter e-gravity coincides with general relativity up to the post-Newtonian approximation of fourth order. For microscopic matter GAMMA-gravity represents a strong Yang-Mills type interaction. In the linear approximation, for a static source, a confinement potential is found. (author)
Power-law cosmic expansion in f(R) gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goheer, Naureen; Larena, Julien; Dunsby, Peter K. S.
2009-01-01
We show that within the class of f(R) gravity theories, Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker power-law perfect fluid solutions only exist for R n gravity. This significantly restricts the set of exact cosmological solutions which have similar properties to what is found in standard general relativity.
The Earth Gravitational Observatory (EGO): Nanosat Constellations For Advanced Gravity Mapping
Yunck, T.; Saltman, A.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Nerem, R. S.; Abel, J.
2017-12-01
The trend to nanosats for space-based remote sensing is transforming system architectures: fleets of "cellular" craft scanning Earth with exceptional precision and economy. GeoOptics Inc has been selected by NASA to develop a vision for that transition with an initial focus on advanced gravity field mapping. Building on our spaceborne GNSS technology we introduce innovations that will improve gravity mapping roughly tenfold over previous missions at a fraction of the cost. The power of EGO is realized in its N-satellite form where all satellites in a cluster receive dual-frequency crosslinks from all other satellites, yielding N(N-1)/2 independent measurements. Twelve "cells" thus yield 66 independent links. Because the cells form a 2D arc with spacings ranging from 200 km to 3,000 km, EGO senses a wider range of gravity wavelengths and offers greater geometrical observing strength. The benefits are two-fold: Improved time resolution enables observation of sub-seasonal processes, as from hydro-meteorological phenomena; improved measurement quality enhances all gravity solutions. For the GRACE mission, key limitations arise from such spacecraft factors as long-term accelerometer error, attitude knowledge and thermal stability, which are largely independent from cell to cell. Data from a dozen cells reduces their impact by 3x, by the "root-n" averaging effect. Multi-cell closures improve on this further. The many closure paths among 12 cells provide strong constraints to correct for observed range changes not compatible with a gravity source, including accelerometer errors in measuring non-conservative forces. Perhaps more significantly from a science standpoint, system-level estimates with data from diverse orbits can attack the many scientifically limiting sources of temporal aliasing.
I-Love-Q relations for neutron stars in dynamical Chern Simons gravity
Gupta, Toral; Majumder, Barun; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-01-01
Neutron stars are ideal to probe, not only nuclear physics, but also strong-field gravity. Approximate universal relations insensitive to the star’s internal structure exist among certain observables and are useful in testing general relativity, as they project out the uncertainties in the equation of state. One such set of universal relations between the moment of inertia (I), the tidal Love number and the quadrupole moment (Q) has been studied both in general relativity and in modified theories. In this paper, we study the relations in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity, a well-motivated, parity-violating effective field theory, extending previous work in various ways. First, we study how projected constraints on the theory using the I-Love relation depend on the measurement accuracy of I with radio observations and that of the Love number with gravitational-wave observations. Provided these quantities can be measured with future observations, we find that the latter could place bounds on dynamical Chern–Simons gravity that are six orders of magnitude stronger than current bounds. Second, we study the I–Q and Q-Love relations in this theory by constructing slowly-rotating neutron star solutions to quadratic order in spin. We find that the approximate universality continues to hold in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity, and in fact, it becomes stronger than in general relativity, although its existence depends on the normalization of the dimensional coupling constant of the theory. Finally, we study the variation of the eccentricity of isodensity contours inside a star and its relation to the degree of universality. We find that, in most cases, the eccentricity variation is smaller in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity than in general relativity, providing further support to the idea that the approximate self-similarity of isodensity contours is responsible for universality.
Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Entin, Vladimir A; Wolfer, David P; Kanevskyi, Valeryi A; Lipp, Hans-Peter
2014-11-15
The gravity vector theory postulates that birds determine their position to set a home course by comparing the memorized gravity vector at the home loft with the local gravity vector at the release site, and that they should adjust their flight course to the gravity anomalies encountered. As gravity anomalies are often intermingled with geomagnetic anomalies, we released experienced pigeons from the center of a strong circular gravity anomaly (25 km diameter) not associated with magnetic anomalies and from a geophysical control site, equidistant from the home loft (91 km). After crossing the border zone of the anomaly--expected to be most critical for pigeon navigation--they dispersed significantly more than control birds, except for those having met a gravity anomaly en route. These data increase the credibility of the gravity vector hypothesis. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1987-01-01
We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)
Linder, Eric V.
2018-03-01
A subclass of the Horndeski modified gravity theory we call No Slip Gravity has particularly interesting properties: 1) a speed of gravitational wave propagation equal to the speed of light, 2) equality between the effective gravitational coupling strengths to matter and light, Gmatter and Glight, hence no slip between the metric potentials, yet difference from Newton's constant, and 3) suppressed growth to give better agreement with galaxy clustering observations. We explore the characteristics and implications of this theory, and project observational constraints. We also give a simple expression for the ratio of the gravitational wave standard siren distance to the photon standard candle distance, in this theory and others, and enable a direct comparison of modified gravity in structure growth and in gravitational waves, an important crosscheck.
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN08 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2016 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...
Tests and comparisons of gravity models.
Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.
1971-01-01
Optical observations of the GEOS satellites were used to obtain orbital solutions with different sets of geopotential coefficients. The solutions were compared before and after modification to high order terms (necessary because of resonance) and were then analyzed by comparing subsequent observations with predicted trajectories. The most important source of error in orbit determination and prediction for the GEOS satellites is the effect of resonance found in most published sets of geopotential coefficients. Modifications to the sets yield greatly improved orbits in most cases. The results of these comparisons suggest that with the best optical tracking systems and gravity models, satellite position error due to gravity model uncertainty can reach 50-100 m during a heavily observed 5-6 day orbital arc. If resonant coefficients are estimated, the uncertainty is reduced considerably.
Geometric flows in Horava-Lifshitz gravity
Bakas, Ioannis; Lust, Dieter; Petropoulos, Marios
2010-01-01
We consider instanton solutions of Euclidean Horava-Lifshitz gravity in four dimensions satisfying the detailed balance condition. They are described by geometric flows in three dimensions driven by certain combinations of the Cotton and Ricci tensors as well as the cosmological-constant term. The deformation curvature terms can have competing behavior leading to a variety of fixed points. The instantons interpolate between any two fixed points, which are vacua of topologically massive gravity with Lambda > 0, and their action is finite. Special emphasis is placed on configurations with SU(2) isometry associated with homogeneous but generally non-isotropic Bianchi IX model geometries. In this case, the combined Ricci-Cotton flow reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations whose properties are studied in detail for different couplings. The occurrence and stability of isotropic and anisotropic fixed points are investigated analytically and some exact solutions are obtained. The correspond...
Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology
Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A
2013-01-01
We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Houndjo, M.J.S. [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Natitingou, Natitingou (Benin); Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques, Porto-Novo (Benin)
2017-09-15
In this paper we study a modified version of unimodular general relativity in the context of f(G), G denoting the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. We focus on Bianchi-type I and Friendmann-Robertson-Walker universes and search for unimodular f(G) models according to the de Sitter and power-law solutions. Assuming unimodular f(G) gravity as a perfect fluid and making use of the slow-roll parameters, the inflationary model has been reconstructed in concordance with the Planck observational data. Moreover, we investigate the realization of the bounce and loop quantum cosmological ekpyrotic paradigms. Assuming suitable and appropriate scale factors, unimodular f(G) models able to reproduce superbounce and ekpyrotic scenarios have been reconstructed. (orig.)
Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.
Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.
2016-12-01
Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.
Pizzo, Nick
2017-11-01
A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romney, B.; Barrau, A.; Vidotto, F.; Le Meur, H.; Noui, K.
2011-01-01
The loop quantum gravity is the only theory that proposes a quantum description of space-time and therefore of gravitation. This theory predicts that space is not infinitely divisible but that is has a granular structure at the Planck scale (10 -35 m). Another feature of loop quantum gravity is that it gets rid of the Big-Bang singularity: our expanding universe may come from the bouncing of a previous contracting universe, in this theory the Big-Bang is replaced with a big bounce. The loop quantum theory predicts also the huge number of quantum states that accounts for the entropy of large black holes. (A.C.)
Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement
1987-01-01
This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.
Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity
Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew
2017-09-01
Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.
On effective spacetime dimension in the Hořava–Lifshitz gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Alencar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this manuscript we explicitly compute the effective dimension of spacetime in some backgrounds of Hořava–Lifshitz (H–L gravity. For all the cases considered, the results are compatible with a dimensional reduction of the spacetime to d+1=2, at high energies (ultraviolet limit, which is confirmed by other quantum gravity approaches, as well as to d+1=4, at low energies (infrared limit. This is obtained by computing the free energy of massless scalar and gauge fields. We find that the only effect of the background is to change the proportionality constant between the internal energy and temperature. Firstly, we consider both the non-perturbative and perturbative models involving the matter action, without gravitational sources but with manifest time and space symmetry breaking, in order to calculate modifications in the Stephan–Boltzmann law. When gravity is taken into account, we assume a scenario in which there is a spherical source with mass M and radius R in thermal equilibrium with radiation, and consider the static and spherically symmetric solution of the H–L theory found by Kehagias–Sfetsos (K–S, in the weak and strong field approximations. As byproducts, for the weak field regime, we used the current uncertainty of the solar radiance measurements to establish a constraint on the ω free parameter of the K–S solution. We also calculate the corrections, due to gravity, to the recently predicted attractive force that black bodies exert on nearby neutral atoms and molecules.
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman
2017-01-01
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agrawal, Prateek [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sundrum, Raman [Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-05-29
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
Born-Infeld gravity in Weitzenboeck spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco
2008-01-01
Using the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity formulated in Weitzenboeck spacetime, we thoroughly explore a kind of Born-Infeld regular gravity leading to second order field equations for the vielbein components. We explicitly solve the equations of motion for two examples: the extended Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, which exists even if the cosmological constant is positive, and a cosmological model with matter, where the scale factor is well behaved, thus giving a singularity-free solution.
Modified teleparallel gravity: Inflation without an inflaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, Rafael; Fiorini, Franco
2007-01-01
The Born-Infeld strategy to smooth theories having divergent solutions is applied to the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. Differing from other theories of modified gravity, modified teleparallelism leads to second order equations, since the teleparallel Lagrangian only contains first derivatives of the vierbein. We show that the Born-Infeld-modified teleparallelism solves the particle horizon problem in a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe by providing an initial exponential expansion without resorting to an inflaton field