WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong family history

  1. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are ...

  2. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567

  3. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  4. Skin cancer screening behaviours among individuals with a strong family history of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, N A; McLoone, J K; Meiser, B; Butow, P N; Simpson, J M; Mann, G J

    2010-11-09

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer screening behaviours among individuals at high risk of developing melanoma due to strong family history. A total of 120 individuals with a known family-specific CDKN2A mutation (72% response rate) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing annual frequency of skin self-examination (SSE), clinical skin examination (CSE) and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychosocial correlates. In the past 12 months, 50% of participants reported engaging in SSE at least four times, and 43% of participants had undergone at least one CSE. Engagement in SSE was associated with doctor recommendation (β=1.77, P=0.001), confidence in one's ability to perform SSE (β=1.44, Pmelanoma treatment (β=0.77, P=0.002) and intention to perform SSE in the future (β=1.69, Pmelanoma engage in suboptimal levels of skin surveillance. Improved doctor-patient communication, as well as psycho-education and behavioural support, may be viable means of improving early skin cancer detection behaviours in this high-risk population.

  5. Breast magnetic resonance imaging significance for breast cancer diagnostic in women with genetic predisposition and a strong family history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Karpova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of breast cancer with mammography recommended to women over 40 has been shown to decrease breast cancer mortality. But mam- mography has much lower accuracy in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations and women with a strong family history. Therefore new screening methods in young high-risk women are necessary to detect early-stage cancer.

  6. Strongly enhanced colorectal cancer risk stratification by combining family history and genetic risk score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigl K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Korbinian Weigl,1,2 Jenny Chang-Claude,3,4 Phillip Knebel,5 Li Hsu,6 Michael Hoffmeister,1 Hermann Brenner1,2,7 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 3Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 4University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 5Department for General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 7Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT, Heidelberg, Germany Background and aim: Family history (FH and genetic risk scores (GRSs are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS.Patients and methods: A GRS was built based on the number of risk alleles in 53 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms among 2,363 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and 2,198 controls in DACHS [colorectal cancer: chances for prevention through screening], a population-based case-control study in Germany. Associations between GRS and FH with CRC risk were quantified by multiple logistic regression.Results: A total of 316 cases (13.4% and 214 controls (9.7% had a first-degree relative (FDR with CRC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.52–2.29. A GRS in the highest decile was associated with a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 2.24–4.02 compared with the lowest decile. This association was tentatively more pronounced in older age groups. FH and GRS were essentially unrelated, and their

  7. Copy-number variants in patients with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucito, Robert; Suresh, Shubha; Walter, Kimberly; Pandey, Akhilesh; Lakshmi, B; Krasnitz, Alex; Sebat, Jonathan; Wigler, Michael; Klein, Alison P; Brune, Kieran; Palmisano, Emily; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H

    2007-10-01

    Copy-number variants such as germ-line deletions and amplifications are associated with inherited genetic disorders including familial cancer. The gene or genes responsible for the majority of familial clustering of pancreatic cancer have not been identified. We used representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis (ROMA) to characterize germ-line copy number variants in 60 cancer patients from 57 familial pancreatic cancer kindreds. Fifty-seven of the 60 patients had pancreatic cancer and three had nonpancreatic cancers (breast, ovary, ovary). A familial pancreatic cancer kindred was defined as a kindred in which at least two first-degree relatives have been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Copy-number variants identified in 607 individuals without pancreatic cancer were excluded from further analysis. A total of 56 unique genomic regions with copy-number variants not present in controls were identified, including 31 amplifications and 25 deletions. Two deleted regions were observed in two different patients, and one in three patients. The germ-line amplifications had a mean size of 662 Kb, a median size of 379 Kb (range 8.2 Kb to 2.5 Mb) and included 425 known genes. Examples of genes included in the germ-line amplifications include the MAFK, JunD and BIRC6 genes. The germ-line deletions had a mean size of 375Kb, a median size 151 Kb (range 0.4 Kb to 2.3 Mb) and included 81 known genes. In multivariate analysis controlling for region size, deletions were 90% less likely to involve a gene than were duplications (p time PCR, including a germ-line amplification on chromosome 19. These genetic copy-number variants define potential candidate loci for the familial pancreatic cancer gene.

  8. How Should Clinicians Counsel a Woman with a Strong Family History of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease about Her Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Marianna V; O'Brien, Barbara M; King, Louise P

    2017-07-01

    Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several can...

  10. Family Health History and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Diabetes Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an ... health problems. Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family ...

  11. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  12. Creating a family health history

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Which country/region your family originally came from (Ireland, Germany, Eastern Europe, Africa, and so on) Ask these same questions about any relatives who have died. How Will a Family History Help You and Your Family? Share your family ...

  13. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  14. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  15. [Family reunification and family formation migration strongly decreased].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, A H

    1995-06-01

    "Statistics on international migration in the Netherlands do not make a distinction by reason of migration, e.g. family reunification and family formation. Because of the need for information on these types of migration, estimates were made based on demographic characteristics. The estimates show that the number of family reunionists was stable between 1987 and 1991....Recently, the Dutch policy on immigration has become more restrictive. Although information with respect to more recent years is largely lacking, tentative estimates suggest that the 1994 number of family reunionists and family forming immigrants combined has shown a strong decrease compared to 1991." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  16. Lineage identity and generational continuity: family history and family reunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, M W; Back, K W

    1987-03-01

    A long tradition of sociological thought asserts that contemporary American culture is providing fewer opportunities to develop a sense of family identity and intergenerational continuity. It is possible, however, to view the modern family as stressed, but successfully adapting to the demands of modernization. One such adaptation is the widespread and growing involvement in lineage identity, manifested by an interest in preserving genealogy and family history and the holding of periodic family reunions. A 73-item questionnaire given to 130 respondents revealed strong lineage conscious attitudes and behavior, particularly on the part of women, blacks, and older people. There may be distinct benefits to be derived by individuals and families strong in lineage identity.

  17. Family history is a risk factor for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Craig P; Hokanson, John E; Lynch, David A; Washko, George R; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2011-08-01

    Studies have shown that family history is a risk factor for COPD, but have not accounted for family history of smoking. Therefore, we sought to identify the effects of family history of smoking and family history of COPD on COPD susceptibility. We compared 821 patients with COPD to 776 control smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. Questionnaires captured parental histories of smoking and COPD, as well as childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Socioeconomic status was defined by educational achievement. Parental history of smoking (85.5% case patients, 82.9% control subjects) was more common than parental history of COPD (43.0% case patients, 30.8% control subjects). In a logistic regression model, parental history of COPD (OR, 1.73; P disease, with lower lung function, worse quality of life, and more frequent exacerbations. There were nonsignificant trends for more severe emphysema and airway disease on quantitative chest CT scans. Family history of COPD is a strong risk factor for COPD, independent of family history of smoking, personal lifetime smoking, or childhood ETS exposure. Although further studies are required to identify genetic variants that influence COPD susceptibility, clinicians should question all smokers, especially those with known or suspected COPD, regarding COPD family history.

  18. Family History as Media and Methodological Inspiration for History Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMIL ŠTĚPÁNEK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The text of the contribution is inspired by relationships and issues arising from communication among parents, children, grandparents and grandchildren. It ensues from such terms as generation crisis, cohesion, cultivation of common values or family topics. It deals with family history captured in a family amateur movie, which is an appropriate media of alternative school and out-of-school pupils' activities.Within its framework the pupils can become aware of their own roots and evolution of their family histories, or how their histories were influenced by „the great history”. The presentation methodology of the summary of these pupils' explorations of private family materials used in history lessons forms an inseparable part.

  19. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  20. Family History in Young Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Kolodny, Edwin; Kropp, Peter; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Rothwell, Peter M; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt

    2015-07-01

    Family history of stroke is an established risk factor for stroke. We evaluated whether family history of stroke predisposed to certain stroke subtypes and whether it differed by sex in young patients with stroke. We used data from the Stroke in Fabry Patients study, a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young patients (aged stroke in whom cardiovascular risk factors and family history of stroke were obtained and detailed stroke subtyping was performed. A family history of stroke was present in 1578 of 4232 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients (37.3%). Female patients more often had a history of stroke in the maternal lineage (P=0.027) than in the paternal lineage. There was no association with stroke subtype according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment nor with the presence of white matter disease on brain imaging. Patients with dissection less frequently reported a family history of stroke (30.4% versus 36.3%; P=0.018). Patients with a parental history of stroke more commonly had siblings with stroke (3.6% versus 2.6%; P=0.047). Although present in about a third of patients, a family history of stroke is not specifically related to stroke pathogenic subtypes in patients with young stroke. Young women with stroke more often report stroke in the maternal lineage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. A Research Project for Family Sociology Students on Family History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Alan E.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines a research project for family sociology students that uses student family histories to bridge the gap between course material and personal family experiences. Claims the project teaches students how information is transmitted across generations, as well as strengthening research, interviewing, and analytical skills. (Author/AEM)

  2. Family Functioning as a Mediator of Relations between Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stacy R; Friedman, Carly K; Liang, Yuanyuan; Lake, Sarah L; Mathias, Charles W; Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-03-01

    Impulsivity is strongly related to the development of adolescent substance use. Therefore, understanding factors that influence impulsive characteristics is important for the development of prevention and intervention programs. Intervention and prevention programs focused on factors that influence impulsive characteristics are especially important for those at particularly high risk for the expression of impulsivity - those with a family history of substance use disorder. A factor of particular interest is family functioning. To examine family functioning as a mediator of relations between having a family history of substance use disorder and impulsivity. Participants included a majority Hispanic sample of pre-adolescent boys and girls (mean age 10.99, SD = .84) recruited from the community who did (FH+) and did not (FH-) have a family history of substance use disorder. FH status and the quality of family functioning were compared at the initial visit with impulsiveness assessed a year later. Results showed FH+ children had worse family functioning; worse family functioning was related to higher levels of impulsivity, and higher levels of impulsivity among FH+ children were due to the influence of family functioning on levels of impulsivity. In other words, family functioning mediated relations between having a family history of substance use disorder and impulsivity. These results indicate that higher levels of impulsivity in FH+ children are due in part to worse family functioning.

  3. Digital family histories for data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Chung, Hui-Min; Hutfless, Brent; Rice, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    As we move closer to ubiquitous electronic health records (EHRs), genetic, familial, and clinical information will need to be incorporated into EHRs as structured data that can be used for data mining and clinical decision support. While the Human Genome Project has produced new and exciting genomic data, the cost to sequence the human personal genome is high, and significant controversies regarding how to interpret genomic data exist. Many experts feel that the family history is a surrogate marker for genetic information and should be part of any paper-based or electronic health record. A digital family history is now part of the Meaningful Use Stage 2 menu objectives for EHR reimbursement, projected for 2014. In this study, a secure online family history questionnaire was designed to collect data on a unique cohort of Vietnam-era repatriated male veterans and a comparison group in order to compare participant and family disease rates on common medical disorders with a genetic component. This article describes our approach to create the digital questionnaire and the results of analyzing family history data on 319 male participants.

  4. Multicultural Curriculum and Critical Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Family history research connects very well with multicultural curriculum because it opens up the multiple experiences of members and communities of a society, as well as helping to make visible the historic construction and ongoing legacy of unequal relationships. The author of this article began to play with what she later called "critical…

  5. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Osman; Coşkun, Salih; Aktan Mutlu, Elif; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Atli, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ekrem; Keskin, Sıddık

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother's or father's side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother's side and 25 patients were from the father's side in 63 cases. The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility.

  6. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with alcoholism, you may have wondered what your family's history of alcoholism means for you. Are problems ... than for people who do not have a family history of alcoholism? If so, what can you ...

  7. Family Ties: The Role of Family Context in Family Health History Communication About Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Quillin, John M

    2016-01-01

    Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. The women's average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% had graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy, and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that in turn inform cancer prevention interventions.

  8. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  9. Accuracy of family history of cancer : clinical genetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, RH; Boonstra, AE; Reefhuis, J; Hordijk-Hos, JM; de Walle, HEK; Oosterwijk, JC; Cornel, MC

    Family medical history is the cornerstone of clinical genetic diagnosis and management in cases of familial cancer. The soundness of medical decisions can be compromised if reports by the family on affected relatives are inaccurate. Although very time consuming, family medical histories are

  10. Impact of family history and depression on amygdala volume.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleh, Karim

    2012-07-30

    Family history of depression significantly impacts life-long depression risk. Family history could impact the stress and emotion regulation system that involves the amygdala. This study\\'s purpose was to investigate family history\\'s effect on amygdala volumes, and differences in first degree relatives with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants, aged 18-65, were healthy volunteers (N=52) with (n=26) and without (n=26) first degree family history, and patients with MDD (N=48) with (n=27) and without (n=21)first-degree family history recruited for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants underwent clinical assessment followed by manual amygdala tracing. Patients with MDD without family history showed significantly larger right amygdala without a family history of MDD. These effects had larger right amygdala than healthy controls without MDD family history. These effects were pronounced in females. Family history and gender impacted amygdala volumes in all participants, providing a rationale for the inconsistent results in MDD amygdala studies. Higher familial risk in depression seems to be associated with smaller amygdala volumes, whereas depression alone is associated with larger amygdala volumes. Ultimately, these findings highlight consideration of family history and gender in research and treatment strategies.

  11. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  12. Family History - An Early Warning for Your Child

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-14

    Collecting family history information could save your child's life. Listen to learn more about how knowing your family history information could benefit your entire family.  Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  13. The Family in Us: Family History, Family Identity and Self-Reproductive Adaptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferring, Dieter

    2017-06-01

    This contribution is an essay about the notion of family identity reflecting shared significant experiences within a family system originating a set of signs used in social communication within and between families. Significant experiences are considered as experiences of events that have an immediate impact on the adaptation of the family in a given socio-ecological and cultural context at a given historical time. It is assumed that family history is stored in a shared "family memory" holding both implicit and explicit knowledge and exerting an influence on the behavior of each family member. This is described as transgenerational family memory being constituted of a system of meaningful signs. The crucial dimension underlying the logic of this essay are the ideas of adaptation as well as self-reproduction of systems.

  14. Nutrient-based dietary patterns, family history, and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Montella, Maurizio; Talamini, Renato; Decarli, Adriano

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dietary habits on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk may be modified by a family history of CRC. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 1953 CRC cases and 4154 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for combined categories of family history and tertiles of two a posteriori dietary patterns were derived using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with individuals without family history and in the lowest tertile category of the 'starch-rich' pattern, the ORs of CRC were 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.61) for the group without family history and in the highest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile, and 4.00 (95% CI: 3.03-5.27) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile. Compared with individuals without family history and in the highest tertile of the 'vitamins and fiber' pattern, the ORs were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.12-1.48) for the group without family history and in the lowest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile, and 3.74 (95% CI: 2.85-4.91) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile. Family history of CRC and 'starch-rich' or 'vitamins and fiber' patterns has an independent effect on CRC risk in our population. However, as having a family history plausibly implies shared environmental and/or genetic risk factors, our results could not exclude that dietary habits can modify genetic susceptibility to CRC.

  15. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Help Me Understand Genetics Inheriting Genetic Conditions Why is it important to know my family medical history? Why is it important to know my family ...

  16. Positive family history of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäckler, A; Eickelmann, A K; Brors, D; Dazert, S; Epplen, J T; Kunstmann, E

    2010-12-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) is a heterogenic disease. Multiple factors influencing aetiology and prognosis are discussed. A retrospective clinical characterisation and analysis of family history of ISSNHL patients was performed to investigate influences on the disease. 186 inpatients diagnosed with ISSNHL were characterised by health records and a standardised questionnaire. Audiograms were observed. 75 controls that had never experienced an event of ISSNHL were questioned about family members being affected by ISSNHL. 63.4% of all patients could be assigned to at least one group with similar causes of ISSNHL (noise exposure, positive family history, infectious diseases, hypothyroidism and fibromuscular dysplasia). A positive family history for ISSNHL has not been reported so far. Therefore, we accentuated the characterisation of patients with positive family history. 21.4% affirmed a positive family history. In ten families, at least two family members were reported as ISSNHL patients. In comparison with patients with negative family history, they tend to be younger, experience more events of ISSNHL and show less improvement of hearing abilities under therapeutic treatment (non-significant). Differences intensified between smokers with positive family history and non-smokers with negative family history. Differences concerning average age were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Within 75 controls 11 families were reported with one member being affected by ISSNHL. In the control group we did not detect any family with more than one ISSNHL patient. The results indicated that patients with positive family history tend to have an aggravated course of ISSNHL. Further studies should help to confirm these results and to identify environmental or genetic factors leading to ISSNHL. This might support a better understanding of the aetiology of ISSNHL and offer new possibilities for prevention and therapy.

  17. Family history and biochemical diagnosis in 1948 kidney stone formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Spivacow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of family history of nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of renal lithiasis. Different epidemiological studies have shown a family component in the incidence of it, which is independent of dietary and environmental factors. The role of heredity is evident in monogenic diseases such as cystinuria, Dent’s disease or primary hyperoxaluria, while a polygenic inheritance has been proposed to explain the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the family history of patients with renal lithiasis and the correlation of family history with its corresponding biochemical alteration, considering only those with a single metabolic alteration. Methods: a prospective and retrospective observational and analytical study that included 1948 adults over 17 years of age and a normal control group of 165 individuals, all evaluated according to an ambulatory protocol to obtain a biochemical diagnosis. They were asked about their family history of nephrolithiasis and classified into five groups according to the degree of kinship and the number of people affected in the family. Results: a positive family history of nephrolithiasis was found in 27.4% of renal stone formers, predominantly in women, compared to 15.2% of normal controls. The family history of nephrolithiasis was observed especially in 31.4% of patients with hypomagnesuria and in 29.6% of hypercalciuric patients. The rest of the biochemical alterations had a positive family history between 28.6% in hyperoxaluria and 21.9% in hypocitraturia. The highest percentage of family history of nephrolithiasis was found in cystinuria (75% although there were few patients with this diagnosis. Conclusions: the inheritance has a clear impact on urolithiasis independently of the present biochemical alteration. Family history of nephrolithiasis of the first and second degree was observed between 21 and 32% of patients with renal

  18. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you collect information about your relatives, respect their right to confidentiality. You might want to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from places of ...

  19. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage. In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer’s development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members.

  20. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  1. Talking (or Not) about Family Health History in Families of Latino Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…

  2. relationship between family history of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Moreover, familial breast cancer patients present especially progesterone receptor-negative tumors (P=0.0380). CONCLUSIONS: Our initial significant findings show that familial breast cancer seems to affect young women and tends to present high Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade tumors with lymph node.

  3. Automated Extraction of Family History Information from Clinical Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Robert; Pakhomov, Serguei; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Winden, Tamara J.; Carter, Elizabeth W.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased functionality for obtaining family history in a structured format within electronic health record systems, clinical notes often still contain this information. We developed and evaluated an Unstructured Information Management Application (UIMA)-based natural language processing (NLP) module for automated extraction of family history information with functionality for identifying statements, observations (e.g., disease or procedure), relative or side of family with attributes (i.e., vital status, age of diagnosis, certainty, and negation), and predication (“indicator phrases”), the latter of which was used to establish relationships between observations and family member. The family history NLP system demonstrated F-scores of 66.9, 92.4, 82.9, 57.3, 97.7, and 61.9 for detection of family history statements, family member identification, observation identification, negation identification, vital status, and overall extraction of the predications between family members and observations, respectively. While the system performed well for detection of family history statements and predication constituents, further work is needed to improve extraction of certainty and temporal modifications. PMID:25954443

  4. The Burden of History in the Family Business Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Dawson, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    In this article we focus on the study of history through the use of narratives, within the context of the prevalent form of organization worldwide: the family business. Specifically we consider the dilemma of the impossible gift of succession using Nietzsche’s discussion of the burden of history...... and paralleling the story of a family business succession with that of Shakespeare’s King Lear. This way, we seek to make a contribution to organizational studies by answering recent calls to engage more with history in studies of business organizations. By implication, the study also initiates an integration...... of family business studies into organization studies....

  5. Family history based approach in risk prediction for Parkinson's disease: Additional contribution of familial associated disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrecar Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the contribution of family history of Parkinson's disease and its associated disorders in the assessment of predictive capacity of risk models for Parkinson’s disease. In a population of 192 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 1659 healthy individuals we investigated the impact of environmental factors and the effects of family history on Parkinson's disease risk. Pesticides exposure, positive family history of Parkinson’s disease and a positive family history of dementia and melanoma were associated to an increased risk for Parkinson’s disease, with results regarding family history of depression near to statistical significance. Smoking and caffeine intake were associated to a decreased risk for Parkinson’s disease. Three risk prediction models were assessed using the area under the curve approach: first model was based on known environmental risk factors, in the second model we added family history of Parkinson’s disease and in the third model we additionally included family history of dementia, melanoma and depression. We showed that inclusion of data on family history of associated disorders (AUC 0.76 improves predictive capacity of risk model for Parkinson’s disease in comparison with the first (AUC 0.62 and the second model (AUC 0.71. We concluded that family history of associated disorders: dementia, depression and melanoma improves predictive capacity of risk models for Parkinson’s disease.

  6. HomeFront Strong: Building Resiliency in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NOTES Email: mkees@umich.edu W81XWH-14-1-0362 14. ABSTRACT The current project aims to improve the psychological health and well-being of military and...emerging. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Military spouses; Veteran spouses; Resilience; Psychology health intervention; Mental health 16. SECURITY...14-1-0362 Pg. 5 1. INTRODUCTION: This project aims to improve the psychological health and well-being of military and veteran families residing in

  7. Rh factor, family history and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stoll, Mario; De Stéfani, Eduardo; Maisonneuve, Juan E; Mendoza, Beatriz A; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    To explore possible relationships among blood factors, family history of breast cancer (BC) and the risk of the disease, a case-control study was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight hundred and one patients were interviewed, including 252 certified cases of BC and 549 frequency-matched controls. Blood groups (ABO, Rh) were obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age, selected menstrual and reproductive factors, and family history of BC as well as of other cancers. We found that the absence of Rh factor (Rh-) was positively associated with the risk of BC (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.49, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.05-2.11). Stratified analyses by family history of BC showed a strong association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=3.17, 95% CI 1.06-9.47). Also stratified analyses by family history of other cancers showed a positive association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11). Regarding the implications of an inherited factor like Rh and its associations with the family history of BC, it might increase the probability to generate high-risk individuals if further studies confirm the present preliminary findings.

  8. Family history of coronary heart disease and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind K; Pandey, Shivda; Blaha, Michael J; Agatston, Arthur; Feldman, Theodore; Ozner, Michael; Santos, Raul D; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2013-06-01

    The goals of this systematic analysis are to determine the association between family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease as well as to discuss the inclusion of CHD family history in the frequently used coronary risk prediction algorithms. Individuals with a family history of CHD are at high risk for developing atherosclerosis and events related to CHD, regardless of the presence of other coronary risk factors. They form a target population that might benefit from primary prevention strategies; however, family history data is not a part of the frequently used risk prediction algorithms. Medline and PubMed databases were searched for all studies evaluating the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and family history of CHD, published till June 2010. Thirty-two studies met the above criteria and were included in this review. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima thickness, vascular function, and inflammatory markers including C reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer were used as measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Studies differed in design, demographic data of the population, techniques and validation of family history information. Most studies established a statistically significant relationship between the above markers and family history of CAD; further, the association was noted to be independent of traditional risk factors. Family history of CAD is associated with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, and this relationship remains statistically significant after adjusting for traditional risk factors. The above data suggest these individuals should be considered strongly as candidates for assessment of subclinical CVD to further refine risk and treatment goals. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Adolescents' knowledge of medical terminology and family health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L

    1992-01-01

    Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.

  10. The clinical history of the Corleone family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ABAD VILA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 2012 marks the 40th anniversary of the premiere of “The Godfather” by Francis Ford Coppola, considered one of the best films of all times by film critics and viewers alike. It was the first film of the praised saga made by this great filmmaker from Detroit, inspired by the literary work of Mario Puzo. Conceived as a classical tragedy, it is the true portrait of an Italian-American Mafia family, of its rise and fall, of its triumphs and sorrows.

  11. Effect of misreported family history on Mendelian mutation prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A

    2006-06-01

    People with familial history of disease often consult with genetic counselors about their chance of carrying mutations that increase disease risk. To aid them, genetic counselors use Mendelian models that predict whether the person carries deleterious mutations based on their reported family history. Such models rely on accurate reporting of each member's diagnosis and age of diagnosis, but this information may be inaccurate. Commonly encountered errors in family history can significantly distort predictions, and thus can alter the clinical management of people undergoing counseling, screening, or genetic testing. We derive general results about the distortion in the carrier probability estimate caused by misreported diagnoses in relatives. We show that the Bayes factor that channels all family history information has a convenient and intuitive interpretation. We focus on the ratio of the carrier odds given correct diagnosis versus given misreported diagnosis to measure the impact of errors. We derive the general form of this ratio and approximate it in realistic cases. Misreported age of diagnosis usually causes less distortion than misreported diagnosis. This is the first systematic quantitative assessment of the effect of misreported family history on mutation prediction. We apply the results to the BRCAPRO model, which predicts the risk of carrying a mutation in the breast and ovarian cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  12. Prevalence of family history in patients with reflex syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Benn, Marianne; Kaijer, Michelle Nymann

    2013-01-01

    among subtypes of reflex syncope, as these have different autonomic responses and pathogeneses may be diverse. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of a positive family history of syncope and cardiovascular characteristics in patients with cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor reflex syncope......Reflex syncope is defined by a rapid transient loss of consciousness caused by global cerebral hypoperfusion resulting from vasodilatation and/or bradycardia attributable to inappropriate cardiovascular reflexes. A hereditary component has been suggested, but prevalence of family history may differ....... Patients (n=74) were classified into subtypes of reflex syncope - cardioinhibition/asystole (Vasovagal Syncope International Study subtypes II-B [VASIS II-B], n=38) or vasodepressor (VASIS III, n=36) - using the head-up tilt test. Family history was obtained by questionnaires supplemented by interview...

  13. Developing Family Healthware, a family history screening tool to prevent common chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Paula W; Scheuner, Maren T; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J

    2009-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with personalized recommendations for lifestyle changes and screening. The tool collects data on health behaviors, screening tests, and disease history of a person's first- and second-degree relatives. Algorithms in the software analyze the family history data and assess familial risk based on the number of relatives affected, their age at disease onset, their sex, how closely related the relatives are to each other and to the user, and the combinations of diseases in the family. A second set of algorithms uses the data on familial risk level, health behaviors, and screening to generate personalized prevention messages. Qualitative and quantitative formative research on lay understanding of family history and genetics helped shape the tool's content, labels, and messages. Lab-based usability testing helped refine messages and tool navigation. The tool is being evaluated by 3 academic centers by using a network of primary care practices to determine whether personalized prevention messages tailored to familial risk will motivate people at risk to change their lifestyles or screening behaviors.

  14. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J.J.; Meerwaldt, J.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative

  15. Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will support a second edition of and sequel to the book, In the Land of Poverty : the Memoir of a Destitute Indian Family, 1947-97 by Siddharth Dube, a senior fellow at the World Policy Institute and one of India's foremost poverty and health policy researchers. The sequel will update the oral history of the Dalit ...

  16. Association between Family History and Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoğlu, Adem; Yumuşakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Demir, Berat; Bağlam, Tekin; Derinsu, Ufuk; Sarı, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is defined as hearing loss of at least 30 dB occurring within three days over at least three contiguous frequencies. The etiology of SSNHL cannot always be precisely determined; in such cases, this condition is termed idiopathic SSNHL (ISSNHL). This unique study investigates the relationship between ISSNHL and positive family history for ISSNHL. In total, 125 patients diagnosed with ISSNHL were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of ISSNHL in the family medical history and degree of kinship of family members diagnosed with ISSNHL were determined. For univariate analysis, a chi-squared test and/or Fisher's exact test was used for between-group comparisons of qualitative variables; a t-test was used for quantitative variables. Significant variables in the univariate analysis were introduced into stepwise logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Pfamily medical history of ISSNHL, whereas 83 (66.4%) did not. A statistically significant association between the development of ISSNHL and a family history of ISSNHL was observed (p<0.05). Our study supports an association between ISSNHL and genetic predisposition. Proving genetic susceptibility to ISSNHL will lead to improvements in the prediction, early diagnosis, and treatment of this disease.

  17. Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs. India's Dalits have historically been subjected to devastating social and economic discrimination. The economic growth experienced by the country since 1990 has seen Dalit incomes more than double. Nevertheless, 300 million Indians still live below the poverty ...

  18. A Brief History of Family Life Education in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momanu, Mariana; Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Samoila, Magda-Elena

    2018-01-01

    Starting from the state of conceptual diversity, semantic ambiguity, and poor connection of family life education practices to current policies and theoretical models in Romania, our study aims at understanding the underlying meanings of these issues by recourse to the history of approaches in the field. To this purpose, we carried out a…

  19. Lifestyle, family history, and risk of idiopathic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations...

  20. Cannabis use and family history in adolescent first episode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates of cannabis use in adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Inpatient psychiatric records provided demographic, lifetime cannabis use, family history of mental illness, and clinical data on 45 FEP adolescents, aged 12–18 years, admitted to a psychiatric unit in ...

  1. Psychiatric family history and schizophrenia risk in Denmark: which mental disorders are relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, M G; Pedersen, C B

    2010-02-01

    A family history of schizophrenia is the strongest single indicator of individual schizophrenia risk. Bipolar affective disorder and schizo-affective disorders have been documented to occur more frequently in parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, but the familial occurrence of the broader range of mental illnesses and their role as confounders have not been studied in large population-based samples. All people born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991 (1.74 million) were followed for the development of schizophrenia (9324 cases) during 28 million person-years at risk. Information of schizophrenia in cohort members and psychiatric history in parents and siblings was established through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Data were analysed using log-linear Poisson regression. Schizophrenia was, as expected, strongly associated with schizophrenia and related disorders among first-degree relatives. However, almost any other psychiatric disorder among first-degree relatives increased the individual's risk of schizophrenia. The population attributable risk associated with psychiatric family history in general was 27.1% whereas family histories including schizophrenia only accounted for 6.0%. The general psychiatric family history was a confounder of the association between schizophrenia and urbanization of place of birth. Clinically diagnosed schizophrenia is associated with a much broader range of mental disorders in first-degree relatives than previously reported. This may suggest risk haplotypes shared across many disorders and/or shared environmental factors clustering in families. Failure to take the broad range of psychiatric family history into account may bias results of all risk-factor studies of schizophrenia.

  2. Browder's type strong convergence theorems for infinite families of nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Tomonari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove Browder's type strong convergence theorems for infinite families of nonexpansive mappings. One of our main results is the following: let be a bounded closed convex subset of a uniformly smooth Banach space . Let be an infinite family of commuting nonexpansive mappings on . Let and be sequences in satisfying for . Fix and define a sequence in by for . Then converges strongly to , where is the unique sunny nonexpansive retraction from onto .

  3. Developing Family Healthware, a Family History Screening Tool to Prevent Common Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Paula W.; Scheuner, Maren T.; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J.

    2008-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with pe...

  4. Strong convergence to common fixed points of a finite family of Z ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In this paper, we consider an implicit iteration process for approximating common fixed points of a finite family of Z- operators and ... We recall some definitions in a metric space (. ),. X d . .... Later on, Chidume and Shahzad studied the strong convergence of the this implicit process to a common fixed point for a finite family of ...

  5. Neurobiological phenotypes associated with a family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family history of psychosis and outcome of people with schizophrenia in rural China: 14-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiao, Yunyu; Zhao, Xinyi; Zhang, Tian-Ming; Yu, Yue-Hui; Mao, Wen-Jun; Lin, Fu-Rong; Liu, Bo; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the differences in 14-year outcomes of persons with schizophrenia with and without family history of psychosis in a rural community in China. All participants with schizophrenia (n=510) aged 15 years and older were identified in a 1994 epidemiological investigation of 123,572 people and followed up in 2004 and 2008 in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. Individuals with positive family history of schizophrenia had significantly younger age of first onset than those with negative family history of schizophrenia in 1994 and 2004. Compared with individuals with negative family history of schizophrenia, those with positive family history of schizophrenia had significantly higher rate of homelessness and lower rate of death due to other reasons in 10-year (2004) and 14-year follow-up (2008). There were no significantly differences of mean scores on PANSS, SDSS and GAF in 2008 between positive and negative family history groups. The positive family history of schizophrenia is strongly related to younger age of onset, and may predict a poorer long-term outcome (e.g., higher rate of homelessness) in persons with schizophrenia in the rural community. The findings have implications for further studies on specific family-related mechanisms on clinical treatment and rehabilitation, as well as for planning and delivering of community-based mental health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Allele-sharing statistics using information on family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, A; Meulenbelt, I; Kloppenburg, M; Slagboom, P E; Houwing-Duistermaat, J J

    2010-11-01

    When conducting genetic studies for complex traits, large samples are commonly required to detect new genetic factors. A possible strategy to decrease the sample size is to reduce heterogeneity using available information. In this paper we propose a new class of model-free linkage analysis statistics which takes into account the information given by the ungenotyped affected relatives (positive family history). This information is included into the scoring function of classical allele-sharing statistics. We studied pedigrees of affected sibling pairs with one ungenotyped affected relative. We show that, for rare allele common complex diseases, the proposed method increases the expected power to detect linkage. Allele-sharing methods were applied to the symptomatic osteoarthritis GARP study where taking into account the family-history increased considerably the evidence of linkage in the region of the DIO2 susceptibility locus. © 2010 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  8. The Context of Collecting Family Health History: Examining Definitions of Family and Family Communication About Health Among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634

  9. The antisocial family tree: family histories of behavior problems in antisocial personality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin

    2015-05-01

    Multiple avenues of research (e.g., criminal careers, intergenerational family transmission, and epidemiological studies) have indicated a concentration of antisocial traits and behaviors that cluster among families and within individuals in a population. The current study draws on each of these perspectives in exploring the intergenerational contours of antisocial personality disorder across multiple generations of a large-scale epidemiological sample. The analytic sample of persons meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (N = 1,226) was derived from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Path analytic, latent class, and multinomial models were executed to describe and elucidate family histories among persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Three classes of an antisocial family tree were found: minimal family history of problem behaviors (70.3 % of sample) who were characterized by higher socioeconomic functioning, parental and progeny behavior problems (9.4 % of sample) who were characterized by criminal behaviors, psychopathology, and substance use disorders, and multigenerational history of problem behaviors (20.3 % of sample) who were characterized by alcoholism, psychopathology, and versatile criminal offending. These findings add a typology to intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior that can assist in identifying etiological and treatment factors among those for whom crime runs in the family.

  10. Chitinase family GH18: evolutionary insights from the genomic history of a diverse protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Nathan N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitinases (EC.3.2.1.14 hydrolyze the β-1,4-linkages in chitin, an abundant N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine polysaccharide that is a structural component of protective biological matrices such as insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase 18 (GH18 family of chitinases is an ancient gene family widely expressed in archea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mammals are not known to synthesize chitin or metabolize it as a nutrient, yet the human genome encodes eight GH18 family members. Some GH18 proteins lack an essential catalytic glutamic acid and are likely to act as lectins rather than as enzymes. This study used comparative genomic analysis to address the evolutionary history of the GH18 multiprotein family, from early eukaryotes to mammals, in an effort to understand the forces that shaped the human genome content of chitinase related proteins. Results Gene duplication and loss according to a birth-and-death model of evolution is a feature of the evolutionary history of the GH18 family. The current human family likely originated from ancient genes present at the time of the bilaterian expansion (approx. 550 mya. The family expanded in the chitinous protostomes C. elegans and D. melanogaster, declined in early deuterostomes as chitin synthesis disappeared, and expanded again in late deuterostomes with a significant increase in gene number after the avian/mammalian split. Conclusion This comprehensive genomic study of animal GH18 proteins reveals three major phylogenetic groups in the family: chitobiases, chitinases/chitolectins, and stabilin-1 interacting chitolectins. Only the chitinase/chitolectin group is associated with expansion in late deuterostomes. Finding that the human GH18 gene family is closely linked to the human major histocompatibility complex paralogon on chromosome 1, together with the recent association of GH18 chitinase activity with Th2 cell inflammation, suggests that its late expansion

  11. Family history in public health practice: a genomic tool for disease prevention and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Qureshi, Nadeem; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Khoury, Muin J

    2010-01-01

    Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.

  12. [Towards a history of the family care of psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Inserting adults with psychic problems into families has recently been practiced in various European countries and also in Italy, where some mental health departments support such families. Beyond the well known story of Gheel, the etero and omofamily care of psychiatric patients has a forgotten history. On the basis of unexplored and exceptionally rich sources from the archives of the asylums in Florence, as well as of the Province di Florence, which funded assistance to the mentally ill--this research focuses on the subsidized "domestic custody" of hundreds of psychiatric patients, who had already been institutionalized. Beginning in 1866, outboarding was supported by the provincial administration in Florence with the collaboration of the asylum medical direction. In the late 19th C. and in the early 20th C. prestigious psychiatrists sought alternatives to the institutionalisation. These alternatives involved varied participants in a community (the patients and their families, the administrators and the medical specialists, the neighborhood and the police). The families played a special role that historians of the psychiatry exclusively dedicated to the insane asylums have not really seen. The role of the families in the interaction with the psychiatric staff is not, even on a historiographical level, simply an additional and marginal chapter of the practices and of the culture of the mental health. These archival evidence contradicts some common places on the past of the Italian psychiatry before 1978, and provokes new reflections of possible relevance to the present.

  13. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin

    2016-01-01

    of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence......=978), cases reporting no such family history (N=4,503), and unscreened controls (N=8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup...

  14. Impact of gene family evolutionary histories on phylogenetic species tree inference by gene tree parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Complicated history of gene duplication and loss brings challenge to molecular phylogenetic inference, especially in deep phylogenies. However, phylogenomic approaches, such as gene tree parsimony (GTP), show advantage over some other approaches in its ability to use gene families with duplications. GTP searches the 'optimal' species tree by minimizing the total cost of biological events such as duplications, but accuracy of GTP and phylogenetic signal in the context of different gene families with distinct histories of duplication and loss are unclear. To evaluate how different evolutionary properties of different gene families can impact on species tree inference, 3900 gene families from seven angiosperms encompassing a wide range of gene content, lineage-specific expansions and contractions were analyzed. It was found that the gene content and total duplication number in a gene family strongly influence species tree inference accuracy, with the highest accuracy achieved at either very low or very high gene content (or duplication number) and lowest accuracy centered in intermediate gene content (or duplication number), as the relationship can fit a binomial regression. Besides, for gene families of similar level of average gene content, those with relatively higher lineage-specific expansion or duplication rates tend to show lower accuracy. Additional correlation tests support that high accuracy for those gene families with large gene content may rely on abundant ancestral copies to provide many subtrees to resolve conflicts, whereas high accuracy for single or low copy gene families are just subject to sequence substitution per se. Very low accuracy reached by gene families of intermediate gene content or duplication number can be due to insufficient subtrees to resolve the conflicts from loss of alternative copies. As these evolutionary properties can significantly influence species tree accuracy, I discussed the potential weighting of the duplication cost by

  15. Strong convergence to common fixed points of a finite family of Z ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Zhou and Chang introduced the convergence of modified implicit iteration process for a finite family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces (Zhou and Chang, 2002). In 2006, Rafiq studied the following implicit iteration process for strong convergence to a common fixed point for a finite ...

  16. Strongly regular family of boundary-fitted tetrahedral meshes of bounded C^2 domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-251 ISSN 0862-7940 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary fitted mesh * strongly regular family * Sommerville tetrahedron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/145699

  17. Impact of family hypertension history on exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, Aaron L; Weiner, Rory B; Yared, Kibar; Wang, Francis; Kupperman, Eli; Hutter, Adolph M; Picard, Michael H; Wood, Malissa J

    2009-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a well-established, but highly variable, finding among exercise-trained persons. The causes for the variability in LV remodeling in response to exercise training remain incompletely understood. The present study sought to determine whether a family history of hypertension is a determinant of the cardiac response to exercise training. The cardiac parameters in 60 collegiate rowers (30 men/30 women; age 19.8 +/- 1.1 years) with (family history positive [FH+], n = 22) and without (family history negative [FH-], n = 38) a FH of hypertension were studied with echocardiography before and after 90 days of rowing training. The LV mass increased significantly in both groups. However, the LV mass increased significantly more in FH- persons (Delta 17 +/- 5 g/m(2)) than in FH+ persons (Delta 9 +/- 6 g/m(2), p hypertrophy between the 2 groups. FH- athletes experienced eccentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.39 +/- 0.4) characterized by LV dilation. In contrast, FH+ athletes developed concentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.44 +/- 0.3; p eccentric LV remodeling in FH- athletes was associated with a more robust enhancement of LV diastolic function than the concentric LV remodeling that occurred in FH+ athletes. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patterns of exercise-induced LV remodeling are strongly associated with FH history status.

  18. Diet, Lifestyles, Family History, and Prostate Cancer Incidence in an East Algerian Patient Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassed, Somia; Deus, Cláudia M.; Lourenço, Nuno; Dahdouh, Abderrezak

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth leading cause of death in Algeria. To examine the relationship between lifestyle factors, including diet, and family history and PC risk, a case-control study was performed in an eastern Algerian population, comprising 90 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 190 controls. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the different variables. The data showed that consumption of lamb and beef meat and high intake of animal fat and dairy products increased PC risk. Seven to thirteen vegetables servings per week and fourteen or more servings decreased PC risk by 62% and 96%, respectively. Seven to fourteen fruit servings per week decrease PC risk by 98%. Green tea consumption reduced the risk of PC but the results were statistically borderline. Increased risk was observed for individuals with family history of PC in first and in second degree. A positive strong association was also found for alcohol and smoking intake and a dose-response relationship existed for quantity and history of smoking. This study suggests that dietary habits, lifestyle factors, and family history have influence on the development of PC in Algerian population. PMID:27975054

  19. A strong genetic footprint of the re-introduction history of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebach, Iris; Keller, Lukas F

    2009-12-01

    A population's neutral genetic variation is a composite of its size, degree of isolation and demographic history. Bottlenecks and founder events increase genetic drift, leading to the loss of genetic variation and increased genetic differentiation among populations. Gene flow has the opposite effects. Thus, gene flow can override the genetic patterns caused by founder events. Using 37 microsatellite loci, we investigated the effects of serial bottlenecks on genetic variation and differentiation among 42 Alpine ibex populations in Switzerland with known re-introduction histories. We detected a strong footprint of re-introduction events on contemporary genetic structure, with re-introduction history explaining a substantial part of the genetic differentiation among populations. As a result of the translocation of a considerable number of individuals from the sole formerly surviving population in northern Italy, most of the genetic variation of the ancestral population is now present in the combined re-introduced Swiss populations. However, re-introductions split up the genetic variation among populations, such that each contemporary Swiss population showed lower genetic variation than the ancestral population. As expected, serial bottlenecks had different effects on the expected heterozygosity (He) and standardized number of alleles (sNa). While loss of sNa was higher in the first bottlenecks than in subsequent ones, He declined to a similar degree with each bottleneck. Thus, genetic drift was detected with each bottleneck, even when no loss of sNa was observed. Overall, more than a hundred years after the beginning of this successful re-introduction programme, re-introduction history was the main determinant of today's genetic structure.

  20. Factors affecting frequency of communication about family health history with family members and doctors in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p =.012) and heart disease (p history of heart disease (p = .011), meet physical activity recommendations (p = .022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients' family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporation of detailed family history from the Swedish Family Cancer Database into the PCPT risk calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Sonja; Fallah, Mahdi; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian M; Freedland, Stephen; Hemminki, Kari; Ankerst, Donna P

    2015-02-01

    A detailed family history provides an inexpensive alternative to genetic profiling for individual risk assessment. We updated the PCPT Risk Calculator to include detailed family histories. The study included 55,168 prostate cancer cases and 638,218 controls from the Swedish Family Cancer Database who were 55 years old or older in 1999 and had at least 1 male first-degree relative 40 years old or older and 1 female first-degree relative 30 years old or older. Likelihood ratios, calculated as the ratio of risk of observing a specific family history pattern in a prostate cancer case compared to a control, were used to update the PCPT Risk Calculator. Having at least 1 relative with prostate cancer increased the risk of prostate cancer. The likelihood ratio was 1.63 for 1 first-degree relative 60 years old or older at diagnosis (10.1% of cancer cases vs 6.2% of controls), 2.47 if the relative was younger than 60 years (1.5% vs 0.6%), 3.46 for 2 or more relatives 60 years old or older (1.2% vs 0.3%) and 5.68 for 2 or more relatives younger than 60 years (0.05% vs 0.009%). Among men with no diagnosed first-degree relatives the likelihood ratio was 1.09 for 1 or more second-degree relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer (12.7% vs 11.7%). Additional first-degree relatives with breast cancer, or first-degree or second-degree relatives with prostate cancer compounded these risks. A detailed family history is an independent predictor of prostate cancer compared to commonly used risk factors. It should be incorporated into decision making for biopsy. Compared with other costly biomarkers it is inexpensive and universally available. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The strongly coupled fourth family and a first-order electroweak phase transition. 1. Quark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Yoshio; Kohda, Masaya; Yasuda, Junichiro

    2009-01-01

    In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking due to strongly coupled fourth-family quarks and leptons, their low-energy effective descriptions may involve multiple composite Higgs fields, leading to a possibility that the electroweak phase transition at finite temperature is first-order due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. We examine the behavior of the electroweak phase transition on the basis of the effective renormalizable Yukawa theory, which consists of the fourth-family quarks and two SU(2)-doublet Higgs fields corresponding to the bilinear operators of the fourth-family quarks with/without imposing the compositeness condition. The strength of the first-order phase transition is estimated using the finite-temperature effective potential at one loop with ring improvement. In the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is found that there is a parameter region where the first-order phase transition is sufficiently strong for the electroweak baryogenesis with the experimentally acceptable Higgs boson and fourth-family quark masses. On the other hand, when the compositeness condition is imposed, the phase transition turns out to be weakly first-order, or possibly second-order, although the result is rather sensitive to the details of the compositeness condition. By combining with the result of the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is argued that with the fourth-family quark masses in the range of 330-480 GeV, corresponding to the compositeness scale in the range of 1.0-2.3 TeV, the four-fermion interaction among the fourth-family quarks does not lead to the strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. (author)

  3. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study.

    OpenAIRE

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Guida, Florence; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Schmaus, Annie; Carton, Matthieu; Cénée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. METHODS: We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case--control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence inte...

  4. Family history of diabetes and risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Korean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Wan; Yun, Ji Eun; Park, Taesung; Cho, Eorin; Jee, Sun Ha; Jang, Yangsu; Beaty, Terri H; Samet, Jonathan M

    2008-03-01

    The importance of family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD) as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains controversial. A report of diabetes in parents and siblings was used to establish FHD in a cohort of 1,005,230 Koreans aged 30-95 years insured by the National Health Insurance Corporation who had a biennial medical evaluation during 1992-1995. ASCVD morbidity and mortality from 1993 to 2005 were examined in relation to FHD and other ASCVD risk factors. The risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) increased significantly (19%) in men with FHD but not in women. A strong interaction was observed between FHD and personal history of diabetes for the occurrence of ASCVD; men with both diabetes and FHD were at significantly increased risk of developing IHD, cerebrovascular disease and ASCVD with hazard ratios (HR) of 2.28, 2.07, and 2.12, respectively, compared to those who had neither FHD nor type 2 diabetes. Corresponding risks were 2.64, 2.03, and 2.10 in women, respectively. This study demonstrates that risk of ASCVD is increased among those with diabetes and a family history of diabetes; suggesting that genetic factors associated with occurrence of familial diabetes may increase risk of ASCVD beyond the risk among people without FHD.

  5. Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.

  6. Do people really know what makes a family history of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jennifer N W; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-12-01

    Family history is often referred to as a family tree in casual everyday conservations, but it carries a different connotation in medicine. This study is the first to investigate people's understanding of 'family medical history' and the concept of 'family' in the context of inherited cancer. Three hundred and nine staff at the Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds completed an online web survey. Not all respondents understood or knew what makes a family history of cancer. Only 54% knew exactly the type of information required to make a family history. Apart from blood relatives, adopted and step-siblings, step parents, in-laws, spouses, friends and colleagues were also named as 'family' for family history taking. Personal experience of living with cancer and academic qualification were not significant in influencing knowledge of family history. There is misunderstanding and poor knowledge of family history of cancer and the type of information required to make a family history even in a sample of people teaching and researching medicine and health issues. Public understanding of the value of family medical history in cancer prevention and management is important if informed clinical decisions and appropriate health care are to be delivered. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Taking a nutrition history: a practical approach for family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, L; Deen, D

    1999-03-15

    The association between nutrition and health has been clearly documented. Primary care physicians are expected to address nutrition and dietary behavior issues with their patients in the context of a brief clinical encounter. This article proposes the use of a short interview form, with specific suggestions for behavior changes that family physicians can use to help their patients meet currently accepted dietary guidelines. Answers to the questions on the interview form provide the physician with an overall sense of the patient's daily eating habits and help to identify major sources of saturated fat in the patient's diet. The patient is asked about the number of meals and snacks eaten in a 24-hour period, dining-out habits and frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, fish, dairy products and desserts. Documentation of dietary changes can be accomplished using the suggested nutrition history form, and improvements in nutritional status can be measured using weight, blood pressure and laboratory test data.

  8. Risk of second breast cancer according to estrogen receptor status and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Benhamou, Simone; Fioretta, Gérald; Verkooijen, Helena M; Chappuis, Pierre O; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Castiglione, Monica; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2011-05-01

    A recent study reported an increased risk of contralateral estrogen-negative breast cancer after a first primary estrogen-negative breast cancer. Our study aims to confirm this result and to evaluate how the risk of second breast cancer occurrence is affected by family history of breast cancer and anti-estrogen treatment. We included all 4,152 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2007, using data from the population-based Geneva Cancer Registry. We compared the incidence of second breast cancer among patients according to estrogen receptor (ER) status with that expected in the general population by age-period Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs). Among the cohort, 63 women developed second breast cancer. Patients with ER-positive first tumors had a decreased risk of second breast cancer occurrence (SIR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90), whereas patients with ER-negative primary tumors had an increased risk (SIR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.19-3.09) limited to ER-negative second tumors (SIR: 7.94, 95% CI: 3.81-14.60). Patients with positive family history had a tenfold (SIR: 9.74, 95% CI: 3.57-21.12) higher risk of ER-negative second tumor which increased to nearly 50-fold (SIR: 46.18, 95% CI: 12.58-118.22) when the first tumor was ER-negative. Treatment with anti-estrogen decreased the risk of second ER-positive tumors but not ER-negative tumors. The risk of second ER-negative breast cancer is very high after a first ER-negative tumor, in particular among women with strong family history. Surveillance and prevention of second cancer occurrence should consider both ER status of the first tumor and family history.

  9. The contribution of reproductive factors and family history towards premenopausal breast cancer risk in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razif, S Mohd; Sulaiman, S; Hanie, S Soraya; Aina, E Nor; Rohaizak, M; Fuad, I; Nurismah, M I; Sharifah, N A

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. This study aimed to determine the reproductive for premenopausal breast cancer risk in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted in 216 histopathologically confirmed cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 216 community-based controls that were matched by age within a 5-year period and ethnicity. The results of this study showed that premenopausal breast cancer risks were strongly related to parity, number of live births and family history of breast cancer. Premenopausal women with these known reproductive and family history risk factors should take extra measures to undergo appropriate screening method for early detection of breast cancer.

  10. Family history of vascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    A positive family history of cardiovascular disease is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In clinical practice, this evident relation between the presence of cardiovascular disease in families and first cardiovascular events has resulted in family history being

  11. Positive family history of aortic dissection dramatically increases dissection risk in family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Chou, Alan S; Mok, Salvior C M; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Charilaou, Paris; Zafar, Mohammad A; Sieller, Richard S; Tranquilli, Maryann; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A

    2017-08-01

    Although family members of patients with aortic dissection (AoD) are believed to be at higher risk of AoD, the prognostic value of family history (FH) of aortic dissection (FHAD) in family members of patients with AoD has not been studied rigorously. We seek examine how much a positive FHAD increases the risk of developing new aortic dissection (AoD) among first-degree relatives. Patients with AoD at our institution were analyzed for information of FHAD. Positive FHAD referred to that AoD occurred in index patient and one or more first-degree relatives. Negative FHAD was defined as the condition in which only one case of AoD (the index patient) occurred in the family. The age at AoD, exposure years in adulthood before AoD, and annual probability of AoD among first-degree relatives were compared between patients with negative and positive FHADs. FHAD was positive in 32 and negative in 68 among the 100 AoD patients with detailed family history information. Mean age at dissection was 59.9±14.7years. Compared to negative FHAD, patients with positive FHAD dissected at significantly younger age (54.7±16.8 vs 62.4±13.0years, p=0.013), had more AoD events in first-degree relatives (2.3±0.6 vs 1.0±0.0, pfamily members, with a higher annual probability of aortic dissection, a shorter duration of "exposure time" before dissection occurs and a lower mean age at time of dissection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of family history assessment on communication with family members and health care providers: A report from the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Acheson, Louise S

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (p'scommunicating at baseline and those who were not. Among participants who were not communicating at baseline, intervention participants had higher odds of communicating with family members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness of the Family History as a Factor in Psychological Well-being in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakimova T.V.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of connection of psychological well-being of adolescents with their awareness of their own family history. We briefly overview the main trends and individual empirical studies on the influence of family history of psychological well-being of the individual. In the present study, we focuses not on pathological influence of family history, but on its resource and supporting effect during the difficulties of adolescence. The study involved 32 teenagers. The empirical study is based on data obtained using a questionnaire designed to examine the links of teenager with extended family members and his awareness of family history. We found that adolescents who know their family history, have an interest in it and keep in touch with the extended family, are characterized by high values of the level of psychological well-being.

  14. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  15. Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2015-12-01

    As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual's risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80-3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74-3.35). Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90-7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Impact of Family History Assessment on Communication with Family Members and Health Care Providers: A report from the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T.; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Acheson, Louise S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. Methods A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6 month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. Results A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (psfamily members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Conclusion Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. PMID:25901453

  17. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  18. Family narratives on fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Susanna; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a history of sexual abuse on foster families has been studied, although never from a multilevel family perspective. Therefore, in Project Iris narratives are collected on the expertise, needs and experiences of family members in foster families concerning the care for a child with a

  19. The prognostic value of family history among patients with urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbers, Lieke; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Aben, Katja K; Alfred Witjes, J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H

    2015-03-01

    A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  20. Relations between the course of illness, family history of schizophrenia and family functioning in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Palijan, Tija Zarković; Graovac, Mirjana; Siuc-Valković, Dunja; Knez, Rajna; Grahovac, Tanja

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the aspects of family functioning which are associated with the course and remission of schizophrenia and to explore relations between aspects of family functioning and family history of schizophrenia. The subjects were 90 patients, treated at the Clinical hospital centre in Rijeka, Croatia, with diagnosed schizophrenia (F20.0 to F20.5) and without psychiatric comorbidity. The patients were organized into three groups depending on the treatment status during the calendar year that preceded the year in which the survey took place: patients with schizophrenia who received an outpatient care and were maintaining favourable remission, patients who were hospitalized once to twice and patients who were hospitalized at least three times in the precedent calendar year. The treatment status was used as an indicator of the course of the illness. A Family Functioning Scale was applied and the data on the absence/presence of schizophrenia in the family history were collected through the examination of previous medical records. The lowest prevalence of familial schizophrenia was found among the patients who were maintaining favourable remission. Among the three groups statistically significant differences were found regarding the following family functioning variables: expressiveness, family sociability, democratic family style. Also there were observed statistically significant differences in the family functioning depending on the presence/absence of the schizophrenia in the family history that included following domains: family cohesion, external locus of control and democratic family style. Our study gives support to the conclusion that family functioning of persons with schizophrenia differs depending on the course of the illness and presence/absence of schizophrenia in the family history.

  1. Protocol for implementation of family health history collection and decision support into primary care using a computerized family health history system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje Astrid B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CDC's Family History Public Health Initiative encourages adoption and increase awareness of family health history. To meet these goals and develop a personalized medicine implementation science research agenda, the Genomedical Connection is using an implementation research (T3 research framework to develop and integrate a self-administered computerized family history system with built-in decision support into 2 primary care clinics in North Carolina. Methods/Design The family health history system collects a three generation family history on 48 conditions and provides decision support (pedigree and tabular family history, provider recommendation report and patient summary report for 4 pilot conditions: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, and thrombosis. All adult English-speaking, non-adopted, patients scheduled for well-visits are invited to complete the family health system prior to their appointment. Decision support documents are entered into the medical record and available to provider's prior to the appointment. In order to optimize integration, components were piloted by stakeholders prior to and during implementation. Primary outcomes are change in appropriate testing for hereditary thrombophilia and screening for breast cancer, colon cancer, and ovarian cancer one year after study enrollment. Secondary outcomes include implementation measures related to the benefits and burdens of the family health system and its impact on clinic workflow, patients' risk perception, and intention to change health related behaviors. Outcomes are assessed through chart review, patient surveys at baseline and follow-up, and provider surveys. Clinical validity of the decision support is calculated by comparing its recommendations to those made by a genetic counselor reviewing the same pedigree; and clinical utility is demonstrated through reclassification rates and changes in appropriate screening (the primary outcome

  2. The impact of a male or female thrombotic family history on contraceptive counseling: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, E. F. W.; Veeger, N. J. G. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Hamulyák, K.; Prins, M. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Meijer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Essentials It is unknown if a male or female thrombotic family history influences risk in female relatives. We assessed thrombotic risk in female relatives of male and female patients with thrombosis. A hormonally related female thrombotic family history further increases risk in female relatives.

  3. Family History, Gender, and Eating and Body Image Concerns in University Students Seeking Counseling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Adriane Q.; Erekson, David M.; Steinberg, Rachel M.; Clayson, Rachelle A.; Albright, Dallin D.

    2018-01-01

    Family history events have been shown to be reliable predictors of eating and body image concerns; however, little is known regarding how family history events compare in a clinical sample, or if these events differ by gender. The current study addresses this paucity, focusing on 3,129 university students seeking clinical services. Having a family…

  4. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  5. The clinical impact of a positive family history of psychosis or mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A family history of psychosis is associated with negative clinical characteristics of psychosis. Aim: We aimed to determine the relationship between a family history (in first-degree relatives) of psychosis (FHP) or of any mental illness (FHM), and the clinical features (including cannabis use) of first episode early ...

  6. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Coping, Illness Perception, and Family Adaptability in Oncological Patients with a Family History of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolica, Roxana; Iorga, Magdalena; Petrariu, Florin Dumitru; Azoicai, Doina

    2017-01-01

    Aim . The study investigated the differences between patients with and without a family history of cancer regarding coping strategies, illness perception, and family adaptability to the disease. Material and Methods . A total of 124 patients diagnosed with cancer were included in the research (55 of them with a family history of cancer). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire , the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale , the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale , and the Illness Perception Questionnaire were applied. The data were processed using the SPSS 21 software. Results . Patients with previous records of cancer in the family get significantly higher scores for the illness coherence factor. Family satisfaction is significantly higher for patients with a genetic risk, compared to the one reported by patients who suffer from the disease but have no genetic risk. Cognitive-behavioral coping strategies and family cohesion are factors that correlate with an adaptive perception of the illness in the case of patients with a family history of cancer. Conclusion . Results are important for the construction of strategies used for patients with a family history of cancer.

  8. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana González-Pinto

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

  9. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

  10. A detailed family history of myocardial infarction and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Petersen, Jonathan Aavang; Bundgård, Henning

    2015-01-01

    of cardiovascular medications. CONCLUSION: A detailed family history, particularly number of affected first- and second-degree relatives, contributes meaningfully to risk assessment, especially in middle-aged persons. Future studies should test for potential improvement of risk algorithm prediction using detailed......BACKGROUND: Family history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for MI. Several genetic variants are associated with increased risk of MI and family history of MI in a first-degree relative doubles MI risk. However, although family history of MI is not a simple dichotomous...... risk factor, the impact of specific, detailed family histories has not received much attention, despite its high clinical relevance. We examined risk of MI by MIs in first- and second-degree relatives and by number and age of affected relatives. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using Danish national registers, we...

  11. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor...... but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...... probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree...

  12. Prognostic significance of cancer family history for patients with gastric cancer: a single center experience from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Yu, Lin; Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Wang, Yanong

    2016-06-14

    Family history of cancer is a risk factor for gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the prognoses of gastric cancer patients with family history of cancer. A total of 1805 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from 2000 to 2008 were evaluated. The clinicopathologic parameters and prognoses of gastric cancer patients with a positive family history (PFH) of cancer were compared with those with a negative family history (NFH). Of 1805 patients, 382 (21.2%) patients had a positive family history of cancer. Positive family history of cancer correlated with younger age, more frequent alcohol and tobacco use, worse differentiation, smaller tumor size, and more frequent tumor location in the lower 1/3 of the stomach. The prognoses of patients with a positive family history of cancer were better than that of patients with a negative family history. Family history of cancer independently correlated with better prognosis after curative gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.

  13. Breast Cancer Family History and Allele-Specific DNA Methylation in the Legacy Girls Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Do, Catherine; Andrulis, Irene L; John, Esther M; Daly, Mary B; Buys, Saundra S; Chung, Wendy K; Knight, Julia A; Bradbury, Angela R; Keegan, Theresa H M; Schwartz, Lisa; Krupska, Izabela; Miller, Rachel L; Santella, Regina M; Tycko, Benjamin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2018-02-13

    Family history, a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, can have both genetic and environmental contributions. Shared environment in families as well as epigenetic changes that also may be influenced by shared genetics and environment may also explain familial clustering of cancers. Epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, can change the activity of a DNA segment without a change in the sequence; environmental exposures experienced across the life course can induce such changes. However, genetic-epigenetic interactions, detected as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs; a.k.a. meQTLs) and haplotype-dependent allele-specific methylation (hap-ASM), can also contribute to inter-individual differences in DNA methylation patterns. To identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility, we examined differences in white blood cell DNA methylation in 29 candidate genes in 426 girls (ages 6-13 years) from the LEGACY Girls Study, 239 with and 187 without a breast cancer family history (BCFH). We measured methylation by targeted massively parallel bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) and observed BCFH DMRs in two genes: ESR1 (Δ 4.9%, P = 0.003) and SEC16B (Δ 3.6%, P = 0.026), each of which has been previously implicated in breast cancer susceptibility and pubertal development. These DMRs showed high inter-individual variability in methylation, suggesting the presence of mQTLs/hap-ASM. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms data in the bis-seq amplicon, we found strong hap-ASM in SEC16B (with allele specific-differences ranging from 42% to 74%). These findings suggest that differential methylation in genes relevant to breast cancer susceptibility may be present early in life, and that inherited genetic factors underlie some of these epigenetic differences.

  14. Deriving consumer-facing disease concepts for family health histories using multi-source sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Haug, Peter J; Williams, Marc S

    2010-10-01

    The family health history has long been recognized as an effective way of understanding individuals' susceptibility to familial disease; yet electronic tools to support the capture and use of these data have been characterized as inadequate. As part of an ongoing effort to build patient-facing tools for entering detailed family health histories, we have compiled a set of concepts specific to familial disease using multi-source sampling. These concepts were abstracted by analyzing family health history data patterns in our enterprise data warehouse, collection patterns of consumer personal health records, analyses from the local state health department, a healthcare data dictionary, and concepts derived from genetic-oriented consumer education materials. Collectively, these sources yielded a set of more than 500 unique disease concepts, represented by more than 2500 synonyms for supporting patients in entering coded family health histories. We expect that these concepts will be useful in providing meaningful data and education resources for patients and providers alike.

  15. Family medicine training and practice in Malawi: History, progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the development and implementation of family medicine training and practice in Malawi, with special attention given to its current status and the projected role the trained family physician will be expected to play in the future. The general aim of the paper is to briefly review the role of family physicians in ...

  16. DNA Damage Observed in Unaffected Individuals with Family History of T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nikhila; Abilash, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes has been documented to cause high levels of DNA fragmentation in some cases. As diabetes is inheritable and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, an investigation into the genomic stability of individuals who are strongly at risk of inheriting diabetes was conducted by inducing oxidative stress, as DNA damage in unaffected individuals could be a sign of onset of the disease or the presence of genetic alterations that reduce cellular defences against reactive oxygen species. In this study, alkaline comet assay was performed on isolated human leukocytes to determine whether individuals with a family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are more prone to DNA damage under oxidative stress. Visual scoring of comets showed that these individuals have higher degree of DNA damage compared to a control individual with no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Further studies with large sample could determine the presence of disabled cellular defences against oxidative stress in unaffected individuals and intervention with antioxidants could prevent or manage Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.

  17. Weak and strong convergence theorems for finite families of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Bashir, Ali

    2007-07-01

    Let E be a real uniformly convex Banach space whose dual space E* satisfies the Kadec- Klee property, K be a closed convex nonempty subset of E . Let T 1 , T 2 , . . . , T m : K → K be asymptotically nonexpansive mappings of K into E with sequences (respectively) {k in } n=1 ∞ satisfying k in → 1 as n → ∞, i = 1, 2 , ...,m and Σ n=1 ∞ (k in - 1) in } n=1 ∞ be a sequence in [ε, 1 - ε ], for each i element of { 1, 2 , . . . ,m} (respectively). Let {x n } be a sequence generated for m ≥ 2 by, x 1 element of K, x n+1 = (1 - α 1 n )x n + α 1 n T 1 n y n+m-2 , y n+m-2 = (1 - α 2 n )x n + α 2 n T 2 n y n+m-3 , ..., y n = (1 - α mn )x n + α mn T m n x n , n ≥ 1. Let Intersection i=1 m F (T i ) ≠ 0 . Then, {x n } converges weakly to a common fixed point of the family {T i } i=1 m . Under some appropriate condition on the family {T i } i=1 m , a strong convergence theorem is also roved. (author)

  18. Early predictors of dyslexia in Chinese children: familial history of dyslexia, language delay, and cognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y-C; Wong, Terry T-Y; Wong, Simpson W-L

    2011-02-01

    This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills. Forty-seven at-risk children (21 who were initially language delayed and 26 with familial risk) and 47 control children matched on age, IQ, and mothers' education were tested on syllable awareness, tone detection, rapid automatized naming, visual skill, morphological awareness, and word reading at age 5 and subsequently tested for dyslexia on a standard Hong Kong measure at age 7. Of those with an early language delay, 62% subsequently manifested dyslexia; for those with familial risk, the rate of dyslexia was 50%. Those with dyslexia were best distinguished from those without dyslexia by the age-5 measures of morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and word reading itself; other measures did not distinguish the groups. In a combined regression analysis across all participants, morphological awareness uniquely explained word reading accuracy and rapid automatized naming uniquely explained timed word reading at age 7, with all other measures statistically controlled. Separate stepwise regression analyses by group indicated that visual skill uniquely explained subsequent literacy skills in the at-risk group only, whereas tone and syllable awareness were unique predictors of literacy skills in the control group only. Both early language delay and familial risk strongly overlap with subsequent dyslexia in Chinese children. Overall, rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness are relatively strong correlates of developmental dyslexia in Chinese; visual skill and phonological awareness may also be uniquely associated with subsequent literacy development in at-risk and typically developing children, respectively. © 2010

  19. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  20. Frequency of family history of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS (Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur) Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruzzi, M; Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Pramparo, P; Delmonte, H; Rudich, V; Piskorz, D; Negri, E; Soifer, S; La Vecchia, C

    1997-07-15

    The relation between family history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk of AMI was analyzed using data of a case-control study conducted in Argentina between 1992 and 1994. Case patients were 1,060 subjects with AMI admitted to 35 coronary care units, and controls were 1,071 subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified, for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or likely risk factors for AMI: 31% of cases versus 15% of controls reported > or = 1 first-degree relative with history of AMI. Compared with subjects without family history of AMI, the odds ratio (OR) of AMI, after allowance for age, sex, cholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, education, social class, and physical exercise, was 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 2.74) for those with family history of AMI. The OR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.60) for subjects with 1 relative, and 3.18 (95% C 1.86 to 5.44) for those reporting > or = 2 relatives with AMI. In women the OR for any family history of AMI was 2.83, and in men 2.01. The association was of similar magnitude if the mother (OR 1.98), the father (OR 2.13), or a sibling (OR 2.48) had had an AMI. The association with family history was stronger at a younger age because the OR for subjects reporting > or = 2 more relatives with a history of AMI was 4.42 for subjects aged or = 55 years. The association between AMI and family history of AMI was consistent across separate strata of education, social class, smoking, and serum cholesterol, but was less strong in subjects with history of diabetes and hypertension. When the interaction of known risk factors with family history of AMI was analyzed, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking had approximately multiplicative effects on the relative risk. The OR was 4.50 for subjects with family history and cholesterol > or = 240 ml/dl, 4.52 for those with hypertension, and 5.77 for current smokers with family

  1. Family Support in Nursing Homes Serving Residents with a Mental Health History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun

    2010-01-01

    Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…

  2. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  3. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  4. Correlation between obesity with atopy and family history of atopy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putria Rayani Apandi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of childhood obesity and atopy has increased in recent decades. Research on links between obesity and atopy has shown varied results. Few previous studies have reported on the significance of family history of atopic disease in children. Objective To determine correlation between obesity with atopy and family history of atopic disease in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2010 in the Pediatric Allergy-Immunology subdivision, Hasan Sadikin Hospital. Children aged 6−11 years were divided into four groups of 40 each: obese subjects with and without family history of atopic disease, and normal weight subjects with and without family history of atopic disease. Skin prick test was performed to determine which subjects had atopy. Chi-square test was used to analyze mutual independence, and partial Chi-square test was used to analyze correlation of obesity to atopy and family history of atopic disease in children. Environmental factors, type of childbirth, and pregnancy history were also analyzed as risk factors for atopy. Results Of 80 obese children with and without family history of atopic disease, 40 (100% and 38 (95%, respectively, were atopic. Of 80 normal weight children with and without family history of atopic disease, 39 (98% and 9 (23%, respectively, were atopic. Thus atopy was observed in 126 subjects, while the remaining 34 subjects were non-atopic. Partial test showed a correlation between obesity with atopy and family history of atopic disease (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences in risk factors for atopy by group. Conclusion Obesity correlates with atopy and family history of atopic disease in children.

  5. Family histories of school bullying: implications for parent-child psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh; Smith, Bradley; Isherwood, Linda

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a parent's past history of peer victimisation predicted their children's risk of being bullied at school. In face-to-face interviews, a representative community sample of 1895 mothers and fathers were asked about exposure to traumatic bullying during their schooling. Parents completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to measure possible links with health-related quality of life. The interviews also inquired whether their children were victims of traumatic bullying at school. Parental victimisation was associated with an increased risk for their children being bullied (55% with a positive parental history compared with 25% with no parental history: relative risk=2.17). In a multivariate logistic model controlling for the parents' age, gender, socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life (physical and emotional components), parental victimisation remained a strong predictor for the children's victimisation at school (relative risk=2.00). In 9.3% of the sample, both parent and child experienced bullying during their schooling. Parent and child dyads can be exposed sequentially to school bullying. In some instances, they may share familial characteristics that are exploited by bullies. These experiences can be explored in parent-child psychotherapy.

  6. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fathollahi-Dehkordi, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Sirous, Reza; Tavakoli, Neda; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE) according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t -test, and analysis of covariance. Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages ( P 0.05). The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  7. Genetic risk scores and family history as predictors of schizophrenia in Nordic registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Pouget, J G; Andreassen, O A; Djurovic, S; Esko, T; Hultman, C M; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Werge, T; Sullivan, P F

    2017-09-25

    Family history is a long-standing and readily obtainable risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ). Low-cost genotyping technologies have enabled large genetic studies of SCZ, and the results suggest the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS, direct assessments of inherited common variant risk). Few studies have evaluated family history and GRS simultaneously to ask whether one can explain away the other. We studied 5959 SCZ cases and 8717 controls from four Nordic countries. All subjects had family history data from national registers and genome-wide genotypes that were processed through the quality control procedures used by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Using external training data, GRS were estimated for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression, autism, educational attainment, and body mass index. Multivariable modeling was used to estimate effect sizes. Using harmonized genomic and national register data from Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden, we confirmed that family history of SCZ and GRS for SCZ and BIP were risk factors for SCZ. In a joint model, the effects of GRS for SCZ and BIP were essentially unchanged, and the effect of family history was attenuated but remained significant. The predictive capacity of a model including GRS and family history neared the minimum for clinical utility. Combining national register data with measured genetic risk factors represents an important investigative approach for psychotic disorders. Our findings suggest the potential clinical utility of combining GRS and family history for early prediction and diagnostic improvements.

  8. Community-centered family health history: a customized approach to increased health communication and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James; Edelson, Vaughn; Gardner, Nicora; Gepp, Alejandra; Kyler, Panelpha; Moore, Penelope; Petruccio, Claudia; Williams, Marc; Terry, Sharon; Bowen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of whether family health history (FHH) tools used by individuals, families, and communities inspire measurable changes in communication and behavior. The Community-Centered Family Health History (CCFHH) project was a collaborative endeavor among national and community-based organizations with an interest in genetics education and health. Using community- based participatory research principles as a foundation, CCFHH examined whether the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit, a set of two customizable booklets on health and genetics, encourages discussion and collection of FHH information across diverse communities. Five communities across the country measured the utility of customized versions of the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit. Each community partner recruited families, consisting of two or more blood relatives, to use the toolkit for 3 months, discuss it among their family members, and consider the implications of the health information. Pre- and postintervention surveys measured family communication about family history and disease risk and the use of FHH information in health care provider interactions. After aggregate, cross-community analysis of individual responses, from pre- to post-toolkit use family members showed increases in communication about family history of disease risk (p < .05) and in awareness about FHH (p < .05). These findings indicate that diverse communities are receptive to FHH intervention, and tailored health educational materials can lead to increased conversations and awareness about health issues across communities.

  9. Family history of venous thromboembolism and identifying factor V Leiden carriers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Momirova, Valerija; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Wenstrom, Katharine; Wendel, George; Samuels, Philip; Sibai, Baha; Spong, Catherine Y; Cotroneo, Margaret; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J

    2010-03-01

    To estimate whether there is a correlation between family history of venous thromboembolism and factor V Leiden mutation carriage in gravid women without a personal history of venous thromboembolism. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. Family history of venous thromboembolism in either first- or second-degree relatives was self-reported. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of family history to predict factor V Leiden mutation carrier status were calculated. Women without a personal venous thromboembolism history and with available DNA were included (n=5,168). One hundred forty women (2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.2%]) were factor V Leiden mutation-positive. Four hundred twelve women (8.0% [95% CI 7.3-8.7%]) reported a family history of venous thromboembolism. Women with a positive family history were twofold more likely to be factor V Leiden mutation carriers than those with a negative family history (23 of 412 [5.6%] compared with 117 of 4,756 [2.5%], Pfactor V Leiden carriers were 16.4% (95% CI 10.7-23.6%), 92.3% (95% CI 91.5-93.0%), and 5.6% (95% CI 3.6-8.3%), respectively. Although a family history of venous thromboembolism is associated with factor V Leiden mutation in thrombosis-free gravid women, the sensitivity and positive predictive values are too low to recommend screening women for the factor V Leiden mutation based solely on a family history.

  10. [Association between type 2 diabetes and physical activity in individuals with family history of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Fanny; Díaz-Martínez, Ximena; Garrido-Méndez, Álex; Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Salas, Carlos; Poblete-Valderrama, Felipe; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and family history of diabetes is modified by the levels of physical activity in the Chilean population. In this study were included 5129 participants from the cross-sectional 2009-2010 National Health Survey. Physical activity level was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and family history of T2D, through self-reporting. The association between diabetes, family history of diabetes and physical activity was determined using logistic regression. The odds of developing T2D in people with family history of this pathology is high, independent of their levels of physical activity and adiposity. Both men and women with family history of T2D have a higher probability of developing T2D. The odds ratio for having T2D was 5,49 (95%CI: 3,85-7,84; p <0,0001) in women, and 8,16 (95%CI: 4,96-13,4; p <0,0001) in men with family history of T2D and low levels of physical activity in comparison to those with high levels of physical activity and without a family history. Given the elevated risk of developing T2D presented by individuals with a family history of this pathology, and the effect of physical activity in reducing such risk, people with family history of diabetes may need higher levels of physical activity to attenuate their susceptibility to T2D. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship of colorectal cancer with familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps in Khorramabad(2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh Ghanadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of familial history of gastrointestinal cancers and personal history of colon polyps with colorectal cancer incidence in khorramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients with definite diagnosis of colon cancer based on colonoscopy and pathology in 2012. The control group included 56 persons from outpatients without a history of gastrointestinal diseases admitted to the skin and eye clinics of shohada ashayer hospital, who were matched with the patients for age and gender. The two groups were studied in terms of familial history of gastrointestinal diseases in immediate relatives and personal history of colorectal polyps using a self-constructed questionnaire. Fisher exact test and odds ratio estimate was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 52.8±15.5 years old, and 56% were male. A significant relationship was found between familial history of gastric and colon cancers in immediate relatives and colorectal cancer incidence in the patients (p<0.05. The odds ratio estimate of colorectal cancer incidence in the individuals with a positive history of gastric cancer and colon cancers in immediate relatives were respectively 3.96(CI=1.44-6.61 and 6.75 (CI=2.4-11.1 times of the estimate in the control individuals. No significant relationship was found between a history of esophageal cancers in immediate relatives with colon cancer incidence in the patients (p=0.61. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between a history of colon polyps and colorectal cancer incidence (p=0.004. Conclusion: The results of the present study should be confirmed in the further studies with larger sample sizes, so that serious measures to control the cancer can be taken through developing comprehensive prevention programs based on screening.

  12. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus colonization is not a strongly heritable trait in Amish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Claire Roghmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of adults are persistently colonized with S. aureus in the anterior nares. Host genetic factors could contribute susceptibility to this phenotype. The objective of this study was to determine whether the phenotype of persistent S. aureus colonization aggregates in family members who live in different households. Healthy adults and their eligible same sex siblings who lived in different households were recruited from the Old Order Amish of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. All participants had two cultures of the anterior nares to determine if they were persistently colonized with S. aureus. Three hundred and ninety eight participants finished the study, of whom 166 were index cases and 232 were siblings of index cases. Eighteen per cent (71/398 of all participants and 17% (29/166 of index cases were persistently colonized with S. aureus. Twenty two per cent (8/36 of siblings of persistently colonized index cases were persistently colonized with S. aureus compared to 17% (34/196 of siblings of non-persistently colonized index cases, yielding a prevalence rate ratio of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.65-2.54, p = 0.64 and sibling relative risk of 1.25 (95% CI: 0.65-2.38, p = 0.51. The heritability of persistent colonization was 0.19±0.21 (p = 0.31. Persistent S. aureus colonization does not strongly aggregate in Amish family members in different households and heritability is low, suggesting that environmental factors or acquired host factors are more important than host genetic factors in determining persistent S. aureus colonization in this community.

  13. CSF 5-HIAA and family history of antisocial personality disorder in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, J N; Morris, J A; Murphy, D L

    1997-12-01

    The relationship between genetic liability for antisocial behavior and CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in newborns was explored. The authors assayed 5-HIAA in "leftover" CSF from 193 neurologically normal newborns and obtained family psychiatric histories of the newborns' first- and second-degree relatives. Levels of 5-HIAA were significantly lower in the infants with family histories of antisocial personality disorder than in the newborns without such family histories. These findings support the possibility that serotonin mediates one component of genetic liability to antisocial outcome, but the magnitude of that component may be less than what has been inferred from previously published reports.

  14. Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...

  15. Family history of cancer in benign brain tumor subtypes versus gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn eOstrom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not ben established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study (OBTS. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%, 78 meningioma (65%, 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1% and 152 glioma patients (58.2%. The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusions: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.

  16. Life stress and family history for depression: the moderating role of past depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-02-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Family History of Cancer in Benign Brain Tumor Subtypes Versus Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, Quinn T.; McCulloh, Christopher; Chen, Yanwen; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not been established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%), 78 meningioma (65%), 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1%), and 152 glioma patients (58.2%). The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusion: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.

  18. Risk of Cardiomyopathy in Younger Persons With a Family History of Death from Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis F; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Øyen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recommendations for presymptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients are based on findings from tertiary centers. Cardiomyopathy inheritance patterns are fairly well understood, but how cardiomyopathy in younger persons (<50 years) aggregates in families at the populat......BACKGROUND: Recommendations for presymptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients are based on findings from tertiary centers. Cardiomyopathy inheritance patterns are fairly well understood, but how cardiomyopathy in younger persons (families...... at the population level is unclear. In a nationwide cohort, we examined the risk of cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (... ascertained family history of premature (

  19. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  20. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  1. Long-term effects of the strong African American families program on youths' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C

    2010-04-01

    This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Triple negative cancers are a type of breast cancer that lack estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Guidelines Version 2.2014 Genetics/Familial ...

  3. Placement History of Foster Children : A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment

  4. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  5. The influence of informant characteristics on the reliability of family history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Kim H W; Derks, Eske M; Hendriks, Eva J E; Cahn, Wiepke

    2011-06-01

    Family history interviews are widely used in psychiatric research, as well as in genetic and twin studies, and provide a way to collect family history information quickly and economically. To obtain a valid assessment of family history, it is important to investigate which family member will be able to provide accurate information. Previous research shows that the validity of family history reporting can be influenced by characteristics of the informant, such as age, gender and personal history of psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a subject's position in a pedigree on the validity of data collection. Family history data on diabetes and psychiatric disorders were collected in three generations of 33 families by interviewing both an index subject (3rd generation) and his or her mother (2nd generation). Mothers were shown to report higher rates of diabetes and psychiatric disorder in the family compared to the index subjects. There was no significant difference in the disease rate reported by male and female index subject. Mothers who experienced a depressive episode indicated significantly more family members as having a psychiatric disorder than mothers who never experienced such an episode. This could be explained by the presence of informant bias, but may also result from the fact that depression is a heritable disorder and is therefore actually more prevalent in these families. Our findings suggest that family interview data should be collected by interviewing subjects who have a central position in the pedigree and can therefore provide information on his/her own generation, the previous and the next. In addition, psychiatric status of the informant should be carefully addressed.

  6. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer...

  7. Deficits in Affective Prosody Comprehension: Family History of Alcoholism versus Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sorocco, Kristen H.; Monnot, Marilee; Vincent, Andrea S.; Ross, Elliott D.; Lovallo, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Abstinent alcoholics have deficits in comprehending the affective intonation in speech. Prior work suggests that these deficits are due to alcohol exposure rather than preexisting risk factors for alcoholism. The present paper examines whether family history of alcoholism is a contributor to affective prosody deficits in alcoholics. Methods: Fifty-eight healthy, nonabusing young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism or other substance abuse (29 FH+ and 29 FH−) wer...

  8. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...

  9. The relationship between family history of cancer, coping style and psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Cao, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between family history of cancer, coping style and psychological distress. Methods: Total 80 patients with family history of cancer and 72 normal controls were analyzed using self-reporting inventory (SCL-90), coping style scale and impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). Results: 1. Between the two groups of patients, there were significant differences in anxiety, depression, cancer-specific distress and coping style. 2. Psychological distress (anxie...

  10. Family History of Cancer in Relation to Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Castro-Webb, Nelsy; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Charlot, Marjory; Park, Song-Yi; Bandera, Elisa V; Troester, Melissa A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-02-01

    The evidence on the relation of family history of cancers other than breast cancer to breast cancer risk is conflicting, and most studies have not assessed specific breast cancer subtypes. We assessed the relation of first-degree family history of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and cervical cancer and lymphoma or leukemia, to the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)), ER(-), and triple-negative breast cancer in data from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 3,023 ER(+) and 1,497 ER(-) breast cancer cases (including 696 triple-negative cases) and 17,420 controls. First-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with increased risk of each subtype: OR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57-1.97) for ER(+), 1.67 (1.42-1.95) for ER(-), and 1.72 (1.38-2.13) for triple-negative breast cancer. Family history of cervical cancer was associated with increased risk of ER(-) (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.36-4.20), but not ER(+) cancer. Family history of both breast and prostate cancer was associated with increased risk of ER(+) (3.40; 2.42-4.79) and ER(-) (2.09; 1.21-3.63) cancer, but family history of both breast and lung cancer was associated only with ER(-) cancer (2.11; 1.29-3.46). A family history of cancers other than breast may influence the risk of breast cancer, and associations may differ by subtype. Greater surveillance and counseling for additional screening may be warranted for women with a family history of cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Family history and risk of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna L V; Andersson, Therese M-L; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Cnattingius, Sven; Dickman, Paul W; Lambe, Mats

    2015-05-01

    The risk of breast cancer is at least two-fold increased in young women with a family history of breast cancer. Pregnancy has a dual effect on breast cancer risk; a short-term increase followed by a long-term protection. We investigated if the risk of breast cancer during and within 10 years following pregnancy is affected by a family history of breast cancer. We followed a cohort of women aged 15-44 years between 1963 and 2009 identified in Swedish population-based registers. Family history was defined as having a mother or sister with breast cancer. We estimated incidence rate ratios of breast cancer during pregnancy and time intervals up to 10 years post-delivery, with a focus on pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC), defined as breast cancer during pregnancy or within 2 years post-delivery. In 3,452,506 women, there were 15,548 cases of breast cancer (1208 were PABC). Compared to nulliparous women, the risk of breast cancer was decreased during pregnancy, similar during first year and increased during second year post-delivery. The pattern was similar in women with or without family history of breast cancer. A peak in risk was observed 5-6 years following the first birth regardless of family history. After a second birth, this peak was only present in women with a family history. Our results indicate that women with a family history of breast cancer do not have a different breast cancer risk during and within 10 years following pregnancy compared to women without a family history.

  12. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87%. In 99% of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family.

  13. Relation between family history, obesity and risk for diabetes and heart disease in Pakistani children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, A.; Hakeem, R.; Hydrie, M.Z.; Ahmadani, M.Y.; Masood, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the differences in relative risk of developing diabetes and CHD, obesity, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of children having family history of diabetes or heart disease in first or second degree relatives as compared to control group. Design: Children were given a questionnaire to collect demographic data and to assess their dietary habits and family history. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of 8-10 years old children from 4 schools was taken. Subjects: Children having positive family history of diabetes (n=44) or heart disease (n=16) in first or second degree relatives were compared with a control group (n=39). Results: Children having positive family history for diabetes had slightly higher mean values for BMI, waist circumference, arm fat % as compared to the controls but the differences were not statistically significant. Overweight children (>85th Percentile of BMI for age) did not differ significantly in terms of various risk indicators however those who were in the uppermost tertile of arm fat % had significantly higher total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C, LDL:HDL and Insulin levels (P<0.05 in each case). Conclusion: Diabetes and CVD risks from positive family history for the disease are probably mediated through increased body fat percentage. Thus even when information about family history of disease is lacking, arm-fat-percentage could be used as an important screening tool for determining the risk status of children. (author)

  14. Completeness of pedigree and family cancer history for ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yedong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang Yoon

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the completeness of pedigree and of number of pedigree analysis to know the acceptable familial history in Korean women with ovarian cancer. Interview was conducted in 50 ovarian cancer patients for obtaining familial history three times over the 6 weeks. The completeness of pedigree is estimated in terms of familial history of disease (cancer), health status (health living, disease and death), and onset age of disease and death. The completion of pedigree was 79.3, 85.1, and 85.6% at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd time of interview and the time for pedigree analysis was 34.3, 10.8, and 3.1 minutes, respectively. The factors limiting pedigree analysis were as follows: out of contact with their relatives (38%), no living ancestors who know the family history (34%), dispersed family member because of the Korean War (16%), unknown cause of death (12%), reluctance to ask medical history of relatives (10%), and concealing their ovarian cancer (10%). The percentage of cancers revealed in 1st (2%) and 2nd degree (8%) relatives were increasing through surveys, especially colorectal cancer related with Lynch syndrome (4%). Analysis of pedigree at least two times is acceptable in Korean woman with ovarian cancer from the first study. The completion of pedigree is increasing, while time to take family history is decreasing during three time survey.

  15. Leveraging family history in population-based case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Hartge, Patricia; Kraft, Peter; Joshi, Amit D; Ziegler, Regina G; Barrdahl, Myrto; Chanock, Stephen J; Wacholder, Sholom; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2014-02-01

    Population-based epidemiologic studies often gather information from study participants on disease history among their family members. Although investigators widely recognize that family history will be associated with genotypes of the participants at disease susceptibility loci, they commonly ignore such information in primary genetic association analyses. In this report, we propose a simple approach to association testing by incorporating family history information as a "phenotype." We account for the expected attenuation in strength of association of the genotype of study participants with family history under Mendelian transmission. The proposed analysis can be performed using standard statistical software adopting either a meta- or pooled-analysis framework. Re-analysis of a total of 115 known susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms, discovered through genome-wide association studies for several disease traits, indicates that incorporation of family history information can increase efficiency by as much as 40%. Efficiency gain depends on the type of design used for conducting the primary study, extent of family history, and accuracy and completeness of reporting. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Multigenerational Positive Family History of Psychiatric Disorders Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed how family history loading affected the course of illness in patients from the United States. A total of 676 outpatients with bipolar disorder from the United States rated their illness and provided a parental and grandparental history of mood disorder, substance abuse, and

  17. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Omani Adults with no Family History of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan Al-Sinani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG among Omani adults with no family history (FH of diabetes and to investigate the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D, while excluding a FH of diabetes. Methods: A total of 1,182 Omani adults, aged ≥40 years, visited the Family Medicine & Community Health Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, on days other than the Diabetes Clinic days, from July 2010 to July 2011. The subjects were interviewed and asked if they had T2D or a FH of T2D. Results: Only 191 (16% reported no personal history of T2D or FH of the disease. Of these, anthropometric and biochemical data was complete in 159 subjects. Of these a total of 42 (26% had IFG according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Body mass index, fasting insulin, haemoglobin A1C and blood pressure (BP, were significantly higher among individuals with IFG (P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.01 and P <0.01, respectively. In addition, fasting insulin, BP and serum lipid profile were correlated with obesity indices (P <0.05. Obesity indices were strongly associated with the risk of IFG among Omanis, with waist circumference being the strongest predictor. Conclusion: Despite claiming no FH of diabetes, a large number of Omani adults in this study had a high risk of developing diabetes. This is possibly due to environmental factors and endogamy. The high prevalence of obesity combined with genetically susceptible individuals is a warning that diabetes could be a future epidemic in Oman.

  18. Possible consequences of applying guidelines to healthy women with a family history of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, CJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Krol-Warmerdam, EMM; Blom, Jannet; Hoogendoorn, WE; Seynaeve, CMJC; Brekelmans, CTM; Devilee, P; Cornelisse, CJ; Klijn, JGM; de Bock, GH

    Possible effects of consistently applying published guidelines on healthy women with breast cancer in their family history were analysed. We investigated 1060 unrelated breast cancer patients and calculated the numbers of first-degree relatives that would be referred to a familial cancer clinic if

  19. The Influence of Family History on Reading Remediation and Reading Skills in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Bruce D.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether family history of reading disability influences the efficacy of reading remediation. A retrospective review of children's performance in a reading remediation program was carried out along with parental interviews for 102 families. Significant improvements were found in the areas of nonword decoding, phonological…

  20. Focus Group Evaluation of Customized Family Health History Education Materials in a North Carolina Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Karen; Edelson, Vaughn; O'Leary, James; Christianson, Carol; Henrich, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The "Does It Run In The Family?" booklets provide educational materials about family health history (FHH) and basic genetics to readers of all levels and are customizable for local communities. Purpose: The booklets were customized and provided to focus groups to evaluate their usefulness in conveying health information at a low reading…

  1. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A

    2012-08-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease. Studies suggest that fatal cardiovascular events and less severe cardiovascular diseases may co-occur in families. Consequently, a family history of premature death may indicate a familial cardiac frailty that predisposes to early cardiovascular disease. We ascertained family history of premature death (age Denmark from 1950 to 2008 and followed this cohort for early cardiovascular disease (age history of premature cardiovascular death in first-degree relatives were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.77), 2.21 (95% CI: 2.11 to 2.31), and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70 to 2.20), respectively. With ≥2 cardiovascular deaths in a family, corresponding IRRs were 3.30 (95% CI: 2.77 to 3.94), 5.00 (95% CI: 3.87 to 6.45), and 6.18 (95% CI: 3.32 to 11.50). The IRR for any early cardiovascular disease given a family history of premature noncardiovascular death was significantly lower, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.14) (p(cardiac vs. noncardiac) history of premature cardiovascular death was consistently and significantly associated with a risk of early cardiovascular disease, suggesting an inherited cardiac vulnerability. These results should be kept in mind when assessing cardiovascular disease risk in persons with a family history of premature cardiovascular death. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysms do not develop more aggressively among patients with a positive family history of the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Wemmelund, Holger; Green, Anders

    Title: Abdominal aortic aneurysms no not develop more aggressively among patients with a positive family history of the disease Authors: Trine M. M. Joergensen, Holger Wemmelund, Anders Green, Jes Lindholt, Kim Houlind. Introduction: It is well known, that a family history of abdominal aortic...... among patients with a positive family history of the disease....... with information on family history of AAA, diameter of AAA throughout follow-up, surgery, ruptures, comorbidity, smoking, and use of medication. Methods: Patients with and without a family history of AAA were compared regarding mean age at diagnosis and surgery, diameter of AAA at diagnosis, risk of surgery...

  4. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Landro, Anna; Cazzaniga, Simone; Parazzini, Fabio; Ingordo, Vito; Cusano, Francesco; Atzori, Laura; Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Musumeci, Maria Letizia; Zinetti, Cornelia; Pezzarossa, Enrico; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Caproni, Marzia; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Bonci, Angela; Bencini, Pierluca; Naldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Genetic and environmental components may contribute to acne causation. We sought to assess the impact of family history, personal habits, dietary factors, and menstrual history on a new diagnosis of moderate to severe acne. We conducted a case-control study in dermatologic outpatient clinics in Italy. Cases (205) were consecutive those receiving a new diagnosis of moderate to severe acne. Control subjects (358) were people with no or mild acne, coming for a dermatologic consultation other than for acne. Moderate to severe acne was strongly associated with a family history of acne in first-degree relatives (odds ratio 3.41, 95% confidence interval 2.31-5.05). The risk was reduced in people with lower body mass index with a more pronounced effect in male compared with female individuals. No association with smoking emerged. The risk increased with increased milk consumption (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.59) in those consuming more than 3 portions per week. The association was more marked for skim than for whole milk. Consumption of fish was associated with a protective effect (odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.99). No association emerged between menstrual variables and acne risk. Some degree of overmatching may arise from choosing dermatologic control subjects and from inclusion of mild acne in the control group. Family history, body mass index, and diet may influence the risk of moderate to severe acne. The influence of environmental and dietetic factors in acne should be further explored. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The KinFact intervention - a randomized controlled trial to increase family communication about cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodurtha, Joann N; McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Maibauer, Alisa M; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M

    2014-10-01

    Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner more effectively with their families and ultimately

  7. Family histories of anxiety in overweight men and women with binge eating disorder: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-10-01

    A preliminary examination of the significance of family histories of anxiety in the expression of binge eating disorder (BED) and associated functioning. Participants were 166 overweight patients with BED assessed using diagnostic interviews. Participants were administered a structured psychiatric history interview about their first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) (N=897) to determine lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and completed a battery of questionnaires assessing current and historical eating and weight variables and associated psychological functioning (depression). BED patients with a family history of anxiety disorder were significantly more likely than BED patients without a family history of anxiety disorder to have lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. A family history of anxiety was not significantly associated with timing or sequencing of age at onset of anxiety disorder, binge eating, dieting, or obesity, or with variability in current levels of binge eating, eating disorder psychopathology, or psychological functioning. Although replication with direct interview method is needed, our preliminary findings suggest that a family history of anxiety confers greater risk for comorbid anxiety and mood disorders but is largely unrelated to the development of binge eating, dieting, or obesity and unrelated to variability in eating disorder psychopathology or psychological functioning in overweight patients with BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Family Histories of Anxiety in Overweight Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A preliminary examination of the significance of family histories of anxiety in the expression of binge eating disorder (BED) and associated functioning. Methods Participants were 166 overweight patients with BED assessed using diagnostic interviews. Participants were administered a structured psychiatric history interview about their first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) (N=897) to determine lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and completed a battery of questionnaires assessing current and historical eating and weight variables and associated psychological functioning (depression). Results BED patients with a family history of anxiety disorder were significantly more likely than BED patients without a family history of anxiety disorder to have lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. A family history of anxiety was not significantly associated with timing or sequencing of age at onset of anxiety disorder, binge eating, dieting, or obesity, or with variability in current levels of binge eating, eating disorder psychopathology, or psychological functioning. Conclusions Although replication with direct interview method is needed, our preliminary findings suggest that a family history of anxiety confers greater risk for comorbid anxiety and mood disorders but is largely unrelated to the development of binge eating, dieting, or obesity and unrelated to variability in eating disorder psychopathology or psychological functioning in overweight patients with BED. PMID:26343481

  9. The Construction of History in the Folds of Family History in the Novel Song Lost in West Buenos Aires by María Rosa Lojo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Moret

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The novels written by María Rosa Lojo strongly reflect a specific preoccupation with the rewriting of history from new perspectives that are related to so-called postmodernism. This is the case with Canción perdida en Buenos Aires al Oeste (1987. This work attempts to articulate a reading of the "private" at a crossroads with the history of the country and of other countries (Argentina/Spain. It is a novel of exiles, from the exile of the Neira family from the Franco dictatorship in the forties to the particular exiles of each family member during the seventies and eighties in Argentina. From the fabric woven of the protagonists' subjectivities, the history of horror of this decade emerges: the Malvinas/Falkland Island War, the disappeared, that which "cannot be spoken." To carry out this ambitious narrative, each character, each voice unfolds through a series of strategies linked to constructions of the "self": letters, diaries and recordings.

  10. The application of computer-based tools in obtaining the genetic family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni, Monica A; Murray, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Family health history is both an adjunct to and a focus of current genetic research, having long been known to be a powerful predictor of individual disease risk. As such, it has been primarily used as a proxy for genetic information. Over the past decade, new roles for family history have emerged, perhaps most importantly as a primary tool for guiding decision-making on the use of expensive genetic testing. The collection of family history information is an important but time-consuming process. Efforts to engage the patient or research subject in preliminary data collection have the potential to improve data accuracy and allow clinicians and researchers more time for analytic tasks. The U.S. Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and others have developed tools for electronic family history collection. This unit describes the utility of the Web-based My Family Health Portrait (https://familyhistory.hhs.gov) as the prototype for patient-entered family history.

  11. Gendered Cultural Identities: The Influences of Family and Privacy Boundaries, Subjective Norms, and Stigma Beliefs on Family Health History Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2017-05-25

    This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.

  12. Association of Family History With Cardiovascular Disease in Hypertensive Individuals in a Multiethnic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luca; Peters, Ron J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan

    2016-12-21

    Hypertension alone is a poor predictor of the individual risk of cardiovascular disease. Hereditary factors of which hypertension is merely a marker may explain why some hypertensive individuals appear more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, and why some ethnicities have more often seemingly hypertension-related cardiovascular disease than others. We hypothesize that, in hypertensive individuals, a positive family history of cardiovascular disease identifies a high-risk subpopulation. Healthy Life in Urban Settings (HELIUS) is a cohort study among participants of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan origin aged 70 years and younger. In participants with hypertension (n=6467), we used logistic regression to assess the association of family history of cardiovascular disease with prevalent stroke and nonstroke cardiovascular disease, adjusting for sex, age, education, and smoking. To detect ethnic differences, we tested for interaction between family history and ethnicity and stratified the analysis by ethnicity. A positive family history was associated with a higher prevalence of nonstroke cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% CI, 1.65-2.54) and stroke (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.19-2.20). The strongest association of family history with nonstroke cardiovascular disease was found among the Dutch (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.37-4.44) and with stroke among the African Surinamese (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.32-3.57). The interaction between family history and African Surinamese origin for stroke was statistically significant. In multiethnic populations of hypertensive patients, a positive family history of cardiovascular disease may be used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for nonstroke cardiovascular disease regardless of ethnic origin and African Surinamese individuals at high risk for stroke. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Comparison of family history and SNPs for predicting risk of complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong B Do

    Full Text Available The clinical utility of family history and genetic tests is generally well understood for simple Mendelian disorders and rare subforms of complex diseases that are directly attributable to highly penetrant genetic variants. However, little is presently known regarding the performance of these methods in situations where disease susceptibility depends on the cumulative contribution of multiple genetic factors of moderate or low penetrance. Using quantitative genetic theory, we develop a model for studying the predictive ability of family history and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based methods for assessing risk of polygenic disorders. We show that family history is most useful for highly common, heritable conditions (e.g., coronary artery disease, where it explains roughly 20%-30% of disease heritability, on par with the most successful SNP models based on associations discovered to date. In contrast, we find that for diseases of moderate or low frequency (e.g., Crohn disease family history accounts for less than 4% of disease heritability, substantially lagging behind SNPs in almost all cases. These results indicate that, for a broad range of diseases, already identified SNP associations may be better predictors of risk than their family history-based counterparts, despite the large fraction of missing heritability that remains to be explained. Our model illustrates the difficulty of using either family history or SNPs for standalone disease prediction. On the other hand, we show that, unlike family history, SNP-based tests can reveal extreme likelihood ratios for a relatively large percentage of individuals, thus providing potentially valuable adjunctive evidence in a differential diagnosis.

  14. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  15. Nationwide Registry-Based Analysis of Cancer Clustering Detects Strong Familial Occurrence of Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahteristo, Pia; Patama, Toni; Li, Yilong; Saarinen, Silva; Kilpivaara, Outi; Pitkänen, Esa; Knekt, Paul; Laaksonen, Maarit; Artama, Miia; Lehtonen, Rainer; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer predisposition syndromes are rare or have incomplete penetrance, and traditional epidemiological tools are not well suited for their detection. Here we have used an approach that employs the entire population based data in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) for analyzing familial aggregation of all types of cancer, in order to find evidence for previously unrecognized cancer susceptibility conditions. We performed a systematic clustering of 878,593 patients in FCR based on family name at birth, municipality of birth, and tumor type, diagnosed between years 1952 and 2011. We also estimated the familial occurrence of the tumor types using cluster score that reflects the proportion of patients belonging to the most significant clusters compared to all patients in Finland. The clustering effort identified 25,910 birth name-municipality based clusters representing 183 different tumor types characterized by topography and morphology. We produced information about familial occurrence of hundreds of tumor types, and many of the tumor types with high cluster score represented known cancer syndromes. Unexpectedly, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) also produced a very high score (cluster score 1.91, p-value <0.0001). We verified from population records that many of the KS patients forming the clusters were indeed close relatives, and identified one family with five affected individuals in two generations and several families with two first degree relatives. Our approach is unique in enabling systematic examination of a national epidemiological database to derive evidence of aberrant familial aggregation of all tumor types, both common and rare. It allowed effortless identification of families displaying features of both known as well as potentially novel cancer predisposition conditions, including striking familial aggregation of KS. Further work with high-throughput methods should elucidate the molecular basis of the potentially novel predisposition conditions found in this

  16. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  17. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  18. Myth as History, History as Myth: Family and Church Among Italo-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Michael M.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the history of white ethnics has been written far too long as the story of disorganization and disintegration. Argues that the themes of rebirth and creativity should be explored, discarding the myth of the American as a new man emerging after stripping away Old World traditions and institutions. (Author/RJ)

  19. Reduced small world brain connectivity in probands with a family history of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, R D; Chaitanya, G; Panda, R; Raghavendra, K; Sinha, S; Sahoo, A; Gohel, S; Biswal, B B; Satishchandra, P

    2016-12-01

    The role of inheritance in ascertaining susceptibility to epilepsy is well established, although the pathogenetic mechanisms are still not very clear. Interviewing for a positive family history is a popular epidemiological tool in the understanding of this susceptibility. Our aim was to visualize and localize network abnormalities that could be associated with a positive family history in a group of patients with hot water epilepsy (HWE) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Graph theory analysis of rsfMRI (clustering coefficient γ; path length λ; small worldness σ) in probands with a positive family history of epilepsy (FHE+, 25) were compared with probands without FHE (FHE-, 33). Whether a closer biological relationship was associated with a higher likelihood of network abnormalities was also ascertained. A positive family history of epilepsy had decreased γ, increased λ and decreased σ in bilateral temporofrontal regions compared to FHE- (false discovery rate corrected P ≤ 0.0062). These changes were more pronounced in probands having first degree relatives and siblings with epilepsy. Probands with multiple types of epilepsy in the family showed decreased σ in comparison to only HWE in the family. Graph theory analysis of the rsfMRI can be used to understand the neurobiology of diseases like genetic susceptibility in HWE. Reduced small worldness, proportional to the degree of relationship, is consistent with the current understanding that disease severity is higher in closer biological relations. © 2016 EAN.

  20. Family history of rheumatoid arthritis: an old concept with new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Askling, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a proxy for an individual's genetic and, in part, environmental risk of developing RA, and is a well-recognized predictor of disease onset. Although family history of RA is an old concept, the degree of familial aggregation of RA, whether it differs by age, sex, or serology, and what value it has for clinical decisions once a diagnosis of RA has been made remain unclear. New data have been emerging in parallel to substantial progress made in genetic association studies. In this Review, we describe the various ways that familial aggregation has been measured, and how the findings from these studies, whether they are based on twins, cohorts of first-degree relatives, or genetic data, correspond to each other and aid understanding of the aetiology of RA. In addition, we review the potential usefulness of family history of RA from a clinical point of view, demonstrating that, in the era of big data and genomics, family history still has a role in directing clinical decision-making and research.

  1. Association of inflammatory markers with physical activity, family history and other diabetic complications in patients of diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, A.; Rashif, A.; Waheed, P.; Ishaq, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of inflammatory markers with physical activity, family history and other complications among patients of diabetic retinopathy. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) and Military Hospital Laboratories, Rawalpindi from Jan 2016 to Jun 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 90 diagnosed patients of diabetic retinopathy of ages 40-70 years were enrolled from Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi. Their inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP) were assessed and their levels were compared with their physical activity, family history and other complications of diabetes already developed in them. These were then compared with those of 90 normal healthy controls enrolled from general population using independent student's t test and one way Anova test for scale variables and Chi square test for nominal variables. Results: Both patients and controls were age and gender matched with mean age of 60 +- 8.9 years in patients and 59 +- 13.02 years in controls. Among 90 patients enrolled 51(56.7 percent) were males and 39 (43.3) were females. And among 90 controls 49 (54.4 percent) were males and 41(45.6 percent) were females. An inverse association was observed between inflammatory markers and physical activity with ap-value of 0.001. On the contrary a strong positive association was observed between inflammatory markers and family history and complications of diabetes with a p-value 0.001. Conclusion: There is an inverse association of inflammatory markers with physical activity and a direct association of these with family history and complications of diabetes among patients of diabetic retinopathy. (author)

  2. Women criminality--the influence of socio-familial history and status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luta, Veronica; Pasca, Viorel; Enache, Alexandra; Ciopec, Flavius; Ursachi, Georgeta; Radu, Daniel; Stratul, Stefan; Zarie, Gabriela; Mutiu, Florentina

    2009-04-01

    Our interdisciplinary study aims at the influence of social and familial history and status in a sample of Romanian female offenders. We collected data regarding the social and familial environment and status in the moment of committing a crime from 235 women incarcerated in four Romanian prisons. We applied a 67 item questionnaire conceived by the members of the research group. The items we compared refer to: the type of offence, the offender's marital status and the number of children in the moment of committing the crime, the situation in the family of origin and the offender's evaluation of the relationship with the parents and brothers, the monthly income, the type of relationship with the partner as described by the offender, history of substance abuse and violence in the family of origin and in the own family. We also analyzed the answers regarding the motivation for the criminal act. The paper shows the distribution of various types of criminal offences in correlation with the level of education, the relevance of a stable familial environment and monthly income. The history of criminality, substance abuse and interpersonal violence in the families of origin is also taken into account.

  3. Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between...... participants with male and female relatives with AAA. DESIGN: Observational population-based cross-sectional study. MATERIALS: 18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter. METHODS: Standardized ultrasound scan...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...

  4. Family History of Stroke and Cardiovascular Health in a National Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Ambar; Vaccarino, Viola; Goyal, Abhinav; McClellan, William; Nahab, Fadi; Howard, Virginia J.; Judd, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between family history of stroke and Life’s Simple 7, a public health metric defined by the American Heart Association. Methods REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke is a national population-based cohort of 30,239 blacks and whites, aged ≥ 45 years, sampled from the US population in 2003 – 2007. Data were collected by telephone, mail questionnaires, and in-home exams. Family history of stroke was defined as any first degree relative with stroke. Levels of the Life’s Simple 7 components (total cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose, physical activity, diet, smoking and body mass index) were each coded as poor (0 points), intermediate (1 point) or ideal (2 points) health. Ordinal logistic regression was used to model the data. Results Among 20,567 subjects with complete Life’s Simple 7 and family history of stroke data, there were 7702 (37 %) participants with family history of stroke. The mean age of the participants was 64 years. The mean (± SD) overall Life’s Simple 7 score was lower for blacks (6.5 ± 2.0) than whites (7.6 ± 2.1). Family history of stroke was associated with poorer levels of physiological factors, particularly high blood pressure (OR=1.13, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.19) and inversely associated with behaviors such as smoking (OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.85, 0.99). Conclusion Our results suggest that screening for family history of stroke can provide an opportunity for earlier detection and management of modifiable risk factors. PMID:25497723

  5. Family History in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joan M; Salowe, Rebecca J; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Sankar, Prithvi S; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Murphy, Windell; Homsher, Melissa; Gordon, Katelyn; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2018-03-16

    To determine the relationship between positive family history (FH) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis and clinical presentation in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) cohort. FH of POAG in first-degree relatives was assessed in 2365 subjects in the POAAGG cohort. A standardized interview was used to assess FH of glaucoma, demographic characteristics, lifestyle choices, and medical and ocular comorbidities. Positive FH was associated with increased risk of POAG (age-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 3.4[2.8, 4.1]). In age-adjusted analysis among POAG cases, positive FH was associated with younger age (P<0.001), female gender (P<.001), hypertension (P=.006), use of hypertension medication (P=.03), and prior glaucoma surgery (P=.02). Cases with positive FH also had thicker retinal nerve fiber layers (P=.03). The risk conferred by positive FH suggests strong genetic underpinnings for some patients with this disease, which will be investigated by genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life history and population genetic structure of sea stars from the family Asterinidae

    OpenAIRE

    Keever, Carson C

    2010-01-01

    Life history can influence population genetic variation by altering patterns of gamete union and dispersal. Sea stars from the family Asterinidae have evolved similar life histories multiple times in parallel including planktonic feeding larvae, planktonic non-feeding larvae, development in benthic egg masses, and viviparity. In this thesis I first examine the population genetic structure of a widespread planktotrophic asterinid sea star from the East Pacific (Patiria miniata). I use mitoc...

  7. Family history, body mass index and survival in Japanese patients with stomach cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fujiya, Tsuneaki; Suzuki, Masaki; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Yamanami, Hideaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-15

    Family history and nutritional status may affect the long-term prognosis of stomach cancer, but evidence is insufficient and inconsistent. To clarify the prognostic factors of stomach cancer, we conducted a prospective study of 1,033 Japanese patients with histologically confirmed stomach cancer who were admitted to a single hospital between 1997 and 2005. Family history of stomach cancer and pretreatment body mass index (BMI) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical data were retrieved from a hospital-based cancer registry. All patients were completely followed up until December, 2008. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated according to family history in parents and siblings and BMI category. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 403 all-cause and 279 stomach cancer deaths were documented. Although no association with family history was observed in the patients overall, analysis according to age group found an increased risk of all-cause death associated with a history in first degree relatives (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.93-2.78, p = 0.09) and with a parental history (HR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26) among patients aged under 60 years at diagnosis. BMI was related to all-cause and stomach cancer death among patients aged 60 and over, showing a J-shaped pattern (HR of all-cause death = 2.28 for BMI stomach cancer, especially parental history, may affect mortality among younger stomach cancer patients, whereas nutritional status may be a prognostic factor in older patients. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Risk-benefit assessment of the combined oral contraceptive pill in women with a family history of female cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brittany Anne; Moorman, Patricia G

    2014-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most frequently used form of effective, reversible contraception among women of childbearing potential. In the average risk population, OCPs may offer a protective benefit against ovarian, endometrial and colorectal malignancies. In women at high risk for breast, ovarian, endometrial or colorectal malignancies, the risk-benefit profile is less well studied. In this article, we review pertinent literature on the use of OCPs in patients with genetic susceptibilities due to mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 or mismatch repair genes implicated in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer as well as those with a strong family history of malignancies associated with these syndromes. For women at high risk for ovarian, endometrial and/or colorectal malignancies due to genetic susceptibilities or a strong family history, the possibility of chemoprevention with OCPs may be an attractive option; however, the potential increase in breast cancer, although small, must be considered in clinical decision-making. The ultimate decision to use OCPs in a high-risk woman should be based on a consideration of her specific genetic risk, her age, her reproductive plans and her willingness to consider surgical prophylaxis options.

  9. Motivations, barriers, and behaviors related to obtaining and discussing family health history: A sex-based comparison among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee eSmith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic predisposition is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, yet little is known about the frequency in which college students seek out their family health history or with whom they communicate relevant information.Purpose: This study examines motivations and barriers associated with obtaining one’s family health history and discussing it with others. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students using an internet-delivered questionnaire. Questions asked respondents about intentions and motivations to obtain and share family health history as well as barriers encountered in obtaining family health history. Responses were bifurcated by participants’ sex. Chi-squared and t statistics were used to identify response differences by sex. Results: Females were significantly more likely than males to be motivated to obtain their family health history, and more likely to have: shared their family health history with others; state they would share their family health history with others; and express a preference for sharing their family health history with a wider range of people. Discussion: Educational interventions and improved student health services could be effective mechanisms to increase college students’ knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance of obtaining their family health history.

  10. Motivations, Barriers, and Behaviors Related to Obtaining and Discussing Family Health History: A Sex-Based Comparison Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Sosa, Erica T; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Ory, Marcia G; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic predisposition is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, yet little is known about the frequency in which college students seek out their family health history or with whom they communicate relevant information. This study examines motivations and barriers associated with obtaining one's family health history and discussing it with others. Data were analyzed from 625 college students using an internet-delivered questionnaire, which comprised of questions about intentions and motivations to obtain and share family health history as well as barriers encountered when obtaining family health history. Responses were bifurcated by participants' sex. Chi-squared and t statistics were used to identify response differences by sex. Females were significantly more likely than males to be motivated to obtain their family health history, and more likely to have shared their family health history with others; state that they would share their family health history with others; and express a preference for sharing their family health history with a wider range of people. Educational interventions and improved student health services could be effective mechanisms to increase college students' knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance of obtaining their family health history.

  11. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Clemmensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years...... by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder...

  12. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Countable Family of Total Quasi-ϕ-Asymptotically Nonexpansive Nonself Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-cai Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a class of total quasi-ϕ-asymptotically nonexpansive-nonself mappings and to study the strong convergence under a limit condition only in the framework of Banach spaces. As an application, we utilize our results to study the approximation problem of solution to a system of equilibrium problems. The results presented in the paper extend and improve the corresponding results announced by some authors recently.

  13. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  14. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); L. Rabeneck (L.); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A. Zauber (Ann); L.F. Paszat (Lawrence F.); J.S. Hoch (Jeffrey S.); J.H.E. Yong (Jean H.E.); F. Van Hees (Frank); J. Tinmouth (Jill); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to

  15. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  16. Family history of alcohol abuse associated with problematic drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Joseph W; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH- same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH- females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  18. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  19. "Object Lesson": Using Family Heirlooms to Engage Students in Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Marice

    2012-01-01

    This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…

  20. [Influence of nutritional status, hormones serum levels, and family history on breast cancer development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Jiménez, Emilio; García López, Pedro A; Schmidt-Río-Valle, Jacqueline; Valenza, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have analyzed the relation between obesity and the hormonal imbalances generated by overweight and a family history of breast cancer. All of these factors are potentially implicated in the early development of breast cancer. To verify the existence of a significant relation between the nutritional status of breast cancer patients, their hormone serum levels (estrogens, prolactin, and progesterone), and the existence of a family history of breast cancer. Retrospective data was collected from clinical records of 524 women diagnosed with breast cancer in a Spanish hospital. There was a positive association between estrogen, progesterone and prolactin serum levels and body mass index. The elevations in hormone levels occurred earlier in life among women with a family history of breast cancer. A two way ANOVA found a significant association between progesterone and prolactin levels with the age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Extreme serum levels of these hormones appear to be related to the early development of breast cancer, which in turn is influenced by the existence of a family history of cancer among those women with normal or average hormone levels.

  1. Personal Reflection: Reflections on a Family Health History Assignment for Undergraduate Public Health and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…

  2. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  3. Family history predicts major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in young adults with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Bruun, Louise E; Mallbris, Lotus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), and a family history of CV disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for MACE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of first-time MACE in patients with psoriasis with or without a fami....... The findings call for increased focus on a family history of CVD in CV risk assessment of patients with psoriasis.......BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), and a family history of CV disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for MACE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of first-time MACE in patients with psoriasis with or without a family...... history of CVD. METHODS: Between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, we identified 2,722,375 individuals, including 25,774 and 4504 patients with mild and severe psoriasis, through administrative registers. Incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was 26...

  4. The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk : implications for clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schroeder, Fritz H.; Tubaro, Andrea

    A family history of prostate cancer has long been identified as an important risk factor for developing the disease. This risk factor can be easily assessed in clinical practice and current guidelines recommend to initiate prostate cancer early detection 5 years earlier (i.e. around the age of 40

  5. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH− females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. PMID:20359831

  6. Coronary heart disease risk : family history and gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The first part of this thesis describes research into lifestyle, genetic, and biological factors that may underlie the increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with a family history of this disorder. The second part of this thesis describes whether levels of plasma

  7. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  8. The Influence of Smoking, Gender, and Family History on Colorectal Adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Butterly, L.; Butterly, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004-2006), we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54 , 95% CI 1.28-1.86), although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.32). Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men ( OR = 1.32; 95% CI:1.00-1.76. but not for women (OR = 0.85; 95% CI:0.61-1.14). An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34-1.93). For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.

  9. The Influence of Smoking, Gender, and Family History on Colorectal Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Onega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004–2006, we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.28–1.86, although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87–1.32. Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men (OR=1.32; 95% CI:1.00–1.76, but not for women (OR=0.85; 95% CI:0.61–1.14. An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34–1.93. For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.

  10. Identification of Patients with Family History of Pancreatic Cancer--Investigation of an NLP System Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Krishnan, Anand; Roch, Alexandra M; Schmidt, Heidi; Li, DingCheng; Kesterson, Joe; Beesley, Chris; Dexter, Paul; Schmidt, Max; Palakal, Mathew; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have developed a rule-based natural language processing (NLP) system to identify patients with family history of pancreatic cancer. The algorithm was developed in a Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) framework and consisted of section segmentation, relation discovery, and negation detection. The system was evaluated on data from two institutions. The family history identification precision was consistent across the institutions shifting from 88.9% on Indiana University (IU) dataset to 87.8% on Mayo Clinic dataset. Customizing the algorithm on the the Mayo Clinic data, increased its precision to 88.1%. The family member relation discovery achieved precision, recall, and F-measure of 75.3%, 91.6% and 82.6% respectively. Negation detection resulted in precision of 99.1%. The results show that rule-based NLP approaches for specific information extraction tasks are portable across institutions; however customization of the algorithm on the new dataset improves its performance.

  11. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Simon Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Zauber, Ann G; Paszat, Lawrence F; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Yong, Jean H E; van Hees, Frank; Tinmouth, Jill; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-09-01

    In the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimate the cumulative number of CRC deaths prevented and colonoscopies performed between 2008 and 2038 with this family history-based screening program, compared to a regular gFOBT program. In both programs, we assumed screening uptake increased from 30% (participation level in 2008 before the program was launched) to 60%. We assumed that 11% of the population had a family history, defined as having at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with CRC. The programs offered screening between age 50 and 74 years, every two years for gFOBT, and every ten years for colonoscopy. Compared to opportunistic screening (2008 participation level kept constant at 30%), the gFOBT program cumulatively prevented 6,700 more CRC deaths and required 570,000 additional colonoscopies by 2038. The family history-based screening program increased these numbers to 9,300 and 1,100,000, a 40% and 93% increase, respectively. If biennial gFOBT was replaced with biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT), annual Hemoccult Sensa or five-yearly sigmoidoscopy screening, both the added benefits and colonoscopies required would decrease. A biennial gFOBT screening program that identifies individuals with a family history of CRC and recommends them to undergo colonoscopy screening would prevent 40% (range in sensitivity analyses: 20-51%) additional deaths while requiring 93% (range: 43-116%) additional colonoscopies, compared to a regular gFOBT screening program. © 2015 UICC.

  12. Psychological impact of family history risk assessment in primary care: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Linda; Emery, Jon D; Prevost, A Toby; Sutton, Stephen; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-08-01

    Routine family history risk assessment for chronic diseases could enable primary care practitioners to efficiently identify at-risk patients and promote preventive management strategies. To investigate patients' understanding and responses to family history risk assessment in primary care. A mixed methods study set in 10 Eastern England general practices. Participants in a family history questionnaire validation study were triaged into population or increased risk for four chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, colorectal cancer). Questionnaires completed immediately prior to the family history consultation (baseline) and 4 weeks later (follow-up) assessed the psychological impact, including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Semi-structured interviews explored the meaning participants gave to their personal familial disease risk. Four hundred and fifty-three participants completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires and 30 were interviewed. At follow-up, there was no increase in anxiety among either group, or differences between the groups [difference in mean change 0.02, 95% confidence interval -2.04, 2.08, P = 0.98]. There were no significant changes over time in self-rated health in either group. At follow-up, participants at increased risk (n = 153) were more likely to have recent changes to behaviour and they had stronger intentions to make changes to diet (P = 0.001), physical activity (P = 0.006) and to seek further information in the future than those at population risk (n = 300; P history risk assessment may inform promotion of preventive management strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  14. Increased Risk of Physical Punishment among Enuretic Children with Family History of Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Cacilda Andrade; Gusmão Paiva, Ana Carolina; de Menezes, Maria Clotilde Lima Bezerra; de Oliveira, Liliana Fajardo; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; de Figueiredo, André Avarese; de Bessa, José; Netto, José Murillo B

    2016-04-01

    Some parents blame their children for bedwetting and, therefore, punish them. This study aimed to assess the rate of punishment experienced by enuretic children and associated causative factors. A total of 87 children 6 to 15 years old with monosymptomatic enuresis were assessed individually. Parents answered the questions in the tolerance scale. The forms of punishment were classified as verbal, chastisement and physical aggression. Family history of enuresis was considered only when 1 or both parents had experienced enuresis. Of the 35 girls and 52 boys with a mean ± SD age of 9.3 ± 2.3 years 67 had a family history of enuresis. Of the 67 parents 57 (85.0%) had a history of being punished due to enuresis. All children experienced some sort of verbal punishment. Children who had a family history of enuresis were more prone to being punished by physical aggression than those without such a family history (32 of 67 or 47.8% vs 4 of 20 or 20%, OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.1, p = 0.03). Punishment was found 3 times more frequently in girls than in boys (20 of 35 or 57.1% vs 16 of 52 or 30.8%, OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Parents of 79 of the 87 children (90.8%) had high scores on the tolerance scale regardless of the history of enuresis. Enuretic children are at a high risk for experiencing some kind of punishment. Children whose parents had enuresis are at risk for being physically punished. Parents should be taught about the involuntary nature of enuresis and the fact that no punishment would help improve the condition. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Susco Chair of Research North Shore University Hospital, Brain Aneurysm Center Chair of Research The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research Kristen’s Legacy of Love Chair of Research TeamCindy Alcatraz Chair of Research ...

  16. Atypical Structural Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale is Related to Family History of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Altarelli, Irene; Vandermosten, Maaike; De Vos, Astrid; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2018-01-01

    Research on the neural correlates of developmental dyslexia indicates atypical anatomical lateralization of the planum temporale, a higher-order cortical auditory region. Yet whether this atypical lateralization precedes reading acquisition and is related to a familial risk for dyslexia is not currently known. In this study, we address these questions in 2 separate cohorts of young children and adolescents with and without a familial risk for dyslexia. Planum temporale surface area was manually labeled bilaterally, on the T1-weighted MR brain images of 54 pre-readers (mean age: 6.2 years, SD: 3.2 months; 33 males) and 28 adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years, SD: 3.3 months; 11 males). Half of the pre-readers and adolescents had a familial risk for dyslexia. In both pre-readers and adolescents, group comparisons of left and right planum temporale surface area showed a significant interaction between hemisphere and family history of dyslexia, with participants who had no family risk for dyslexia showing greater leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. This effect was confirmed when analyses were restricted to normal reading participants. Altered planum temporale asymmetry thus seems to be related to family history of dyslexia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pilot Trial of an Electronic Family Medical History in US Faith-Based Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Patricia; Canclini, Sharon; Cauble, Denise; Raudonis, Barbara; Golden, Paulette

    2014-07-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of collecting family health information, methods of collecting, organizing, and storage of pedigree data are not uniformly utilized in practice, though several electronic tools have been developed for the purpose. Using electronic tools to gather health information may empower individuals to take responsibility in managing their family health history. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility and outcomes of introducing small groups to the My Family Health Portrait tool in faith-based communities using faith community nurses (FCNs). This pilot project adopted a mixed methods approach to assess the potential of an educational intervention delivered by FCNs for increasing the use of electronic technologies for organizing and storing family health histories among the general public. Treatment and control groups were recruited from four faith-based communities in north Texas using a parallel-groups quasi-experimental design. Qualitative data were gleaned from field notes made by investigators interacting with FCNs and observing their teaching. A majority of respondents believed that knowing one's health history and passing it on to family and medical personnel is important. Those receiving face-to-face instruction on the electronic tool were significantly more likely to have written down family health information than the control group who received only an informational handout (χ(2) = 5.96, P = .015). Barriers to teaching about and using the electronic tool included FCNs' lack of facility with computers in the educational context and FCN and respondent mistrust of electronic storage for family health information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  19. Our History of Educational Freedom: What It Should Mean for Families Today. Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryphon, Marie; Meyer, Emily A.

    This paper examines the American tradition of educational freedom, following its ebb and flow at various points in history. America's ethos of educational freedom has always been strong, tied to its values of pluralism, tolerance, and free inquiry. However, its legacy of freedom has suffered repeated assaults by individuals and groups who wish to…

  20. Association of premature hair graying with family history, smoking, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Ryu, Hyeong Ho; Yoon, Junghee; Jo, Seongmoon; Jang, Sihyeok; Choi, Mira; Kwon, Ohsang; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have been concerned about the association of hair graying with systemic diseases. However, the common factors associated with hair graying and systemic diseases have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for premature hair graying (PHG) in young men. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires in young men. After a pilot study that included 1069 men, we surveyed 6390 men younger than 30 years about their gray hair status and various socioclinical characteristics. The age of participants in the main survey was 20.2 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD). Of the 6390 participants, 1618 (25.3%) presented with PHG. Family history of PHG (odds ratio [OR], 12.82), obesity (OR, 2.61), and >5 pack-years history of smoking (OR, 1.61) were significantly associated with PHG. In the multivariate analysis, family history of PHG (OR, 2.63) and obesity (OR, 2.22) correlated with the severity of PHG. Owing to the use of questionnaires, the possibility of recall bias exists. Women were not evaluated in this study. Smoking, family history of PHG, and obesity are important factors associated with PHG. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  2. Family history and renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Mei; Qiao, Yong-Chao; Ling, Wei; Geng, Li-Jun; Xiao, Jian-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2017-12-01

    A positive family history is recognized as an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the association of family history with rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) gene polymorphisms has not been reported yet, thus we aim to investigate it.Family history records, clinical and biochemical data were obtained from 1239 T2DM patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotyping and PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism was used for angiotensinogen (AGT) genotyping.Patients with a negative family history had higher level of triglyceride and blood pressure, whereas those with a positive family history showed younger onset age and lower body mass index value (All P history (All P history and those with a negative family history had comparable genotype and allele distribution of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphisms and AGT gene M/T polymorphisms.A positive family history of diabetes was not associated with the RAS gene polymorphisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The joint impact of family history of myocardial infarction and other risk factors on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J M; Feskens, E.J.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the impact of family history of myocardial infarction on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality. Men and women with a family history had an increased risk for coronary heart disease death, irrespective of other risk factors (RR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.17-2.13 and RR = 2.12; 95% CI =

  4. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk by family history in women of white and Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Nakamura, Kaylae L; Woolcott, Christy G; Conroy, Shannon M; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Vachon, Celine M

    2015-04-01

    Mammographic density, i.e., the radiographic appearance of the breast, is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. To determine whether the association of breast density with breast cancer is modified by a first-degree family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in women of white and Asian ancestry, we analyzed data from four case-control studies conducted in the USA and Japan. The study population included 1,699 breast cancer cases and 2,422 controls, of whom 45% reported white (N = 1,849) and 40% Asian (N = 1,633) ancestry. To standardize mammographic density assessment, a single observer re-read all mammograms using one type of interactive thresholding software. Logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for confounders. Overall, 496 (12%) of participants reported a FHBC, which was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the adjusted model (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.23-1.84). There was a statistically significant interaction on a multiplicative scale between FHBC and continuous percent density (per 10 % density: p = 0.03). The OR per 10% increase in percent density was higher among women with a FHBC (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13-1.49) than among those without a FHBC (OR 1.14; 1.09-1.20). This pattern was apparent in whites and Asians. The respective ORs were 1.45 (95% CI 1.17-1.80) versus 1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.32) in whites, whereas the values in Asians were only 1.24 (95% CI 0.97-1.58) versus 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.19). These findings support the hypothesis that women with a FHBC appear to have a higher risk of breast cancer associated with percent mammographic density than women without a FHBC.

  5. Relationship of family history and outcome after breast conservation therapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R.; Schultz, Delray J.; Peters, Christopher A.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a family history of breast or ovarian cancer and outcome after breast-conserving surgery and radiation in women presenting with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods and Materials: A total of 146 consecutive women with a pathologic diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ as their first diagnosis of any breast cancer were identified; 28 (19%) had a positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative, 27 (19%) had a positive family history in a second-degree relative, and 91 (62%) had no family history. Pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors, and clinical outcomes for each family history group were compared. Cosmesis and complications were recorded at each follow-up. Patients were treated between 1978 and 1995, and the median follow-up was 7.1 years. Results: Patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative each had an 8% incidence of local failure at 10 years, while the negative family history group demonstrated a 16% local failure rate (p = 0.33). Overall survival at 10 years for patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative was 100% and for those with a negative family history was 91% (p = 0.08). The negative family history group had a higher median age that may account for the difference in overall survival. Cause-specific survival (CSS) was 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, at 10 years (p = 0.25). There were no differences in the cosmetic results or complication rates between women with a positive or negative family history. Conclusion: We have shown that a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer is not associated with an adverse outcome for women treated with breast conservation therapy for DCIS. Local recurrence, cause-specific survival, overall survival, cosmesis, and complication rates were comparable to that of similarly treated women with

  6. Family history of adenotonsillectomy as a risk factor for tonsillar hypertrophy and snoring in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalampouka, Efthimia; Moudaki, Aggeliki; Malakasioti, Georgia; Panaghiotopoulou-Gartagani, Polytimi; Chrousos, George; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a role for familial predisposition in the pathogenesis of OSA. In this study, it was hypothesized that parental history of adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy (AT), which is the standard treatment for pediatric OSA is a risk factor for tonsillar hypertrophy and habitual snoring (>3 nights/week) in the offspring. Children were recruited from the emergency department and the pediatric pulmonology clinic. Paternal or maternal history of AT (explanatory variables) and habitual snoring (outcome) were recorded and presence of tonsillar hypertrophy (outcome) was assessed. Two hundred ninety-two children (2-14 y.o.) were recruited; 37 (12.7%) of them had paternal history of AT, 39 (13.4%) maternal history of AT, 60 (20.5%) tonsillar hypertrophy, and 48 (16.4%) habitual snoring. Maternal and paternal history of AT were significantly associated with the presence of tonsillar hypertrophy even after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, passive smoking, and physician-diagnosed wheezing requiring treatment with inhaled medications over the past year [odds ratios (95% confidence interval): 3.52 (1.54-8.06); P snoring [4.12 (1.86-9.12); P snoring than maternal history of AT [4.00 (1.97-8.14) vs. 2.73 (1.20-6.20)]. Children with parental history of AT have more frequently tonsillar hypertrophy than those without such history. Tonsillar hypertrophy mediates at least in part the association between maternal history of AT and habitual snoring in childhood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BRCA1 status in Pakistani breast cancer patients with moderate family history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moatter, T.; Pervez, S.; Khan, S.; Azam, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine BRCA1 status in breast carcinoma patients of Pakistani origin. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Oncology Clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between May 2005 and December 2009. Methodology: Fifty three breast cancer patients based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis were recruited for this study. Moderate family history was defined as having a close relative (mother, daughter, sister) diagnosed with breast cancer under 45 years. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient in a 5 ml tube containing EDTA as anticoagulant. Subsequent to DNA extraction, mutational analysis of BRCA1 exons 2, 5, 6, 16, 20 and 22 was carried out using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay while protein truncation test (PTT) was used to examine mutations in exon 11. All BRCA1 sequence variants were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-three patients were diagnosed with early onset breast cancer, 30 patients had moderate family history. At the time of diagnosis, the median age of enrolled patients was 39 years (range 24-65 years). Out of 53 patients, analyzed by SSCP assay, mobility shift was detected in exon 6, 16 and 20 of three patients, whereas one patient was tested positive for mutation in exon 11 by PTT assays. All patients with BRCA1 mutations were further confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. In exon 16 c.4837A > G was confirmed, which is a common polymorphism reported in several populations including Asians. Moreover, mutations in exon 6 (c.271T > G), exon 20 (c.5231 del G) and exon 11 (c.1123 T > G) were reported first time in the Pakistani population. Several BRCA1 mutations were observed in Pakistani breast cancer patients with moderate family history. Therefore, mutation-based genetic counselling for patients with moderate family history can facilitate management, if one first or second degree relative or early onset disease is apparent. (author)

  9. Association of Family History With Cardiovascular Disease in Hypertensive Individuals in a Multiethnic Population

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Luca; Peters, Ron J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Pinto?Sietsma, Sara?Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension alone is a poor predictor of the individual risk of cardiovascular disease. Hereditary factors of which hypertension is merely a marker may explain why some hypertensive individuals appear more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, and why some ethnicities have more often seemingly hypertension?related cardiovascular disease than others. We hypothesize that, in hypertensive individuals, a positive family history of cardiovascular disease identifies a high?risk subpopu...

  10. [A family history of renal lithiasis in children diagnosed of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, Víctor; Sotoca Fernández, Jorge; O'Hagan, Monica; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel

    2018-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. As both UTI and hypercalciuria (prelithiasis) have a genetic basis, we wanted to know whether the family history of urolithiasis is more common in children with UTIs caused by E. coli. Secondarily, we wondered if the renal scars are more common in children with prelithiasis. Ambispective study with collected data from 104 patients (40 male, 64 female) followed after having been diagnosed of UTI by E. coli at least once. These patients were asked about the existence of urolithiasis in relatives. The calcium and citrate urinary elimination was qunatified in 80 children. In the total sample, family history was positive for urolithiasis in a significantly higher frequency in those children (n=71; 68.3%) than in the control population in our area (29.7%; previously published data). Prelithiasis frequency in children with UTI was 47.5% (38/80). An association was observed between the diagnosis of prelithiasis both with family history of urolithiasis (P=.030) and the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (P=.034). Children who developed renal scarring had an increased risk of prelithiasis (OR 5.3; P=.033). The frequency of family history of urolithiasis in children with UTI caused by E. coli is very high. Based on our results we hypothesize that the predisposition to lithiasis can involve a constitutively altered defense to E. coli and, therefore, a greater possibility for renal scars. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of family history of gastric cancer on colorectal neoplasias in young Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K; Shinozaki, M; Toyoshima, O; Toyoshima, A; Matsumoto, S; Saisho, T; Tsurita, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors for the development of colorectal neoplasia in the young population. In particular, we focused on the family history of gastric cancer. Young Japanese subjects aged 30-49 years old who underwent colonoscopy for the first time from August 2007 to August 2008 were included in this study. A total of 300 unselected consecutive patients (mean age 40.5 years) were eligible for analysis, and family history of colorectal cancer and gastric cancer, sex, age, body mass index, positivity of faecal occult blood test and the presence of symptoms were evaluated. Risk factors for developing colorectal adenoma and/or carcinoma were assessed. Colorectal neoplasias were detected in 83 (27.7%) cases. Two were found to have invasive carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that family history of gastric cancer (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.92, P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for the development of colorectal neoplasia, as well as male sex (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.27, P = 0.02), older age (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.55, P = 0.01) and positive faecal occult blood test (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.14-3.48, P = 0.02). In the young population under 50 years of age, a family history of gastric cancer is an independent risk factor for the development of colorectal neoplasia. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Validating the 5Fs mnemonic for cholelithiasis: time to include family history.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bass, Gary

    2013-11-01

    The time-honoured mnemonic of \\'5Fs\\' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of \\'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty\\' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important \\'F\\'-that for \\'family history\\'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire.

  13. Tooth agenesis association with self-reported family history of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, E C; Lips, A; Tannure, P N; Ho, B; Costa, M C; Granjeiro, J M; Vieira, A R

    2013-02-01

    It has been proposed that tooth agenesis and cancer development share common molecular pathways. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the epidemiological and molecular association between tooth agenesis and self-reported family history of cancer. Eighty-two individuals with tooth agenesis and 328 individuals with no birth defect were recruited from the same institution. Tooth agenesis was assessed in permanent teeth and was defined based on the age of the participants and when initial tooth formation should be radiographically visible. We also investigated the role of genes involved in dental development that have been implicated in tumorigenesis, and 14 markers in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 were genotyped. Individuals with tooth agenesis had an increased risk of having a family history of cancer (p = 0.00006; OR = 2.7; 95% C.I., 1.6-4.4). There were associations between AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 with tooth agenesis [i.e., individuals who carried the polymorphic allele of FGFR2 (rs1219648) presented higher risk for having premolar agenesis (p = 0.02; OR = 1.8; 95% C.I., 1.1-3.0)]. In conclusion, tooth agenesis was associated with positive self-reported family history of cancer and with variants in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2. Prospective studies are needed to confirm if tooth agenesis can be used as a risk marker for cancer.

  14. Optic Disc Drusen and Family History of Glaucoma-Results of a Patient-directed Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Gramer, Eugen; Weisschuh, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    Prospective evaluation of family history (FH) of glaucoma and FH of optic disc drusen (ODD) in patients with sonographically confirmed ODD. A total of 87 patients with ODD interviewed all their first-degree and second-degree relatives using a detailed questionnaire on whether an ophthalmologist had diagnosed or excluded glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OH). Using a second questionnaire, 62 of these patients also provided information about ODD in their FH. Control groups for FH of glaucoma consisted of 2170 patients with glaucoma or OH evaluated with the same methods and identical questions for FH of glaucoma in a previous study, and of 176 healthy individuals without glaucoma or ODD who were interviewed on family history of glaucoma. Glaucoma in FH was significantly more frequent in patients with ODD with an incidence of 20.7% compared with healthy controls with an incidence of 2.8%, and half as frequent as in glaucoma patients with an incidence of 40%. ODD in FH were found in 9.7% of patients with ODD. As there is a high frequency of family history of glaucoma in patients with ODD, evaluation of FH of ODD and FH of glaucoma is essential in patients with ODD. Glaucoma in FH of ODD patients requires intraocular pressure monitoring and whenever deemed beneficial timely initiation of intraocular pressure-lowering therapy.

  15. Specifying exposure classification parameters for sensitivity analysis: family breast cancer history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Jurek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne M Jurek,1,2 Timothy L Lash,3 George Maldonado41Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 4Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN,  USAAbstract: One of the challenges to implementing sensitivity analysis for exposure misclassification is the process of specifying the classification proportions (eg, sensitivity and specificity. The specification of these assignments is guided by three sources of information: estimates from validation studies, expert judgment, and numerical constraints given the data. The purpose of this teaching paper is to describe the process of using validation data and expert judgment to adjust a breast cancer odds ratio for misclassification of family breast cancer history. The parameterization of various point estimates and prior distributions for sensitivity and specificity were guided by external validation data and expert judgment. We used both nonprobabilistic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to investigate the dependence of the odds ratio estimate on the classification error. With our assumptions, a wider range of odds ratios adjusted for family breast cancer history misclassification resulted than portrayed in the conventional frequentist confidence interval.Keywords: breast cancer, family cancer history, sensitivity analysis, sensitivity, specificity

  16. Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2013-01-01

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control. PMID:23584260

  17. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.A. Eiler, II

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  18. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease......, and had more severe AF-related symptoms. No differences were found between the 2 groups in the risk of AF progression (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.14), stroke, non-central nervous system embolism, or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), all......-cause hospitalization (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94-1.12), and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.86-1.27). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a family history of AF developed AF at a younger age, had less comorbidity, and were more symptomatic. Once AF developed, no significantly increased risks of AF progression...

  19. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Roots run deep: Investigating psychological mechanisms between history of family aggression and abusive supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Kiewitz, Christian; Scott, Kristin L; Tang, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the relationships between supervisor-level factors and abusive supervision. Drawing from social learning theory (Bandura, 1973), we argue that supervisors' history of family aggression indirectly impacts abusive supervision via both hostile cognitions and hostile affect, with angry rumination functioning as a first-stage moderator. Using multisource data, we tested the proposed relationships in a series of 4 studies, each providing evidence of constructive replication. In Study 1, we found positive relationships between supervisors' history of family aggression, hostile affect, explicit hostile cognitions, and abusive supervision. We obtained the same pattern of results in Studies 2, 3, and 4 using an implicit measure of hostile cognitions and controlling for previously established antecedents of abusive supervision. Angry rumination moderated the indirect relationship between supervisors' history of family aggression and abusive supervision via hostile affect only. Overall, the results highlight the important role of supervisor-level factors in the abusive supervision dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Family history of esophageal cancer increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiantian; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Xingdong; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A population-based case-control was performed to explore familial aggregation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Family history of cancer was assessed by a structured questionnaire, and from which 2 cohorts of relatives of cases and controls were reconstructed. Unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied for case-control design and reconstructed cohort design, respectively. We observed a close to doubled risk of ESCC associated with a positive family history of esophageal cancer among first degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42–2.41), after adjusting age, sex, family size and other confounders. The excess risks of ESCC increased with the increasing of first-degree relatives affected by esophageal cancer (p < 0.001). In particular, those individuals whose both parents with esophageal cancer had an 8-fold excess risk of ESCC (95% CI: 1.74–36.32). The reconstructed cohort analysis showed that the cumulative risk of esophageal cancer to age 75 was 12.2% in the first-degree relatives of cases and 7.0% in those of controls (hazard ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.54–2.37). Our results suggest family history of esophageal cancer significantly increases the risk for ESCC. Future studies are needed to understand how the shared genetic susceptibility and/or environmental exposures contribute to the observed excess risk. PMID:26526791

  2. Family history of cancer and the risk of bladder cancer: A case-control study from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Montella, Maurizio; Libra, Massimo; Facchini, Gaetano; Ferraroni, Monica; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2017-06-01

    A family history of bladder cancer has been associated with the risk of bladder cancer, but quantification of the excess risk in different populations is still a relevant issue. Further, the role of a family history of other cancers on the risk of bladder cancer remains unclear. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated through unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for sex, age, study center, year of interview and further for education, smoking and sibling's number. The OR for family history of bladder cancer was 2.13 (95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) 1.02-4.49) from the model with partial adjustment, and 1.99 (95%CI 0.91-4.32) after additional adjustment for smoking and siblings' number, based on 23 cases (3.3%) and 11 controls (1.7%) with a family history of bladder cancer. The fully adjusted OR was 3.77 when the relative was diagnosed at age below 65years. Smokers with a family history of bladder cancer had a four-fold increased risk compared to non-smokers without a family history. Bladder cancer risk was significantly increased among subjects with a family history of hemolymphopoietic cancers (OR=2.97, 95%CI 1.35-6.55). Family history of cancer at other sites showed no significant association with bladder cancer risk. This study confirms an approximately two-fold increased risk of bladder cancer for family history of bladder cancer, and indicates a possible familial clustering of bladder cancer with cancers of the hemolymphopoietic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parents' attachment histories and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors: exploring family systems models of linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, P A; Cowan, C P; Cohn, D A; Pearson, J L

    1996-02-01

    Twenty-seven mothers and 27 fathers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (M. Main & R. Goldwyn, in press) when their children were 3.5 years old. Continuous ratings of narrative coherence, probable experience quality (parents perceived as loving), and state of mind (current anger at parents) were entered as latent variables in partial least squares structural equation models that included observational measures of marital quality and parenting style. Models that include fathers' attachment histories predicted more variance in kindergarten teachers' descriptions of children's externalizing behavior, whereas models that include mothers' attachment histories predicted more variance in children's internalizing behavior. Marital data added predictive power to the equations. Discussion is focused on the importance of integrating attachment and family systems approaches, and of parents' gender and marital quality, in understanding specific links between parents' attachment histories and their young children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

  4. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  5. Family history of cardiovascular disease and non-HDL cholesterol in prepubescent non-obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wany Louzada Strufaldi

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To describe the values of non-HDL cholesterol (NHDL-c and the frequency of a family history of early cardiovascular disease (family HCVD in healthy prepubescent children. Analyze the association between NHDL-c and family HCVD, and possible associations with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Method: Cross-sectional study including 269 prepubescent (aged 6-10 years schoolchildren with a normal body mass index (+1SD-2SD. Data collected: Family HCVD; weight and height, waist circumference and systemic blood pressure; lipid profile (total cholesterol TC, HDL-c, triglycerides and LDL-c, NHDL-c calculation (CT-HDL-c, cut-off = 145 mg/dL and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results: High levels were found for NHDL-c in 10 (3.7% of these schoolchildren, and family early HCVD was found in 46 (17.1% of them. There was a weak association between family HCVD and NHDL-c (Cramer’s-V-test = 0.120; p=0.050. Among the children with NHDL-c≥145 mg/dL, 4 (40% have family HCVD. The presence of family HCVD was not associated with the variables being studied. The variables independently associated with NHDL-c ≥ 145 mg/dL were: HOMA-IR (OR=1.7; 95CI 1.1-2.6 and diastolic blood pressure (OR=1.1; 95CI 1.02-1.2. Conclusion: NHDL-c values were associated with blood pressure and insulin resistance. Family HCVD was not associated with other classic risk factors for CVD, even though the frequency found was five times higher than that of high NHDL-c.

  6. Investigating uncertainty and emotions in conversations about family health history: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.

  7. Family history of colorectal cancer is not associated with colorectal cancer survival regardless of microsatellite instability status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Campbell, Peter T.; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Gryfe, Robert; Potter, John D.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in first-degree relatives have an elevated risk of developing CRC themselves, particularly CRC exhibiting high microsatellite instability (MSI-high). Given that MSI-high CRC is associated with a favorable prognosis, it is plausible that having a family history of CRC could, in turn, be favorably associated with CRC survival. Methods This study comprised N=4284 incident CRC cases enrolled in the Colon Cancer Family Registry via population-based cancer registries. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we evaluated the association between family history and both overall and disease-specific survival, accounting for MSI status and tumor site via stratified analyses and statistical adjustment. Results There was no evidence of association between family history and overall [hazard ratio (HR)=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.08] or disease-specific survival (HR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.85-1.24) for all cases combined, after adjustment for MSI status or tumor site. Only for rectal cancer cases was CRC family history modestly associated with more favorable overall survival (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.56-0.99). Conclusions Although individuals with a family history of CRC were more likely to have MSI-high tumors than those with non-familial disease, this did not translate to a survival benefit. Impact Overall, there is no evidence that family history of CRC is associated with CRC survival; however, specific mechanisms underlying family history may have prognostic impact and merit further study. PMID:24891550

  8. Combined role of childhood maltreatment, family history, and gender in the risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M C; Geier, T; Keyes, K; Skodol, A E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S

    2013-05-01

    Studies of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol dependence have not controlled comprehensively for potential confounding by co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma, or determined whether parental history of alcohol disorders operates synergistically with gender and maltreatment to produce alcohol dependence. We addressed these issues using national data. Method Face-to-face surveys of 27 712 adult participants in a national survey. Childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical neglect were associated with alcohol dependence (prelationships for physical abuse in the entire sample, and for sexual abuse and emotional neglect in women (APs, 0.21, 0.31, 0.26 respectively), indicating that the odds of alcohol dependence given both parental history and these maltreatments were significantly higher than the additive effect of each alone (pdependence. Importantly, results suggest a synergistic role of parental alcoholism: the effect of physical abuse on alcohol dependence may depend on parental history, while the effects of sexual abuse and emotional neglect may depend on parental history among women. Findings underscore the importance of early identification and prevention, particularly among those with a family history, and could guide genetic research and intervention development, e.g. programs to reduce the burden of childhood maltreatment may benefit from addressing the negative long-term effects of maltreatments, including potential alcohol problems, across a broad range of childhood environments.

  9. Cortical Thickness in Adolescents with a Family History of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kate E; Vaidya, Jatin G; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Langbehn, Douglas R; O'Leary, Daniel S

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with a family history (FH+) of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a higher risk for developing an AUD than those with no family history (FH-) of AUD. In addition, FH+ individuals tend to perform worse on neuropsychological measures and show heightened impulsivity, which may be due to underlying differences in brain structure such as cortical thickness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate differences in cortical thickness in FH+ compared to FH- adolescents. Secondary aims were to (i) investigate differences in executive functioning and impulsivity, and (ii) examine associations between brain structure and behavior. Brain scans of 95 FH- and 93 FH+ subjects aged 13 to 18 were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. FH+ subjects were required to have at least 1 biological parent with a history of an AUD. FH+ and FH- individuals had limited or no past alcohol use, thereby minimizing potential effects of alcohol. Subjects were evaluated on impulsivity and executive functioning tasks. Thicknesses of cortical lobes and subregions were analyzed using FreeSurfer. Regions showing group differences were examined for group-by-age interactions and correlations with neuropsychological and personality measures. FH+ adolescents had thinner cortices in frontal and parietal lobes, notably in the medial orbitofrontal, lateral orbitofrontal, and superior parietal cortices. The difference in cortical thickness between family history groups was strongest among the youngest subjects. FH+ subjects were also more impulsive and had poorer performance on a spatial memory task. These findings demonstrate frontal and parietal structural differences in FH+ adolescents that might underlie cognitive and behavioral characteristics associated with AUD risk. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Is urinary incontinence during and after pregnancy related to family history? A web-based survey among postpartum women (motherfit project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers-Heitner, P; Bekkers, L; Moossdorff, H; Berghmans, B; Verdonk, P

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied whether family history of urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with pre- and postpartum UI. In 2010, Dutch postpartum women at three months were approached to fill in a Web-based questionnaire on UI and risk factors (body mass index, BMI), parity, pelvic organ prolapse, and family history. Results were analyzed with Chi-square and logistic regression analyses. 162 (61%) questionnaires were analyzed, 76 (47%) women reported UI before, during and/or after pregnancy, of which 34% also reported a UI family history. Sixteen (19%) out of 84 women without UI reported UI family history (p = 0.05). BMI was associated with prepartum UI (p = 0.035), but the association disappears when adding family history. Women with unknown UI family history had higher risk for postpartum U. UI family history is associated with UI during pregnancy. More awareness and research is needed whether adding family history questions on UI in prepartum consultations improves timely prevention.

  11. Familiality of mood repair responses among youth with and without histories of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kiss, Enikő; Kapornai, Krisztina; Halas, Kitti; Dochnal, Roberta; Lefkovics, Eszter; Baji, Ildikό; Vetrό, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Affect regulation skills develop in the context of the family environment, wherein youths are influenced by their parents', and possibly their siblings', regulatory responses and styles. Regulatory responses to sadness (mood repair) that exacerbate or prolong dysphoria (maladaptive mood repair) may represent one way in which depression is transmitted within families. We examined self-reported adaptive and maladaptive mood repair responses across cognitive, social and behavioural domains in Hungarian 11- to 19-year-old youth and their parents. Offspring included 214 probands with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorder, 200 never depressed siblings and 161 control peers. Probands reported the most problematic mood repair responses, with siblings reporting more modest differences from controls. Mood repair responses of parents and their offspring, as well as within sib-pairs, were related, although results differed as a function of the regulatory response domain. Results demonstrate familiality of maladaptive and adaptive mood repair responses in multiple samples. These familial associations suggest that relationships with parents and siblings within families may impact the development of affect regulation in youth.

  12. On the history of gout: paleopathological evidence from the Medici family of Florence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Valentina; Minozzi, Simona; Vitiello, Angelica; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Throughout history, gout has been referred to as the "disease of the kings", and has been clearly associated with the lifestyle of the aristocratic social classes. According to the written sources, several members of the famous Medici family of Florence suffered from an arthritic disease that contemporary physicians called "gout". A paleopathological study carried out on the skeletal remains of some members of the family, exhumed from their tombs in the Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, offered a unique opportunity to directly investigate the evidence of the arthritic diseases affecting this elite group. The skeletal remains of several members of the family were examined macroscopically and submitted to x-ray investigation. The results of the study allowed us to ascertain that the so-called "gout of the Medici" should be considered the clinical manifestation of three different joint conditions: diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, rheumatoid arthritis and uratic gout. In particular, uric acid gout was diagnosed in the Grand Duke Ferdinand I (1549-1609). Recently, a new case of this disease was diagnosed in Anton Francesco Maria (1618-1659), a probable illegitimate member of the family. With this new case, uratic gout was observed in 2 out of 9 adult males, leading to suppose that the disease should have been a common health problem within the family. The aetiology of the disease has to be searched in environmental factors, since both historical and paleonutritional studies demonstrated that the diet of this aristocratic court was rich in meat and wine.

  13. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  14. Physical activity, family history of diabetes and risk of developing hyperglycaemia and diabetes among adults in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Wang, Y; Ware, R S; Tse, L Ah; Dunstan, D W; Liang, Y; Wang, Z; Hong, X; Owen, N

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the joint influence of physical activity and family history of diabetes on the subsequent risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults. A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted among adults aged 35 years and older during 2004-2007 in Nanjing, China. Four communities (three urban and one rural) were randomly selected from 11 urban districts and two rural counties. Hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes were defined using World Health Organization criteria based on fasting blood glucose concentration and physicians' diagnosis, respectively. Physical activity, parental diabetes history, and other important covariates were assessed at baseline and in the third-year follow-up survey. At study conclusion data were collected from 3031 participants (follow-up rate 81.3%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes was 6.2% and 2.4%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, compared with those with positive family history and insufficient physical activity, the adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI) of developing hyperglycaemia was 0.19 (0.02, 1.51) for participants with sufficient physical activity and a positive family history; 0.55 (0.31, 0.97) for participants with insufficient physical activity and a negative family history; and 0.36 (0.19, 0.70) for participants with sufficient physical activity but a negative family history. Participants who had a negative family history and insufficient physical activity were also less likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (RRR = 0.28; 0.14, 0.54), and participants with a negative family history and sufficient physical activity were the least likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (0.23; 0.10, 0.56). Sufficient physical activity and negative family history of diabetes may jointly reduce the risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  15. Can family risk-factors moderate the link between psychopathy and life-history strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.

  16. Facial palsy in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and Bell's palsy: familial history and recurrence tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baochun; Zhou, Chengyong; Han, Zeli

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare genetic predilection and recurrence tendency between facial palsy in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) and Bell's palsy We carried out an investigation on patients with facial palsy in MRS and those with Bell's palsy who visited the outpatient department in our hospital between February 2009 and February 2013. They were asked about familial history and whether it was the first episode, with the results recorded and compared. There were 16 patients with facial palsy in MRS and 860 patients with Bell's palsy involved in the study. Familial history was positive in 5 of 16 patients (31.3%) with facial palsy in MRS and 56 of 860 patients (6.5%) with Bell's palsy (P palsy in MRS and 88 of 860 cases (10.2%) with Bell's palsy had a history of facial palsy in the past (P Bell's palsy, facial palsy in MRS has an obvious genetic predilection and recurrence tendency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies...... and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain...... tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically...

  18. Are there differences in zonal distribution and tumor volume of prostate cancer in patients with a positive family history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade J. Sexton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine if there are any differences in the zonal distribution and tumor volumes of familial and sporadic prostate cancers (PC in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 839 patients underwent a radical prostatectomy in the absence of prior neoadjuvant therapy between 1987 and 1996. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain an updated family history. A positive family history was defined as the diagnosis of PC in at least one first degree relative. Prostatectomy specimens were examined to determine the number of tumor foci, zonal origin of the dominant tumor focus, tumor volume of the largest cancer focus, total tumor volume, Gleason score and stage, and the surgical margin status. Results were stratified according to family history and ethnicity. RESULTS: We successfully contacted 437 patients (52%. Prostatectomy specimens from 55 patients were excluded from review due to a history of prior transurethral resection of the prostate (n = 26 or uncertain pathological stage (n = 29. Of the remaining 382 patients, 76 (20% reported having a first-degree relative with PC. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the pathologic variables between the two groups of patients with or without a family history of PC. CONCLUSIONS: Familial and sporadic PC share similar characteristics. No histopathological differences account for the increased positive predictive value of PC screening tests among patients with a family history of PC.

  19. Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-05-15

    Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  1. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M

    2013-10-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were "pushed out" (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults' trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults' family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home.

  2. Familial history of diabetes and clinical characteristics in Greek subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Skliros, Eystathios; Kardara, Marina; Kokolaki, Anthi; Apostolou, Ourania; Pappas, Stavros

    2009-04-27

    A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications. A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately. The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05) and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 +/- 39.76 vs. 127.13 +/- 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006) than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.

  3. Efficacy of personal symptom and family history questionnaires when screening for inherited cardiac pathologies: the role of electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M G; Basavarajaiah, S; Whyte, G P; Cox, S; Loosemore, M; Sharma, S

    2008-03-01

    This study sought to confirm the efficacy of using resting 12-lead ECG alongside personal symptom and family history questionnaires and physical examination when screening for diseases with the potential to cause sudden cardiac death in the young. 1074 national and international junior athletes (mean age 15.8 (SD 0.7) years, range 10 to 27) and 1646 physically active schoolchildren (16.1 (SD 2.1) years, range 14 to 20) were screened using personal and family history questionnaires, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Nine participants with a positive diagnosis of a disease associated with sudden cardiac death were identified. None of the participants diagnosed with a disease associated with sudden cardiac death were symptomatic or had a family history of note. Family history and personal symptom questionnaires alone are inadequate to identify people with diseases associated with sudden cardiac death. Use of the 12-lead ECG is essential when screening for cardiac pathology in the young.

  4. The Effects of Tryptophan on Everyday Interpersonal Encounters and Social Cognitions in Individuals with a Family History of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with a family history of depression show subtle abnormalities in the processing of social stimuli. This could negatively affect their interpersonal functioning and contribute to their depression risk. Repeated administration of the serotonin precursor tryptophan has

  5. Loss of FHIT expression in gastric mucosa of patients with family histories of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Antoszczyk, Slawomir; Klupinska, Grazyna; Nawrot, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To answer the question whether FHIT gene expression is affected by the family history of gastric carcinoma and the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in the gastric mucosa of patients with dyspepsia.

  6. Association between overweight and obesity in schoolchildren with rs9939609 polymorphism (FTO and family history for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézane Priscila Reuter

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: There is an association between the AA genotype of rs9939609 polymorphism and BMI among schoolchildren. The association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with a family history of obesity was found mainly among students with the AA genotype.

  7. Family history density of substance use problems among undergraduate college students: Associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright

  8. MR-guided intervention in women with a family history of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweg, P. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: Petra.Viehweg@uniklinikum-dresden.de; Bernerth, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 16, 06097 Halle (Germany); Kiechle, M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Buchmann, J. [Department of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 14, 06097 Halle (Germany); Heinig, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 16, 06097 Halle (Germany); Koelbl, H. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 24, 06097 Halle (Germany); Laniado, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 16, 06097 Halle (Germany); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 19, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Objective: A study was undertaken to assess the clinical value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided interventions in women with a family history, but no personal history of breast cancer. Methods and patients: Retrospective review was performed on 63 consecutive women who had a family history, but no personal history of breast cancer. A total of 97 lesions were referred for an MR-guided intervention. Standardized MR examinations (1.0 T, T1-weighted 3D FLASH, 0.15 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg body weight, prone position) were performed using a dedicated system which allows vacuum assisted breast biopsy or wire localization. Results: Histologic findings in 87 procedures revealed 9 (10%) invasive carcinomas, 12 (14%) ductal carcinomas in situ, 2 atypical ductal hyperplasias (2.5%) and 2 atypical lobular hyperplasias (2.5%). Sixty-two (71%) benign histologic results are verified by an MR-guided intervention, retrospective correlation of imaging and histology and by subsequent follow-up. In ten lesions the indication dropped since the enhancing lesion was no longer visible. Absent enhancement was confirmed by short-term re-imaging of the noncompressed breast and by follow-up. Conclusion: Malignancy was found in 24%, high-risk lesions in 5% of successfully performed MR-guided biopsy procedures. A 57% of MR-detected malignancies were ductal carcinoma in situ. In 10% of the lesions the intervention was not performed, since no enhancing lesion could be reproduced at the date of anticipated intervention. Such problems may be avoided if the initial MRI is performed in the appropriate phase of the menstrual cycle and without hormonal replacement therapy.

  9. The influence of perceived social support on the relationship between family history of alcoholism and drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, C M; Hesselbrock, V M

    1993-12-01

    The present study examined the effect that perceived social support has on the relationship between having a family history of alcoholism and alcohol use in a sample of 85 adult children of alcoholics and a control group (n = 68). Social support from both peers and from family members were assessed for their potential differential effects. Gender differences were also examined. Overall, perceived social support from friends significantly moderated the relationship between family history of alcoholism and several indicators of alcohol use. In contrast, perceived social support from family members did not moderate any of the relationships examined. These findings emphasize the importance of considering different sources of social support when using social support as a moderating variable and the need to examine the underlying processes and variables involved in the relationship between having a family history of alcoholism and alcohol use.

  10. Genetic risk scores and family history as predictors of schizophrenia in Nordic registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Y.; Pouget, J. G.; Andreassen, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family history is a long-standing and readily obtainable risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ). Low-cost genotyping technologies have enabled large genetic studies of SCZ, and the results suggest the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS, direct assessments of inherited common variant risk...... through the quality control procedures used by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Using external training data, GRS were estimated for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression, autism, educational attainment, and body mass index. Multivariable modeling was used to estimate effect sizes. Results...

  11. Evolutionary History of Chemosensory-Related Gene Families across the Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyun, Seong-Il; Soh, Ho Young; Posavi, Marijan; Munro, James B; Hughes, Daniel S T; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Park, Eun-Ok; Silva, Joana C; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2017-08-01

    Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive data set. In particular, odorant receptors were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear. We also examine hypotheses on which arthropod CRG family is most ancient. Thus, we reconstructed phylogenies of CRGs, including those from new arthropod genomes and transcriptomes, and mapped CRG gains and losses across arthropod lineages. Our analysis was strengthened by including crustaceans, especially copepods, which reside outside the hexapod/branchiopod clade within the subphylum Pancrustacea. We generated the first high-resolution genome sequence of the copepod Eurytemora affinis and annotated its CRGs. We found odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins present only in hexapods (insects) and absent from all other arthropod lineages, indicating that they are not universal adaptations to land. Gustatory receptors likely represent the oldest chemosensory receptors among CRGs, dating back to the Placozoa. We also clarified and confirmed the evolutionary history of antennal ionotropic receptors across the Arthropoda. All antennal ionotropic receptors in E. affinis were expressed more highly in males than in females, suggestive of an association with male mate-recognition behavior. This study is the most comprehensive comparative analysis to date of CRG family evolution across the largest and most speciose metazoan phylum Arthropoda. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Inter-generational continuity in periodontal health: findings from the Dunedin family history study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Proband periodontal examination [combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26 to 32] and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents' self-reported periodontal disease. Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 1+ sites with 4+mm CAL [relative risk (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.88], 2+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-2.05), 1+ sites with 5+mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02-2.50), and 1+ sites with 3+mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.01-2.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual's periodontal status, and may help to predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Intergenerational continuity in periodontal health: findings from the Dunedin Family History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Methods Proband periodontal examination (combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26–32) and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents’ self-reported periodontal disease. Results Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 1+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.11–1.88), 2+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03–2.05), 1+ sites with 5+mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02–2.50) and 1+ sites with 3+mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.01–2.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Conclusions Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s periodontal status, and may help predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need. PMID:21281332

  14. Pediatric bipolar disorder and ADHD: family history comparison in the LAMS clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; Mount, Katherine; Frazier, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Youngstrom, Eric A; Fristad, Mary A; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah; Findling, Robert L; Kowatch, Robert; Axelson, David

    2012-12-10

    Transgenerational association of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported, but inconclusively. Children ages 6-12 were systematically recruited at first outpatient visit at 9 clinics at four universities and reliably diagnosed; 621 had elevated symptoms of mania (>12 on the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale); 86 had scores below 12. We analyzed baseline data to test a familial association hypothesis: compared to children with neither BPSD nor ADHD, those with either BPSD or ADHD would have parents with higher rates of both bipolar and ADHD symptoms, and parents of comorbid children would have even higher rates of both. Of 707 children, 421 had ADHD without BPSD, 45 BPSD without ADHD, 117 comorbid ADHD+BPSD, and 124 neither. The rate of parental manic symptoms was similar for the comorbid and BPSD-alone groups, significantly greater than for ADHD alone and "neither" groups, which had similar rates. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with BPSD alone were significantly less frequent than in parents of children with ADHD (alone or comorbid), and no greater than for children with neither diagnosis. Family history of manic symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms, was associated with parent-rated child manic-symptom severity over and above child diagnosis. The sample was not epidemiologic, parent symptoms were based on family history questions, and alpha was 0.05 despite multiple tests. These results do not support familial linkage of BPSD and ADHD; they are compatible with heritability of each disorder separately with coincidental overlap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensive multifactorial treatment modifies the effect of family history of diabetes on glycaemic control in people with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliraqi, G M; Vistisen, D; Lauritzen, T

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether intensive multifactorial treatment can reverse the predisposed adverse phenotype of people with Type 2 diabetes who have a family history of diabetes. Methods Data from the randomized controlled trial ADDITION-Denmark were used. A total of 1441 newly diagnosed patients ...... the adverse effects of family history of diabetes on glycaemic control. The effect of this improvement on long-term diabetic complications warrants further investigation....... with diabetes (598 with family history of diabetes) were randomized to intensive treatment or routine care. Family history of diabetes was defined as having one parent and/or sibling with diabetes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the changes in risk factors (BMI, waist circumference, blood...... pressure, lipids and HbA1c) after 5 years of follow-up in participants with and without a family history of diabetes. An interaction term between family history of diabetes and treatment group was included in the models to test for a modifying effect of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for age...

  16. Associations Between Family History of Substance Use, Childhood Trauma, and Age of First Drug Use in Persons With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.

  17. Family history of cancer and the risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavello, Werner; Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Levi, Fabio; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Chiesa, Fausto; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Only limited data is available on the relationship between family history of laryngeal and other neoplasms and laryngeal cancer risk. We investigated the issue using data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 2009 including 852 cases with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1970 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, study center, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and number of siblings were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer. The multivariate OR was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.3) in subjects reporting a first-degree relative with laryngeal cancer, as compared to subjects with no family history. The OR was higher when the relative was diagnosed before 60 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8). As compared to subjects without family history, non-smokers, and moderate drinkers, the OR was 37.1 (95% CI 9.9-139.4) for current smokers, heavy drinkers, with family history of laryngeal cancer. Family history of colorectal (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3) and kidney (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.1) cancer were also associated to an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, while no significant increase in risk was found for family history of cancer at all sites, excluding the larynx (OR = 1.1). Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  18. The relationship between type 2 diabetes family history, body composition and blood basal glycemia in sedentary people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Raccuglia, Margherita; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Filingeri, Davide; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass and composition, and alterations in blood basal glycaemia levels in sedentary male and female. Anthropometric variables, blood parameters, body composition and body surface area were evaluated on 183 male and 237 female sedentary individuals. Participants were classified into two groups: FH(+) (family history positive) and FH(-) (familiar history negative) according to their medical history. The FH(+) group showed higher values of body mass and body surface area than FH(-) group. These differences were statistically significant (p composition correlate positively to family history to type 2 diabetes. The relationship between family history and body composition is particularly evident in young FH(+) female. Thus, as family history might represent a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, this could be considered as an important parameter able to predict the onset of the disease itself. This knowledge could be used to improve preventive interventions (i.e. increasing levels of physical activity) promoting healthy lifestyle.

  19. The impact of a male or female thrombotic family history on contraceptive counseling: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, E F W; Veeger, N J G M; Middeldorp, S; Hamulyák, K; Prins, M H; Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Meijer, K

    2016-09-01

    Essentials It is unknown if a male or female thrombotic family history influences risk in female relatives. We assessed thrombotic risk in female relatives of male and female patients with thrombosis. A hormonally related female thrombotic family history further increases risk in female relatives. This information could be important in counseling women on contraceptive options. Click to hear Prof. Rosendaal's perspective on venous thrombosis: etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis Background Women from thrombophilic families have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases further during oral contraceptive (COC) use and pregnancy-postpartum. Whether this additional risk differs between relatives of male and female patients, or is different when that female patient had a hormonally related VTE (during COC use/pregnancy), is unknown. Methods One thousand five female relatives of consecutive patients with VTE from a family-based cohort were retrospectively followed for incident VTE from ages 15 to 50, first VTE, or study inclusion. Absolute and relative VTE risks adjusted for factors of patients (sex, age) and relatives (thrombophilia, COC use, pregnancy) were estimated in relatives of female and male patients and in relatives of female patients with and without hormonally related VTE. Results Absolute risk in relatives of female (0.32 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.43]) vs. male patients (0.39 [95% CI 0.28-0.53]) was comparable. However, the heterogeneity analysis of risk estimates suggested that in relatives of female vs. male patients, the contribution of pregnancy-postpartum (hazard ratio [HR] 11.6 [95% CI 6.3-21.3] vs. HR6.6 [95% CI 2.8-15.2]) and, to a lesser extent, COC use (HR3.6 [95% CI 1.8-7.1] vs. HR2.7 [95% CI 1.5-5.0]) to the VTE risk differs. Absolute risk was significantly higher in relatives of female patients with hormonally related VTE (0.43 [95% CI 0.3-0.6]) vs. relatives of female patients without hormonally related VTE (0

  20. The Irish Kidney Gene Project--Prevalence of Family History in Patients with Kidney Disease in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Dervla M; Bukhari, Sarah; Conlon, Peter; Cassidy, Eoin; O'Toole, Michael; Mohamad, Mardina; Flanagan, John; Butler, Triona; O'Leary, Anne; Wong, Limy; O'Regan, John; Moran, Sarah; O'Kelly, Patrick; Logan, Valerie; Griffin, Brenda; Griffin, Matthew; Lavin, Peter; Little, Mark A; Conlon, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney disease (KD) due to inherited genetic conditions in Ireland is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterise an adult kidney disease population in Ireland and to identify familial clusters of kidney disease within the population. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with kidney disease in the Republic of Ireland, from January 2014 to September 2014, recruiting from dialysis units and out-patient renal departments. A survey was performed by collecting data on etiology of kidney disease and whether a family history of kidney disease exists. Medical records were cross-referenced to confirm the etiology of kidney disease. A total of 1,840 patients were recruited with a mean age of 55.9 years (range 17-94.5) and a male predominance (n = 1,095; 59.5%). A positive family history was reported by 629 participants (34.2%). Excluding polycystic kidney disease (n = 134, 7.3%), a positive family history was reported by 495 participants (26.9%). Kidney disease due to an unknown etiology was the commonest etiology in the non-polycystic kidney disease group with a positive family history (10.6%, n = 67). Kidney diseases that are not classically associated with familial inheritance including tubulo-interstitial kidney disease, congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract and glomerulonephritis demonstrated familial clustering. In an Irish non-polycystic kidney disease population, 26.9% reports a positive family history. The commonest etiology of kidney disease in the positive family history cohort, excluding autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, was kidney disease due to unknown etiology. Examining families with kidney disease provides an opportunity to better understand disease pathogenesis and potentially identify genetic predispositions to kidney disease. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Validation of family cancer history data in high-risk families: the influence of cancer site, ethnicity, kinship degree, and multiple family reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Wu, Hui-Chen; Shriver, Tom; Cloud, Ann J; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-02-01

    Information on family cancer history (FCH) is often collected for first-degree relatives, but more extensive FCH information is critical for greater accuracy in risk assessment. Using self-reported diagnosis of cancer as the gold standard, we examined differences in the sensitivity and specificity of relative-reported FCH by cancer site, race/ethnicity, language preference, and kinship degree (1,524 individuals from 557 families; average number of relatives per family = 2.7). We evaluated the impact of FCH data collected in 2007-2013 from multiple relatives by comparing mean values and proportions for the number of relatives with any cancer, breast cancer, or ovarian cancer as reported by a single relative and by multiple relatives in the same family. The sensitivity of FCH was lower in Hispanics, Spanish-speaking persons, and third-degree relatives (e.g., for all cancers, sensitivities were 80.7%, 87.4%, and 91.0% for third-, second-, and first-degree relatives, respectively). FCH reported by multiple relatives included a higher number of relatives with cancer than the number reported by a single relative (e.g., mean increase of 1.2 relatives with any cancer), with more relatives diagnosed with any cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer in 52%, 36% and 12% of families, respectively. Collection of FCH data from multiple relatives may provide a more comprehensive picture of FCH and may potentially improve risk assessment and preventive care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism as an important modifier of positive family history related breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Pia; Hirvonen, Ari; Kataja, Vesa; Eskelinen, Matti; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Uusitupa, Matti; Vainio, Harri; Mitrunen, Katja

    2004-04-01

    The association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and diseases such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and osteoporosis has been extensively investigated during recent years. To date, several polymorphisms have been found in the VDR gene. In this Finnish case-control study, comprising 483 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy population controls, we investigated the association between altered breast cancer risk and two polymorphisms in the 3' end of the gene detectable with ApaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. A statistically significant difference was observed in the ApaI genotype distribution between cases and controls. Women with the VDR variant a allele containing genotypes showed a decreased risk for breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.98] compared to women with the AA genotype. This association was especially strong among women with a positive family history of breast cancer (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.76). Moreover, there was a trend (P for trend = 0.0007) for decreased risk with increasing number of variant alleles. The lowest risk of breast cancer was seen for the women with the aa genotype (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.003-0.31) compared to women with the AA genotype. A tendency of decreased risk of breast cancer was also observed for the TaqI T allele containing genotypes (Tt and TT) (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.41-1.12), but because the distribution of Taql alleles in the controls missed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.01), we were unable to properly assess the potential impact of the TaqI polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, our results suggest that the VDR ApaI genotype may be an important modifier of individual breast cancer risk among Finnish women, especially if they have a positive family history of breast cancer.

  3. Family History and Stroke Risk in China: Evidence from a Large Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Zhengming; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Large cohort studies on relationship between family history of stroke (FHS) and stroke risk are lacking in Asians. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association of FHS with stroke risk in a cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. Information about FHS was self-reported. The median follow-up time was 7.16 years and the end-point of follow-up was incident stroke, which was entered directly into the China Kadoorie Biobank system. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards model, and interaction analyses were carried using likelihood-ratio tests. Compared with participants without FHS, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of stroke for participants with FHS was 1.50 (1.46-1.55). The HRs increased with the number of first degree relatives with stroke (HRs=1.41, 1.98 and 2.47 for 1, 2 and ≥3 relatives, respectively, P trend history and parental history, respectively. Similar associations with offspring stroke risk were observed between paternal history (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.43-1.54) and maternal history (HR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.43-1.55). Moreover, significant interactions were detected between FHS and health-risk behaviors (tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking). FHS is an independent risk factor for stroke in Chinese. The more first degree relatives are affected by stroke, the higher are individuals' risk of suffering from stroke. The management of the health-risk behaviors for reducing stroke should be highlighted, especially for the individuals with FHS.

  4. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and risk prediction in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Trip, Mieke D.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Luben, Robert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-01-01

    Objective The value of a family history for coronary heart disease (CHD) in addition to established cardiovascular risk factors in predicting an individual's risk of CHD is unclear. In the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort, the authors tested whether adding family

  5. Machine learning amplifies the effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on list learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Timothy S; Coen, Michael H; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin; Koscik, Rebecca L; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    Identification of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an essential first step in developing interventions to prevent or delay disease onset. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that deeper analyses of traditional cognitive tests may be useful in identifying subtle but potentially important learning and memory differences in asymptomatic populations that differ in risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 879 asymptomatic higher-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents with AD) and 355 asymptotic lower-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents without AD). All were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test at baseline. Using machine learning approaches, we constructed a new measure that exploited finer differences in memory strategy than previous work focused on serial position and subjective organization. The new measure, based on stochastic gradient descent, provides a greater degree of statistical separation (p = 1.44 × 10-5) than previously observed for asymptomatic family history and non-family history groups, while controlling for apolipoprotein epsilon 4, age, gender, and education level. The results of our machine learning approach support analyzing memory strategy in detail to probe potential disease onset. Such distinct differences may be exploited in asymptomatic middle-aged persons as a potential risk factor for AD.

  6. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on serial position profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A

    2008-07-01

    An exaggerated recency effect (ie, disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our study sought to determine whether there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD as a result of parental family history. Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median, 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared with controls, AD children exhibited a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 or depressive symptoms. Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared with controls, but they exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve, suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD.

  7. PS1-27: Use of Tumor Registry to Obtain Family History Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kimberly; Brown, Jeffrey; Platt, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Human Genome project has revolutionized the field of medicine to move toward personalized medicine. The family history is a screening tool to identify families at risk for common conditions allowing for personalized care. For breast cancer syndromes, genetic testing, counseling and prophylactic treatment are available. While there are data about the efficacy and clinical utility of the family history, there are areas that still need investigation. Does obtaining the family history lead to patient recommendations? Do patients FDA’s Mini-Sentinel Initiative: The HMORN’s Role. In May 2008, the FDA Commissioner announced FDA’s intention to create the Sentinel Initiative. The Sentinel Initiative is an effort by the FDA to create a coordinated national electronic medical product safety surveillance system. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) mandated FDA develop methods to obtain access to disparate data sources and to establish an active post-market risk identification and analysis system linking and analyzing data from multiple sources. The law sets a goal of 25 million patients under surveillance by July 1, 2010, and 100 million patients by July 1, 2012. With the funding and support provided by FDAAA, the FDA laid out the vision for Sentinel Initiative. In September 2009, the FDA awarded a single contract to a consortium of 28 institutions led by the Harvard Medical School Department of Population Medicine at the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, including 13 HMORN members (all Kaiser Permanente plans, Group Health Cooperative, Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Myers Primary Care Institute, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, HealthPartners Research Foundation and Henry Ford Health Services), CIGNA, Humana, WellPoint [HealthCore] and Tennessee’s Medicaid system, comprising ~60 million covered lives. Additional data resources include the HMORN’s ambulatory electronic medical records linked to enrollment and claims

  8. Association Between Adolescent Pregnancy And a Family History of Teenage Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Reyes, Barbara T.; Horn, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which young women’s risk of adolescent pregnancy is associated with having a mother who was a teenage parent, a sister who was a teenage parent or both is not known. METHODS A sample of 127 Latina and black adolescent females completed in-depth surveys at three time points between 1994 and 2000. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether socioeconomic factors, mothers’ parenting characteristics and certain sibling relationship qualities explain the association between a family history of teenage births and young women’s risk of pregnancy. RESULTS Compared with young women with no family history of teenage births, young women whose sister had had a teenage birth and those whose sister and mother both had had teenage births were significantly more likely to experience a teenage pregnancy (odds ratios, 4.8 and 5.1, respectively). Young women who had only a sister who had had a teenage birth had greater odds of pregnancy than young women who had only a mother who had had a teenage birth (4.5). Having both a mother and a sister who had had teenage births was independently associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.7), even after controlling for socioeconomic and mothers’ parenting characteristics. Frequent companionship with an older sister was associated with increased odds of teenage pregnancy (4.5); frequent conflict with an older sister who had had a teenage birth was marginally associated with decreased odds of the outcome (0.3). CONCLUSION Pregnancy prevention interventions targeting young women according to maternal and sibling teenage birth histories may be effective. PMID:17565624

  9. Association between adolescent pregnancy and a family history of teenage births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L; Reyes, Barbara T; Horn, Emily J

    2007-06-01

    The extent to which young women's risk of adolescent pregnancy is associated with having a mother who was a teenage parent, a sister who was a teenage parent or both is not known. A sample of 127 Latina and black adolescent females completed in-depth surveys at three time points between 1994 and 2000. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether socioeconomic factors, mothers' parenting characteristics and certain sibling relationship qualities explain the association between a family history of teenage births and young women's risk of pregnancy. Compared with young women with no family history of teenage births, young women whose sister had had a teenage birth and those whose sister and mother both had had teenage births were significantly more likely to experience a teenage pregnancy (odds ratios, 4.8 and 5.1, respectively). Young women who had only a sister who had had a teenage birth had greater odds of pregnancy than young women who had only a mother who had had a teenage birth (4.5). Having both a mother and a sister who had had teenage births was independently associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.7), even after controlling for socioeconomic and mothers' parenting characteristics. Frequent companionship with an older sister was associated with increased odds of teenage pregnancy (4.5); frequent conflict with an older sister who had had a teenage birth was marginally associated with decreased odds of the outcome (0.3). Pregnancy prevention interventions targeting young women according to maternal and sibling teenage birth histories may be effective.

  10. The KinFact Intervention – A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Family Communication About Cancer History

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H.; Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Maibauer, Alisa M.; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J.; Quillin, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Methods: Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Results: Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. Conclusions: The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner

  11. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.

  12. Family history and disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease: A comparison between China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Qi; Hu, Jun; Al Kazzi, Elie S; Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; de Paula Pessoa, Raquel Holand; Ghazaleh, Sami; Cornelius, Tuhina; Sabunwala, Suhel Abbas; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Tripathi, Kartikeya; Lazarev, Mark; Hu, Pin-Jin; Hutfless, Susan

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the differences in family history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clinical outcomes among individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) residing in China and the United States. We performed a survey-based cross-sectional study of participants with CD recruited from China and the United States. We compared the prevalence of IBD family history and history of ileal involvement, CD-related surgeries and IBD medications in China and the United States, adjusting for potential confounders. We recruited 49 participants from China and 145 from the United States. The prevalence of family history of IBD was significantly lower in China compared with the United States (China: 4.1%, United States: 39.3%). The three most commonly affected types of relatives were cousin, sibling, and parent in the United States compared with child and sibling in China. Ileal involvement (China: 63.3%, United States: 63.5%) and surgery for CD (China: 51.0%, United States: 49.7%) were nearly equivalent in the two countries. The lower prevalence of familial clustering of IBD in China may suggest that the etiology of CD is less attributed to genetic background or a family-shared environment compared with the United States. Despite the potential difference in etiology, surgery and ileal involvement were similar in the two countries. Examining the changes in family history during the continuing rise in IBD may provide further insight into the etiology of CD.

  13. Familial history of diabetes and clinical characteristics in Greek subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolou Ourania

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications. Methods A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05 and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 ± 39.76 vs. 127.13 ± 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006 than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P 2, P = 0.08, higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (49.8 vs. 44.6%, P = 0.06 and retinopathy (17.9 vs. 14.5%, P = 0.08 compared with patients with no diabetic relatives. No difference in the degree of metabolic control and the prevalence of chronic complications were observed. Conclusion The present study showed an excess maternal transmission of T2D in a sample of Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.

  14. [The cultural and medical significance of Xin an mingzuzhi(History of Famous Family in Xin'an)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A H; Wan, S M

    2016-01-28

    History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes abundant information and important value of the medical cultural history, including the medical family, medical ethics and the number of the famous doctors and its distribution, the medical books and its outline the medical ethics, the diseases. As for the 115 famous doctors recorded in this book, Shexian county owns the most while Jixi county owns the least, and of the average number of famous doctors among the 10, 000 local people, Yixian county owns the most while Xiuning county owns the least. History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes 26 medical books, ranging from medical literature study, gynecological treatment, external medical treatment, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric diseases, ancient medical case records, medical education, acu-moxibustion and summary of other medical experiences. The book also demonstrates the noble morality of doctors, development of doctor' family, and records of paralytic stroke, epistaxis, tuberculous consumptive diseases, furunculosis, dystocia and some infectious diseases.

  15. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.

  16. Morphological and immuno phenotypic characterization of mammary carcinomas in relation to family history of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualco, G.; Ortega, V.; Musto, M.; Delgado, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate histopathological and immuno phenotypic differences between breast carcinomas sporadic (CM E) and developed in the context of breast cancer (B C) Family (CM F). Methodology: The study included in the CME group (n = 34) patients (pts) with unilateral CM diagnosed after age 30 without family history of CM. In CM F group (n = 26) family members were included pts with 3 or more cases of CM (at least one diagnosed before age 50) or two cases with any of the following sub-criteria: at least one case diagnosed before age 35, paternal transmission, bilateral breast cancer, cancer ovary. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups according to age at diagnosis of CM: age equal to or greater than 40 years (subgroup 1) and age under 40 years (subgroup 2). It recorded the clinical characteristics and conventional anatomical and pathological parameters. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of estrogen receptors was studied and progesterone (E R, P R), HER2, p3, bcl-2 and Ki67. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to Univariate and multivariate analyzes. Results: Mean age at diagnosis (45 vs 58, p <0.001) and tumor size (p <0.05) were lower in the CMF group than in the group with CME. In both groups predominant histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS. He documented a tendency to higher histological grade and lower E R expression in CMF regarding CME. There were no differences in the expression of Pr, HER2, Ki67, bcl2 and p53. while in the CMF group no differences in tumor characteristics were observed by age diagnosis, in the CME, subgroup 2 showed a predominance of edges expansive growth, lower tubular differentiation, histological grade end stores III, minor component in situ, and low expression of RE. Discussion: Morphologic and immune phenotypic features are similar to the CMF studies documented in the United States and Europe, which agrees with the ancestral origin predominant in our population. Overall, the group presented

  17. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  18. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazave, Eve; Guillou, Aurélien; Balavoine, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages.

  19. Does family history of alcohol problems influence college and university drinking or substance use? A meta-analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B; Bonafide, Katherine E

    2012-10-01

    Family history of alcohol use problems is a reliable determinant of alcohol use and problems in the population at large, but findings are inconsistent when this issue is examined in college and university students. No quantitative summary of this literature has been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of family history on substance use and abuse in college and university students. A two-group contrast meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the differences in substance use and abuse between family history-positive and -negative students pursuing higher education. The studies that contributed data to this meta-analysis were conducted in five countries, with the majority of studies from the United States. A total of 65 published papers (53 samples) contributed data from 89 766 participants attending university or college. Effect sizes were coded for alcohol consumption, problems and use disorder symptoms, as well as other illegal drug use and abuse. Two independent coders calculated effect sizes and coded descriptive content about the papers, and discrepancies were reconciled. Family history was used as the grouping variable. Family history had a minimal effect on alcohol consumption, with stronger effects on alcohol consequences (Cohen's d: 0.21-0.25), alcohol use disorder symptoms (Cohen's d: 0.24) and other drug involvement (Cohen's d: 0.37-0.86). Relative to students without a family history of alcohol problems, students with positive family histories do not drink more, but may be at greater risk for difficulties with alcohol and drugs. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Use of a web-based risk appraisal tool for assessing family history and lifestyle factors in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Heather J; Schneider, Louise I; Colditz, Graham A; Dart, Hank; Andry, Analisa; Williams, Deborah H; Orav, E John; Haas, Jennifer S; Getty, George; Whittemore, Elizabeth; Bates, David W

    2013-06-01

    Primary care clinicians can play an important role in identifying individuals at increased risk of cancer, but often do not obtain detailed information on family history or lifestyle factors from their patients. We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of using a web-based risk appraisal tool in the primary care setting. Five primary care practices within an academic care network were assigned to the intervention or control group. We included 15,495 patients who had a new patient visit or annual exam during an 8-month period in 2010-2011. Intervention patients were asked to complete a web-based risk appraisal tool on a laptop computer immediately before their visit. Information on family history of cancer was sent to their electronic health record (EHR) for clinicians to view; if accepted, it populated coded fields and could trigger clinician reminders about colon and breast cancer screening. The main outcome measure was new documentation of a positive family history of cancer in coded EHR fields. Secondary outcomes included clinician reminders about screening and discussion of family history, lifestyle factors, and screening. Among eligible intervention patients, 2.0% had new information on family history of cancer entered in the EHR within 30 days after the visit, compared to 0.6% of eligible control patients (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the percent of patients who received moderate or high risk reminders for colon or breast cancer screening. Use of this tool was associated with increased documentation of family history of cancer in the EHR, although the percentage of patients with new family history information was low in both groups. Further research is needed to determine how risk appraisal tools can be integrated with workflow and how they affect screening and health behaviors.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of two sister (congeneric) species of cardiid bivalve: Strong influence of habitat, life history and post-glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Krakau, Manuela; Jacobsen, Sabine; Wołowicz, Maciej; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Sister (congeneric) species may exhibit disparate patterns of biogeographic genetic structures due to different life histories and habitat preferences. The common cockle Cerastoderma edule and the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum probably diverged from their common ancestor in the present territory of Sahara around 5 million years ago. Although it is difficult to separate both species morphologically, various genetic markers, both mitochondrial and nuclear, clearly distinguish them. Furthermore, their lifestyles are different, as C. edule has a much less fragmented coastal habitat and a longer duration of pelagic larval stage than C. glaucum. A comparative genetic analysis was conducted on 17 populations of C. edule and 13 populations of C. glaucum using a 506 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI). We tested the hypothesis that differences in habitat types and life history are reflected in the genetic structure patterns of these two cockles. Indeed substantial differences in population genetic structures between them are revealed. Genetic diversity within C. glaucum populations decreases northwards as a consequence of post-glacial (re)colonization from southern refugia, while C. edule displays an opposite pattern indicating survival in glacial refuges in the northern Atlantic. Among populations within geographic groups, genetic differentiation is low in C. edule, probably as a result of larval dispersal with coastal currents, while it is extremely high in C. glaucum, best explained by the fragmented habitats. Interestingly, long distance divergence is less expressed in C. glaucum than in C. edule, which supports the speculation that migrating birds (frequently observed in lagoons) may occasionally transport the former more often or more efficiently than the latter. The approach applied in this study (e.g., rarefaction procedure, selection of samples of both species from the same regions) enabled a new and reliable comparative analysis of the existing raw

  2. Influence of family history of colorectal cancer on health behavior and performance of early detection procedures: the SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ochoa, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Beunza, Juan-José; Rodríguez-Cundín, Paz; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorca, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and both health behavior and screening procedures in a population cohort. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 15,169 participants belonging to a prospective cohort study (the SUN Project) based on two self-reported questionnaires: one of them related to lifestyle and the other a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We explored the influence of family history of colorectal cancer in lifestyles (consumption of alcohol, weight, and diet) and medical management behaviors (screening of chronic diseases). People with family history of colorectal cancer increased their number of colorectal cancer screening tests (adjusted odds ratio for fecal occult blood test: 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.48-2.65; and adjusted odds ratio for colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy: 3.42, 2.69-4.36); nevertheless, health behavior changes in diet of relatives of colorectal cancer patients were undetectable. We show that individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer increase their compliance with screening tests, although they exhibit no better health-related behaviors than people without family history of colorectal cancer. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these results and to identify tools to empower the subjects to change their risk profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  5. Personality, gender, and family history in the prediction of college gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Serena M; Abrams, Kenneth; Wilkinson, Todd

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the degree to which gambling behaviors and gambling-relevant cognitive distortions could be predicted by personality factors, gender, and familial history of substance use and gambling problems in a large sample of college students (N = 581). Results indicate that parental gambling problems and, especially for males, a propensity to experience negative emotions predicted time spent gambling and gambling problems. Negative emotionality, along with parental substance use problems, impulsivity, and being male predicted gambling-related cognitive distortions. The differing pattern for impulsivity with respect to behaviors and beliefs might be explained by the low accessibility of gambling venues for the student population. We compare the present findings with past studies examining gambling behaviors in adult populations.

  6. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening. Methods: A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy, presence, location and histological type of polyps were evaluated, comparing the two groups. Results: 214 patients were evaluated: 162 in Group I and 52 in Group II. The distribution of patients with polyps was similar in relation to gender: polyps were evidenced in Group I in 33 (20% female patients vs. 10 (6% male patients (p = 1.00; in Group II, the presence of polyps was evidenced in 9 (17% female patients vs. 2 (4% male patients (p = 1.00. Polypoid lesions were found in 54 patients (25%, with 43 (26% in Group I and 11 (21% in Group II. The prevalence of adenomas was similar in both groups (Group I = 18/37% vs. Group II = 10/50% (p = 0.83. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, no correlation was found between prevalence of polyps and a family history of colorectal cancer. Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de pólipos em pacientes com história familiar de câncer colorretal comparando com indivíduos assintomáticos com indicação para rastreamento. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo realizado em um grupo de indivíduos submetidos à colonoscopia entre 2012 e 2014. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo I: sem história familiar de câncer colorretal e Grupo II: com história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau. Avaliaram-se características demográficas, achados na colonoscopia, presença, localização e tipo histológico dos pólipos, comparando os dois grupos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 214 pacientes, 162 incluídas no grupo I e 52

  7. Chromosomal fragility syndrome and family history of radiosensitivity as indicators for radiotherapy dose modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsbeih, Ghazi; Story, Michael D.; Maor, Moshe H.; Geara, Fady B.; Brock, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Beside a few known radiosensitive syndromes, a patient's reaction to radiotherapy is difficult to predict. In this report we describe the management of a pediatric cancer patient presented with a family history of radiosensitivity and cancer proneness. Laboratory investigations revealed a chromosomal fragility syndrome and an increased cellular radiosensitivity in vitro. AT gene sequencing revealed no mutations. The patient was treated with reduced radiation doses to avoid the presumed increased risks of toxicity to normal tissues. The patient tolerated well the treatment with no significant acute or late radiation sequelae. Five years later, the patient remains both disease and complications free. While an accurate laboratory test for radiosensitivity is still lacking, assessments of chromosomal fragility, cell survival and clinical medicine will continue to be useful for a small number of patients

  8. Recurrent mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Asian breast cancer patients identify carriers in those with presumed low risk by family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Kang, In Nee; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Liu, Jian Jun; Hassan, Norhashimah; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hui, Miao; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics.

  9. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Family history and psychiatric comorbidity in persons with compulsive buying: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W; Repertinger, S; Gaffney, G R; Gabel, J

    1998-07-01

    The authors explored the family history and psychiatric comorbidity of a group of compulsive buyers who volunteered for medication studies. Compulsive buying is characterized by inappropriate shopping and spending behavior that leads to impairment. Thirty-three subjects who met the criteria of McElroy and colleagues for compulsive buying, and who scored more than two standard deviations above the mean on the Compulsive Buying Scale, were recruited. Twenty-two comparison subjects were recruited in the course of another study, and the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder was the only reason for exclusion. Both groups were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R disorders. The Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria were used to collect information about psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives. Compulsive buyers had a mean age of 40 years; two (6%) were men. Comparison subjects had a mean age of 39 years; six (27%) were men. The two groups differed in gender distribution but not in age, marital status, or educational achievement. Compulsive buyers were more likely than comparison subjects to have lifetime mood disorders (especially major depression) and to have more than one psychiatric disorder. First-degree relatives of compulsive buyers were more likely than comparison relatives to suffer from depression, alcoholism, and a drug use disorder and to suffer more psychiatric disorders in general. These results indicate that persons who report compulsive buying behavior, and their first-degree relatives, are more likely to have a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorder than are comparison subjects.

  11. Effects of abstinence and family history for alcoholism on platelet adenylyl cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menninger, J A; Barón, A E; Tabakoff, B

    1998-12-01

    Platelet adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was measured in 32 alcohol-dependent subjects and 27 control subjects who were categorized as either family history-positive (FHP) or family history-negative (FHN) for alcoholism. The interview and blood sample collections were performed shortly after cessation of heavy drinking in the alcoholic group, and repeat blood samples were obtained at the end of the first and second weeks of monitored abstinence. Control subjects received the same interview and provided blood samples at the time of the interview. When subjects were not segregated for FHP or FHN status, there were no statistically significant differences in basal, cesium fluoride (CsF)-, or forskolin-stimulated mean AC activities between the controls and the alcoholics, at study entry or with 1 or 2 weeks of abstinence. On the other hand, over the 2-week course of sobriety from heavy drinking, the CsF-stimulated AC activity of FHP alcohol-dependent subjects decreased significantly (p = 0.03). FHP alcohol-dependent subjects after 2 weeks of sobriety had significantly lower mean CsF-stimulated AC activity than FHN controls (p = 0.04), whereas the FHN alcoholic subjects' CsF-stimulated AC activity did not differ significantly from FHN controls at this point in time. When all subjects were pooled and then categorized as either FHP or FHN, there was a significant difference in mean CsF-stimulated AC activity (p = 0.02) between the FHP and FHN subject groups. Genetic factors and abstinence appear to have roles in determining low platelet AC activity in alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects. CsF-stimulated platelet AC activity, in particular, appears to act as a trait marker for a genetic vulnerability to developing alcoholism, but recent heavy drinking in male alcoholics is a factor that can mask differences between FHP and FHN subjects.

  12. P300 and the risk for alcoholism: family history, task difficulty, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, J; Burns, T; Bloom, F E

    1988-04-01

    P300 event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 20 pairs of male and 20 pairs of female undergraduate subjects. One member of each pair reported having a father who was alcoholic (FHP), the other reported no known alcoholic biological relative (FHN). Pair members were matched on age, height, weight, grade point average, and personal drinking history. Three auditory tasks which differed in stimulus discrimination difficulty were presented to each subject. All tasks employed 20% target and 80% standard tones with the subject required to move their index finger whenever a target stimulus was detected. No significant differences in P300 amplitude or latency were obtained between the family history subject groups, although female FHP subjects tended to have smaller P300 amplitudes than their FHN counterparts. P300 amplitude decreased with increases in the amount of self-reported alcohol consumed for FHP subjects but significantly so only for the most difficult task situation. The results suggest that the relationship between the P300 ERP and the inheritability of alcoholism is not yet clear and may be subject to modulation by task requirements, population differences, and subject sex.

  13. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marinac, Catherine R; Marcus, Bess H; Rosen, Rochelle K; Gans, Kim M

    2015-12-01

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. A total of 55 women with at least 1 first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Participants were on average 46.2 (SD = 11.4) years old with a body mass index of 27.3 (SD = 4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both ps Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Validating the 5Fs mnemonic for cholelithiasis: time to include family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Gary; Gilani, S Nadia S; Walsh, Thomas N

    2013-11-01

    The time-honoured mnemonic of '5Fs' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of 'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important 'F'-that for 'family history'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire. To assess the usefulness of each of the existing factors of a popular mnemonic, 398 patients admitted with upper abdominal pain between March 2009 and April 2010 were studied. The clinical features expressed in the cholelithiasis mnemonic in patients with sonographic evidence of cholelithiasis were compared with those of patients without. In the cholelithiasis group, significantly more patients were women (150/198 (75.8%) vs 111/200 (55.5%), p30 (56/198 (28.3%) vs 19/200 (9.5%) (pmnemonic retains a role in clinical diagnosis of patients suspected of cholelithiasis but the factor 'familial' should be substituted for 'forty' in recognition of the role of inheritance and the changing demographics of gallstone incidence.

  15. [Prevalence of kidney disease in asymptomatic children with family history of renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Mara; Andrade Veneros, Gioconda Daniela; Toussaint Martínez de Castro, Georgina; Ortiz Vásquez, Lourdes; Hernández Sánchez, Ana María; Olvera, Nadia; Obrador Vera, Gregorio Tomás; Velásquez Jones, Luis

    Having a first- or second-degree relative with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported as a risk factor for CKD development. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of CKD in children with a first- or second-degree relative undergoing renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis or renal transplant). A screening study was performed in asymptomatic children with a family history of CKD in a first- or second-degree relative undergoing renal replacement therapy. Informed consent was obtained in all cases. A clinical examination was performed. Blood and urine samples were obtained for serum creatinine, serum electrolytes, urinalysis, and microalbumin/creatinine ratio. There were 45 subjects included with a median age of 9.6 years; 24 (53%) were male. Urinary abnormality/CKD was observed in 11 subjects (24.4%). The most common urinary abnormalities were hematuria (6/11) and microalbuminuria (4/11). Stage 2 CKD was found in seven subjects and four subjects with stage 1 CKD. The study of families of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy is useful to identify children in early stages of kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Genetic Counseling in Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Bianconi, Margherita; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    As the impact of breast cancer (BC) risk assessment in asymptomatic women with a family history of BC had never been explored in Italy, we performed a study on a retrospective series of women who had undergone BC risk assessment. To this aim, a semi-structured telephone interview was administered to 82 women. Most participants considered the information received as clear (96.2 %) and helpful (76.8 %). Thirty-eight (46.3 %) stated that their perceived risk of BC had changed after the counseling: for 40.2 % it had decreased, for 6.1 % increased; however, women highly overestimating their risk at the baseline (≥ 4-fold) failed to show improvements in risk perception accuracy. Sixty-six women (80.5 %) stated they had followed the recommended surveillance, while 19.5 % had not, mainly due to difficulties in arranging examinations. Most women (89.0 %) had shared the information with their relatives, with 57.3 % reporting other family members had undertaken the recommended surveillance. BC risk assessment was associated with high rates of satisfaction and had a favorable impact on risk perception in a subgroup of women. The impact on surveillance adhesion extended to relatives. Organized programs for identification and surveillance may help identify a larger fraction of at-risk women and overcome the reported difficulties in arranging surveillance.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the reef fish family Labridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, Mark W; Alfaro, Michael E

    2005-08-01

    The family Labridae (including scarines and odacines) contains 82 genera and about 600 species of fishes that inhabit coastal and continental shelf waters in tropical and temperate oceans throughout the world. The Labridae (the wrasses) is the fifth largest fish family and second largest marine fish family, and is one of the most morphologically and ecologically diversified families of fishes in size, shape, and color. Labrid phylogeny is a long-standing problem in ichthyology that is part of the larger question of relationships within the suborder Labroidei. A phylogenetic analysis of labrids was conducted to investigate relationships among the six classical tribes of wrasses, the affinities of the wrasses to the parrotfishes (scarines), and the broad phylogenetic structure among labrid genera. Four gene fragments were sequenced from 98 fish species, including 84 labrid fishes and 14 outgroup taxa. Taxa were chosen from all major labrid clades and most major global ocean regions where labrid fishes exist, as well as cichlid, pomacentrid, and embiotocid outgroups. From the mitochondrial genome we sequenced portions of 12S rRNA (1000 bp) and 16S rRNA (585 bp), which were aligned by using a secondary structure model. From the nuclear genome, we sequenced part of the protein-coding genes RAG2 (846 bp) and Tmo4C4 (541 bp). Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses on the resulting 2972 bp of DNA sequence produced similar topologies that confirm the monophyly of a family Labridae that includes the parrotfishes and butterfishes and strong support for many previously identified taxonomic subgroups. The tribe Hypsigenyini (hogfishes, tuskfishes) is the sister group to the remaining labrids and includes odacines and the chisel-tooth wrasse Pseudodax moluccanus, a species previously considered close to scarines. Cheilines and scarines are sister-groups, closely related to the temperate Labrini, and pseudocheilines and cheilines are split in all phylogenies

  18. A case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy of a male with family history of the disease after receiving sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felekis T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available T Felekis1, I Asproudis1, K Katsanos2, EV Tsianos21University Eye Clinic of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: A 51-year-old male was referred to the University Eye Clinic of Ioannina with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION 12 hours after receiving sildenafil citrate (Viagra®. Examination for possible risk factors revealed mild hypercholesterolemia. Family history showed that his father had suffered from bilateral NAION. Although a cause-and-effect relationship is difficult to prove, there are reports indicating an association between the use of erectile dysfunction agents and the development of NAION. Physicians might need to investigate the presence of family history of NAION among systemic or vascular predisposing risk factors before prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs.Keywords: sildenafil, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction drugs, family history

  19. Family matters : The influence of family history on phenomenology and IQ in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The

  20. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  1. The strong commitment. The government of Vietnam has invested nearly 30% of its budget for all the social programs such as education, health, population and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Phuong Lan

    1995-01-01

    Population and family planning activities first came into being in Vietnam in 1963 after a decree on fertility control was issued by the Council of Government on December 26, 1961. The Ministry of Health (MOH) was in charge of such activities, using its own network to provide services and mass organizations to garner public support for the acceptance of family planning. On May 13, 1979, the council transferred family planning activities to the new Committee for Maternal and Child Protection. However, that committee was soon disbanded, and family planning activities were returned to the auspices of the MOH. The National Committee for Population and Family Planning was created in 1984 under the MOH with the goal of mobilizing all social forces in population and family planning activities. Decrees of October 1988 and March 1989, and in 1991 and 1993, strengthened measures to reduce population growth and ensure that adequate family planning methods were available to couples. Vietnam's Population and Family Planning Program has strong political support. Indeed, the government of Vietnam has invested almost 30% of its budget into education, health, and population and family planning programs.

  2. Family history of education predicts eating disorders across multiple generations among 2 million Swedish males and females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goodman

    Full Text Available To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP are associated with eating disorders (ED, and how this varies by ED subtype and over time.Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973-1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income.15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income.Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families.

  3. Family history of education predicts eating disorders across multiple generations among 2 million Swedish males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Heshmati, Amy; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time. Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973-1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income. 15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income. Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families.

  4. Family history and parents' beliefs about consequences of childhood overweight and their influence on children's health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A; Ariza, Adolfo J; Mikhail, Laura M; Feinglass, Joseph; Binns, Helen J

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine factors related to 1) parental perception of health risks for overweight children and 2) parents' self-efficacy for influencing their children's dietary and physical activity behaviors, especially in relation to family history (FH) of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A consecutive sample of parents was surveyed at 7 primary care practices about FH, perceptions of childhood obesity-related health risks, health beliefs, and perceptions. Generalized estimated equation models clustering on practice were developed to examine associations with perceptions and self-efficacy. Analyses included 386 parents of children aged 2 to 17 years. Sixty-seven percent had FH of CVD and 33% had FH of diabetes. Children were 57% white, 23% Hispanic, 12% African American, and 8% other race/ethnicity; 17% were overweight and 18% were obese. Parents whose child had FH of diabetes more often perceived higher risk of diabetes for overweight children than those with neither FH risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-1.7), as did those with FH of CVD (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.6-2.5) and those with an obese child. Parents with less than college education or having African American and female children perceived risk less often. Parents had high self-efficacy for influencing their child if they had a strong belief in parental modeling and their child was aged health risks for overweight children. Strategies to use FH to motivate families with overweight children toward behavior change are needed.

  5. Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Ashley; Richard, Dawn M; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have found individuals with family histories of alcohol use disorders are more impulsive on some but not all laboratory behavioral measures, suggesting deficits on specific forms of impulse control. However, drawing conclusions is tenuous because these different measures have not been administered together in the same group of participants. In the present study, we compared healthy 21-35 year old adults with family histories of alcohol related problems (FHAP+) or without such histories (FHAP-) on behavioral measures of response inhibition, response initiation, and consequence sensitivity impulsivity. FHAP+ (n=36) and FHAP- (n=36) participants were compared on performance on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT, response initiation), GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm (GoStop, response inhibition), Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP, consequence sensitivity) and Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP, consequence sensitivity). FHAP+ individuals were more impulsive on the IMT and GoStop but not on the TCIP or SKIP. These results suggest that response initiation and response inhibition impulsivity are increased in individuals with family histories of alcohol related problems despite not having alcohol or drug use disorders themselves. In contrast, increased consequence sensitivity impulsivity may be associated with additional risk factors such as more severe family histories of alcohol use disorders, or it may be increased as a consequence of heavy drug or alcohol use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A case control study on family history as a risk factor for herpes zoster and associated outcomes, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Luodan; Lu, Li; Li, Juan; Sun, Mu; Wang, Haihong; Peng, Xinhui; Yang, Fan; Pang, Xinghuo; Marin, Mona; Wang, Chengbin

    2017-05-09

    Hospital-based case control studies have found family history of herpes zoster (HZ) was associated with risk of HZ, but the role of family history is not fully examined for other HZ-associated outcomes such as recurrent HZ, occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and HZ with different pain severities. We conducted a population-based matched case control study. HZ cases that occurred during December 1, 2011 to November 30, 2012 were identified by face-to-face interview with all residents of eight selected communities/villages from three districts of Beijing, China. Medical records were reviewed for those who sought healthcare for HZ. For each case-patient, three, age-matched controls (±5 years) without HZ were enrolled from the same community/village of the matched case. Data on family history of HZ were collected by interview and only defined among first-degree relatives. A total of 227 case-patients and 678 matched controls were enrolled. Case-patients were more likely to report a family history of HZ [odds ratio (OR) =2.4, P = 0.002]. Compared with controls, association of family history decreased from HZ with PHN to HZ without PHN (OR = 6.0 and 2.3, respectively; P = 0.002 for trend), from recurrent HZ to primary HZ (OR = 9.4 and 2.2, respectively; P = 0.005 for trend), and from HZ with moderate or severe pain to HZ with mild or no pain (OR = 3.2 and 0.8, respectively; P history of HZ was associated with HZ occurrence and was more likely in HZ case-patients with PHN, recurrences, and painful HZ.

  8. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of

  9. Is there an association between invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast and a family history of gastric cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikman, Bar; Davidson, Tima; Kais, Hasan; Jeroukhimov, Igor; Leshno, Ari; Sandbank, Judith; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron

    2016-01-01

    CDH1 gene mutations have been found to be associated with diffuse type gastric cancer and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study relating a family history of gastric cancer to ILC of the breast. We conducted a retrospective study comparing the family history of malignancies in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and ILC treated in our Medical Center. The comparison was evaluated in both types of breast cancer groups, dividing the patients into two age groups, cancer was reported in 7.2 % in the ILC group as compared to 2.3 % in the IDC group, P cancer was more common in the ILC group as opposed to the IDC group, 18 versus 8.1 % respectively, P = 0.002 and persisted in both age groups. We conclude that a family history of malignancies in first degree relatives is more common in patients with ILC than IDC and that there is a significant association between a family history of gastric cancer and ILC.

  10. Neuroblastoma, maternal valproic acid use, in-vitro fertilization and family history of mosaic chromosome 22: coincidence or causal relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merks, Johannes H.; Ceelie, Nicolaas; Caron, Huib N.; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2004-01-01

    We report a family with co-occurring disorders including neuroblastoma in the first child conceived by in-vitro fertilization with history of sodium valproate use by the mother during pregnancy and mosaic trisomy 22 in the third child. We discuss the possibility of an association between the

  11. Adult transracial and inracial adoptees: effects of race, gender, adoptive family structure, and placement history on adjustment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D; Barth, R P

    1999-01-01

    Adjustment outcomes of 224 transracial and inracial adoptees were investigated using data collected over 17 years. Findings reveal an association between adoptees' outcomes and their race, gender, and adoptive family structure. Placement history was not significant. Implications for policy and practice are discussed, as are future directions for research.

  12. Type 2 diabetes in Mauritania: prevalence of the undiagnosed diabetes, influence of family history and maternal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiloud, Ghlana; Arfa, Imen; Kefi, Rym; Abdelhamid, Isselmou; Veten, Fatimetou; Lasram, Khaled; Ben Halim, Nizar; Sidi Mhamed, Abdallahi; Samb, Abdoulaye; Abdelhak, Sonia; Houmeida, Ahmed Ould

    2013-04-01

    We estimated the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, analyzed the influence of family history on the occurrence of T2D and evaluated its aggregation pattern in the Mauritanian population. The prevalence of unknown diabetes was obtained using data compiled from 1278 Mauritanian adults applying a questionnaire and fasting serum glucose tests. Detailed family history of diabetes and clinical characteristics were gathered from 421 T2D patients. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 4.7 ± 1.2% in the studied population (3.1% in men and 6.4% in women). 27% of T2D patients reported at least one relative with diabetes. Association between family history and diabetes was higher among first degree compared to second degree relatives (p=0.003). We observed more probands with an affected mother than those who have a father with diabetes (p = 0.002), suggesting a preferential maternal effect which did not extend to second degree relatives. These results show that the prevalence of diabetes in the Mauritanian population could be higher than currently thought. Family history screening may be used in the management of this condition in Mauritania. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Long-term effects of first degree family history of breast cancer in young women: Recurrences and bilateral breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, Jan J.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Brinkhuis, Mariël; Ong, Francisca; Struikmans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of first degree relative (FDR) of young breast cancer patients. Methods. Data were used from our prospective population-based cohort study which started in 1983. The family history (FH) was registered with regard to FDR: the presence or

  15. Headache prevalence and related symptoms, family history, and treatment habits in a representative population of children in Alba, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavestro, Cinzia; Montrucchio, Francesca; Benci, Paola; Pompilio, Domenica; Mandrino, Silvia; Cencio, Pier Giuseppe; Frigeri, Maria Cristina; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Headache is a widespread disorder in children, but little is known about the headache prevalence in northwest Italy, on less frequent migraine equivalents, family history, and treatment habits in children. This is an epidemiologic population-based study of a representative sample of children aged 3 to 11 years, conducted in Alba, Italy. We used a self-administered questionnaire to acquire information on gender, age, headache, possible migraine equivalents, family history for various diseases, and treatment habits. We distributed the questionnaire to 1152 children, and a total of 649 questionnaires were successfully completed. In the preschool age, 10.3% (seven boys and nine girls) of children suffered from headache. In school-age children, the prevalence of headache was 31.4% (75 boys and 80 girls; 27% in 6 year olds and 41% at age 9 years). We found a significant correlation between headache and abdominal pain in the entire sample and with cyclic vomiting syndrome and dizziness in school-age children only. Headache correlated significantly with a family history of headache, thyroid diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and vascular diseases. Headache was treated with drugs, primarily paracetamol, in 60 of the 171 (35%) children who reported headache and in 61% of the children with migraine; no subjects were treated with triptans. Headache is widespread in children, with a high prevalence of associated symptoms and family history for many other headache-related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patients with premature cardiovascular disease and a positive family history for cardiovascular disease are prone to recurrent events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, Ties A.; Meyer, Zainna; van der Donk, Christel; Kroon, Abraham A.; Ferreira, Isabel; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) is treated in the same way as CVD of advanced age. However, in patients with premature CVD and a family history of CVD, different -possibly genetic-mechanisms may underlie this disease, which current medical treatment is not targeted to. This

  17. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  18. Asymptotic Properties of the Number of Matching Coalescent Histories for Caterpillar-Like Families of Species Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-01-01

    Coalescent histories provide lists of species tree branches on which gene tree coalescences can take place, and their enumerative properties assist in understanding the computational complexity of calculations central in the study of gene trees and species trees. Here, we solve an enumerative problem left open by Rosenberg (IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 10: 1253-1262, 2013) concerning the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees with a matching labeled topology that belongs to a generic caterpillar-like family. By bringing a generating function approach to the study of coalescent histories, we prove that for any caterpillar-like family with seed tree t , the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 describing the number of matching coalescent histories of the n th tree of the family grows asymptotically as a constant multiple of the Catalan numbers. Thus, h n  ∼ β t c n , where the asymptotic constant β t > 0 depends on the shape of the seed tree t. The result extends a claim demonstrated only for seed trees with at most eight taxa to arbitrary seed trees, expanding the set of cases for which detailed enumerative properties of coalescent histories can be determined. We introduce a procedure that computes from t the constant β t as well as the algebraic expression for the generating function of the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 .

  19. Family history, surgery, and APC mutation are risk factors for desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis: an international cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieuwenhuis, Marry H; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Bülow, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice.......Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice....

  20. The association between social skills deficits and family history of mood disorder in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francy B F; Rocca, Cristiana C; Gigante, Alexandre D; Dottori-Silva, Paola R; Gerchmann, Luciana; Rossini, Danielle; Sato, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano G

    2018-03-26

    To compare social skills and related executive functions among bipolar disorder (BD) patients with a family history of mood disorders (FHMD), BD patients with no FHMD and healthy control (HCs). We evaluated 20 euthymic patients with FHMD, 17 euthymic patients without FHMD, and 31 HCs using the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) and a neuropsychological battery evaluating executive function, inhibitory control, verbal fluency and estimated intelligence. Both BD groups had lower SSI scores than controls. Scores for one subfactor of the social skills questionnaire, conversational skills and social performance, were significantly lower among patients with FHMD than among patients without FHMD (p = 0.019). Both groups of BD patients exhibited significant deficits in initiation/inhibition, but only BD patients with FHMD had deficits in verbal fluency, both compared to HC. There were no associations between social skills questionnaire scores and measures of cognitive function. Euthymic BD patients have lower social skills and executive function performance than HC. The presence of FHMD among BD patients is specifically associated with deficits in conversational and social performance skills, in addition to deficits in verbal fluency. Both characteristics might be associated with a common genetically determined pathophysiological substrate.

  1. Antihistamine-resistant angioedema in women with negative family history: estrogens and F12 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Konrad; Wulff, Karin; Witzke, Günther; Stanger, Christian; Lohse, Peter; Hardt, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    In women with sporadic recurrent angioedema with an unknown cause who are unresponsive to antihistamines and have normal C1 inhibitor activity and a negative family history of angioedema, it is unclear whether they have idiopathic angioedema or hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor, and what impact exogenous estrogens have on their angioedema. A cohort of 147 women was analyzed for F12 exon 9 mutations and for the influence of oral contraceptives, hormonal replacement therapy, and pregnancy on their angioedema. A total of 142 women had idiopathic angioedema unresponsive to antihistamines. Five women had an F12 mutation and thereby hereditary angioedema with F12 mutations. Among the women with idiopathic angioedema, 63 had never taken estrogens. There was no estrogen impact in 42 women, a moderate impact in 15 women, and a severe impact in 22 women. The type and dose of estrogens did not differ in women with and without an estrogen impact. In 5 women, idiopathic angioedema disappeared after desogestrel use. Among the 5 women with hereditary angioedema with F12 mutations, angioedema symptoms occurred during 4 pregnancies, whereas no symptoms occurred during any of the 58 pregnancies in women with idiopathic angioedema. Women with recurrent angioedema unresponsive to antihistamines may have idiopathic angioedema or, more rarely, hereditary angioedema with F12 mutations. Both conditions may be provoked or aggravated by exogenous estrogens. In idiopathic angioedema, treatment with progestins may be helpful. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-11-21

    to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. analisar os fatores associados ao conhecimento dos adultos jovens sobre histórico familiar de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC). estudo transversal analítico, com 579 adultos jovens de escolas públicas, com coleta de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de fatores de risco em formulário, analisados utilizando-se regressão logística (backward elimination). detectou-se associação estatística de idade, situação conjugal, classificação da pressão arterial e circunferência abdominal com conhecimento do histórico familiar de AVC. No modelo final de regressão logística, observou-se associação estatística do conhecimento sobre histórico familiar de AVC com situação conjugal com companheiro (ORa=1,61[1,07-2,42]; p=0,023), circunferência abdominal (ORa=0,98[0,96-0,99]; p=0,012) e pressão arterial normal (ORa=2,56[1,19-5,52]; p=0,016). foi constatada associação de fatores socioeconômicos e de

  3. Family history and its relationship with dementia stigma beliefs among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Benjamin Kp

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Chinese Americans associate dementia with stigma and "loss of face." However, further research is required to provide a more complete picture of the extent and nature of stigma in Chinese Americans with family histories of dementia (FHD). The present study examined whether FHD are associated with quantitative measures of stigma in Chinese Americans. A total of 300 Chinese Americans in two health seminars answered a 15-item, true/false questionnaire to assess their beliefs toward dementia. Two groups were dichotomized and compared based on FHD. Both groups subscribed to moderately stigmatizing views about dementia. Our findings showed that the group with FHD was more likely to disclose having relatives with dementia. However, this group was also more likely to perceive patients with dementia to be incapable of feeling other people's worries or concerns at once. Strategies to decrease stigma toward dementia are required. Cultural interventions must also extend into the Chinese American general public to reduce stigma of dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 122-125. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Family History of Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Female Subjects

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    Ticiana Costa Rodrigues

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the family history (FH of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a group of non-diabetic obese female subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 239 female patients with obesity, regularly attending the Internal Medicine Division’s outpatient clinic (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients with body mass index ?30 kg/m2 and absence of type 2 diabetes. The FH was considered positive if a first degree relative had a diagnosis of diabetes. Seventy-four of 239 patients evaluated (30% had a positive FH for type 2 diabetes. Patients with positive FH had higher waist/hip ratio and MetS more often than patients with negative FH. FH of type 2 diabetes was associated with MetS in this sample of non-diabetic obese female patients. Waist/hip ratio and fasting plasma glucose, markers of insulin resistance, were also associated with FH of type 2 diabetes. The simple question: “Do you have a FH of type 2 diabetes?” may help to identify the obese patients that should be better evaluated and intensively treated with the objective of preventing type 2 diabetes.

  5. Breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Meric, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K; Mirza, Attiqa N; Newman, Lisa A; Ames, Frederick C; Kuerer, Henry M; Ross, Merrick I; Feig, Barry; Babiera, Gildy; Buchholz, Thomas A; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-11-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the role of breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a family history (FH) of breast cancer. Between 1970 and 1994, 1324 female patients with breast cancer were treated with breast-conservation therapy at our institution. From these, we identified 985 patients with stage 0-II breast cancer and who had available information on FH status. FH was considered positive in any patient who had a relative who had been previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Disease-specific survival was calculated from the date of initial diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. The stage distribution for the 985 patients was as follows: 0 in 65 (7%), I in 500 (51%), and II in 420 (43%). The median age was 50 years (range, 21-88), with a median follow-up time of 8.8 years (range,.25-29). The median tumor size was 1.5 cm. FH was positive in 31%. There were no significant differences in locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, disease-specific survival, or incidence of contralateral breast cancer in patients with a positive FH versus patients with a negative FH. Breast-conservation therapy is not contraindicated in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive FH.

  6. Hyperhomocysteinemia, enzyme polymorphism and thiobarbituric Acid reactive system in children with high coronary risk family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, Tamas; Roth, Erzsebet; Szamosi, Tamas; Tomsits, Erika; Tordai, Attila; Szabo, Terez

    2004-10-01

    To investigate both the frequency and the genetic background of hyperhomocysteinemia and the frequency of increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive system (TBARS) levels in children and adolescents whose parents had premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The study was performed on children and adolescents aged 4-18 years (105 offspring of parents with CHD before age 45 and 74 referents from families without any evidence of premature atherosclerosis). Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total triglyceride (TG) levels were measured by enzymatic methods. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was calculated by the Friedewald formula. Plasma total homocysteine (THCy) level was measured by fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. Plasma TBARS level was determined by fluorimetric method. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Hyperhomocysteinemia was found in 32 cases and in 4 controls. Increased plasma THCy level was found in 10 children and adolescents from 12 cases homozygous for the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene. No similar high frequency was observed in heterozygous subjects. Elevated fasting plasma TBARS levels were found in 38 cases and in 8 controls. The frequency differences were significant (p history.

  7. Family history of hypertension and left ventricular mass in youth: possible mediating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B B; Treiber, F A; Mensah, G; Jindal, M; Davis, H C; Kapuku, G K

    2001-04-01

    Whether positive family history (FH) of essential hypertension (EH) in normotensive youth is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and hemodynamic, anthropometric, and demographic parameters previously associated with increased LVM in adults is unknown. To examine these issues, 323 healthy youth (mean age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years), 194 with positive FH of EH (61% African Americans, 39% whites) and 129 with negative FH of EH (33% African Americans, 67% whites) were evaluated. Hemodynamics were measured at rest and during four stressors (ie, postural change, car driving simulation, video game, forehead cold). Echocardiographic-derived measures of LVM were indexed separately to body surface area and height(2.7). Controlling for age and race differences (ie, 74% of African Americans v 47% of whites had positive FH), the positive FH group exhibited greater LVM/height(2.7), LVM/body surface area, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and lower cardiac index at rest (P video game and cold stimulation (P < .05 for all). Thus, greater LVM index in positive FH of EH youth appears in part related to their greater BP and TPRI at rest and during stress.

  8. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  9. Chronic health conditions and depressive symptoms strongly predict persistent food insecurity among rural low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Longitudinal studies of food insecurity have not considered the unique circumstances of rural families. This study identified factors predictive of discontinuous and persistent food insecurity over three years among low-income families with children in rural counties in 13 U.S. states. Respondents reported substantial knowledge of community resources, food and finance skills, and use of formal public food assistance, yet 24% had persistent food insecurity, and another 41% were food insecure for one or two years. Multivariate multinomial regression models tested relationships between human capital, social support, financial resources, expenses, and food insecurity. Enduring chronic health conditions increased the risk of both discontinuous and persistent food insecurity. Lasting risk for depression predicted only persistent food insecurity. Education beyond high school was the only factor found protective against persistent food insecurity. Access to quality physical and mental health care services are essential to ameliorate persistent food insecurity among rural, low-income families.

  10. Family caregivers' involvement in caring for a hospitalized patient with cancer and their quality of life in a country with strong family bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendy, Christantie; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Setiyarini, Sri; Kristanti, Martina Sinta; Tejawinata, Sunaryadi; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    Being involved in caring for family members during illness is part of the Indonesian culture, even during hospitalization. It is unknown which factors influence the quality of life (QoL) of family members taking care of their loved ones. The present study aims to identify factors influencing the QoL of family caregivers of hospitalized patients with cancer in Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey was performed. Data were collected in a general hospital in Yogyakarta from September to December 2011. Family caregivers of patients with cancer were invited to participate. Regression analysis was used to determine which aspects of caring and which demographic characteristics influenced their QoL. The Caregiver QoL Index-Cancer questionnaire was used to measure the QoL. One hundred of 120 invited caregivers (83%) completed the questionnaire. Being involved in psychological issues in caring (β = 0.374; p = 0.000), younger age (β = -0.282; p = 0.003), no previous caring experience (β = -0.301; p = 0.001), and not being the spouse (β = -0.228; p = 0.015) negatively influenced the QoL and explained 31% of the variation (adjusted R(2)  = 0.312; F = 12.24; p = 0.000). Gender, education level, and time spent on caring did not influence the QoL of family caregivers. Our findings identified modifiable factors such as dealing with psychological issues and lack of experience in caring that negatively influenced the QoL of family caregivers. These factors are potential targets for intervention strategies. Education and intervention programs focusing on dealing with psychological problems in cancer care might improve the QoL of both patients and their families. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Family history of completed suicide and characteristics of major depressive disorder: a STAR*D (sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Andrew A; Alpert, Jonathan E; Gaynes, Bradley N; Warden, Diane; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Biggs, Melanie M; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Barkin, Jennifer L; Rush, A John

    2008-05-01

    Clinicians routinely ask patients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) about their family history of suicide. It is unknown, however, whether patients with a family member who committed suicide differ from those without such a history. Patients were recruited for the STAR*D multicenter trial. At baseline, patients were asked to report first-degree relatives who had died from suicide. Differences in demographic and clinical features for patients with and without a family history of suicide were assessed. Patients with a family history of suicide (n=142/4001; 3.5%) were more likely to have a family history of MDD, bipolar disorder, or any mood disorder, and familial substance abuse disorder, but not suicidal thoughts as compared to those without such a history. The group with familial suicide had a more pessimistic view of the future and an earlier age of onset of MDD. No other meaningful differences were found in depressive symptoms, severity, recurrence, depressive subtype, or daily function. A history of completed suicide in a family member was associated with minimal clinical differences in the cross-sectional presentation of outpatients with MDD. Limitations of the study include lack of information about family members who had attempted suicide and the age of the probands when their family member died. STAR*D assessments were limited to those needed to ascertain diagnosis and treatment response and did not include a broader range of psychological measures.

  12. History of Family Psychiatry: From the Social Reform Era to the Primate Social Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Douglas A

    2015-07-01

    From early twentieth century social reform movements emerged the ingredients for both child and family psychiatry. Both psychiatries that involve children, parents, and families began in child guidance clinics. Post-World War II intellectual creativity provided the epistemological framework for treating families. Eleven founders (1950-1969) led the development of family psychiatry. Child and family psychiatrists disagreed over the issues of individual and family group dynamics. Over the past 25 years the emerging sciences of interaction, in the context of the Primate Social Organ System (PSOS), have produced the evidence for the family being the entity of treatment in psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for alcoholism in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns project: impact of early life adversity and family history on affect regulation and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Carnes, Nathan C; Cohoon, Andrew J; Vincent, Andrea S; Lovallo, William R

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the impact of early lifetime adversity (ELA) on affect regulation and personality in persons with family history (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of alcoholism. We examined the impact of early life adversity in healthy young adults, 18-30 years of age enrolled in a long-term study on risk for alcohol and other substance abuse. ELA was assessed by a composite score of low socioeconomic status and personal experience of physical or sexual abuse and/or separation from parents before age 16, resulting in a score of 0, 1-2, or >3 adverse events. Unstable affect regulation and personality variables were obtained via self-report measures. Higher ELA scores were seen in FH+ (χ(2)=109.2, palcohol and drug experimentation to elevate risk for alcoholism. Further studies of genetic and environmental contributions to alcoholism are called for. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Breast cancer screening in women at increased risk according to different family histories: an update of the Modena Study Group experience

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    Cortesi Laura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend on the level of risk. Here we present an update of our screening programs based on risk classification. Methods We defined different risk categories and surveillance strategies to identify early BC in 1325 healthy women recruited by the Modena Study Group for familial breast and ovarian cancer. Four BC risk categories included BRCA1/2 carriers, increased, intermediate, and slightly increased risk. Women who developed BC from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2005 (N = 44 were compared with the number of expected cases matched for age and period. BRCA1/2 carriers were identified by mutational analysis. Other risk groups were defined by different levels of family history for breast or ovarian cancer (OC. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR was used to evaluate the observed and expected ratio among groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results After a median follow-up of 55 months, there was a statistically significant difference between observed and expected incidence [SIR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6 to 7.6; p P P P = 0.0018 was higher than expected, while the difference between observed and expected among women at slightly increased risk was not statistically significant (SIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.9 to 8.3; P = .74. Conclusion The rate of cancers detected in women at high risk according to BRCA status or strong family history, as defined according to our operational criteria, was significantly higher than expected in an age-matched general population. However, we failed to identify a greater incidence of BC in the slightly increased risk group. These results support the effectiveness of the proposed program to identify and monitor individuals at high risk, whereas prospective trials are needed for

  15. Strong Families, Tidy Houses, and Children's Values in Adult Life: Are "Chaotic", "Crowded" and "Unstable" Homes Really so Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic home systems have been linked with children's adverse psychological and academic outcomes. But, as they represent a departure from the suburban ideal of space, order, and family cohesiveness and stability, they should also be linked with low support for survival values. Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)…

  16. Hereditary Susceptibility to Breast Cancer: Significance of Age of Onset in Family History and Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Frank

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To correlate mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 with family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative for women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 45 who do not have a personal or family history of ovarian cancer.

  17. Central American mothers report family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of teenage health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

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    Cai Lian eTam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  19. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  20. Parental HLA Sharing, Feto-Maternal Compatibility and Neonatal Birthweight in Families With a History of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

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    D. C. Kilpatrick

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean birthweight of babies eventually born to couples with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA is allegedly lower if the parents have a high degree of HLA antigen sharing (Reznikoff-Etievant et al., 1991, but this relationship has not been independently confirmed. We have re-investigated this question by analysing data from 36 families. In 22 instances, we were able to relate birthweight directly to feto-maternal HLA compatibility for the first time in such families. We were unable to confirm any appreciable influence of paternal or feto-maternal HLA sharing on birthweight or placental weight and conclude that RSA families do not differ markedly from normal families in this respect.

  1. Association between overweight and obesity in schoolchildren with rs9939609 polymorphism (FTO) and family history for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Burgos, Miria Suzana; Bernhard, Joana Carolina; Tornquist, Debora; Klinger, Elisa Inês; Borges, Tássia Silvana; Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo; de Moura Valim, Andréia Rosane; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with FTO rs9939609 polymorphism (fatmass and obesity associated) and family history of obesity. Cross-sectional study comprising a sample of 406 children aged 7-17 years in a city in southern Brazil. Overweight/obesity in schoolchildren was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and family history of obesity was self-reported by parents. Polymorphism genotyping was performed by real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The association between the nutritional status of schoolchildren with the presence of family obesity, stratified by polymorphism genotypes (AA [at-risk for obesity], AT, and TT), was assessed by prevalence ratio values (PR) through Poisson regression. Among schoolchildren with the AA genotype, 57.4% had overweight/obesity; the percentage was lower for the AT and TT genotypes (33.1% and 28.9%, respectively). Overweight/obesity in schoolchildren was associated with a family history of obesity, especially among children with the AA genotype. The prevalence was higher among those with an obese mother (PR: 1.28; p<0.001), obese maternal or paternal grandmother (PR: 1.22; p=0.047), and obese paternal grandfather (PR: 1.32; p<0.001). There is an association between the AA genotype of rs9939609 polymorphism and BMI among schoolchildren. The association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with a family history of obesity was found mainly among students with the AA genotype. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumor characteristics and family history in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: The French E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dartois, Laureen; Delaloge, Suzette; Hopper, John; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mammographic density is a known heritable risk factor for breast cancer, but reports how tumor characteristics and family history may modify this association are inconsistent. Dense and total breast areas were assessed using Cumulus™ from pre-diagnostic mammograms for 820 invasive breast cancer cases and 820 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort study. To allow comparisons across models, percent mammographic density (PMD) was standardized to the distribution of the controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer risk for mammographic density were estimated by conditional logistic regression while adjusting for age and body mass index. Heterogeneity according to tumor characteristic and family history was assessed using stratified analyses. Overall, the OR per 1 SD for PMD was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.69). No evidence for significant heterogeneity by tumor size, lymph node status, grade, and hormone receptor status (estrogen, progesterone, and HER2) was detected. However, the association of PMD was stronger for women reporting a family history of breast cancer (OR 1SD =2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-3.04) than in women reporting none (OR 1SD =1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60; p heterogeneity =0.002). Similarly, effect modification by FHBC was observed using categories of PMD (p heterogeneity =0.02) with respective ORs of 15.16 (95% CI, 4.23-54.28) vs. 3.14 (95% CI, 1.89-5.22) for ≥50% vs. breast cancer risk with a family history supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors responsible for familial aggregation of breast cancer and the heritable component of mammographic density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between overweight and obesity in schoolchildren with rs9939609 polymorphism (FTO and family history for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézane Priscila Reuter

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with FTO rs9939609 polymorphism (fatmass and obesity associated and family history of obesity. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising a sample of 406 children aged 7-17 years in a city in southern Brazil. Overweight/obesity in schoolchildren was assessed by body mass index (BMI, and family history of obesity was self-reported by parents. Polymorphism genotyping was performed by real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction. The association between the nutritional status of schoolchildren with the presence of family obesity, stratified by polymorphism genotypes (AA [at-risk for obesity], AT, and TT, was assessed by prevalence ratio values (PR through Poisson regression. Results: Among schoolchildren with the AA genotype, 57.4% had overweight/obesity; the percentage was lower for the AT and TT genotypes (33.1% and 28.9%, respectively. Overweight/obesity in schoolchildren was associated with a family history of obesity, especially among children with the AA genotype. The prevalence was higher among those with an obese mother (PR: 1.28; p < 0.001, obese maternal or paternal grandmother (PR: 1.22; p = 0.047, and obese paternal grandfather (PR: 1.32; p < 0.001. Conclusions: There is an association between the AA genotype of rs9939609 polymorphism and BMI among schoolchildren. The association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with a family history of obesity was found mainly among students with the AA genotype.

  4. Impaired glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic Greek hypertensives with diabetes family history. Effect of the obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssoulis, Gregory P; Liakos, Charalampos I; Karpanou, Eva A; Triantafyllou, Athanasios I; Michaelides, Andreas P; Tzamou, Vanessa E; Markou, Maria I; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I

    2013-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are established cardiovascular risk factors. Impaired glucose homeostasis (IGH; impaired fasting glucose or/and impaired glucose tolerance) or pre-diabetes, obesity, and DM family history identify individuals at risk for type 2 DM in whom preventive interventions are necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the glycemic profile in non-diabetic Greek adult hypertensive men and women according to DM family history and the obesity status. Diabetes family history, obesity markers (waist-to-hip ratio, WHR; body mass index, BMI), glycemic parameters (fasting and 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, if necessary; glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c; fasting insulin), insulin resistance indices (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA; quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, QUICKI; Bennett; McAuley), and IGH prevalence were determined in a large cohort of 11,540 Greek hypertensives referred to our institutions. Positive DM family history was associated with elevated fasting glucose (98.6 ± 13.1 vs 96.5 ± 12.3 mg/dL), HbA1c (5.58% ± 0.49% vs 5.50% ± 0.46%), fasting insulin (9.74 ± 4.20 vs 9.21 ± 3.63 μU/mL) and HOMA (2.43 ± 1.19 vs 2.24 ± 1.01) values, lower QUICKI (0.342 ± 0.025 vs 0.345 ± 0.023), Bennett (0.285 ± 0.081 vs 0.292 ± 0.078) and McAuley (6.73 ± 3.43 vs 6.95 ± 3.44) values, and higher IGH prevalence (45.3% vs 38.7%); P history was significant (P history present with higher IGH prevalence and worse glycemic indices levels compared with those with negative family history, especially in the higher WHR/BMI subgroups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does fear of childbirth or family history affect whether pregnant Dutch women prefer a home- or hospital birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Anne-Marie; Cleiren, Marc P H D; Scherjon, Sicco A; Wijma, Klaas

    2015-12-01

    It is a generally accepted idea that women who give birth at home are less fearful of giving birth than women who give birth in a hospital. We explored fear of childbirth (FOC) in relation to preferred and actual place of birth. Since the Netherlands has a long history of home birthing, we also examined how the place where a pregnant woman׳s mother or sisters gave birth related to the preferred place of birth. A prospective cohort study. Five midwifery practises in the region Leiden/Haarlem, the Netherlands. 104 low risk nulliparous and parous women. Questionnaires were completed in gestation week 30 (T1) and six weeks post partum (T2). No significant differences were found in antepartum FOC between those who preferred a home or a hospital birth. Women with a strong preference for either home or hospital had lower FOC (mean W-DEQ=60.3) than those with a weak preference (mean W-DEQ=71.0), t (102)=-2.60, p=0.01. The place of birth of close family members predicted a higher chance (OR 3.8) of the same place being preferred by the pregnant woman. Pre- to postpartum FOC increased in women preferring home- but having hospital birth. The idea that FOC is related to the choice of place of birth was not true for this low risk cohort. Women in both preference groups (home and hospital) made their decisions based on negative and positive motivations. Mentally adjusting to a different environment than that preferred, apart from the medical complications, can cause more FOC post partum. The decreasing number of home births in the Netherlands will probably be a self-reinforcing effect, so in future, pregnant women will be less likely to feel supported by their family or society to give birth at home. Special attention should be given to the psychological condition of women who were referred to a place of birth and caregiver they did not prefer, by means of evaluation of the delivery and being alert to anxiety or other stress symptoms after childbirth. These women have higher

  6. Unto the third generation: evidence for strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists among first-year medical and psychology students in a nationwide Austrian cohort census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Berger, Nina; Arendasy, Martin E; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Monika; Hutzler, Florian; Kraft, Hans-Georg; Oettl, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Vitouch, Oliver; Voracek, Martin

    2017-05-03

    Medical students present higher numbers of physician relatives than expectable from the total population prevalence of physicians. Evidence for such a familial aggregation effect of physicians has emerged in investigations from the Anglo-American, Scandinavian, and German-speaking areas. In particular, past data from Austria suggest a familial aggregation of the medical, as well as of the psychological and psychotherapeutic, professions among medical and psychology undergraduates alike. Here, we extend prior related studies by examining (1) the extent to which familial aggregation effects apply to the whole nation-wide student census of all relevant (eight) public universities in Austria; (2) whether effects are comparable for medical and psychology students; (3) and whether these effects generalize to relatives of three interrelated health professions (medicine, psychology, and psychotherapy). We investigated the familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists, based on an entire cohort census of first-year medical and psychology students (n = 881 and 920) in Austria with generalized linear mixed models. For both disciplines, we found strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists. As compared with previous results, directionally opposite time trends within disciplines emerged: familial aggregation of physicians among medical students has decreased, whilst familial aggregation of psychologists among psychology students has increased. Further, there were sex-of-relative effects (i.e., more male than female physician relatives), but no substantial sex-of-student effects (i.e., male and female students overall reported similar numbers of relatives for all three professions of interest). In addition, there were age-benefit effects, i.e., students with a relative in the medical or the psychotherapeutic profession were younger than students without, thus suggesting earlier career decisions. The familial

  7. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  8. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A.; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Malhotra, Anil K.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberley D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chan, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Lee, Jimmy; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Visscher, Peter M.; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wiersma, Durk; Wildenauer, Dieter B.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Simon, Hualin; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Stefansson, Kari; Adolfsson, Rolf; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Gill, Michael; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; McCarroll, Steven A.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Riley, Brien P.; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of

  9. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Passarelli, Vincent; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  10. The association of age, gender, ethnicity, family history, obesity and hypertension with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Sobrian, Arianne; Latiff, Khalif; Pope, Danielle; Rampersad, Akash; Lourenço, Kodi; Samuel, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hypertension, on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Trinidadian population. A cross-sectional case control study comprised 146 non-diabetics and 147 type 2 diabetics ≥18 years of age, from North Central, South West and Eastern regions of Trinidad. Cross-tabulations revealed a significant difference between type 2-diabetes and age at pdifference at pdifference was observed between type 2 diabetes and gender and BMI. Age was the most significant risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Therefore it can be concluded that family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension are more significant risk factors of this disease than BMI and gender in the Trinidadian population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Lian eTam; Gregory eBonn; Gregory eBonn; Si Han eYeoh; Chee Piau eWong

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was do...

  12. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done...

  13. The effect of L-arginine on microvascular reactivity in normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zaletel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of studies support the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction due to reduced availability of nitric oxide plays a key role in initiation, development and progression of essential hypertension. The aim of our study was to determine whether the ingestion of L-arginine actually improves microvascular function in normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension.Methods: 30 normotensive healthy men, aged 20–30 years, were divided into two groups according to the family history of hypertension. We measured ECG, heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance (Task Force Monitor and laser Doppler (LD flux in the microvessels of the skin on the forearm at rest, before and after the administration of 0.9 g L-arginine. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by iontophoresis of acetylcholine and the endothelium-independent vasodilation by iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside.Results: After the ingestion of L-arginine the heart rate and the cardiac output statistically significantly decreased in both groups (paired t-test, p < 0.05. Arterial pressure did not change significantly. Stroke volume decreased and total peripheral resistance increased only in the group of subjects with a family history of hypertension (paired t-test, p < 0.05 The ingestion of L-arginine in predisposed normotensive subjects acutely improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilation (Dunnett’s test, p < 0.05, which is consistent with the assumption that endothelial dysfunction is already present in these subjects.Conclusions: In subjects with a family history of hypertension L-arginine improved endothelial function. This justifies L-arginine as a potential agent for the prevention and/or treatment of arterial hypertension.

  14. The Effects of Tryptophan on Everyday Interpersonal Encounters and Social Cognitions in Individuals with a Family History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, Robert A.; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with a family history of depression show subtle abnormalities in the processing of social stimuli. This could negatively affect their interpersonal functioning and contribute to their depression risk. Repeated administration of the serotonin precursor tryptophan has previously been shown to increase agreeable behavior and reduce quarrelsome behavior in irritable people, who are also considered at risk for depression. Methods: To examine the effects of tryptophan on social functioning in individuals with a family history of depression, 40 men and women with at least one first-degree relative with depression received tryptophan (1g three times a day) and placebo for 14 days each in a double-blind crossover design and recorded their social behavior and mood during everyday interpersonal encounters. Participants also provided daily ratings of their positive and negative cognitions concerning their social functioning. Results: Tryptophan improved mood. Unexpectedly, tryptophan increased quarrelsome behavior and reduced agreeable behavior, specifically during interactions at home. The behavioral effects of tryptophan were not moderated by mood or by the interaction partner. Negative social cognitions were lower when tryptophan was given second and lower during placebo when placebo was given second. Conclusion: Overall, tryptophan may not alter social behavior in individuals with a family history of depression as it does in irritable people. However, the behavioral effects of tryptophan at home might be seen as a way for individuals with a family history of depression to achieve more control. Over time, this may positively influence the way they feel and think about themselves in a social context. PMID:25733537

  15. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  16. Family history study of the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder with axis I and nonborderline dramatic cluster axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Barison, Leah K; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Hudson, James I

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revised Family History Questionnaire-a semistructured interview of demonstrated reliability. Of these 445 subjects, 341 met both DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD and 104 met DSM-III-R criteria for another type of personality disorder (and neither criteria set for BPD). The psychopathology of 1,580 first-degree relatives of borderline probands and 472 relatives of axis II comparison subjects was assessed. Using structural models for familial coaggregation, it was found that BPD coaggregates with major depression, dysthymic disorder, bipolar I disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and all four axis II disorders studied. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that common familial factors, particularly in the areas of affective disturbance and impulsivity, contribute to borderline personality disorder.

  17. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  18. Breast cancer risk perception and lifestyle behaviors among White and Black women with a family history of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Denise; Mishel, Merle; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Deroo, Lisa A; Vanriper, Marcia; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated the relationships between perceived risk and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer, few qualitative studies have addressed the meaning of risk and its impact on decision making regarding lifestyle behaviors. This qualitative study explored factors involved in the formulation of perceived breast cancer risk and associations between risk perception and lifestyle behaviors in white and black women with a family history of breast cancer. Eligible participants were North Carolina residents in the Sister Study, a nationwide study of risk factors for breast cancer among women who have at least 1 sister diagnosed with breast cancer. Personal interviews were conducted with 32 women. Although most had heightened perceived risk, almost 20% considered themselves below-to-average risk. Participants with moderate-to-high perceived risk were more likely to report an affected sister and mother, a first-degree relative's diagnosis within 4 years, and death of a first-degree relative from breast cancer. Many women were unaware of associations between lifestyle behaviors and breast cancer risk. Only one-third of the women reported healthy lifestyle changes because of family history; dietary change was most frequently reported. Findings may be important for cancer nurses involved in developing breast cancer education programs for women with a family history of breast cancer.

  19. Using family history and health risk behaviors to determine predictors of depressive symptoms in Central American immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W

    2005-01-01

    , or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia....... The relative risk of schizoaffective disorder was 2.76 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-3.06) if a first-degree relative had a history of mental illness compared with a person with no first-degree relatives with such a history. There was an additional risk (95% confidence interval) of 2.57 (2.11-3.13), 3.23 (2...

  1. Integrated pipeline for inferring the evolutionary history of a gene family embedded in the species tree: a case study on the STIMATE gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Zheng, Sisi; Nguyen, Nhung; Wang, Youjun; Zhou, Yubin; Lin, Kui

    2017-10-03

    Because phylogenetic inference is an important basis for answering many evolutionary problems, a large number of algorithms have been developed. Some of these algorithms have been improved by integrating gene evolution models with the expectation of accommodating the hierarchy of evolutionary processes. To the best of our knowledge, however, there still is no single unifying model or algorithm that can take all evolutionary processes into account through a stepwise or simultaneous method. On the basis of three existing phylogenetic inference algorithms, we built an integrated pipeline for inferring the evolutionary history of a given gene family; this pipeline can model gene sequence evolution, gene duplication-loss, gene transfer and multispecies coalescent processes. As a case study, we applied this pipeline to the STIMATE (TMEM110) gene family, which has recently been reported to play an important role in store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) mediated by ORAI and STIM proteins. We inferred their phylogenetic trees in 69 sequenced chordate genomes. By integrating three tree reconstruction algorithms with diverse evolutionary models, a pipeline for inferring the evolutionary history of a gene family was developed, and its application was demonstrated.

  2. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes (no.21/14) in relation to the history of spontaneous abortion in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh-NazarAbadi, Mohammad; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Namazi, Iman; Mirzaee, Salmeh

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed. Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement. six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting.

  3. Family history is an independent risk factor for the progression of gastric atrophy among patients withHelicobacter pyloriinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Sakitani, Kosuke; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Hata, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Fujiwara, Naoto; Kanai, Takanori; Yahagi, Naohisa; Toyoshima, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    Risk factors for progression of gastric atrophy have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the development of atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori  ) infection. We reviewed 206 H. pylori -infected patients retrospectively. Endoscopic gastric atrophy was classified into closed- and open-type. We conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses on the contribution of age, sex, body mass index, past history of cancer, the first-degree family history of gastric cancer, habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, and endoscopic findings of gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer for open-type gastric atrophy. On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio = 1.079, 95% confidence interval = 1.048-1.11, p  history of gastric cancer (odds ratio = 3.967, 95% confidence interval = 1.414-10.6, p  = 0.006) and duodenal ulcer (odds ratio = 0.834, 95% confidence interval = 0.711-0.977, p  = 0.024) were the factors independently associated with open-type gastric atrophy. A first-degree family history of gastric cancer, absence of duodenal ulcer, and old age were independent risk factors for the progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori -infected patients. Careful examination with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is necessary in patients with such risk factors.

  4. Autonomic and Vascular Control in Prehypertensive Subjects with a Family History of Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josária Ferraz Amaral

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Individuals with a family history of systemic arterial hypertension (FHSAH and / or prehypertension have a higher risk of developing this pathology. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic and vascular functions of prehypertensive patients with FHSAH. Methods: Twenty-five young volunteers with FHSAH, 14 normotensive and 11 prehypertensive subjects were submitted to vascular function evaluation by forearm vascular conductance(VC during resting and reactive hyperemia (Hokanson® and cardiac and peripheral autonomic modulation, quantified, respectively, by spectral analysis of heart rate (ECG and systolic blood pressure (SBP (FinometerPRO®. The transfer function analysis was used to measure the gain and response time of baroreflex. The statistical significance adopted was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Pre-hypertensive individuals, in relation to normotensive individuals, have higher VC both at rest (3.48 ± 1.26 vs. 2.67 ± 0.72 units, p = 0.05 and peak reactive hyperemia (25, 02 ± 8.18 vs. 18.66 ± 6.07 units, p = 0.04. The indices of cardiac autonomic modulation were similar between the groups. However, in the peripheral autonomic modulation, greater variability was observed in prehypertensive patients compared to normotensive individuals (9.4 [4.9-12.7] vs. 18.3 [14.8-26.7] mmHg2; p < 0.01 and higher spectral components of very low (6.9 [2.0-11.1] vs. 13.5 [10.7-22.4] mmHg2, p = 0.01 and low frequencies (1.7 [1.0-3.0] vs. 3.0 [2.0-4.0] mmHg2, p = 0.04 of SBP. Additionally, we observed a lower gain of baroreflex control in prehypertensive patients compared to normotensive patients (12.16 ± 4.18 vs. 18.23 ± 7.11 ms/mmHg, p = 0.03, but similar delay time (-1.55 ± 0.66 vs. -1.58 ± 0.72 s, p = 0.90. Conclusion: Prehypertensive patients with FHSAH have autonomic dysfunction and increased vascular conductance when compared to normotensive patients with the same risk factor.

  5. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for mantle cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedby, Karin E; Sampson, Joshua N; Turner, Jennifer J; Slager, Susan L; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M; Flowers, Christopher R; Berndt, Sonja I; Bracci, Paige M; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Morton, Lindsay M

    2014-08-01

    The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%-10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case-control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  6. Planning Ahead or Living a Day at a Time? A Family History of AD and Retirement Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Mayer, Robert N

    2016-09-01

    We assess whether a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the odds that healthy family members' engage in retirement planning activities. This is a cross-sectional study utilizing individual-level data from the Utah Population Database that have been linked to Medicare records and to responses from a retirement planning survey. Engagement in 3 retirement planning activities was estimated as a function of the number of parents and grandparents diagnosed with AD along with a set of fundamental socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Adults who had a parent with AD were 86% more likely to have seen a professional financial advisor and 40% less likely to plan to retire before age 65. Caregiving costs and/or knowledge of the familial risk of developing AD may provide adult children with a forewarning of their own future financial needs that, in turn, motivates them to engage in retirement planning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Impaired processing of brief, rapidly presented auditory cues in infants with a family history of autoimmune disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benasich, April Ann

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that individuals with language disorders, such as developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment, exhibit impairments in the processing of brief, successive, or rapidly changing auditory information. It is also the case that a higher rate of autoimmune disorders have been identified in those with language-based learning disorders and, conversely, that individuals with autoimmune disorders show a higher incidence of language-related disorders. The rapid auditory processing (RAP) deficits described for older individuals with language impairments may also be used as a behavioral marker to identify infants at higher risk for language delays. Thus, we were interested in examining RAP abilities in a subset of infants with a positive family history of autoimmune disorders. Eleven infants from our ongoing prospective longitudinal studies were identified based on parental response to a question about the presence of a family history of autoimmune disease and compared to 11 matched controls. The RAP threshold of each infant was assessed at 6 and 9 months of age using a conditioned head-turn procedure (using tone pairs with brief interstimulus intervals) and an auditory-visual habituation-recognition memory task using computer-generated consonant-vowel syllables (/ba/ vs. /da/). A visual habituation-recognition memory task that did not require processing of brief temporal cues was also administered. Group differences emerged on the infant RAP tasks, and on language outcome measures at 12 and 16 months of age. Infants from families with a history of autoimmune disorder had significantly higher (i.e., poorer) RAP thresholds and lower language scores than did control infants, whereas visual discrimination scores did not differ between family history infants and controls. Moreover, when brief auditory cues were necessary for the discrimination of /ba/ vs. /da/, infants with a family history of autoimmune disorder performed significantly more poorly

  8. The value of genetic information for diabetes risk prediction - differences according to sex, age, family history and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mühlenbruch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes through the past years. In previous studies, the usefulness of these genetic markers for prediction of diabetes was found to be limited. However, differences may exist between substrata of the population according to the presence of major diabetes risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the added predictive value of genetic information (42 single nucleotide polymorphisms in subgroups of sex, age, family history of diabetes, and obesity. METHODS: A case-cohort study (random subcohort N = 1,968; incident cases: N = 578 within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam study was used. Prediction models without and with genetic information were evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the integrated discrimination improvement. Stratified analyses included subgroups of sex, age (<50 or ≥50 years, family history (positive if either father or mother or a sibling has/had diabetes, and obesity (BMI< or ≥30 kg/m(2. RESULTS: A genetic risk score did not improve prediction above classic and metabolic markers, but - compared to a non-invasive prediction model - genetic information slightly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (difference [95%-CI]: 0.007 [0.002-0.011]. Stratified analyses showed stronger improvement in the older age group (0.010 [0.002-0.018], the group with a positive family history (0.012 [0.000-0.023] and among obese participants (0.015 [-0.005-0.034] compared to the younger participants (0.005 [-0.004-0.014], participants with a negative family history (0.003 [-0.001-0.008] and non-obese (0.007 [0.000-0.014], respectively. No difference was found between men and women. CONCLUSION: There was no incremental value of genetic information compared to standard non-invasive and metabolic

  9. Fatalism moderates the relationship between family history of cardiovascular disease and engagement in health-promoting behaviors among at-risk rural Kentuckians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Rayens, Mary Kay; Lennie, Terry A; Chung, Misook L; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Wiggins, Amanda T; Biddle, Martha J; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, M J; Casey, Baretta R; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    In rural communities that experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, family history education may enhance risk awareness and support engagement in healthy behaviors but could also engender fatalism. This study was conducted to assess if the relationship between family history and adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors is moderated by fatalism. Baseline data were obtained from 1,027 adult participants in the HeartHealth in Rural Kentucky study. Multiple linear regression was used to determine whether fatalism moderated the relationship between high-risk family history of CVD and adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors, controlling for sociodemographic variables and CVD risk factors. The relationship between family history and healthy behaviors was assessed for subgroups of participants divided according to the upper and lower quartiles of fatalism score. The relationship between high-risk family history of CVD and adherence to healthy behaviors was moderated by fatalism. Among those with the highest quartile of fatalism scores, high-risk family history predicted greater adherence to healthy behaviors, while among those in the lowest quartile, and among those with the middle 50% of fatalism scores, there was no association between family history and healthy behavior scores. Family history education can provide people at increased risk for CVD important information to guide health practices. This may be particularly relevant for those with a high degree of fatalistic thinking. In rural communities with limited health resources, family history education, combined with assessment of fatalism, may support better targeted interventions to enhance engagement in healthy behaviors. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans.

  11. The Role of "Family Snapshots" in Teaching Art History within a Dialogic Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Studying images of families in works of art and in snapshots is compelling, and the author wondered if looking at both types of images side by side might help students understand both kinds of images more fully. Snapshots often prompt detailed and vivid stories among family members and friends. Therefore, she wondered if dialogue about snapshots…

  12. Early evolutionary history of the flowering plant family Annonaceae: steady diversification and boreotropical geodispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Pirie, M.D.; Chatrou, L.W.; Saunders, M.; Su, Y.; Richardson, J.E.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Rain forest-restricted plant families show disjunct distributions between the three major tropical regions: South America, Africa and Asia. Explaining these disjunctions has become an important challenge in biogeography. The pantropical plant family Annonaceae is used to test hypotheses that

  13. Why are women more likely than men to extend paid work? The impact of work-family life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Naomi

    2014-03-01

    Extending working life beyond the state pension age is a key European Union policy. In the UK, women are more likely to extend paid work than men, indicating that factors other than the state pension age play a role in working longer. Women are less able to build pension income due to their role as carer within the family. It, therefore, follows that gender inequalities over the life course continue into older age to influence need, capacity and desire to undertake paid work after state pension age. This paper explores how work, marital and fertility history impact upon the likelihood of extending employment. It uses the British Household Panel Survey's retrospective data from the first 14 waves to summarise work-family histories, and logistic regression to understand the impact of work and family histories on extending paid work. Findings show that, on the one hand, women are extending paid work for financial reasons to make up for 'opportunity costs' as a result of their caring role within the family, with short breaks due to caring, lengthy marriages, divorcing and remaining single with children all being important. Yet, there is also evidence of 'status maintenance' from working life, with the women most likely to extend paid work, also those with the highest work orientation, prior to state pension age. But lengthy dis-attachment (due to caring) from the labour market makes extending working life more difficult. This has implications for policy strategies to entice women into paid work to make up for low independent financial resources.

  14. High incidence of BRCA1-2 germline mutations, previous breast cancer and familial cancer history in Jewish patients with uterine serous papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron-Shental, T; Drucker, L; Altaras, M; Bernheim, J; Fishman, A

    2006-12-01

    To test the carrier status of the three germline founder mutations in Jewish patients with uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) and to evaluate its association to their personal and familial cancer records. Retrospective analysis of histologically confirmed USPC Jewish patients diagnosed between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 2003. All cases were genetically tested for the three BRCA1-2 founder germline mutations (185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2). The analysis was performed on genomic DNA extracted from whole blood or paraffin embedded normal tissue of these patients, employing PCR amplification of target sequences and differential digestion with restriction enzymes. The carrier frequency was compared to the known population frequency of these mutations. The study group comprised 22 Jewish patients with USPC diagnosed within this timeframe. The mean age was 71.8 years (range 56-79). FIGO surgical stage distribution revealed 59% at stages III-IV. Seven USPC patients (32%) with a previous diagnosis of breast cancer were identified. Familial cancer history was recorded in 23% of the patients (four with breast cancer and one with ovarian cancer). DNA analysis revealed six BRCA1-2 germline mutation carriers (27%) as follows: three with BRCA2-6174delT, two with BRCA1-185delAG, and one with BRCA1-5382insC mutation. Three of the carriers had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Four carriers had familial cancer history in first-degree relative (three with breast cancer and one with ovarian cancer). The high rate of BRCA germline mutations in USPC patients observed in the present study, coupled with the strong personal and familial cancer history as well as the histological and clinical resemblance to the ovarian cancer, may indicate that USPC is a part or an expression of the hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. This option may have implications in our clinical recommendations for non-affected BRCA1-2 carriers.

  15. Near-source high-rate GPS, strong motion and InSAR observations to image the 2015 Lefkada (Greece) Earthquake rupture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, Antonio; Cirella, Antonella; Cheloni, Daniele; Tolomei, Cristiano; Theodoulidis, Nikos; Piatanesi, Alessio; Briole, Pierre; Ganas, Athanassios

    2017-09-04

    The 2015/11/17 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake ruptured a segment of the Cephalonia Transform Fault (CTF) where probably the penultimate major event was in 1948. Using near-source strong motion and high sampling rate GPS data and Sentinel-1A SAR images on two tracks, we performed the inversion for the geometry, slip distribution and rupture history of the causative fault with a three-step self-consistent procedure, in which every step provided input parameters for the next one. Our preferred model results in a ~70° ESE-dipping and ~13° N-striking fault plane, with a strike-slip mechanism (rake ~169°) in agreement with the CTF tectonic regime. This model shows a bilateral propagation spanning ~9 s with the activation of three main slip patches, characterized by rise time and peak slip velocity in the ranges 2.5-3.5 s and 1.4-2.4 m/s, respectively, corresponding to 1.2-1.8 m of slip which is mainly concentrated in the shallower ( 6) earthquakes to the northern and to the southern boundaries of the 2015 causative fault cannot be excluded.

  16. Can family history and cord blood IgE predict sensitization and allergic diseases up to adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrits Pagh Nissen, Susanne; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Høst, Arne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of the predictive value of family history and cord blood IgE level until adulthood are few, and their conclusions have been contradictory. METHODS: Screening of total IgE in 1617 cord blood samples was performed in a Danish birth cohort. All infants with cord blood Ig...... used. RESULTS: A total of 455 infants were included, 188 with CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l and 267 with CB-IgE history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated to allergic disease until 26 yr. Concerning any allergic...... symptoms at 1½ yr the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), the sensitivity and specificity of CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l, was 29%, 81%, 54%, and 61%, respectively. The corresponding figures at 26 yr were 46%, 62%, 43%, and 65%. Overall, family history as well as CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l was associated...

  17. Identification of Kininogen 1 as a Serum Protein Marker of Colorectal Adenoma in Patients with a Family History of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiekai; Huang, Yanqin; Lin, Chen; Li, Xiaofen; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Yuan, Ying; Zheng, Shu

    2018-01-01

    The serum protein markers of colorectal adenoma in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer have been rarely reported. Serum samples from colorectal adenoma patients with or without a family history of colorectal cancer and healthy controls were profiled using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The model to distinguish colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer from atypical hereditary colorectal families (CRA-H) and sporadic colorectal adenoma patients without a family history of colorectal cancer (CRA-S) was established with 85.0% accuracy. The model distinguishing CRA-H from healthy individuals was established with 90.0% specificity and 86.7% sensitivity. Additionally, five peaks (2202, 5821, 3260, 2480, and 2218) showing differential expression in advanced colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer were selected. The protein Kininogen 1 (KNG1) was identified in colorectal adenoma patients and validated using Western Blotting. KNG1 may be a biomarker for colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer.

  18. Cardiovascular risk assessment in children: role of physical activity, family history and parental smoking on BMI and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Marco; Antolini, Laura; Brambilla, Paolo; Pagani, Massimo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Valsecchi, Maria G; Lucini, Daniela; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the role of family history, physical activity and parental smoking in the prediction of BMI, SBP and hypertension risk in children. In a paediatric primary care setting, a sample of 1310 children aged 5-14 years was systematically selected by 48 family paediatricians in northern Italy. BMI, waist circumference-to-height ratio (WtHr), SBP and DBP were measured and the information on the presence of small birth weight for gestational age (SGA) and early adiposity rebound (EAR) was collected. Data concerning exercise, video time, family history for cardiovascular diseases and parental smoking were derived from parental interview. Data were collected using an 'ad hoc designed' electronic sheet available online. Multiple linear regression showed that the presence of EAR, low exercise (2  h/day TV/videogames/computer) and parental smoking were associated to higher BMI (z-score; P child health. Physical exercise plays a pivotal role in obesity prevention and protection from hypertension risk.

  19. A 16-year-old girl with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis and family history of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Neil; Lieblich, Samuel; Schalling, Martin; Rahm, Christoffer

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune NMDA-R encephalitis (ANRE) shares clinical features with schizophrenia. Recent research also indicates that both disorders are associated with dysfunction of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-R) subunit 1. We present the case of Ms A, 16 years old. Ms A presented with acute personality change, bizarre behaviour, delusional ideas and atypical seizures. She had a family history of psychotic disorders, and autistic traits diagnosed in childhood. She was initially diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Delayed testing of CSF indicated ANRE. As the patient was a Jehovah's witness the treating team was unable to use gammaglobulin therapy; they instead relied on combined plasmapheresis and rituximab. To exclude the possibility that the affected members of this family shared a gene coding for an abnormal configuration of the NMDA receptor subunit 1 we sequenced the region of the GRIN1 gene in DNA extracted from blood in both Ms A and her grandmother. Ms A's condition improved dramatically, though her long-term memory is still demonstrably impaired. No genetic abnormality was detected. This case emphasizes how important it is, for a first episode psychosis, to exclude ANRE and other autoimmune synaptic encephalitides, even in the face of significant family history, and if seronegative, the importance of testing for CSF autoantibodies.

  20. Family history of periodontal disease and prevalence of smoking status among adult periodontitis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziukaite, L; Slot, D E; Loos, B G; Coucke, W; Van der Weijden, G A

    2017-11-01

    What is the family history of periodontal disease and the prevalence of smoking status among patients with professionally diagnosed periodontitis? Are these factors related to extent and severity of periodontitis? Over a 10-year period, referred patients from a clinic for periodontology in the Netherlands were examined in a cross-sectional study. Patients received at the intake appointment a full-mouth periodontal examination. Data regarding family history of periodontitis and smoking status were recorded. A total of 5375 adult periodontitis patients were included in this study sample with a mean age of 50 years. The prevalence of smoking was 34% and 37% of the subjects had at least one parent or sibling with periodontitis. The chance to have severe periodontitis was higher if the patient was male, smoker or had a brother with periodontitis. Being male, smoker and having a parent with periodontitis were significantly associated with a larger extent of periodontitis. Within the investigated population familial aggregation, smoking status, age and gender are factors that were related to extent and severity of adult periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Using paleogenomics to study the evolution of gene families: origin and duplication history of the relaxin family hormones and their receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yegorov

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the analysis of whole genome sequencing data has resulted in the emergence of paleogenomics, a field devoted to the reconstruction of ancestral genomes. Ancestral karyotype reconstructions have been used primarily to illustrate the dynamic nature of genome evolution. In this paper, we demonstrate how they can also be used to study individual gene families by examining the evolutionary history of relaxin hormones (RLN/INSL and relaxin family peptide receptors (RXFP. Relaxin family hormones are members of the insulin superfamily, and are implicated in the regulation of a variety of primarily reproductive and neuroendocrine processes. Their receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR's and include members of two distinct evolutionary groups, an unusual characteristic. Although several studies have tried to elucidate the origins of the relaxin peptide family, the evolutionary origin of their receptors and the mechanisms driving the diversification of the RLN/INSL-RXFP signaling systems in non-placental vertebrates has remained elusive. Here we show that the numerous vertebrate RLN/INSL and RXFP genes are products of an ancestral receptor-ligand system that originally consisted of three genes, two of which apparently trace their origins to invertebrates. Subsequently, diversification of the system was driven primarily by whole genome duplications (WGD, 2R and 3R followed by almost complete retention of the ligand duplicates in most vertebrates but massive loss of receptor genes in tetrapods. Interestingly, the majority of 3R duplicates retained in teleosts are potentially involved in neuroendocrine regulation. Furthermore, we infer that the ancestral AncRxfp3/4 receptor may have been syntenically linked to the AncRln-like ligand in the pre-2R genome, and show that syntenic linkages among ligands and receptors have changed dynamically in different lineages. This study ultimately shows the broad utility, with some caveats, of

  2. Type 2 diabetes family histories, body composition and fasting glucose levels: a cross-section analysis in healthy sedentary male and female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Petrucci, Marco; Proia, Patrizia; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values. Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH(+) with first degree family history, FH(++) with second degree family history and FH(-) with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed. Male had the highest BMI values (Plife-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  3. Perspectives:The Strength of a People: Exploring the Impact of History and Culture on African American Families Who Are Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Tabitha; Diamond-Berry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their perspective on how the history of African American's in the U.S., and an awareness of the role of African cultural traditions, can provide insight on working effectively with African American families.

  4. Family History of Breast Cancer as a Determinant of the Risk of Developing Endometrial and Ovarian Cancers: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazerouni, N. N

    2002-01-01

    Statement of the problem: Although endometrial and ovarian cancers share some of the same reproductive, hormonal, and genetic risk factors with breast cancer, it is not well established if a family history of breast cancer...

  5. Infant information processing and family history of specific language impairment: converging evidence for RAP deficits from two paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H.T.; Leevers, Hilary J.; Benasich, April A.

    2007-01-01

    An infant’s ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if performance on infant information processing measures designed to tap RAP and global processing skills differ as a function of family history of specific language impairment (SLI) and/or the particular demand characteristics of the paradigm used. Seventeen 6- to 9-month-old infants from families with a history of specific language impairment (FH+) and 29 control infants (FH−) participated in this study. Infants’ performance on two different RAP paradigms (head-turn procedure [HT] and auditory-visual habituation/recognition memory [AVH/RM]) and on a global processing task (visual habituation/recognition memory [VH/RM]) was assessed at 6 and 9 months. Toddler language and cognitive skills were evaluated at 12 and 16 months. A number of significant group differences were seen: FH+ infants showed significantly poorer discrimination of fast rate stimuli on both RAP tasks, took longer to habituate on both habituation/recognition memory measures, and had lower novelty preference scores on the visual habituation/recognition memory task. Infants’ performance on the two RAP measures provided independent but converging contributions to outcome. Thus, different mechanisms appear to underlie performance on operantly conditioned tasks as compared to habituation/recognition memory paradigms. Further, infant RAP processing abilities predicted to 12- and 16-month language scores above and beyond family history of SLI. The results of this study provide additional support for the validity of infant RAP abilities as a behavioral marker for later language outcome. Finally, this is the first study to use a

  6. Impact of individual components and their combinations within a family history of hypertension on the incidence of hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Risa; Fujihara, Kazuya; Heianza, Yoriko; Ishizawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Satoru; Saito, Kazumi; Hara, Shigeko; Hanyu, Osamu; Honda, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although a family history (FH) of hypertension is a risk factor for the development of hypertension, only a few studies have investigated in detail the impact of individual components of an FH on incident hypertension. We investigated the impact of individual components and their combinations on the presence or development of hypertension considering obesity, smoking habits, physical activity, and other metabolic parameters. Studied were 12,222 Japanese individuals without hypertension (n = 9,766) and with hypertension (n = 2,456) at the baseline examination. The presence or incidence of hypertension during 5 years after a baseline examination was assessed by the presence of systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or a self-reported history of clinician-diagnosed hypertension. In this prospective study, the odds ratio for incident hypertension was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22, 1.59) for individuals with any FH of hypertension compared with those without such an FH. Individuals with an FH of hypertension in both parents and one or more grandparents had an odds ratio of 3.05 (95% CI 1.74, 5.36) for hypertension compared with those without an FH of hypertension. FH was associated with incident hypertension independently of other modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. A parental history of hypertension was an essential component within an FH for incident hypertension. FH of hypertension over two generations with both parents affected was the most important risk factor for incident hypertension. Although an FH is not a modifiable risk factor, modifying other risk factors could contribute to reducing the risk of hypertension even among individuals with a family history of hypertension. PMID:27661014

  7. Dexmedetomidine as the primary anesthetic agent during cardiac surgery in an infant with a family history of malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Naguib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is an acute hypermetabolic crisis triggered in susceptible patients by the administration of succinylcholine or a volatile anesthetic agent. When providing anesthetic care for MH-susceptible agents, a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA technique is frequently chosen. When choosing the components for TIVA, several options exist including the combination of propofol or dexmedetomidine with an opioid. We present our experience with the use of dexmedetomidine as a key component of the anesthetic regimen in a 5-month-old infant with a family history of MH. Previous reports of the use of dexmedetomidine in MH-susceptible patients are reviewed and its benefits in such patients discussed.

  8. Family history of hypertension is associated with exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental, but not to physical test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas M. Jenie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate whether normotensive young adults with family history of hypertension demonstrate exaggerated cardiovascular responses to both mental and physical stimuli as compared to normotensive young adults withoutfamily history of hypertension.Methods Normotensive undergraduate students of normotensive parents (n = 40 and of hypertensive father/ mother/ both (n = 40, aged 20 – 30 years, performed serial subtraction test in a sitting position for three minutes. After taking a rest, subjects performed cold pressor test in ninety seconds. In each test, blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded in pre-test, during test, and post-test using an automated oscillometric device. Changes score rather than absolute scores were analyzed using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney.Results There were no significantly differences in age, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and plasma creatinine between the two groups. Normotensives of hypertensive parents had significantly higher offi ce systolic blood pressure (108.33 ± 1.6 vs 103.00 ± 1.6 mmHg and delta change score of cardiovascular reactivity to serial subtraction test (MABP 19.13 ± 1.4 vs 15.5 ± 1.0 mmHg, P = 0.04, but not to cold pressor test (MABP 24.26 ± 1.7 vs 21.74 ± 1.7 mmHg than those of normotensive parents.Conclusion Normotensive young adults with family history of hypertension demonstrated exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental test but not to physical test. As compared to normotensive young adults without family history of hypertension However, this familial difference in cardiovascular reactivity to mental test is confused with office blood pressure. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:118-23Keywords: cardiovascular reactivity, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic test, of hypertension

  9. Does Lack of "Genetic-Relative Family Health History" Represent a Potentially Avoidable Health Disparity for Adoptees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas; Strong, Kimberly A; Zusevics, Kaija L; Jeruzal, Jessica; Farrell, Michael H; LaPean Kirschner, Alison; Derse, Arthur R; Evans, James P; Grotevant, Harold D

    2016-12-01

    Many adoptees face a number of challenges relating to separation from biological parents during the adoption process, including issues concerning identity, intimacy, attachment, and trust, as well as (for older adopted children) language and other cultural challenges. One common health challenge faced by adoptees involves lack of access to genetic-relative family health history (GRFHx). Lack of GRFHx represents a disadvantage due to a reduced capacity to identify diseases and recommend appropriate screening for conditions for which the adopted person may be at increased risk. In this article, we draw out common features of traditionally understood "health disparities" in order to identify analogous features in the context of adoptees' lack of GRFHx.

  10. Evolutionary history of the porpoise family (Phocoenidae) : A perspective from mitogenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Chehida, Yacine; Aguilar, A. A.; Borrell, A.; Ferreira, M.; Taylor, B.L.; Rojas-Bracho, L.; Robertson, K.; Thumloup, Julie; Schumacher, C.; Vikingsson, G.A.; Morin, Phillip A.; Fontaine, Michael Christophe

    2017-01-01

    The six species of porpoises inhabit the cold waters of the globe, displaying a textbook example of anti-tropical distribution in marine mammals. Nevertheless, the evolutionary history of the porpoises still remained poorly understood, but this knowledge is crucial to illuminate the conservation

  11. Wounded Healers: Graduate Students with Histories of Trauma in a Family Violence Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Social work students are witness to a variety of challenges from course content through scenarios, videos, role-plays, and field practice. Students may be vulnerable to experiencing vicarious traumatization from this exposure. Some students, however, may have personal histories of trauma and may therefore experience posttraumatic stress reactions…

  12. HABP2 p.G534E variant in patients with family history of thyroid and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro, Maísa; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Tonhosolo, Renata

    2017-01-01

    familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes......Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES......) revealing HABP2 p.G534E. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the involvement of this variant in three families (F1: 7 relatives; F2: 3 and F3: 3). The proband and his sister (with no malignant tumor so far) from F1 were homozygous for the variant whereas one relative with PTC from F2 was negative...

  13. Late Life Employment Histories and Their Association With Work and Family Formation During Adulthood: A Sequence Analysis Based on ELSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Zaninotto, Paola; Hoven, Hanno; Head, Jenny; Carr, Ewan

    2017-05-31

    To extend research on workforce participation beyond age 50 by describing entire employment histories in later life and testing their links to prior life course conditions. We use data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, with retrospective information on employment histories between age 50 and 70 for 1,103 men and 1,195 women (n = 2,298). We apply sequence analysis and group respondents into eight clusters with similar histories. Using multinomial regressions, we then test their links to labor market participation, partnership, and parenthood histories during early (age 20-34) and mid-adulthood (age 35-49). Three clusters include histories dominated by full-time employees but with varying age of retirement (before, at, and after age 60). One cluster is dominated by self-employment with comparatively later retirement. Remaining clusters include part-time work (retirement around age 60 or no retirement), continuous domestic work (mostly women), or other forms of nonemployment. Those who had strong attachments to the labor market during adulthood are more likely to have histories of full-time work up until and beyond age 60, especially men. Parenthood in early adulthood is related to later retirement (for men only). Continued domestic work was not linked to parenthood. Partnered women tend to work part-time or do domestic work. The findings remain consistent after adjusting for birth cohort, childhood adversity, life course health, and occupational position. Policies aimed at increasing the proportion of older workers not only need to address later stages of the life course but also early and mid-adulthood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  14. A History of Ashes: An 80 Year Comparative Portrait of Smoking Initiation in American Indians and Non-Hispanic Whites—the Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Goldberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI

  15. Child and parental literacy levels within families with a history of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan

    Background: The present study concerns literacy and its underlying cognitive skills in Dutch children who differ in familial risk (FR) for dyslexia. Previous studies with FR-children were inconclusive regarding the performance of FR-children without dyslexia as compared to the controls. Moreover,

  16. "We're Locking the Door": Family Histories in a Sample of Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Shahid; Scott, Hannah; Stanyon, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the pathways to homelessness for young people are embedded in often ongoing negative childhood experiences. Many of these experiences are rooted in multiple and intersecting problems including, but not limited to: family conflict, abuse, addictions, and mental health issues. The authors draw upon qualitative interviews…

  17. The impact of a male or female thrombotic family history on contraceptive counseling : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, E. F. W.; Veeger, N. J. G. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Hamulyak, K.; Prins, M. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Meijer, K.

    Background: Women from thrombophilic families have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases further during oral contraceptive (COC) use and pregnancy-postpartum. Whether this additional risk differs between relatives of male and female patients, or is different when that

  18. Family violence and homelessness: the relevance of trauma histories in the lives of homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A

    1993-07-01

    Studies of homeless women reveal high lifetime rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse and of assault by intimate male partners. The extent of family violence in the lives of homeless women is examined, as are parallels between the long-term effects of childhood abuse and characteristics identified in homeless women. Implications for research and service provision are discussed.

  19. Expanding Definitions of Academic Writing: Family History Writing in the Basic Writing Classroom and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins-Robertson, Sherry; Cahill, Lisa; Roen, Duane; Glau, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    Narrow definitions of academic writing often do not serve students well because they ignore the rhetorically situated and social bases for writing and the potential role of writing to span the personal, professional, and civic areas of students' lives. Broadening school-sponsored writing to include writing about family can help students to see the…

  20. Child and Parental Literacy Levels within Families with a History of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study concerns literacy and its underlying cognitive skills in Dutch children who differ in familial risk (FR) for dyslexia. Previous studies with FR-children were inconclusive regarding the performance of FR-children without dyslexia as compared to the controls. Moreover, van Bergen et al. (2011) recently showed that…

  1. A family history of alcoholism relates to alexithymia in substance use disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Joosten, Evelien A.G.; de Haan, Lydia; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous research identified alexithymia as a potential risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD). More insight into the relation between alexithymia and SUD is needed in order to treat SUD effectively. Therefore, we investigated whether a familial vulnerability to alcoholism relates

  2. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-11-12

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival. We included 46 patients with known information on the family history of breast or ovarian cancer recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1970 and 2009. We compared patients with and without a family history with chi-square of heterogeneity, risk of second cancer with standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and overall survival by Kaplan-Meier methods. Approximately 20% of men with breast cancer had a positive family history. No differences were observed between men with and without familial risk except that patients with increased risk were more likely to receive radiotherapy and hormone therapy when compared with patients without familial risk. This more complete therapy is likely to be explained by the heightened awareness of cancer treatment among breast cancer patients with affected family members. Six men developed a second cancer. SIRs for second cancer were not significantly increased among patients with or without familial risk (1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-6.97 and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-2.66, respectively). Overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups. Prognosis was similar among patients with or without familial risk. Our results are however based on small numbers and larger registry-based cohorts of males with precise data on familial risk are still warranted.

  3. Drug abuse and criminal family records in the criminal history of prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Estrada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between criminal behavior and the risk factors, family criminal records and drug use, has been firmly established. With the aim of defining the role of these risk factors in the initiation and evolution of criminal behavior, a field study with prison inmates was designed. A survival analysis with the age at which the first unsanctioned crime was committed and the age at which entered by first instance into prison was applied to the data of 157 prison inmates in Villabona (Asturias, Spain. The results of a survival analysis showed that drug abuse re-offenders initiated in criminal acts at an earlier age (13 years than the primary offenders (16 years; re-offenders from family criminal records began his/her criminal activity earlier (13 years than primary ones (16 years; re-offenders with non-criminal family records, initiate in criminal acts at 14 years, whereas primary at 16; the recidivist drug abusers enter by first instance into prison earlier (19 years than the primary ones; non-drug consuming primary offenders enter prison for the first time at the age of 24 whereas recidivists do so at the age of 19; the first entrance into prison of the recidivist with family criminal records occurs early (19 years, than for the primary offenders (23 years; and the recidivist prisoners of non-family criminal records cross the threshold of the prison by first time youngsters (21 years than the primary inmates (26 years. The implications of these results may lead towards a more effective intervention against crime.

  4. Associations among Measures of Sequential Processing in Motor and Linguistics Tasks in Adults with and without a Family History of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically…

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Family History of Breast Cancer and Risk Perception and Impacts on Repetition of Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Sahar; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Roshani, Daem

    2016-01-01

    Since the mean age of breast cancer in women living in developing countries, compared with those in developed countries, is lower by about 10 years, repetition of mammography can play an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between family history of breast cancer and risk perception and its impact on repetition of mammography. In this cross-sectional study, 1,507 women aged 50 years and older, referred to the mammography center of Regions 1 and 6 in Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS and LISREL. According to our findings, knowledge about the time interval of mammography was found to have the highest correlation with repetition of mammography (r =0.4). Among the demographic variables, marital status (β= -0.1) and family history of breast cancer (β=0.1) had the most direct and significant impact on repetition of mammography (P mammography (P mammography, but the results did not prove any relationship with risk perception. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of risk perception and knowledge about time interval on the initiation and continuation of mammography.

  6. Distinguishing bipolar II depression from major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder: demographic, clinical, and family history differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the potential treatment implications, it is clinically important to distinguish between bipolar II depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder. The high frequency of diagnostic co-occurrence and resemblance of phenomenological features has led some authors to suggest that borderline personality disorder is part of the bipolar spectrum. Few studies have directly compared patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we compared these 2 groups of patients on demographic, clinical, and family history variables. From December 1995 to May 2012, 3,600 psychiatric patients presenting to the outpatient practice at Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, Rhode Island) were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. The focus of the present study is the 206 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder (MDD-BPD) and 62 patients with DSM-IV bipolar II depression without borderline personality disorder. The patients with MDD-BPD were significantly more often diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (P depression had a significantly higher morbid risk for bipolar disorder in their first-degree relatives than the MDD-BPD patients (P depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder differed on a number of clinical and family history variables, thereby supporting the validity of this distinction. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed.

  8. Modelling the contribution of family history and variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms to risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Wiuf, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that having any family member with schizophrenia increases the risk of schizophrenia in the probands. However, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accounted for little of this variation. The aim of this study was to use a population-based sample to explore...... the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the excess schizophrenia risk in offspring of parents with a psychotic, bipolar affective or other psychiatric disorder....

  9. [Family history of liver cancer increases the risk of liver cancer incidence: a 20-year prospective cohort study in Qidong, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Tu, Hong; Lu, Peixin; Wang, Jinbing; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qinan; Qian, Gengsun; Chen, Taoyang

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate whether first-degree family history of liver cancer plays a role in liver cancer incidence by prospective evaluation of a patient cohort in Qidong, China over a 20-year period. In May 1992, 708 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers and 730 HBsAg-negadve controls from Qidong city were enrolled for participation in a prospective cohort study ending in November 2012.Follow-up was carried out every 6 to 12 months, and evaluations included serum assays to measure concentrations of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), HBsAg and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as abdominal ultrasound to assess liver disease.The relationship between baseline (study entry) information of patients with first-degree family history of liver cancer and liver cancer incidence during the two decades of study was statistically assessed. There were 172 newly diagnosed liver cancer cases in the cohort during 25 753 person-years (py) of follow-up, representing an incidence of 667.88/100 000 py.The incidence rates of liver cancer among participants with or without liver cancer family history were 1 244.36/100 000 py and 509.70/100 000 py respectively, and the between-group difference reached the threshold for statistical significance (P less than 0.01, Relative Risk (RR):2.44, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.80-3.31).The incidence rates of liver cancer among participants who had a sibling with liver cancer and participants who had a parent with liver cancer were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but the liver cancer incidence among participants who had a mother with liver cancer was significantly higher than that of participants who had a father with liver cancer (P history, 56.52% (39/69) were diagnosed before 50 years old, and this rate was significantly higher than that of participants without a family history of liver cancer (40.78%, 42/103, P less than 0.05).The incidence rate of liver cancer among the participants who were family history-positive and HBsAg-positive was

  10. Neuropsychological performance and family history in children at age 7 who develop adult schizophrenia or bipolar psychosis in the New England Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, L J; Cherkerzian, S; Goldstein, J M; Agnew-Blais, J; Tsuang, M T; Buka, S L

    2013-01-01

    Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various pre-morbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about pre-morbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on pre-morbid neuropsychological functioning. We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data collected systematically at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). A mixed-model approach evaluated full-scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis (PCA), and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race and intra-familial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect.

  11. A family history of DUX4: phylogenetic analysis of DUXA, B, C and Duxbl reveals the ancestral DUX gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewitt Jane E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DUX4 is causally involved in the molecular pathogenesis of the neuromuscular disorder facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. It has previously been proposed to have arisen by retrotransposition of DUXC, one of four known intron-containing DUX genes. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of this multi-member double-homeobox gene family in eutherian mammals. Results Our analysis of the DUX family shows the distribution of different homologues across the mammalian class, including events of secondary loss. Phylogenetic comparison, analysis of gene structures and information from syntenic regions confirm the paralogous relationship of Duxbl and DUXB and characterize their relationship with DUXA and DUXC. We further identify Duxbl pseudogene orthologues in primates. A survey of non-mammalian genomes identified a single-homeobox gene (sDUX as a likely representative homologue of the mammalian DUX ancestor before the homeobox duplication. Based on the gene structure maps, we suggest a possible mechanism for the generation of the DUX gene structure. Conclusions Our study underlines how secondary loss of orthologues can obscure the true ancestry of individual gene family members. Their relationships should be considered when interpreting the relevance of functional data from DUX4 homologues such as Dux and Duxbl to FSHD.

  12. Phylogenomic analysis reveals dynamic evolutionary history of the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia T Levine

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin is the gene-poor, satellite-rich eukaryotic genome compartment that supports many essential cellular processes. The functional diversity of proteins that bind and often epigenetically define heterochromatic DNA sequence reflects the diverse functions supported by this enigmatic genome compartment. Moreover, heterogeneous signatures of selection at chromosomal proteins often mirror the heterogeneity of evolutionary forces that act on heterochromatic DNA. To identify new such surrogates for dissecting heterochromatin function and evolution, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 gene family across 40 million years of Drosophila evolution. Our study expands this gene family from 5 genes to at least 26 genes, including several uncharacterized genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The 21 newly defined HP1s introduce unprecedented structural diversity, lineage-restriction, and germline-biased expression patterns into the HP1 family. We find little evidence of positive selection at these HP1 genes in both population genetic and molecular evolution analyses. Instead, we find that dynamic evolution occurs via prolific gene gains and losses. Despite this dynamic gene turnover, the number of HP1 genes is relatively constant across species. We propose that karyotype evolution drives at least some HP1 gene turnover. For example, the loss of the male germline-restricted HP1E in the obscura group coincides with one episode of dramatic karyotypic evolution, including the gain of a neo-Y in this lineage. This expanded compendium of ovary- and testis-restricted HP1 genes revealed by our study, together with correlated gain/loss dynamics and chromosome fission/fusion events, will guide functional analyses of novel roles supported by germline chromatin.

  13. Family history as a risk factor for early-onset stroke/transient ischemic attack among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvundura, Mercy; McGruder, Henraya; Khoury, Muin J; Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and death in the United States. We tested the association between familial risk for stroke and prevalence of the disease among US adults and assessed the use of family history of stroke as a risk assessment tool for the disease. Using data from the 2005 HealthStyles survey (n = 4,819), we explored the association between familial stroke risk (stratified as high, moderate or low) and the prevalence of stroke and related health conditions. We evaluated the clinical validity (sensitivity, specificity) of family history of stroke as an indicator of stroke risk. Stroke and the related medical conditions were self-reported. Independent of other risk factors, people with a high familial risk for stroke were 4 times more likely to have had a stroke (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.6-6.0) than people with moderate or low familial risk. They were also 1.3 times (95% CI 1.1-1.6) more likely to have high blood pressure and 1.5 times (95% CI 1.3-2.0) more likely to have congestive heart failure. The sensitivity and specificity of using family history alone, high blood pressure alone or both risk factors to estimate stroke risk were 52 and 83%, 53 and 74%, and 29 and 95%, respectively. Despite several limitations typical of self-reported surveys, we find that in this sample of US adults, family history of stroke was significantly associated with the risk for stroke and high blood pressure as well as related conditions. Family history of stroke, alone or combined with other risk factors, can be a useful tool in assessing stroke risk among US adults. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Evolutionary history of chordate PAX genes: dynamics of change in a complex gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    Full Text Available Paired box (PAX genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

    2013-09-03

    Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa.

  16. Familial history of hypertension as a predictor of increased arterial stiffness in normotensive offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ghada; El Tebi, Ibrahim; Osama, Dina; Shehahta, Ahmed; Baligh, Essam; Ashour, Zeinab; Gamal, Hany

    2017-03-01

    Increased arterial stiffness can be used as a prognostic marker of arterial hypertension. The relationship between arterial stiffness and arterial hypertension seems to be reciprocal. Evaluation of changes of the arterial elastic prosperities in normotensive subjects, with and without parental history of hypertension. One hundred and ten normotensive individuals, aged 20-30 years, were divided into two groups: group-A ( n  = 57) and group-B ( n  = 53) subjects with positive and negative parental history of hypertension, respectively. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures were measured using mercury sphygmomanometer. The elastic properties of the ascending aorta and the common carotid arteries were assessed using M-mode echo and B-mode imaging, respectively. Stiffness index of the digital volume pulse (SIDVP) was measured in the right index finger using photoplethysmography. Group A subjects showed higher aortic stiffness index ( p  = 0.002), carotid stiffness index ( p  = 0.001), carotid pulse wave velocity ( p  ⩽ 0.001) and stiffness index of digital volume pulse ( p  = 0.001). Group A subjects showed lower aortic distensibility ( p  = 0.001), aortic strain ( p  = 0.004), changes in aortic diameter ( p  = 0.022), carotid distension ( p  = 0.026), carotid distensibility coefficient ( p  ⩽ 0.001) and carotid compliance coefficient ( p  = 0.002). The aortic and carotid stiffness parameters and SIDVP were higher in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents. This finding could direct the attention towards the increased cardiovascular risk in this group and thus prompt earlier and tighter prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Improving long-term prediction of first cardiovascular event: the contribution of family history of coronary heart disease and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, G; Gianfagna, F; Giampaoli, S; Chambless, L E; Mancia, G; Cesana, G; Ferrario, M M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and education as proxy of social status improve long-term cardiovascular disease risk prediction in a low-incidence European population. The 20-year risk of first coronary or ischemic stroke events was estimated using sex-specific Cox models in 3956 participants of three population-based surveys in northern Italy, aged 35-69 years and free of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. The additional contribution of education and positive family history of CHD was defined as change in discrimination and Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) over the model including 7 traditional risk factors. Kaplan-Meier 20-year risk was 16.8% in men (254 events) and 6.4% in women (102 events). Low education (hazard ratio=1.35, 95%CI 0.98-1.85) and family history of CHD (1.55; 1.19-2.03) were associated with the endpoint in men, but not in women. In men, the addition of education and family history significantly improved discrimination by 1%; NRI was 6% (95%CI: 0.2%-15.2%), raising to 20% (0.5%-44%) in those at intermediate risk. NRI in women at intermediate risk was 7%. In low-incidence populations, family history of CHD and education, easily assessed in clinical practice, should be included in long-term cardiovascular disease risk scores, at least in men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Younger age of onset and multiple primary lesions associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases with a positive family history of the cancer suggests genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Wen, Xiaoduo; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Na; Wen, Denggui

    2014-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have consistently found a positive family history of esophageal cancer is associated with a significantly increased risk of the cancer. However, whether the elevated risk could be attributed to common household exposure or inherited susceptibility is uncertain. This study aimed to highlight the effect of genetic predisposition by noting the significant differences in onset age and multiple primary cancers between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases with or without a positive family history of the cancer. Age at onset and the percentage of multiple primary cancers were compared between ESCCs with (n = 766) or without (n = 1 776) a positive family history of the cancer in a consecutive surgery cohort at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of Hebei Tumor Hospital and the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Overall, ESCCs with a positive family history of the cancer featured both a significantly younger age of onset and significantly more multiple primary cancers than those with a negative family history (onset age 51.83 vs. 53.49 years old, P genetic predisposition. The results of subgroup analyses indicate a younger age of ESCC development results from the interaction of environmental and genetic risk factors, but multiple primary cancers may be related only to genetic predisposition.

  19. The Innisfree meteorite: Dynamical history of the orbit - Possible family of meteor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galibina, I. V.; Terent'eva, A. K.

    1987-09-01

    Evolution of the Innisfree meteorite orbit caused by secular perturbations is studied over the time interval of 500000 yrs (from the current epoch backwards). Calculations are made by the Gauss-Halphen-Gorjatschew method taking into account perturbations from the four outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In the above mentioned time interval the meteorite orbit has undergone no essential transformations. The Innisfree orbit intersected in 91 cases the Earth orbit and in 94 - the Mars orbit. A system of small and large meteor bodies (producing ordinary meteors and fireballs) which may be genetically related to the Innisfree meteorite has been found, i.e. there probably exists an Innisfree family of meteor bodies.

  20. The basal energy expenditure of female athletes vs. sedentary women as related to their family history of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravante, G; Pomara, F; Angelomè, C; Russo, G; Truglio, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in 16 professional sportswomen (soccer players) versus 15 sedentary women, as related to the presence (FH+) or absence (FH-) of a family history of type 2 diabetes. The sportswomen, in toto, had a significantly higher BMR than expected from predictive equations (+14.92%). However, the difference was limited only to FH- sportswomen (+18.66%, pdiabetes had a BMR lower than that of FH- sportswomen, and similar to that of sedentary sedentary women. It appears that FH+ sportswomen have a "sub-clinical metabolic inertia", representing a precocious signal in young diabetes-prone subjects, despite the modifications induced from activity on their body composition (increased FFM, even though marginally significant).

  1. The collection of type specimens of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera deposited in the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viñolas, A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The type collection of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera deposited in the Natural History Museum of Barcelona, Spain, has been organised, revised and documented. It contains 430 type specimens belonging to 155 different taxa. Of note are the large number of hypogean species, the species of Cicindelidae from Asenci Codina’s collection, and the species of Harpalinae extracted from Jacques Nègre’s collection. In this paper we provide all the available information related to these type specimens. We therefore provide the following information for each taxon, species or subspecies: the original and current taxonomic status, original citation of type materials, exact transcription of original labels, and preservation condition of specimens. Moreover, the differences between original descriptions and labels are discussed. When a taxonomic change has occurred, the references that examine those changes are included at the end of the taxa description.

  2. Racial Disparities in Child Adversity in the U.S.: Interactions With Family Immigration History and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Shonkoff, Jack P; Albert, Michelle A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Jacobs, Aryana; Stoltz, Rebecca; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity is an under-addressed dimension of primary prevention of disease in children and adults. Evidence shows racial/ethnic and socioeconomic patterning of childhood adversity in the U.S., yet data on the interaction of race/ethnicity and SES for exposure risk is limited, particularly with consideration of immigration history. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in nine adversities among children (from birth to age 17 years) in the National Survey of Child Health (2011-2012) and determined how differences vary by immigration history and income (N=84,837). We estimated cumulative adversity and individual adversity prevalences among white, black, and Hispanic children of U.S.-born and immigrant parents. We examined whether family income mediated the relationship between race/ethnicity and exposure to adversities, and tested interactions (analyses conducted in 2014-2015). Across all groups, black and Hispanic children were exposed to more adversities compared with white children, and income disparities in exposure were larger than racial/ethnic disparities. For children of U.S.-born parents, these patterns of racial/ethnic and income differences were present for most individual adversities. Among children of immigrant parents, there were few racial/ethnic differences for individual adversities and income gradients were inconsistent. Among children of U.S.-born parents, the Hispanic-white disparity in exposure to adversities persisted after adjustment for income, and racial/ethnic disparities in adversity were largest among children from high-income families. Simultaneous consideration of multiple social statuses offers promising frameworks for fresh thinking about the distribution of disease and the design of targeted interventions to reduce preventable health disparities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Patterns and processes in the evolutionary history of parrotfishes (Family Labridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Choat, John. H.

    2012-09-05

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary relationships among 61 of the 70 species of the parrotfish genera Chlorurus and Scarus (Family Labridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences retrieved 15 well-supported clades with mid Pliocene/Pleistocene diversification. Twenty-two reciprocally monophyletic sister-species pairs were identified: 64% were allopatric, and the remainder were sympatric. Age of divergence was similar for allopatric and sympatric species pairs. Sympatric sister pairs displayed greater divergence in morphology, ecology, and sexually dimorphic colour patterns than did allopatric pairs, suggesting that both genetic drift in allopatric species pairs and ecologically adaptive divergence between members of sympatric pairs have played a role in diversification. Basal species typically have small geographical ranges and are restricted to geographically and ecologically peripheral reef habitats. We found little evidence that a single dominant process has driven diversification, nor did we detect a pattern of discrete, sequential stages of diversification in relation to habitat, ecology, and reproductive biology. The evolution of Chlorurus and Scarus has been complex, involving a number of speciation processes. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.

  5. Social network drinking and family history contribute equally to first-onset alcohol dependence in high risk adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Vivia V; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Steinley, Douglas; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2014-08-01

    Adult alcohol consumption is influenced by peer consumption, but whether peer drinking is associated with first-onset alcohol dependence (AD) in adults after age 30 is unknown. 703 adult participants in the St. Louis Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey (ECA) with no prior history of AD, but with high risk based on previously reported drinking or family history, were re-interviewed 11 years after the last ECA assessment to detect new cases of AD (age at follow-up: M(S.D.)=42.9 (8.2)). Incident AD during the assessment interval was examined in relation to drinking patterns in the social network and history of alcohol problems in parents. Fifteen percent of the sample had a first-onset of AD; another 19.5% never developed AD but were high-risk drinkers at follow-up. Of those who developed AD, 32.1% were remitted and 67.9% were unremitted (current AD) or unstably remitted (asymptomatic high-risk drinkers). Compared to abstinent or low-risk drinkers who did not develop AD, high-risk drinkers with no AD and unremitted/unstably remitted individuals were 4 times as likely to report moderate drinkers in their networks and remitted individuals were nearly 3 times as likely to report network members in recovery from alcohol problems. Associations of social network drinking with remitted and current AD were similar in strength to those of parental alcohol problems. Social network drinking patterns are associated with high-risk drinking and with the development of incident AD in adults, with effects equal to that of alcohol problems in both parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Age at onset of major depressive disorder in Han Chinese women: relationship with clinical features and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  8. Association of urinary 90 kDa angiotensin- converting enzyme with family history of hypertension and endothelial function in normotensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A M S; Plavnik, F L; Fernandes, F B; Marson, O; Christofalo, D M J; Ajzen, S A; Sesso, R; Franco, M C; Casarini, D E

    2008-05-01

    We described angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) isoforms with molecular masses of 190, 90, and 65 kDa in the urine of normotensive offspring of hypertensive subjects. Since they did not appear in equal amounts, we suggested that 90 kDa ACE might be a marker for hypertension. We evaluated the endothelial response in normotensive offspring with or without family history of hypertension and its association with the 90 kDa ACE in urine. Thirty-five normotensive subjects with a known family history of hypertension and 20 subjects without a family history of hypertension, matched for age, sex, body weight, and blood pressure, were included in the study. Endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound and a sample of urine was collected for determination of ACE isoforms. In the presence of a family history of hypertension and detection of 90 kDa ACE, we noted a maximal flow mediated dilation of 12.1 +/- 5.0 vs 16.1 +/- 6.0% in those without a previous history of hypertension and lacking urinary 90 kDa ACE (P < 0.05). In subjects with a family history of hypertension and presenting 90 kDa ACE, there were lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) and higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.05). Subjects with 90 kDa ACE irrespective of hypertensive history presented a trend for higher levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.06) compared to subjects without 90 kDa ACE. Our data suggest that the 90 kDa ACE may be a marker for hypertension which may be related to the development of early atherosclerotic changes.

  9. Association of urinary 90 kDa angiotensin- converting enzyme with family history of hypertension and endothelial function in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We described angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE isoforms with molecular masses of 190, 90, and 65 kDa in the urine of normotensive offspring of hypertensive subjects. Since they did not appear in equal amounts, we suggested that 90 kDa ACE might be a marker for hypertension. We evaluated the endothelial response in normotensive offspring with or without family history of hypertension and its association with the 90 kDa ACE in urine. Thirty-five normotensive subjects with a known family history of hypertension and 20 subjects without a family history of hypertension, matched for age, sex, body weight, and blood pressure, were included in the study. Endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound and a sample of urine was collected for determination of ACE isoforms. In the presence of a family history of hypertension and detection of 90 kDa ACE, we noted a maximal flow mediated dilation of 12.1 ± 5.0 vs 16.1 ± 6.0% in those without a previous history of hypertension and lacking urinary 90 kDa ACE (P < 0.05. In subjects with a family history of hypertension and presenting 90 kDa ACE, there were lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05 and higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.05. Subjects with 90 kDa ACE irrespective of hypertensive history presented a trend for higher levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.06 compared to subjects without 90 kDa ACE. Our data suggest that the 90 kDa ACE may be a marker for hypertension which may be related to the development of early atherosclerotic changes.

  10. Family History and Probability of Prostate Cancer, Differentiated by Risk Category: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Ola; Drevin, Linda; Akre, Olof; Garmo, Hans; Stattin, Pär

    2016-10-01

    Familial prostate cancer risk estimates are inflated by clinically insignificant low-risk cancer, diagnosed after prostate-specific antigen testing. We provide age-specific probabilities of non-low- and high-risk prostate cancer. Fifty-one thousand, eight hundred ninety-seven brothers of 32 807 men with prostate cancer were identified in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe). Nelson-Aalen estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for cumulative, family history-stratified probabilities of any, non-low- (any of Gleason score ≥ 7, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≥ 10 ng/mL, T3-4, N1, and/or M1) and high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8 and/or T3-4 and/or PSA ≥ 20 ng/mL and/or N1 and/or M1). The population probability of any prostate cancer was 4.8% (95% CI = 4.8% to 4.9%) at age 65 years and 12.9% (95% CI = 12.8% to 12.9%) at age 75 years, of non-low-risk prostate cancer 2.8% (95% CI = 2.7% to 2.8%) at age 65 years and 8.9% (95% CI = 8.8% to 8.9%) at age 75 years, and of high-risk prostate cancer 1.4% (95% CI = 1.3% to 1.4%) at age 65 years and 5.2% (95% CI = 5.1% to 5.2%) at age 75 years. For men with one affected brother, probabilities of any prostate cancer were 14.9% (95% CI = 14.1% to 15.8%) at age 65 years and 30.3% (95% CI = 29.3% to 31.3%) at age 75 years, of non-low-risk prostate cancer 7.3% (95% CI = 6.7% to 7.9%) at age 65 years and 18.8% (95% CI = 17.9% to 19.6%) at age 75 years, and of high-risk prostate cancer 3.0% (95% CI = 2.6% to 3.4%) at age 65 years and 8.9% (95% CI = 8.2% to 9.5%) at age 75 years. Probabilities were higher for men with a stronger family history. For example, men with two affected brothers had a 13.6% (95% CI = 9.9% to 17.6 %) probability of high-risk cancer at age 75 years. The age-specific probabilities of non-low- and high-risk cancer presented here are more informative than relative risks of any prostate cancer and more suitable to use

  11. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  12. HLA DQ2 HAPLOTYPE, EARLY ONSET OF GRAVES DISEASE, AND POSITIVE FAMILY HISTORY OF AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS ARE RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING CELIAC DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH GRAVES DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskiewicz, Piotr; Gos-Zajac, Agata; Kurylowicz, Alina; Plazinska, Teresa Maria; Franaszczyk, Maria; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Kondracka, Agnieszka; Pirko-Kotela, Katarzyna; Rupinski, Maciej; Jarosz, Dorota; Regula, Jaroslaw; Ploski, Rafal; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) in patients with different autoimmune diseases including Graves disease (GD) remains a challenge. The aims of our study were to: (1) assess the prevalence of CD in Polish patients with GD and (2) evaluate the prevalence of CD in the subgroups of patients with GD divided on the basis of clinical and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing criteria. The prospective study was conducted at an academic referral center. The study groups consisted of consecutive, euthyroid patients with GD (n = 232) and healthy volunteers without autoimmune thyroid diseases (n = 122). The diagnosis of CD was based on elevated immunoglobulin A autoantibodies to the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG) and small intestine biopsy findings. CD was diagnosed in 8 patients with GD (3.4%) and 1 healthy volunteer (0.8%). The development of CD in patients with GD was strongly associated with HLA-DQ2 haplotype (as predicted from linkage disequilibria, 14.6% vs. 1.5%, P = .009; odds ratio [OR] = 11.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-252.7): 6 patients with CD carried HLA-DRB1(*)03, 1 carried an HLA-DRB1(*)04 allele, and 1 had an HLA-DRB1(*)07/(*)11 genotype. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between CD and early GD onset (P = .014, OR = 9.6), autoimmunity in family (P = .029, OR = 6.3) and gastroenterologic symptoms (P = .031, OR = 8.1). The results of our study suggest that serologic screening for CD may be considered in GD patients (1) with the HLA alleles typical for CD, (2) with an early onset of GD, or (3) a family history of autoimmunity. Moreover, the diagnosis of CD should be explored in euthyroid GD patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms.

  13. Associations among measures of sequential processing in motor and linguistics tasks in adults with and without a family history of childhood apraxia of speech: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Le; Peter, Beate; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Raskind, Wendy H

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the hypothesis that childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is influenced by an underlying deficit in sequential processing that is also expressed in other modalities. In a sample of 21 adults from five multigenerational families, 11 with histories of various familial speech sound disorders, 3 biologically related adults from a family with familial CAS showed motor sequencing deficits in an alternating motor speech task. Compared with the other adults, these three participants showed deficits in tasks requiring high loads of sequential processing, including nonword imitation, nonword reading and spelling. Qualitative error analyses in real word and nonword imitations revealed group differences in phoneme sequencing errors. Motor sequencing ability was correlated with phoneme sequencing errors during real word and nonword imitation, reading and spelling. Correlations were characterized by extremely high scores in one family and extremely low scores in another. Results are consistent with a central deficit in sequential processing in CAS of familial origin.

  14. Does childhood overweight, parental perception of overweight, or family history of diabetes mellitus increase parental perception of type 2 diabetes risk for their child?

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    Lee, Joyce M; Woolford, Susan; Herman, William H; Clark, Sarah J

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate factors that influence parental perception of diabetes mellitus risk for their child. Self-administered survey of parents in a managed care plan. Child overweight status, family history of type 2 diabetes, and accurate parental perception of their child's overweight status were independent predictors of parental worry about diabetes and perception of greater diabetes risk for their child. Accurate parental perception of their child's weight status and a family history of type 2 diabetes may serve as useful motivators in the clinical setting for diabetes prevention.

  15. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

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    Janine D. Flory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89,  P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75,  P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.

  16. Diagnostic exome sequencing for patients with a family history of consanguinity: over 38% of positive results are not autosomal recessive pattern.

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    Powis, Zöe; Farwell, Kelly D; Alamillo, Christina L; Tang, Sha

    2016-02-01

    Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) is an effective tool for diagnosis in intractable cases where the underlying cause is thought be genetic. It is commonly assumed that patients with a family history of consanguinity will have increased detection rates for rare autosomal recessive Mendelian disorders through DES. Herein, we analyzed the diagnostic yield and relevant inheritance patterns within the DES cases with a reported consanguineous family history. Of the first 500 unselected cases referred for DES, 40 (8.0%) had a known consanguineous family history. Among the 40 cases, 13 (32.5%) received a definitive molecular diagnosis through DES and such positive rate is similar to that of families with no reported consanguinity (139/460, 30.2%, P=0.63). Although homozygous alterations likely related to consanguinity have been identified in eight positive cases, the other five (38.4%) causative mutations were unrelated to autosomal recessive inheritance. Our retrospective analysis demonstrated that individuals with known consanguinity were not more likely to have a positive DES result and a significant portion of the positive findings were not within an autosomal recessive gene. These results highlight that all applicable inheritance patterns should be considered for patients with a known family history of consanguinity.

  17. Synergistic Effect of Family History of Diabetes and Dietary Habits on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Central China

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    Yanyan Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Family history of diabetes (FHD and lifestyle are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but little is known about the FHD diet interactions. We aimed to analyze the interactions of FHD and lifestyle factors in Chinese T2DM onset. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey in central urban China (n=1234 patients with T2DM and n=8615 non-T2DM subjects. The biological interactions, defined by Rothman interactions, between FHD and each dietary factor were analyzed by using the synergy index (S scores. Results. After adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and WHR, a uniparental FHD (OR=2.84, 95% CI: 2.36–3.42, P<0.001, a paternal history of FHD (OR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.91–3.35, P<0.001, a maternal history of FHD (OR=3.27, 95% CI: 2.67–4.02, P<0.001, a biparental history of FHD (OR=5.26, 95% CI: 2.98–9.31, P<0.001, and a FHD, irrespective of the parent (OR=3.59, 95% CI: 3.08–4.17, P<0.001, were associated with T2DM onset. There were significant interactions between FHD and consuming <15 g/d of potatoes (S=1.54, 95% CI: 1.12–2.12, <8 g/d of poultry (S=1.51, 95% CI: 1.04–2.17, <85 g/d of fresh fruits (S=2.17, 95% CI: 1.63–2.88, and no freshly squeezed juice (S=2.25, 95% CI: 1.46–3.49. Conclusions. Risk of T2DM was synergistically affected by FHD and dietary habits. Nutrition educational intervention may decrease the prevalence of T2DM in the Chinese with FHD.

  18. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

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    Caporale DA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery of these two genes in the mid-1990s, several other breast cancer predisposition genes have been identified, such as the CHEK2 gene encoding a regulator of BRCA1. Recently, studies have begun investigating the roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression in lung cancer. We conducted a family-based case study that included a bloodline of Italian heritage with several cases of breast cancer and associated cancers (prostate and stomach through multiple generations and on a nonblood relative of Scottish/Irish descent who was consecutively diagnosed with breast and lung cancer. Cancer history and environmental risk factors were recorded for each family member. To investigate possible genetic risks, we screened for mutations in specific hypervariable regions of the BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2 genes. DNA was extracted and isolated from the individuals' hair follicles and cheek cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed to identify and verify the presence or absence of mutations in these regions. Genotypes of several family members were determined and carriers of mutations were identified. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of two different BRCA2 frameshift mutations within the same family. Specifically, three Italian family members were found to be carriers of the BRCA2-c.2808_2811delACAA (3036delACAA mutation, a 4-nucleotide deletion in exon 11, which is a truncated mutation that causes deleterious function of

  19. Urinary pH Levels are Strongly Associated with Bladder Recurrence After Nephroureterectomy in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Patients with a Smoking History.

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    Ide, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Nozomi; Hongo, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-12-01

    Aromatic amines, well-known bladder carcinogens, derived from cigarette smoke are activated by acidic urine. We herein determined whether urinary pH levels are associated with bladder recurrence in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients with a positive smoking history. A total of 256 upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients who were surgically treated at our institution between 1990 and 2013 were included. Urinary pH levels were defined as the median of at least two consecutive measurements within 1 month of surgery. Ninety-six patients (37.5 %) had pH pH ≥5.5, and urinary pH levels were identified as one of the significant predictors for bladder recurrence in univariate but not multivariate Cox regression analysis in overall. In patients with a positive smoking history among those without a history of bladder tumor (N = 110), the 5-year bladder recurrence-free survival rate was 52.5 % in patients with pH ≥5.5, which was significantly higher than that in those with pH pH pH pH for urine alkalization may prevent bladder recurrence.

  20. Does risk of endometrial cancer for women without a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene depend on family history of endometrial cancer or colorectal cancer?

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    Bharati, Rajani; Jenkins, Mark A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Marchand, Loïc Le; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Hopper, John L.; Win, Aung Ko

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether risk of endometrial cancer for women without a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene depends on family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer. Methods We retrospectively followed a cohort of 79,166 women who were recruited to the Colon Cancer Family Registry, after exclusion of women who were relatives of a carrier of a MMR gene mutation. The Kaplan-Meier failure method was used to estimate the cumulative risk of endometrial cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association between family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer and risk of endometrial cancer. Results A total of 628 endometrial cancer cases were observed, with mean age at diagnosis of 54.4 (standard deviation 15.7) years. The cumulative risk of endometrial cancer to age 70 years was estimated to be 0.94% (95% CI 0.83–1.05) for women with no family history of endometrial cancer, and 3.80% (95% CI 2.75–4.98) for women with at least one first- or second-degree relative with endometrial cancer. Compared with women without family history, we found an increased risk of endometrial cancer for women with at least one first-or second-degree relative with endometrial cancer (HR 3.66, 95% CI 2.63–5.08), and for women with one first-degree relative with colorectal cancer diagnosed at age <50 years (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15–1.91). Conclusion An increased risk of endometrial cancer is associated with a family history of endometrial cancer or early-onset colorectal cancer for women without a MMR gene mutation; indicating for potential underlying genetic and environmental factors shared by colorectal and endometrial cancers other than caused by MMR gene mutations. PMID:24631449

  1. Reproductive and family planning history, knowledge, and needs: A community survey of low-income women in Beijing, China

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    Østbye Truls

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive health status of China's low-income urban women is believed to be poor. Therefore, understanding their reproductive history and needs and improving services provision is very important. However, few studies have been done to assess reproductive health status, knowledge and needs in this low-income population. The purpose of this study is to broadly assess reproductive and family planning history, knowledge and health needs among low income urban women with an aim to informing health services interventions. Methods 1642 low-income women age 18–49 from Haidian district, Beijing were selected. All were interviewed via a standardized questionnaire in 2006. Results Most women reported at least one pregnancy and delivery (97.7%, 98.3%. Deliveries in hospitals (97.3% by medical personnel (98.5% were commonplace, as was receipt of antenatal care (86.0%. Nearly half had at least one abortion, with most (56.0% performed in district hospitals, by physicians (95.6%, and paid for out-of-pocket (64.4%. Almost all (97.4% used contraception, typically IUDs or condoms. Reproductive knowledge was limited. Health needs emphasized by the participants included popularizing reproductive health information, being able to discuss their reproductive health concerns, free reproductive health insurance, examination and treatment. Conclusion Among poor urban women in Beijing, antenatal care and contraceptive use were common. However, abortions were also common. Knowledge about reproductive health was limited. There is a need for better reproductive health education, free medical care and social support.

  2. Do individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer adhere to medical recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer?

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    Bronner, Karen; Mesters, Ilse; Weiss-Meilnik, Ahuva; Geva, Ravit; Rozner, Guy; Strul, Hana; Inbar, Moshe; Halpern, Zamir; Kariv, Revital

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC), have a two-to-five-fold increased lifetime risk to develop CRC. Thus, they are particularly likely to benefit from adherence to medical recommendations for CRC prevention. Despite this increased risk, previous studies have shown an underutilization of colonoscopy for screening and a paucity of data on lifestyle habits that could enhance colonoscopy rates in this population. The primary aims were (a) to assess CRC screening patterns and lifestyle choices among siblings and children of CRC patients, (b) to ascertain discrepancies between actual behavior and medical recommendations, and (c) to identify family members with multiple unhealthy lifestyle habits. The secondary aim was to test for possible associations between utilization rates for CRC screening and other preventive health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 318 first-degree relatives (FDRs) of 164 CRC patients treated at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire. There was significant underutilization of colonoscopy for screening with only 73 FDRs (23.0%) adhering to the recommended screening schedule. This rate was slightly improved (N = 58, 31.9%) among subjects aged 40 years and above, although it was still far below the optimum. A similar result (N = 70, 21.7%) was observed for other cancer screening tests and routine medical check-ups. A significant association (P preventive health services, and adherence to CRC screening recommendations. CRC screening is significantly underutilized among FDRs of CRC patients. FDRs who do not comply with CRC screening guidelines, lead unhealthy lifestyles, and avoid other cancer screening tests are at increased risk and should be addressed specifically in future interventions.

  3. Association of respondent psychiatric comorbidity with family history of comorbidity: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun; Goldstein, Risë B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    Substance use disorders and major psychiatric disorders are common, highly comorbid with each other, and familial. However, the extent to which comorbidity is itself familial remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between comorbidity among respondents with family history of comorbidity. We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III to study the associations of family history (FH) of comorbidity among alcoholism, drug problems, depression, antisocial behavior, and anxiety disorders in parents and maternal and paternal grandparents with corresponding DSM-5 diagnostic comorbidity among respondents. We utilized multivariable multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, race, education, family income, marital status, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). All comorbid associations of any two disorders with FH were statistically significant; almost all adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for respondent comorbidity in the presence of FH of the parallel comorbidity exceeded 10. ORs involving antisocial behavior in relatives and antisocial personality disorder in respondents were consistently larger than those for any other pairs of disorders. After further adjustment for ACEs, most patterns of association were similar but the ORs were reduced twofold to threefold. ACEs may be mediators in relationships between familial and respondent comorbidities. Further investigations of relationships among familial comorbidity, ACEs, and respondents' diagnoses may improve understanding of comorbidity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Lower availability of midbrain serotonin transporter between healthy subjects with and without a family history of major depressive disorder - a preliminary two-ligand SPECT study.

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    Hsieh, P C; Chen, K C; Yeh, T L; Lee, I H; Chen, P S; Yao, W J; Chiu, N-T; Chen, C-C; Liao, M-H; Yang, Y K

    2014-09-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels differ in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are in a depressed state in comparison with healthy controls. In addition, a family history of depression is a potent risk factor for developing depression, and inherited vulnerability to serotonergic and dopaminergic dysfunction is suspected in this. The aim of this study was to examine the availabilities of midbrain SERT and striatal DAT in healthy subjects with and without a first-degree family history of MDD. Eight healthy subjects with first-degree relatives with MDD and 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The availabilities of SERT and DAT were approximated using SPECT, employing [¹²³I] 2-((2-((dimethylamino) methyl) phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM) and [(⁹⁹m)Tc] TRODAT-1 as the ligands, respectively. There are missing data for one participant with a first-degree family history of MDD from the ADAM study, due to a lack of the radio-ligand at the time of experiment. SERT availability in the midbrain was significantly lower in subjects with a first-degree family history of MDD than in healthy subjects. However, DAT availability was no different between two groups. The results with regard to the midbrain SERT level suggest the heritability of MDD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? a population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ming, W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, Y.I.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, Ai-Min; Veer, van 't P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case–control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  6. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  7. Contribution of time of drinking onset and family history of alcohol problems in alcohol and drug use behaviors in Argentinean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Caneto, Florencia; Garimaldi, Javier Alejandro; Vera, Belén Del Valle; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze independent and potential interactive effects of age at drinking onset and family history of alcohol abuse on subsequent patterns of alcohol drinking, alcohol-related problems and substance use. Participants were college students (60.3% females, mean age = 20.27 ± 2.54 years) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several measures were used to assess alcohol, tobacco and drug use. The Spanish version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire was used to assess alcohol-related problems. Factorial analyses of variance, or its non-parametric equivalent, were performed to explore differences in substance use behaviors and alcohol-related problems in subjects with early or late drinking onset and with or without family history of alcohol abuse. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the association between these two risk factors and categorical measures of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Early onset of drinking was associated with amount of consumption of alcohol including up to hazardous levels, as well as tobacco and drug use. However, the frequency of alcohol problems and frequency of episodes of alcohol intoxication were only related to age of onset in those with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Delaying drinking debut is particularly important in the prevention of future alcohol problems in those adolescents who have a family history of such problems.

  8. Familial History of Reading Difficulty Is Associated with Diffused Bilateral Brain Activation during Reading and Greater Association with Visual Attention Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2017-01-01

    Reading difficulty (RD; or dyslexia) is a heritable condition characterized by slow, inaccurate reading accompanied by executive dysfunction, specifically with respect to visual attention. The current study was designed to examine the effect of familial history of RD on the relationship between reading and visual attention abilities in children…

  9. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Sneider, Jennifer T; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH-) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12-14 yrs) and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18-25 yrs), stratified into FH- and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH- but not FH+ groups. In FH- adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Is the current ASAS expert definition of a positive family history useful in identifying axial spondyloarthritis? Results from the SPACE and DESIR cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Hilkens, Andrea; Gossec, Laure; Berg, Inger Jorid; Landewe, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Desiree; van Gaalen, Floris

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) definition of a positive family history (PFH) of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes the following diseases in first-or second-degree relatives: ankylosing spondylitis (AS), acute anterior uveitis (AAU), reactive arthritis

  11. Lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence and novelty seeking in eating disorders: comparison study of eating disorder subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Isabel; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Bulik, Cynthia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Masuet, Cristina; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa-restrictive; anorexia nervosa-binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa-restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa-binge eating/ purging patients (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over.

  12. Do we need to follow up an early normal ultrasound with a later plain radiograph in children with a family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazal, Suhayl; Flowers, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    We routinely perform a pelvic radiograph between 6 and 12 months of age for children with a family history of developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH). We conducted this study to determine whether children with a family history of DDH and a normal hip ultrasound after birth require any further radiological follow-up. We identified all children referred to our hip-screening clinic in a 3-year period between August 2008 and August 2011 with a family history of DDH and a normal hip ultrasound after birth. A total of 119 patients with a normal hip ultrasound after birth had a pelvic radiograph at a median age of 6.6 months. Six patients had residual dysplasia (acetabular index >30°) on the initial radiograph; five of these had resolved spontaneously by age 12 months, and the remaining patient had a normal radiograph at 21 months of age and was discharged. We have found no cases of residual hip dysplasia requiring treatment in children with a family history of DDH and a normal hip ultrasound after birth. We have therefore changed our practice accordingly and no longer routinely followed up such cases. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  13. [An essential negative effect of a family history of substance use on readiness for drug dependence rehabilitation treatment in inpatients with addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibitov, A O; Babicheva, L P; Chuprova, N A; Shchurina, A V; Romashkin, R A

    2018-01-01

    To reveal objective factors predicting the readiness of inpatient drug treatment patients to undergo a rehabilitation program. In a retrospective comparative study, drug-dependent individuals (n=199, 16.6% females, 83.4% men, 91.5% opioid-dependent) were studied. After conducting motivational activities based on cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, the premorbid, anamnestic, clinical, socio-demographic characteristics of patients were studied as possible predictors of readiness for rehabilitation using binary logistic regression. Family history of substance use reduced the probability of readiness for rehabilitation by >4,5 times (p<0.0001, Exp (B) = 4.577, CI 95% [2.0556, 10.190]). The influence of other factors was weaker and manifested itself only with their combinations (female sex + use of several psychoactive drugs; intravenous drug injection + polydrug addiction; non-remission course of disease + family history of substance use) whic