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Sample records for strong effective leadership

  1. Strong leadership: the case for global connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Elizabeth A; Scammell, Janet; Bevan, Ann; Hundley, Vanora A

    2017-04-01

    To identify how nurse leaders view and experience the opportunities offered by one of the largest global nursing organisations Sigma Theta Tau International. Worldwide, nursing leadership is challenged with addressing the complex issues impacting on care delivery. International nursing organisations are a means to bring together individuals to promote leadership and scholarship for nursing practice to promote patient safety and quality care. The newly established all-England chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International is a recent addition to the society in terms of nurse leadership in Europe, as such faces challenges as it establishes its identity and seeks to interpret the organisational vision: to advance world health through nursing leadership and scholarship. Moving forward, members views were sought on the goals of the chapter and how they may be enacted. In July 2013, all chapter members at that time had been nominated on the basis of achievement in nurse leadership; all were invited to participate in an online survey. The online questionnaire contained a series of closed and open questions. Most respondents joined because they believed in the vision and networking opportunities Sigma Theta Tau International provides. Three themes were extracted from the data: the value of networking and communication, leadership and the development of culturally sensitive organisations and the need for shared scholarship for nursing practice. Findings indicate the growth of effective leadership at all levels of nursing could be harnessed through successful collaboration and keen support for robust connections between practice and education to promote quality care. Whilst challenging, globalisation presents an opportunity for a nursing society such as Sigma Theta Tau International to work collaboratively to address healthcare issues. A nursing society that explores and resolves its own complex issues by actively promoting leadership and collaborative scholarship reveals a

  2. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    .... It specifically looks at the current definitions of leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness...

  3. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Historical Conclusions.............................................................................................7 CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORIES ... leadership and looks at some historical background information relating to the more common theories that relate to leadership and effectiveness. It also...delves into some of the more traditional leadership theories as well as some of the more modern day theories and attempts to identify why there is still

  4. The need for strong clinical leaders - Transformational and transactional leadership as a framework for resident leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravo, Barbara; Netzel, Janine; Kiesewetter, Jan

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of providing excellent patient care, residents need to be strong, effective leaders. The lack of clinical leadership is alarming given the detrimental effects on patient safety. The objective of the study was to assess whether a leadership training addressing transactional and transformational leadership enhances leadership skills in residents. A volunteer sample of 57 residents from postgraduate year one to four was recruited across a range of medical specialties. The residents took part in an interventional controlled trial. The four-week IMPACT leadership training provided specific strategies for leadership in the clinical environment, addressing transactional (e.g. active control, contingent reward) and transformational leadership skills (e.g. appreciation, inspirational motivation). Transactional and transformational leadership skill performance was rated (1) on the Performance Scale by an external evaluator blinded to the study design and (2) self-assessed transformational and transactional leadership skills. Both measures contained items of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, with higher scores indicating greater leadership skills. Both scores were significantly different between the IMPACT group and the control group. In the IMPACT group, the Performance Scale increased 15% in transactional leadership skill performance (2.10 to 2.86) (intervention effect, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.13; p leadership skill performance (2.26 to 2.94) (intervention effect, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.09; p transactional skills revealed a 4% increase (3.83 to 4.03) (intervention effect, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.33; p leadership skills (3.54 to 3.86) (intervention effect, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.40; ptransactional and transformational leadership framework for graduate leadership training. Future studies should incorporate time-latent post-tests, evaluating the stability of the behavioral performance increase.

  5. The need for strong clinical leaders – Transformational and transactional leadership as a framework for resident leadership training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravo, Barbara; Netzel, Janine

    2017-01-01

    Background For the purpose of providing excellent patient care, residents need to be strong, effective leaders. The lack of clinical leadership is alarming given the detrimental effects on patient safety. The objective of the study was to assess whether a leadership training addressing transactional and transformational leadership enhances leadership skills in residents. Methods A volunteer sample of 57 residents from postgraduate year one to four was recruited across a range of medical specialties. The residents took part in an interventional controlled trial. The four-week IMPACT leadership training provided specific strategies for leadership in the clinical environment, addressing transactional (e.g. active control, contingent reward) and transformational leadership skills (e.g. appreciation, inspirational motivation). Transactional and transformational leadership skill performance was rated (1) on the Performance Scale by an external evaluator blinded to the study design and (2) self-assessed transformational and transactional leadership skills. Both measures contained items of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, with higher scores indicating greater leadership skills. Results Both scores were significantly different between the IMPACT group and the control group. In the IMPACT group, the Performance Scale increased 15% in transactional leadership skill performance (2.10 to 2.86) (intervention effect, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.13; p leadership skill performance (2.26 to 2.94) (intervention effect, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.09; p transactional skills revealed a 4% increase (3.83 to 4.03) (intervention effect, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.33; p leadership skills (3.54 to 3.86) (intervention effect, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.40; ptransactional and transformational leadership framework for graduate leadership training. Future studies should incorporate time-latent post-tests, evaluating the stability of the behavioral performance increase. PMID:28841662

  6. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  7. The need for strong clinical leaders - Transformational and transactional leadership as a framework for resident leadership training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Saravo

    Full Text Available For the purpose of providing excellent patient care, residents need to be strong, effective leaders. The lack of clinical leadership is alarming given the detrimental effects on patient safety. The objective of the study was to assess whether a leadership training addressing transactional and transformational leadership enhances leadership skills in residents.A volunteer sample of 57 residents from postgraduate year one to four was recruited across a range of medical specialties. The residents took part in an interventional controlled trial. The four-week IMPACT leadership training provided specific strategies for leadership in the clinical environment, addressing transactional (e.g. active control, contingent reward and transformational leadership skills (e.g. appreciation, inspirational motivation. Transactional and transformational leadership skill performance was rated (1 on the Performance Scale by an external evaluator blinded to the study design and (2 self-assessed transformational and transactional leadership skills. Both measures contained items of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, with higher scores indicating greater leadership skills.Both scores were significantly different between the IMPACT group and the control group. In the IMPACT group, the Performance Scale increased 15% in transactional leadership skill performance (2.10 to 2.86 (intervention effect, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.13; p < .001, eta2 = 0.31 and 14% in transformational leadership skill performance (2.26 to 2.94 (intervention effect, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.09; p < .001, eta2 = 0.22. The self-assessed transactional skills revealed a 4% increase (3.83 to 4.03 (intervention effect, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.33; p < .001, eta2 = 0.18 and a 6% increase in transformational leadership skills (3.54 to 3.86 (intervention effect, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.40; p< .001, eta2 = 0.53.These findings support the use of the transactional and transformational leadership framework

  8. Competencies and leadership effectiveness: Which skills predict effective leadership?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaculík Martin; Procházka Jakub; Smutný Petr

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between leadership effectiveness and generic and stable competencies. Task- related, people-related and self-related competencies were examined as predictors of leadership effectiveness as measured by four different criteria: group performance, leader effectiveness, leadership emergence and leadership self–efficacy. 134 top managers were evaluated by 2,482 subordinates after a four-month management simulation game. Task-related competencies were shown to b...

  9. Experience of Tecnatom in Developing a Strong Leadership for Safety and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, F.; Villadóniga, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experience and insights of Tecnatom in the support of internal and external clients to develop a strong Leadership for Safety. Several cases are presented briefly: (a) The leadership and culture change activities for a utility, a radwaste company, and for Tecnatom itself. One important characteristic of the work performed is the detailed consideration of the underlying organizational culture that underpins the safety culture. Measurable improvements have been achieved and some of the key insights are shared in this paper. (b) The development and implementation of a leadership model with 17 competencies, including safety explicitly. One benefit of this model is that allows to perform a quantitative assessment of leadership effectiveness, something vital to be able to ensure that leadership development actions are truly supporting safety. The model uses an approach to development oriented to strengths and the use of companion competencies to further develop leadership. Moreover it aims to produce significant improvements on safety but also on performance, since both are not competing goals when the proper leadership model is selected. The training material prepared was shortlisted in the 2014 Nuclear Training Awards. (c) The design and implementation of a training development program on Safety Culture, and required competencies of Leadership, for Top Managers of the nuclear industry, as part of the project NUSHARE of the European Commission’s 7th research framework program. The program is sensible to the reduced time availability of Top Managers and uses a combination of learning approaches (webinars, micro-elearnings, web meetings) that provide higher flexibility for the learner, but complemented with other proven methods (group dialog, journaling, mentoring, etc.) to ensure that the program is effective. All these experiences reveal that to improve the organizational Safety Culture we need to enhance Leadership for Safety and Performance

  10. A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Waldman, David A; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    A growing number of studies have examined the "sharedness" of leadership processes in teams (i.e., shared leadership, collective leadership, and distributed leadership). We meta-analytically cumulated 42 independent samples of shared leadership and examined its relationship to team effectiveness. Our findings reveal an overall positive relationship (ρ = .34). But perhaps more important, what is actually shared among members appears to matter with regard to team effectiveness. That is, shared traditional forms of leadership (e.g., initiating structure and consideration) show a lower relationship (ρ = .18) than either shared new-genre leadership (e.g., charismatic and transformational leadership; ρ = .34) or cumulative, overall shared leadership (ρ = .35). In addition, shared leadership tends to be more strongly related to team attitudinal outcomes and behavioral processes and emergent team states, compared with team performance. Moreover, the effects of shared leadership are stronger when the work of team members is more complex. Our findings further suggest that the referent used in measuring shared leadership does not influence its relationship with team effectiveness and that compared with vertical leadership, shared leadership shows unique effects in relation to team performance. In total, our study not only cumulates extant research on shared leadership but also provides directions for future research to move forward in the study of plural forms of leadership.

  11. The relationship between transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness in Kenyan indigenous banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Louw

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Effective leadership is critical to the survival and growth of organisations. For such leadership to be realised, organisational leaders need to be competent in transformational leadership, which is described as a situation in which the leader and followers empower and shape each other’s behaviour to attain a desired goal. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically test the relationship between transformational leadership competency and leadership effectiveness in Kenyan indigenous banks. Motivation for this study: In spite of the fact that indigenous banks have been performing better recently, their overall poor performance is cause for concern. This study was motivated by a desire to establish the extent to which the recent improvement is attributable to transformational leadership competency and effectiveness. It is also anticipated that this investigation can highlight aspects of leadership which require more attention in order to sustain improved performance. Research design, approach and method: The study utilised a survey method to collect both quantitative and qualitative data while probability and non-probability techniques were used to sample target population. With 494 respondents targeted in the study, 257 responses were received and analysed. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modelling with Cronbach’s alpha, confirmatory factor analysis and goodness-of-fit indices for analysis and for testing relationships. Main findings: The overall findings confirm that a strong relationship exists between transformational leadership competencies and leadership effectiveness among the leaders of the indigenous banks in Kenya. Practical/managerial implication: Based on the findings of this study, Kenyan indigenous banks are able to identify specific and essential transformational leadership competencies and leadership effectiveness attributes. Contribution: The study has identified that

  12. Implicit leadership theories : think leader, think effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, B.; Schilling, J.

    2011-01-01

    In general, although research into leadership acknowledges negative aspects of leadership, research into implicit leadership theories lags behind in this respect. Most implicit leadership theories research implies that the image of a leader in general reflects an effective leader. However, recent results in leadership research as well as headlines and reports in the popular press cast doubt on this assumption. This article reports a qualitative study, focusing on general implicit leadership t...

  13. Team Effectiveness and Leadership Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Duygulu, Ethem; Ciraklar, Nurcan

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non economic organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that a...

  14. Analysing leadership traits in establishing effective leadership at Eskom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lekganyane

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Leadership is one of the crucial modern topics in the field of management. A leadership trait is one of the three components to be considered in establishing leadership success. The other two components not assessed in this research are ideal leadership behaviour and situational factors. Managers must act as leaders as they have a critical role to play to ensure effective change. This paper explores the leadership traits relevant to middle managers acting as leaders at Eskom. Design/Methodology/Approach: A theoretical analysis of literature in the field of leadership is conducted with a further focus on leadership traits. Quantitative research is done within Eskom by means of an e-mail survey to a random sample of employees on middle management level. Areas of possible improvement and leadership traits excellence are identified. Recommendations are made regarding leadership traits. Findings: The broad leadership trait categories tested include: intelligence; flexibility; sensitivity to others; stability; dominance; high energy; integrity (honesty and ethics; and finally locus of control. The most dominant traits based on the perception of the respondents are that they possess integrity, intelligence, high energy and the ability to act as leaders. Leadership traits that require great attention and are not as dominant are sensitivity to others, flexibility and to some extent stability. Implications: Managers must have the leadership ability and trait to influence employees in order to communicate, direct, negotiate and motivate with success. Teamwork and a relationship of trust are required in the modern and changing organisation in order to be successful in achieving organisational goals. Originality / Value: South Africa as well as Southern Africa could face an energy crisis in the near future. As Eskom is currently facing growing demand for services and is experiencing limitations to provide this continuous increase in demand, managers

  15. A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Educational administrators know that leadership requires hundreds of judgments each day that require a sensitivity and understanding of various leadership strategies. Bridging the gap between the academic and practical world, "A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories" provides an exploration of ten dominant leadership strategies to give…

  16. Effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyi; Kraut, Robert E; Kittur, Aniket

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to understand leadership in an online community, specifically, Wikipedia. Wikipedia successfully aggregates millions of volunteers' efforts to create the largest encyclopedia in human history. Without formal employment contracts and monetary incentives, one significant question for Wikipedia is how it organizes individual members with differing goals, experience, and commitment to achieve a collective outcome. Rather than focusing on the role of the small set of people occupying a core leadership position, we propose a shared leadership model to explain the leadership in Wikipedia. Members mutually influence one another by exercising leadership behaviors, including rewarding, regulating, directing, and socializing one another. We conducted a two-phase study to investigate how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive, and person-focused), the legitimacy of the people who deliver the leadership, and the experience of the people who receive the leadership influence the effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia. Our results highlight the importance of shared leadership in Wikipedia and identify trade-offs in the effectiveness of different types of leadership behaviors. Aversive and directive leadership increased contribution to the focal task, whereas transactional and person-focused leadership increased general motivation. We also found important differences in how newcomers and experienced members responded to leadership behaviors from peers. These findings extend shared leadership theories, contribute new insight into the important underlying mechanisms in Wikipedia, and have implications for practitioners who wish to design more effective and successful online communities.

  17. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  18. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  19. Effects of Leadership Roles on Team Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ethem Duygulu; Nurcan Ciraklar

    2009-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non profit organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that an empirical ap...

  20. Does leadership effectiveness correlates with leadership styles in healthcare executives of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership is essential to passing through obstacles facing the health field.The current health care system in Iran has major problems and gaps in the field of effective leadership. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital managers' leadership style through selfassessment and to determine the correlation between leadership styles with healthcare executives' leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness. In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire completed by all internal healthcare executives of all teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaire was composed to determine demographic information, leadership style questions, leadership effectiveness and leadership readiness. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. According to the findings, the dominant style of healthcare executives was transformational leadership style (with a score of 4.34). The leadership effectiveness was estimated at about 4.36 that shows the appropriate level of leadership effectiveness. There was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.244) between leadership readiness and transformational leadership style (pleadership effectiveness with transformational (0.051) and transactional (0.216) styles. There was a correlation between leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness with leadership styles. Application of this research will be crucial to universities and healthcare executives. This study suggests that strengthening the scientific basis is essential for leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness in healthcare system.

  1. Leadership and Leadership Development in Highly Effective Further Education Providers. Is There a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Harris, Alma; Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene; Sood, Krishan

    2006-01-01

    There has been a strong increase in interest in leadership development in recent years, not least in the learning and skills sector. However, little research exists on the relationship between leadership development and actual leadership behaviours in the sector. This study is an attempt to help fill this gap by looking at leadership, leadership…

  2. Servant Leadership, Africanization, and Disruptive Innovation as Conditions for Effective Leadership at UNISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clayton; Gardner, J. Clark

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses effective leadership in educational environments and in particular focuses on the current situation at the University of South Africa (UNISA). The end of Apartheid in South Africa has brought many opportunities but also some challenges especially in education. Three conditions that contribute to ensuring strong distance…

  3. Facilitative Social Change Leadership Theory: 10 Recommendations toward Effective Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Willis M.

    2009-01-01

    In the fast pace of the 21st century there is a demand for effective leaders capable of handling the internal and external changes occurring in our organizations. This paper seeks to inform the reader because change is natural; it is constant; it is inevitable. But, what constitutes effective leadership is the question. The main purpose of this…

  4. Leadership Intelligence: Unlocking the Potential for School Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy; Smith, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Top performing companies have long used intelligence tests in their selection procedures to predict who the best leaders are. However, no longer are the brightest favoured, or guaranteed success. A post-modern world demands a fresh outlook on leadership. How can school leaders judge their effectiveness? How can school leaders lead intelligently?…

  5. Educational Technology: Effective Leadership and Current Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Keith

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) This article describes the basis for effective educational technology leadership and a few of the current initiatives and impacts that are a result of the aforementioned effective leadership. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the role of the educational technology leader in an educational setting; (2) an examination…

  6. Examining the Relationship between Congruency of Perceived Principal Leadership Style and Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwuanyanwu-Biemkpa, Catherine Chinedum

    2017-01-01

    Despite the constant interest in the theory and practice of leadership as it relates to leadership styles and leadership effectiveness, ongoing debate continues regarding the importance of leadership style and its effectiveness in the administration of underperforming schools. The problem addressed by this study was, despite frequent changes of…

  7. Leadership Effectiveness : A Supervisor's Approach to Manage Return to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Groothoff, J. W.; Jongsma, D.; van Zweeden, N. F.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Purpose To investigate adaptive leadership in relation to personnel sickness absence (SA). In situational leadership, supervisors are effective if they adapt their leadership style appropriately to a given situation. Methods A managerial reorganization in a Dutch hospital with reassignment of

  8. Effective leadership in multi-ethnic schools: school community perspectives and their leadership implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmock, Clive; Stevenson, Howard; Bignold, Brenda; Shah, Saeeda; Middlewood, David

    2005-01-01

    A project report for the National College for School Leadership, exploring issues of effective leadership in ethnically diverse schools. The paper collates the views of school leaders, staff, students and community representatives.

  9. Leadership style and leadership effectiveness: Does cultural intelligence moderate the relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon

    2017-06-01

    Contribution and value add: Being one of the first studies to explore the moderating effect of leader cultural intelligence on the relationship between leadership style and leadership effectiveness, this research has made a valuable contribution to building both the cultural intelligence and leadership knowledge bases.

  10. Relations and effects of transformational leadership: a comparative analysis with traditional leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Cuadrado, Isabel; Navas, Marisol; Morales, J Francisco

    2007-11-01

    This study has two main goals: (a) to compare the relationship between transformational leadership and other important leadership styles (i.e., democratic versus autocratic or relations- and task-oriented leadership) and (b) to compare the effects of transformational leadership and the other styles on some important organizational outcomes such as employees' satisfaction and performance. For this purpose, a sample of 147 participants, working in 35 various work-teams, was used. Results show high correlations between transformational leadership, relations-oriented, democratic, and task-oriented leadership. On the other hand, according to the literature, transformational leadership, especially high levels, significantly increases the percentage of variance accounted for by other leadership styles in relevant organizational outcome variables (subordinates' performance, satisfaction and extra effort).

  11. Levels of leadership development and top management's effectiveness: Is there a clear-cut relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Glamuzina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the influence of leadership development on top management's effectiveness, both from theoretical and empirical aspect. The creation of an original theoretical model of leadership development process and top management's effectiveness has the purpose of determining impact, direction and intensity of the relationship between leadership development and top management's effectiveness and offers a new methodological approach to leadership classification using the criteria of developed/undeveloped leadership process and measurement of top management's effectiveness based on contemporary conditions. A new composite variable for measuring leadership development was created and the research implied it strongly correlates with the indicators of top management's effectiveness, both in internal and external perspectives. Empirical verification of the model was conducted on the sample of 106 companies and this deepened the insight into the modern leadership paradigm, its development and affirmation in the area of management effectiveness and it confirmed the research hypotheses. The nature of relationship between management effectiveness and the main dimensions of leadership process – setting direction (by creating vision, explaining the whole and setting the strategy, including people (by communicating vision, building teams and seeking commitment and motivating (inspiring, empowering and meeting the needs of subordinates – was determined and it was proved that leadership development has a positive effect on the effectiveness of top management.

  12. Effective Software Engineering Leadership for Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle West, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Software is a critical component of systems ranging from simple consumer appliances to complex health, nuclear, and flight control systems. The development of quality, reliable, and effective software solutions requires the incorporation of effective software engineering processes and leadership. Processes, approaches, and methodologies for…

  13. Strong leadership and teamwork drive culture and performance change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Fred; Bendapudi, Neeli; Rucci, Anthony; Schlesinger, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    Several characteristics of academic health centers have the potential to create high levels of internal conflict and misalignment that can pose significant leadership challenges. In September 2000, the positions of Ohio State University (OSU) senior vice president for health sciences, dean of the medical school, and the newly created position of chief executive officer of the OSU Medical Center (OSUMC) were combined under a single leader to oversee the OSUMC. This mandate from the president and trustees was modeled after top institutions with similar structures. The leader who assumed the role was tasked with improving OSUMC's academic, clinical, and financial performance. To achieve this goal, the senior vice president and his team employed the service value chain model of improving performance, based on the premise that leadership behavior/culture drives employee engagement/satisfaction, leading to customer satisfaction and improved organizational performance. Implementing this approach was a seven-step process: (1) selecting the right leadership team, (2) assessing the challenges and opportunities, (3) setting expectations for performance and leadership behavior, (4) aligning structures and functions, (5) engaging constituents, (6) developing leadership skills, and (7) defining strategies and tracking goals. The OSUMC setting during this period provides an observational case study to examine how these stepwise changes, instituted by strong leadership and teamwork, were able to make and implement sound decisions that drove substantial and measurable improvements in the engagement and satisfaction of faculty and staff; the satisfaction of students and patients; and academic, clinical, and financial performance.

  14. The Effect from Coaching Based Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Frode; Federici, Roger Andre

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to implement an experiment to explore the effects from coaching based leadership on goal setting, self-efficacy, and causal attribution. The study comprised of 20 executives and 124 middle managers at a branch of a Norwegian Fortune 500 company who all voluntarily participated in an experiment over a…

  15. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control.

  16. Effects of Leadership Styles in Technical and Vocational Students, UTHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Nur Afifah Binti Abdul; Hamidon, Nur Izeanty Binti

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership helps our nation through times become a developed country. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of leadership style among students in Technical and Vocational at University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Descriptive study carried out to evaluate student leadership. The study sample consisted of 319 Technical and…

  17. The Effects of Leadership Styles on Organizational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the leadership style of the principal, "transformational leadership and transactional leadership", along with teachers' job satisfaction on schools' organizational health. Specifically speaking, it investigates to what extent the variations in school health can be related to the principal's leadership…

  18. The Role of Motivation to Lead for Leadership Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehl, Sibylle K.; Felfe, Jörg; Elprana, Gwen; Gatzka, Magdalena B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the construct of motivation to lead (MtL) is considered as a predictor of leadership training effectiveness. MtL, the individual preference to take on leadership roles, is a motivation that specifically relates to the content of leadership training. A total of 132 managers participated in a longitudinal follow-up study. The…

  19. Developmental Readiness for Leadership: The Differential Effects of Leadership Courses on Creating "Ready, Willing, and Able" Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Kari; Rosch, David; Burgoon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective leadership capacity involves multiple factors including increasing students' leadership self-efficacy, motivation to lead, and leadership skills. This study of 165 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory leadership theory course explores the degree to which students report changes in these three areas of…

  20. Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    forecasting capability as the most critical concern. Senior managers selected a leadership style of honestly and integrity, followed by a long-term...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT LEADERSHIP by LIEUTENANT COLONEL RONALD D. JOHNSON United States Army Colonel David R. Brooks Project Advisor The...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Johnson, Ronald D. ; Author

  1. Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Eagly, A. H.; Antonakis, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review leadership research, with special attention to the questions that psychologists have addressed. Our presentation emphasizes that the phenomena of leadership can be predicted by a wide range of situational, social, and individual differences factors. Although not organized into a single, coherent theory, these bodies of knowledge are sufficiently related that we are able to piece together a moderately cohesive picture of leadership. This emergent understanding derive...

  2. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  3. Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nereda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…

  4. Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2001-01-01

    Leadership in a community of 30,000 offers lessons to all of us on vision, responsibility and character. See how the leaders of Garden City, Kansas deal with challenges that many communities face. This issue also provides information about leadership and Community Affairs resources.

  5. The role of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and leadership style as attributes of leadership effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Ramchunder

    2014-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between three constructs, namely emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness in a policing context. Motivation for this study: In the police sector, there are difficulties in linking leadership to organisational outcomes since common police-leadership measures are affected by multiple contributory factors. This study explores the psychological constructs of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on the leadership effectiveness of the police. Research design, approach and method: This research adopted a quantitative approach to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as attributes of leadership effectiveness. A total of 107 police personnel in commanding positions made up the sample. The measuring instruments used were the Assessing Emotions Scale, the Self-efficacy Scale and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness. The correlations were significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed. Practical/managerial implications: Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy should be considered as attributes during the selection of leaders in police organisations or used for developmental purposes to enhance these attributes in police leaders. Contribution/value-add: The insights gained from the findings may be used to guide the selection of future leaders in the policing environment, and they could also be used to establish future developmental programmes and research initiatives.

  6. Is Transformational Leadership Effective in a System Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Management , 31: 12-16 (March-April 1988). 12. Fiedler, Fred E. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1967. 13. Fulghum, David... management and leadership . It was my hope to profit personally from this research by becoming a better leader and manager in the future. I am indebted...centers around the situational theory of lec;Iership, which suggests that the most effective style of leadership depends on the individual situation the

  7. THE U.S. NATIONAL INTEREST REDEFINITION AND THE FUTURE OF ITS LEADERSHIP IN CRITICAL REGIONS. STRONG AND SUSTAINABLE AMERICAN LEADERSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo ARBIOL OÑATE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the 20th century, the United States provided a strong centripetal leadership that brought the country to form an economy that remains the bedrock of the global financial system. America’s military superiority remains unrivaled. While far from perfect, the U.S. has the oldest democratic constitutional regime, as well as strong institutions and rule of law to accompany it, as Americans continue to enjoy an unmatched quality of life. In general the U.S. enjoys still a privileged position in the world today. For the last one hundred years, American foreign policy has rested on a commitment to use its power. Nevertheless, many criticize that over the last two decades, the U.S. has scaled down its presence, ambitions and promises in the world. Is the U.S. abnegating its leadership? Are U.S. national interests changing and refocusing towards home affairs? Or will the 21st century, due to fragile alternative powers (EU, China, Russia, … be again an American century?

  8. Wormhole effect in a strong topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G.; Guo, H.-M.; Franz, M.

    2010-07-01

    An infinitely thin solenoid carrying magnetic flux Φ (a “Dirac string”) inserted into an ordinary band insulator has no significant effect on the spectrum of electrons. In a strong topological insulator, remarkably, such a solenoid carries protected gapless one-dimensional fermionic modes when Φ=hc/2e . These modes are spin-filtered and represent a distinct bulk manifestation of the topologically nontrivial insulator. We establish this “wormhole” effect by both general qualitative considerations and by numerical calculations within a minimal lattice model. We also discuss the possibility of experimental observation of a closely related effect in artificially engineered nanostructures.

  9. LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Marian-Aurelian Bârgău

    2015-01-01

    It is important to distinguish the difference between leadership and management, both of which are considered necessary. Leadership and management are often used interchangeably, but they are two distinctive and complementary processes. Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness. In today’s dynamic workplace, we need leaders to challenge the status quo and to inspire and persuade organization members. We also need managers to assist in developing and ...

  10. Residents' leadership styles and effectiveness as perceived by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J D; Magrinat, G; Hansen, C J; Bailey, R S

    1986-01-01

    Although physicians are required to act as leaders in a variety of situations, leadership ability and leadership training have been largely ignored by medical educators. The leadership styles and leadership effectiveness of 17 residents in a community hospital were studied as part of a leadership training seminar. Self-ratings and ratings of the residents by nurses who had worked with them were used to assess the residents' leadership style and the nurses' perceptions of the effectiveness of those styles. Styles that emphasized relationships with co-workers (encouraging and coaching styles) predominated over low relationship-oriented styles (delegating and structuring). The nurses perceived individual residents who exhibited encouraging and coaching leadership styles as being distinctly more effective leaders than the residents who exhibited structuring and delegating styles. The residents, however, rated all four styles as similarly effective. Leadership training programs and studies of the type reported here may provide an opportunity for faculty members to help residents learn more appropriate and productive styles of leadership.

  11. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliana L; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create a novel framework of surgical leadership derived from direct observation. We surveyed nonsurgeon team members about their perceptions of individual surgeon's leadership effectiveness on a 7-point Likert scale and correlated survey measures with individual surgeon profiles created by calculating percentage of behavior types, leader functions, and valence. Surgeon leadership was rated by nonsurgeons from 4.2 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4). Among the 33 types of behaviors observed, most interactions constituted elucidating (24%) and tone setting (20%). Overall, 66% of interactions (range, 43%-84%) were positive and 11% (range, 1%-45%) were negative. The percentage of positive and negative behaviors correlated strongly (r = 0.85 for positive and r = 0.75 for negative, p leadership. Facilitating engagement related most positively (r = 0.80; p = 0.03), and negative forms of elucidating, ie, criticism, related most negatively (r = -0.81; p = 0.03). We identified 7 surgeon leadership functions and related behaviors that impact perceptions of leadership. These observations suggest actionable opportunities to improve team leadership behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leadership style effect on the personnel management efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kalushka, Lyubov Volodymyrivna

    2012-01-01

    The leader influence on the staff in enterprise management system is investigatedin the article. The role of leadership style in ensuring the effective functioning of the organization isanalysed. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between a manager and a subordinate, amanager and a team, as leadership is a link penetrating all administrative processes at theenterprise. The results of the research of the factors influencing the choice of leadership style aregiven. The advantages ...

  13. Effect of leadership styles on successful implementation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective leadership in the organisation could be critical in the successful implementation of performance management. However, empirical investigation of this relationship is lacking. The objectives of this study were: (1) To assess the effect of transactional and transformational leadership on the adoption of a performance ...

  14. Effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and patient safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Sheila A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol; Clarke, Sean

    2017-11-23

    Improving patient safety within health care organizations requires effective leadership at all levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nurse managers' transformational leadership behaviors on job satisfaction and patient safety outcomes. A random sample of acute care nurses in Ontario (N = 378) completed the crosssectional survey. Hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. The model fit the data acceptably. Transformational leadership had a strong positive influence on workplace empowerment, which in turn increased nurses' job satisfaction and decreased the frequency of adverse patient outcomes. Subsequently, job satisfaction was related to lower adverse events. The findings provide support for managers' use of transformational leadership behaviors as a useful strategy in creating workplace conditions that promote better safety outcomes for patients and nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Crisis and Opportunities in Library Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for strong leadership in libraries. Topics include the distinction between management and leadership; myths about leadership; leading change; expected qualities of effective leaders, including creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship, planning, and communicating; and librarian's opportunities for leadership development. (LRW)

  16. Leadership in the digital age : A study on the effects of digitalisation on top management leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shahyan

    2016-01-01

    Digitalisation and the phenomenon of digital transformation is rapidly and fundamentally changing existing businesses and organisations alike (Collin, 2015). Although considered a prime challenge for leaders of complex and changing organisations, research in the combined field of digitalisation and leadership however still remain scarce. As executives are tasked with the leading of digital transformation, this study aims to understand how digitalisation effects top management leadership. To a...

  17. Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seokhwa; Faraj, Samer; Sims, Henry P

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated leadership and effectiveness of teams operating in a high-velocity environment, specifically trauma resuscitation teams. On the basis of the literature and their own ethnographic work, the authors proposed and tested a contingency model in which the influence of leadership on team effectiveness during trauma resuscitation differs according to the situation. Results indicated that empowering leadership was more effective when trauma severity was low and when team experience was high. Directive leadership was more effective when trauma severity was high or when the team was inexperienced. Findings also suggested that an empowering leader provided more learning opportunities than did a directive leader. The major contribution of this article is the linkage of leadership to team effectiveness, as moderated by relatively specific situational contingencies. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Leadership Effectiveness Based on Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagbada-Ekekhomen, Gloria O.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined teachers' perceptions of effective leadership skills and any significant differences of teachers' views of an administrator's success based on the leader's gender. A review of studies examining differences in the leadership behaviors of men and women did not provide conclusive results. The three hypotheses based on the…

  20. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  1. Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The resource–based view of organisations focuses on the unique internal characteristics (such as strategic leadership) or 'inner growth engines' of an organisation that account for its success. (Hoskisson, Hitt, Wan & Yiu 1999). According to Boal and Hooijberg (2000): strategic theories of leadership are ...

  2. Effect of ethical leadership and climate on effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos S. Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The increasing prevalence of theft, sabotage and other deviant behaviours in the workplace has disastrous effects for organisations, such as lowered effectiveness, escalated costs and the organisation’s declining reputation. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to design and investigate the relationships among perceived leader effectiveness, ethical climate and ethical leadership. A further objective of the investigation was to validate a conceptual model clarifying the structural associations among the latent constructs in the South African corporate domain. Motivation for the study: A successful leader is both an ethical and an effective leader. An organisation’s leadership is seen as the most critical element in establishing and maintaining an ethical climate in organisations. Research design, approach and method: A convenient and multi-cultural sample comprised of 224 employees from various organisations in South Africa. The structure and content of the variables were analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, beside item analysis. Main findings: Satisfactory reliability was found for all the measurement scales. The results of CFA demonstrated acceptable fit with the data for the refined measurement and structural models. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM indicated positive relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate and leader effectiveness. Practical implications: Organisational leaders should take full responsibility for cultivating ethics through ethical leader behaviour and an ethical climate. By reinforcing these aspects, perceived leader effectiveness can be advanced, which will ultimately decrease corruption and other forms of counterproductive behaviour in South African organisations. Contribution: The study provides further theoretical and empirical evidence that leadership effectiveness can be realised through instilling an ethical organisational climate in which

  3. Leadership and power in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yielder, Jill

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the concept of professional leadership in medical imaging. It explores the context of power issues in which such leadership is located, the differences between leadership and management, the qualities needed for effective leadership and how an individual's psychology may affect it. The article concludes that in the current climate of change and development, the medical imaging profession needs strong and appropriate leadership to profile the profession effectively and to lead it through to a more autonomous future

  4. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  5. Leading nurses: emotional intelligence and leadership development effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Kerri Anne; Young, Thomas M; Goldman, Beryl; Patterson, Barbara; Krouse, Anne M; Proenca, Jose

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of an emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership development education program involving 20 nurse leaders at nursing homes. Also, it investigates the relationship between EI and transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach Three research questions are posed. Correlation analysis and t-tests were conducted to answer the questions posed. Findings The findings of this paper indicate that the EI educational development was effective, while the personal leadership development was not. The data also showed a positive significant relationship between EI and transformational leadership. Research limitations/implications This paper is limited by the small sample size; thus, a causal relationship between EI and leadership could not be investigated. Additionally, the sample was not randomly selected because of the commitment needed from the participants. Furthermore, the paper was focused on nurse leaders in nursing homes, so it may not be generalizable to other populations. Practical implications With the increasing need for nursing home facilities and the limited training generally provided to nurses who move into managerial roles in these facilities, it is critical for organizations to understand the effectiveness of educational programs that exist. Moreover, the findings of this paper may provide information that would be useful to others who wish to develop EI and/or leadership education for nurses. Originality/value While much research exists on EI and transformational leadership, little of this research focuses on nurses in nursing home facilities. Thus, this paper fills a gap in the literature.

  6. Evaluation the Effectiveness of the US Navy Leadership Continuum Curricula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan-White, Delores

    1997-01-01

    .... A Leadership Continuum Survey Questionnaire was developed to identified and analyze the student's attitudes concerning the effectiveness of the knowledge and skills taught in the course and how these...

  7. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of nurses who lacked the additional training. Two hundred and seventy-nine United States Air Force Nurse Corps Captains with management experience completed Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practice Inventory-Self (LPI...

  8. The role of strategic leadership in effective strategy implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most important component of the strategic management process – more important than strategy implementation or ... business environment is primarily due to poor implementation of new strategies. Leadership, and specifically strategic ... Sustaining an effective organisational culture. • Emphasising ethical practices.

  9. The impact of leadership styles on innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm; Song, Jiwen Lynda

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the insights that research offers on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management. To do so, we develop a framework structuring existing insights into four generic dimensions: people, means, effects, and goals. Based on this framework, we review studies on......: directive and participative leadership, interactive leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional & instrumental leadership, strategic & CEO leadership, and shared & distributed leadership. We find strong indications that different innovation stages and types raise different...... demands on leadership. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only style to lead innovations, but different leadership styles fit differently well with different innovation types and stages. However, the specification of this fit is still very incomplete and the answer...

  10. Developing Canadian physician: the quest for leadership effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Scott; Wilson, Lisette; Crawford, Kyle C

    2016-07-04

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to discern the physicians' perception of leadership effectiveness in their clinical and non-clinical roles (leadership) by identifying their political skill levels. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 209 Canadian physicians was surveyed using the Political Skills Inventory (PSI) during the period 2012-2014. The PSI was chosen because it assesses leadership effectiveness on four dimensions: social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability and apparent authenticity. Findings Physicians in clinical roles' PSI scores were significantly lower in all four PSI dimensions when compared to all other physicians in non-clinical roles, with the principal difference being in their networking abilities. Practical implications More emphasis is needed on educating and training physicians, specifically in the areas of political skills, in current clinical roles if they are to assume leadership roles and be effective. Originality/value Although this study is located in Canada, the study design and associated findings may have implications to other areas and countries wanting to increase physician leadership effectiveness. Further, replication of this study in other settings may provide insight into the future design of physician leadership training curriculum.

  11. The differing effects of the extraversion facets on leadership behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    Several meta-analyses have shown extraversion to be an important predictor of leadership emergence, effectiveness, and behaviours. However, in recent years researchers have shown that introverts in some conditions are equal or even better leaders. There have also been several calls for researchers to focus on narrower personality traits, as these might be more valid predictors than broader traits. For that reason, the relationship between facets of extraversion and leadership behaviour was...

  12. Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of their responsibilities of leading the organisation, strategic leaders are responsible for leading change. This article investigated the application of the strategic leadership of change within the church context. A Straussian approach to the grounded theory method was used to generate a substantive grounded theory ...

  13. Effectiveness of innovation leadership styles: a manager's influence on ecological innovation in construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents four basic innovation leadership styles: charismatic, instrumental, strategic and interactive innovation leadership. The leadership styles and their characteristics relate to process and product innovations in construction projects. A theoretical framework - which synthesizes these relations enables explorative research into the effects of leadership on organizational innovativeness. Four case studies, observing the same manager in four comparable projects, explore the e...

  14. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Teachers' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ayhan; Sarier, Yilmaz; Uysal, Sengul

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have conducted a number of studies in order to demonstrate the effects of leadership styles on school outcomes. In these research studies, particularly, the full range of leadership styles have been used. The impact of transformational leadership, transactional leadership and laissez faire stated in this model on job satisfaction and…

  15. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  16. Examination of the Effectiveness of Male and Female Educational Leaders Who Made Use of the Invitational Leadership Style of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gwen; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the effectiveness of male and female educational leaders who made use of the invitational leadership style of leadership in their k-12 school settings. Study participants consisted of 14 principals (7 female and 7 male) and 164 teachers. While quantitative findings revealed a statistically significant…

  17. Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Anne E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-04-20

    Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees

  18. Strong coupling effects in hybrid plexitonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikau, Dzmitry; Esteban, Ruben; Govyadinov, Alexander A.; Savateeva, Diana; Simon, Thomas; Sánchez-Iglesias, Ana; Grzelczak, Marek; Schmidt, Mikolaj K.; Urban, Alexander S.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Feldmann, Jochen; Aizpurua, Javier; Rakovich, Yury P.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the interactions between localized plasmons in gold nanorods and excitons in J-aggregates and were able to track an anticrossing behavior of the hybridized modes both in the extinction and in the photoluminescence spectra of this hybrid system. We identified the nonlinear optical behavior of this system by transient absorption spectroscopy. Finally using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy we showed that nonmagnetic organic molecules exhibit magnetooptical response due to binding to a plasmonic nanoparticles. In our experiments we also studied the effect of detuning as well as the effect of off- and on resonance excitation on the hybrid states

  19. Influence of a Hospital-Based, Internal Leadership Development Program on Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch-Carre, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    A search on Amazon revealed more than 6,000 books related to leadership development. The Business Source database has more than 700 articles with the word leadership in the title, published between 2005 and 2015. This suggests that leadership is a topic in which many are interested. Clearly, leadership makes a difference in an organization's…

  20. Leadership Effects on Student Learning Mediated by Teacher Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School leaders’ influence on student achievement is largely indirect. Using systematic review techniques, this paper assesses the impact that leaders have on their students when they focus their improvement efforts on those teacher emotions or dispositions known to have direct effects on teaching and learning in the classroom. Building on an earlier conceptions of how leadership influences student learning and based on a review of research over the last 25 years, this study identifies four distinct teacher emotions which have significant effects on student learning—collective teacher efficacy, teacher commitment, teacher trust in others, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. This review also describes leadership practices likely to foster productive teacher emotions, most such practices reflecting a transformational approach to leadership.

  1. Disorder effects in strongly correlated uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suellow, S.; Maple, M.B.; Tomuta, D.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Menovsky, A.A.; Mydosh, J.A.; Chau, R.

    2001-01-01

    Moderate levels of crystallographic disorder can dramatically affect the ground-state properties of heavy fermion compounds. In particular, the role of disorder close to a quantum critical point has been investigated in detail. However, crystallographic disorder is equally effective in altering the properties of magnetically ordered heavy fermion compounds like URh 2 Ge 2 , where disorder-induced spin-glass behavior has been observed. In this system, moreover, the magnetic ground state can be tuned from a spin-glass to a long-range ordered antiferromagnetic one by means of an annealing treatment. The transformation of the magnetic state is accompanied by a transition in the transport properties from 'quasi-insulating' (dρ/dT 2 Ge 2 will be discussed. Of particular interest is the resistivity of as-grown URh 2 Ge 2 , which resembles the Non-Fermi-liquid system UCu 4 Pd, suggesting that a common mechanism - the crystallographic disorder - controls the transport properties of these materials

  2. THE EFFECT OF PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES ON WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH ON JEWELLERY INDUSTRY IN ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    Erenel, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who embraces one of the leadership styles of Path-Goal Leadership Theory which is one of the leadership theories, can be succesful at making the work group effective, for these leadership styles enables leaders to assess needs and clarify goals.Looking at studies in Turkish literature, it is noticed that leadership behaviours were examined in the terms of Path-Goal Leadership Theory however the relationship between leadership styles in this theory and work performance were not exa...

  3. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  4. Building Effective Medical Missions with Servant Leadership Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda

    Nurses are naturally drawn to service opportunities, such as short-term medical missions (STMM), which hold great potential to benefit health. But STMMs have been criticized as potentially being culturally insensitive, leading to dependency, inadvertently causing harm, or being unsustainable. Utilizing servant leadership skills, nurses can effectively build community, vision, and sustainability into STMM projects.

  5. Organizational Storytelling for Librarians: Using Stories for Effective Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Just as literature can be used for learning, the power of storytelling can be very effective when applied to leadership and management. Library expert and author Marek shows readers how they can use storytelling to communicate vision and values with: (1) A primer on how to develop storytelling skills; (2) Tips on how to use narratives to navigate…

  6. Outdoor Orientation Leaders: The Effects of Peer Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, J. David; Bell, Brent J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how student (peer) leaders of college outdoor orientation programs understand the effects of their leadership experience on personal growth and development. We collected data through in-depth interviews of 36 first-time student leaders at four colleges. Findings indicate that the majority of students at all four…

  7. The Effect of Leadership on Service Delivery in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing leadership effectiveness on service delivery at the University of Namibia and all its campuses throughout the country. The study was carried out during the month of February 2013. The methodology consisted of document analysis, interviews through face to face, video and tele-conferencing. Purposive sampling was…

  8. Effects of Masters in Governance Training and School Board Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rocky

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how the California School Board Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program leads to more effective school board leadership and governance. This study employed the framework of authors Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal, the CSBA, and the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School…

  9. Levels of leadership development and top management's effectiveness: Is there a clear-cut relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Glamuzina, Mia

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the influence of leadership development on top management's effectiveness, both from theoretical and empirical aspect. The creation of an original theoretical model of leadership development process and top management's effectiveness has the purpose of determining impact, direction and intensity of the relationship between leadership development and top management's effectiveness and offers a new methodological approach to leadership classification using the criteria ...

  10. The effects of intervention based on supportive leadership behaviour on Iranian nursing leadership performance: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hossein; Mirmoosavi, Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2016-04-01

    To assess the effects of a workshop on supportive leadership behaviour (SLB) on the performance of head nurses, using a randomized controlled trial design. The effect of transformational leadership on SLB in nursing management is emphasised. A total of 110 head nurses working at university hospitals were included randomly in two control and intervention groups. The head nurses in the intervention group participated in supportive leadership training, but the control group did not. Performance in supportive leadership was assessed with a validated instrument, which six subordinates used to assess their head nurse (n = 731). There was a significant difference in SLB scores from baseline to the 3 month follow-up (P leadership behaviour, particularly the interactive multifaceted training, improved the leadership performance of the head nurses who participated in this study. Health policy decision makers should apply SLB, which is a significant leadership style, to improve the outcomes in other groups of health-care management, such as physicians. Future studies are needed to investigate the effects of such workshops in longer periods of follow up. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exploring the Effects of Authentic Leadership on Academic Optimism and Teacher Engagement in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulophas, Dhirapat; Hallinger, Philip; Ruengtrakul, Auyporn; Wongwanich, Suwimon

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In the context of Thailand's progress towards education reform, scholars have identified a lack of effective school-level leadership as an impeding factor. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a theoretical model of authentic leadership effects on teacher academic optimism and work engagement. Authentic leadership was…

  12. Challenges Women Face in Leadership Positions and Organizational Effectiveness: An Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmuti, Dean; Jia, Heather; Davis, Henry H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to discover working public thoughts about roles of United States women in leadership positions and to test the relationship between managerial leadership styles and organizational effectiveness. A survey of perceptions of leadership roles and effectiveness distributed 700 randomly selected entities from industries in the…

  13. Effects of a Leadership Development Program on Gifted and Non-Gifted Students' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurlu, Üzeyir; Serap, Emir

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The presence of leaders who will lead societies to success is an important gain for a society. In the present time, leadership development has become a strategic requirement. Although there is a common agreement on the need for leadership education, there are few studies on the education process of leadership and the efficacy of…

  14. The Effects of an Introductory Leadership Course on Socially Responsible Leadership, Examined by Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschlen, Erin; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of age and gender on student leadership capacity during a 16-week, for-credit academic leadership course at a regional mid-western university. The course promoted the tenets of the Social Change Model of Leadership (SCM) through theoretical and application-based projects. Participants completed…

  15. The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2018-01-01

    medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...

  16. A time to kill when is leadership targeting an effective counterterrorism strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Schliep, Randy D.

    2007-01-01

    lts. This study will argue that leadership targeting may be an effective strategy, but only under specific conditions. It is critical to the security of the United States, for strategic and operational planners, policy makers, and executives, to understand the appropriate environment for undertaking a leadership targeting strategy. This study provides a framework for analyzing the effectiveness of leadership targeting based on critical components of leadership. US Army (USA) author.

  17. The impact of leadership styles on innovation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukowski Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews research on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management by setting out the organisational framework of the findings to date in four generic dimensions: people, measures, effects, and objectives. Using this framework, an overview has been provided of studies on directive and participative leadership, interactive leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional and instrumental leadership, strategic and executive leadership, as well as shared and distributed leadership. There are strong signals that different stages and types of innovation raise different leadership requirements. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only innovation management style and various leadership styles have their own, distinct ways of contributing to different types and stages of innovation. However, the determination of this allocation is still very incomplete and the answer to the question of how innovations should be managed remains unclear. The article also describes research needs and their practical implications.

  18. Beyond Technology, an Analysis of the Perceived Impact of Transformational Leadership and Contingent Rewards as Extrinsic Motivation on Virtual Team Member Satisfaction and Leadership Effectiveness: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawanda, Haruna Juko

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this nonexperimental, correlational, and descriptive quantitative study research was to gain an empirical understanding of the effects of transformational leadership and contingent reward as extrinsic motivation on employee satisfaction with leadership and leadership effectiveness in virtual team workplace environments.…

  19. Are Water-Related Leadership Development Programs Designed to Be Effective? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Mark E.; Floress, Kristin; Kaufman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource professionals and others involved in managing water resources face increasingly complex challenges. Effective leadership development programs are needed to produce water leaders who can address these challenges. Leadership programs must be designed not simply to increase participants' environmental and leadership knowledge but to…

  20. The Effects of Servant Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teachers' school commitment. The research data were collected from 563 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were measured with a servent organizational leadership assessment scale, and the teachers'…

  1. Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Mediating Effects of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Geert; Tuytens, Melissa; Hulpia, Hester

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between principals' leadership and teachers' organizational commitment, mediated by distributed leadership. Data were collected from 1,495 teachers in 46 secondary schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of principals' leadership on teachers' organizational commitment is…

  2. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Study of Leader Effectiveness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaros, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…

  3. The Effect of Principal's Leadership Style on School Environment and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safran, Eissa; Brown, David; Wiseman, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of principal's leadership style on school outcome. This study focused on the indirect relationship between the leadership style and the school environment. An additional objective was to investigate the impact of culture on leadership style as related to school environment and outcome.…

  4. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  5. Mapping the Complexities of Effective Leadership for Social Justice Praxis in Urban Auckland Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sharona Jayavant

    2016-01-01

    This empirical research is about strengths-based leadership practices that seek to explore leadership for social justice and equity in New Zealand’s culturally and linguistically diverse educational and social landscape. Similar to the diversity in other countries, where leaders demonstrate culturally responsive leadership practices in their quest to educate diverse democracies. This inquiry examines the characteristics and behaviours of effective leadership for social justice and equity for ...

  6. The Leadership Roles of a Principal in Improving School Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin Burhanuddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership roles and practices of the principal in improving school effectiveness. This descriptive study involved the principal , counselor, and 11 teachers from the Tonsley Park Primary School in South Australia. The findings showed that all respondents generally regarded team leader as the most important role, while supervisor was rated as the least important. Of the 20 tasks observed, generally revealed that a principal should work cooperatively with staff to ensure more effective use of their skills. While, the task of a principal in making decisions on staff development programs was not necessarily expected by the practicing teachers. All respondents considered organization coordination as the most important area within which a principal should provide more leadership, while curriculum or instructional improvement and innovation was regarded as the least important

  7. Achieving excellence in private intensive care units: The effect of transformational leadership and organisational culture on organisational change outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia J. Jordan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes. Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private intensive care units in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A conceptual framework to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes, was proposed and tested. Motivation for the study: The prevalence of transformational leadership, a positive organisational culture and their effect on organisational change outcomes in private healthcare industries require further research in order to generate appropriate recommendations. Research design, approach and method: A positivistic, quantitative design was used. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire which, in previous studies, produced scores with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater than 0.80, to collect data from a sample of 130 professional nurses in private intensive care units. Main findings: Transformational leadership and a positive organisational culture were evident in the private intensive care units sampled. A strong, positive correlation exists between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes. This correlation provides sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypotheses. Innovation and intellectual stimulation were identified as the factors in need of improvement. Practical or managerial implications: The findings of the study may be used by managers in intensive care units to promote organisational change outcomes, linked to transformational leadership and a

  8. Achieving excellence in private intensive care units: The effect of transformational leadership and organisational culture on organisational change outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia J. Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private intensive care units in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A conceptual framework to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes, was proposed and tested.Motivation for the study: The prevalence of transformational leadership, a positive organisational culture and their effect on organisational change outcomes in private healthcare industries require further research in order to generate appropriate recommendations.Research design, approach and method: A positivistic, quantitative design was used. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire which, in previous studies, produced scores with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater than 0.80, to collect data from a sample of 130 professional nurses in private intensive care units.Main findings: Transformational leadership and a positive organisational culture were evident in the private intensive care units sampled. A strong, positive correlation exists between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes. This correlation provides sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypotheses. Innovation and intellectual stimulation were identified as the factors in need of improvement.Practical or managerial implications: The findings of the study may be used by managers in intensive care units to promote organisational change outcomes, linked to transformational leadership and a positive

  9. Transformational Leadership and Innovative Climate: An Examination of the Mediating Effect of Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Sağnak, Mesut; Kuruöz, Mehmet; Polat, Betül; Soylu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most important characteristic of today’s organizations is too much change. The demand of organizations to fulfill objectives within dynamic environmental aspects has required strong leadership. Organizations’ accommodation to changes, generating new ideas, adapting these ideas to organizations, and also the individual and intellectual development of employees have revealed the transformational leadership concept. Transformational leaders empower participants independent...

  10. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Wang Ning; Chen, Michael Z Q; Su Riqi; Zhou Tao; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  11. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Ning [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Michael Z Q [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Su Riqi; Zhou Tao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: zht@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.hk, E-mail: zhutou@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  12. An investigation on leadership styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous efforts on leadership style and various aspects of different leadership style. Some firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership while many studies indicate that firms can achieve effective business performance by developing strong organizational culture and effective leadership. This paper reviews recent advances on leadership style and various aspects of organizational cultures completed during the past few years. The paper concentrates on recently published articles appeared in the world.

  13. The Effects of Principal's Transformational Leadership Behaviors on Teacher Leadership Development and Teacher Self Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Socorro M.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership has been identified as an essential ingredient of educational reform aiming to ensure that every student gets the education they need to succeed in an era of high accountability. Transformational leadership in the educational context is conceptualized as a process of building commitment to meet the challenges faced by professionals in…

  14. Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis Eduardo; Ruiz, Carlos Enrique; Hamlin, Bob; Velez-Calle, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify what Colombians perceive as effective and least effective/ineffective managerial behavior. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted following a qualitative methodology based on the philosophical assumptions of pragmatism and the "pragmatic approach" (Morgan, 2007). The…

  15. Are Leaders born or made? Leadership Training Effects on Employee Perceptions of Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bøllingtoft, Anne; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    Scholars have discussed for many years whether leaders are born or made. A key question is whether leadership training can push leaders to a more active leadership behavior - also in the eyes of their employees. This article presents the results of a large-scale field experiment where public...... and private leaders were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three leadership training modules aimed at affecting employee-perceived transformational and/or transactional leadership. The participating leaders are from different Danish organizations: Tax agencies, primary and secondary schools......, daycare centers, and banks. All participating leaders and employees were surveyed before and after the training programs, providing us with panel data from 4,782 employees from 474 organizations. We find that the three leadership training programs significantly affected the level of employee...

  16. Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargett, Charles William; Doty, Joseph P; Hauck, Jennifer N; Webb, Allison Mb; Cook, Steven H; Tsipis, Nicholas E; Neumann, Julie A; Andolsek, Kathryn M; Taylor, Dean C

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasing awareness of the importance of leadership in healthcare, our understanding of the competencies of effective leadership remains limited. We used a concept mapping approach (a blend of qualitative and quantitative analysis of group processes to produce a visual composite of the group's ideas) to identify stakeholders' mental model of effective healthcare leadership, clarifying the underlying structure and importance of leadership competencies. Literature review, focus groups, and consensus meetings were used to derive a representative set of healthcare leadership competency statements. Study participants subsequently sorted and rank-ordered these statements based on their perceived importance in contributing to effective healthcare leadership in real-world settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of individual sortings was used to develop a coherent model of effective leadership in healthcare. A diverse group of 92 faculty and trainees individually rank-sorted 33 leadership competency statements. The highest rated statements were "Acting with Personal Integrity", "Communicating Effectively", "Acting with Professional Ethical Values", "Pursuing Excellence", "Building and Maintaining Relationships", and "Thinking Critically". Combining the results from hierarchical cluster analysis with our qualitative data led to a healthcare leadership model based on the core principle of Patient Centeredness and the core competencies of Integrity, Teamwork, Critical Thinking, Emotional Intelligence, and Selfless Service. Using a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach, we developed a graphical representation of a shared leadership model derived in the healthcare setting. This model may enhance learning, teaching, and patient care in this important area, as well as guide future research.

  17. I can do that: the impact of implicit theories on leadership role model effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L; Innella, Audrey N

    2012-02-01

    This research investigates the role of implicit theories in influencing the effectiveness of successful role models in the leadership domain. Across two studies, the authors test the prediction that incremental theorists ("leaders are made") compared to entity theorists ("leaders are born") will respond more positively to being presented with a role model before undertaking a leadership task. In Study 1, measuring people's naturally occurring implicit theories of leadership, the authors showed that after being primed with a role model, incremental theorists reported greater leadership confidence and less anxious-depressed affect than entity theorists following the leadership task. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated the causal role of implicit theories by manipulating participants' theory of leadership ability. They replicated the findings from Study 1 and demonstrated that identification with the role model mediated the relationship between implicit theories and both confidence and affect. In addition, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists on the leadership task.

  18. The relationship between servant leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and team effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bright Mahembe; Amos S. Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Team effectiveness and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) are outcomes vital for team success. Servant leadership practices also play a critical role in team effectiveness and OCB.Research purpose: The goal of the study was to analyse the relationships between servant leadership, OCB and team effectiveness in the South African school system.Motivation for the study: The changing nature of leadership, coupled with the increased use of teams, necessitates a study on how fol...

  19. Effective Leadership: Finding a Formula for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Change is always difficult for people, even when they have a hand in directing the change and can see its benefits. The main reason is that the unknown is scarier than the known. Most changes, even ones with positive goals, are painful for those who must change. Implementing change effectively requires managing three elements of change, which the…

  20. Effect and Stability of Leadership Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of U.S. Army Engineer Officer Candidate training and the stability of this training when measured again years after departure from Officer Candidate School. A self-description inventory was administered at the beginning of a 6-month training program, again near the end of the program, and…

  1. Requirements for effective academic leadership in Iran: a nominal group technique exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo

    2008-04-22

    During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. A nominal group study was conducted by strategic sampling in which participants were requested to discuss and report on requirements for academic leadership, suggestions and barriers. Written notes from the discussions were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. Six themes of effective academic leadership emerged: 1)shared vision, goal, and strategy, 2) teaching and research leadership, 3) fair and efficient management, 4) mutual trust and respect, 5) development and recognition, and 6) transformational leadership. Current Iranian academic leadership suffers from lack of meritocracy, conservative leaders, politicization, bureaucracy, and belief in misconceptions. The structure of the Iranian medical university system is not supportive of effective academic leadership. However, participants' views on effective academic leadership are in line with what is also found in the western literature, that is, if the managers could create the premises for a supportive and transformational leadership, they could generate mutual trust and respect in academia and increase scientific production.

  2. The Distinctive Effects of Dual-Level Leadership Behaviors on Employees’ Trust in Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Yuntao; Li, Peter Ping; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    of transformational leadership behaviors on employees’ trust in leadership at both top management and supervisory levels, respectively. The empirical evidence based on a sample of 357 Chinese employees and their supervisors supports the proposed model. Both theoretical and practical implications of our findings......The loss of trust within and between organizations has become serious worldwide, especially in China. In this study, we seek to explain why as well as how leaders at two different levels (i.e., the top management and the supervisory levels) affect employees’ trust in leadership at the two levels...

  3. Combining a leadership course and multi-source feedback has no effect on leadership skills of leaders in postgraduate medical education. An intervention study with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene; Bonderup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    regarding development of leadership skills over time. METHODS: Study participants were consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education at clinical departments. STUDY DESIGN: pre-post measures with an intervention and control group. The intervention was participation in a seven-day leadership...... not improve leadership skills of consultants responsible for education in clinical departments. Developing leadership skills takes time and the time frame of one year might have been too short to show improvement in leadership skills of consultants responsible for education. Further studies are needed......BACKGROUND: Leadership courses and multi-source feedback are widely used developmental tools for leaders in health care. On this background we aimed to study the additional effect of a leadership course following a multi-source feedback procedure compared to multi-source feedback alone especially...

  4. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Design. Three professional football teams (N = 135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Methods. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players’ leadership quality in...

  5. Linking Leadership Emergence to Leadership Effectiveness and Team Performance in a Military Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foti, Roseanne

    1998-01-01

    According to Katz and Kahn (1978), leadership implies an influence increment, that goes beyond mechanically complying with one's role in an organization and routinely applying rewards or coercive power...

  6. What Is Effective Research Leadership? a Research-Informed Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon findings from a UK-based and -funded study of academic leadership provided by (full) professors, this article focuses on research leadership as perceived by those on the receiving end of it. Research leadership is defined as the influence of one or more people on the research-related behaviour, attitudes or intellectual capacity of…

  7. Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Mayra Alayon

    2010-01-01

    The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

  8. Military Leadership Evaluations: Effects of Sex, Leadership Style and Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    stereotype and transformational leadership in typical feminine work contexts. Sociedad Valenciana de Psicologia Social , 9(3), 53-71. Luthar, H. K. (1996...the “glass ceiling” barring women from the highest levels of leadership and management. Powell (1999) offered a summary of social -system centered...situation-centered, and person-centered explanations to account for the small proportion of women in the highest levels of management. Social -system

  9. The effectiveness of an initial continuing education course in leadership for dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Jornet, P; Kalenderian, E

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a continuing education course in leadership presented to postdoctoral dentist-leaders. The authors developed a 3-day course on leadership and management with topics including self-awareness, leadership qualities, emotional intelligence, communication skills, social skills, conflict management, personal branding, quality improvement and team motivation. Twenty-two course participants with a median age of 37.5 years and an average of 13.7 years of professional experience were assessed using three different metrics: satisfaction with the course and presenters immediately following the course; pre-course and post-course tests on knowledge of leadership topics; and self-assessments of leadership competency skills prior to the course, immediately following the course and then 6 months after the course. Participant satisfaction with both instructors' effectiveness and the overall course design was very high. A survey 6 months following the course showed that participants were very positive regarding the practical use of the leadership skills they acquired in the course. The average of all participants' scores on the objectively assessed leadership knowledge test showed a statistically significant (P<.001) difference between pre-course and post-course scores. At 6-month follow-up, participant self-assessment of leadership competency significantly improved following the course. A well-designed course in leadership skills can have a positive impact on the leadership knowledge and competency of dentist-leaders. This unique leadership course was effective in increasing leadership knowledge and self-perceived leadership competency. The course and the skilled instructors were rated very highly by participants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparing the content of leadership theories and managers' shared perceptions of effective leadership: a Q-method study of trainee managers in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tim

    2013-08-01

    Health service managers face potential conflicts between corporate and professional agendas, a tension sharpened for trainees by their junior status and relative inexperience. While academic leadership theory forms an integral part of contemporary management development programmes, relatively little is known of trainees' patterned subjectivities in relation to leadership theories. The objective of this study was to explore such subjectivities within a cohort of trainees on the National Health Service Graduate Management Training Scheme (NHS GMTS), a 'fast-track' programme which prepares graduate entrants for director-level health service management posts. A Q-method design was used and four shared subjectivities were identified: leadership as collaborative social process ('relational'); leadership as integrity ('moral'); leadership as effective support of subordinates ('team'); and leadership as construction of a credible leadership persona ('identity'). While the factors broadly map onto competencies indicated within the NHS Leadership Qualities Framework which underpin assessments of performance for this student group, it is important not to overstate the governance effect of the assessment regime. Rather, factors reflect tensions between required competencies, namely the mobilisation of diverse interest groups, the ethical base of decisions and the identity work required to convince others of leadership status. Indeed, factor 2 ('moral') effectively defines leadership as the embodiment of public service ethos. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Contingent Reward, and Organizational Identification: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Innovation and Goal Culture Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenikou, Athena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward as complementary, but distinct, forms of leadership on facets of organizational identification via the perception of innovation and goal organizational values. Design/Methodology/Approach: Three studies were carried out implementing either a measurement of mediation or experimental-causal-chain design to test for the hypothesized effects. Findings: The measurement of mediation study showed that transformational leadership had a positive direct and indirect effect, via innovation value orientation, on cognitive identification, whereas transactional contingent reward was more strongly related to affective, rather than cognitive, identification, and goal orientation was a mediator of their link. The findings of the two experimental-causal-chain studies further supported the hypothesized effects. Transformational leadership was found to lead subordinates to perceive the culture as more innovative compared to transactional contingent reward, whereas transactional contingent reward led employees to perceive the culture as more goal, than innovation, oriented. Finally, innovation, compared to goal, value orientation increased cognitive identification, while goal orientation facilitated affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Implications: The practical implications involve the development of strategies organizations can apply, such as leadership training programs, to strengthen their ties with their employees, which, in turn, may have a positive impact on in-role, as well as extra-role, behaviors. Originality/Value: The originality of this research concerns the identification of distinct mechanisms explaining the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward on cognitive and affective identification applying an organizational culture perspective and a combination of measurement and causal mediation designs

  12. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Contingent Reward, and Organizational Identification: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Innovation and Goal Culture Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenikou, Athena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward as complementary, but distinct, forms of leadership on facets of organizational identification via the perception of innovation and goal organizational values. Design/Methodology/Approach: Three studies were carried out implementing either a measurement of mediation or experimental-causal-chain design to test for the hypothesized effects. Findings: The measurement of mediation study showed that transformational leadership had a positive direct and indirect effect, via innovation value orientation, on cognitive identification, whereas transactional contingent reward was more strongly related to affective, rather than cognitive, identification, and goal orientation was a mediator of their link. The findings of the two experimental-causal-chain studies further supported the hypothesized effects. Transformational leadership was found to lead subordinates to perceive the culture as more innovative compared to transactional contingent reward, whereas transactional contingent reward led employees to perceive the culture as more goal, than innovation, oriented. Finally, innovation, compared to goal, value orientation increased cognitive identification, while goal orientation facilitated affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Implications: The practical implications involve the development of strategies organizations can apply, such as leadership training programs, to strengthen their ties with their employees, which, in turn, may have a positive impact on in-role, as well as extra-role, behaviors. Originality/Value: The originality of this research concerns the identification of distinct mechanisms explaining the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward on cognitive and affective identification applying an organizational culture perspective and a combination of measurement and causal mediation designs.

  13. Leadership Styles: An Experimental Study to Determine the Comparative Effectiveness of Democratic and Autocratic Leadership in Adult, "Real World" Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadely, L. Dean; Fadely, Patricia R.

    To study the effect of democratic and autocratic leadership styles upon the commitment and productivity of voluntary adult groups, eight tenant councils, composed of approximately six persons each, were selected to serve as experimental groups. Trained researchers acting as discussion leaders for each council functioned as either democratic or…

  14. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  15. Gender and personality traits' (BFI-10) effect on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olexova, Cecilia; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Opinion leadership used to be perceived as a highly domain-specific trait but it was found to be multi-faceted, i.e. individuals are influential independent of a specific subject area. Another term is generalized opinion leadership. Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits on domain......-specific opinion leadership mediated through objective knowledge and generalized opinion leadership was investigated by Gnambs and Batinic. According to them, generalized opinion leadership should be influenced by extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience. The paper can be perceived as a replication...

  16. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Husain

    Full Text Available Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008 and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005 are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  17. The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mari; Unterrainer, Christine; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2018-01-01

    Although there is a vast amount of research on leadership and improvement-oriented voice behavior, the amount of cross-lagged research on leadership that also incorporates more challenging forms of voice is sparse. This paper reports on a two-wave study of white-collar workers in a Norwegian...... medical technology company, investigating the relationship among employees’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors, job autonomy, and promotive and prohibitive voice. Testing our results cross-lagged, we demonstrate that perceived transformational leadership is significantly related...... to prohibitive voice over time, whereas this effect worked in the opposite direction for promotive voice. We also explore the boundary conditions of transformational leadership, demonstrating that perceived job autonomy strengthens the effect of transformational leadership on prohibitive voice. Implications...

  18. Effects of the Educational Leadership of Nursing Unit Managers on Team Effectiveness: Mediating Effects of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Pil Bong

    2018-03-31

    EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP OF NURSING UNIT MANAGERS ON TEAM EFFECTIVENESS: Mediating Effects of Organizational Communication Satisfaction. This study identifies the effects of the educational leadership of nursing unit managers on team effectiveness and the mediating effects of organizational communication satisfaction; it highlights the importance of educational leadership and organizational communication and provides the data needed to enhance the education capacity of managers. The participants were 216 nursing unit managers of staff nurses at a tertiary hospital located in C Region, South Korea, and nurses who had worked for more than six months at the same hospital. This study was conducted using questionnaires on educational leadership, team effectiveness, and organizational communication satisfaction. Data analysis was performed with a t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and simple and multiple regression analyses using SPSS version 23.0. Mediation analysis was tested using Baron and Kenny's regression analysis and a Sobel test. The mean score for the educational leadership of nursing unit managers was 3.74(±0.68); for organizational communication satisfaction, 3.14(±0.51); and for team effectiveness, 3.52(±0.49). Educational leadership was significantly positively correlated with team effectiveness and organizational communication satisfaction. Organizational communication satisfaction demonstrated a complete mediating effect on the relationship between educational leadership and team effectiveness (β=.61, peducational leadership of nursing unit managers increases communication satisfaction among nurses; this supports the idea that educational leadership can contribute to team effectiveness. This suggests that the educational leadership and communication capacity of nursing unit managers must be improved to enhance the performance of nursing organizations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Leadership Practices in Effective Schools in Disadvantaged Areas of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Bouchamma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to examine leadership practices in effective schools located in economically disadvantaged areas of three Canadian provinces: Ontario, Québec, and New Brunswick. Research Design. Our study was conducted in five successful schools selected on the basis of student outcomes on province-wide standardized exams, as well as on some risk factors such as rural area, low socioeconomic level, and proportion of Francophones (Ontario and New Brunswick. To increase the study’s validity, we used triangulation and various data sources: (1 individual interviews; (2 observation of school principals; (3 field documentation; (4 student essays; (5 internal school documents such as mission statement, rules, and directives. Participants. Participants included Department of Education heads and school board administrators, school principals and vice principals, teachers, school counsellors, educational psychologists, parent school board members, and students. Findings. Results show that leadership practices in effective schools can be grouped together around five dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; strategic resourcing; curriculum planning, coordination, and evaluation; promoting and participating in teacher supervision and development; ensuring order and support.

  20. Leadership and Management Education and Training (LMET) Effectiveness: A Pilot Study for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    leadership / management theory complete with a specific vocabulary. This new vocabulary allows the graduate to be able to converse easier with...AD-AlG 9 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/S 5/1 LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING (LMET) EFFECTI-ECU UNLSIID JUN 81 D L...TITLE (A~d 8ItI. )o------~. .hss COVERED Leadership and Management Education and Training 198 (LMET) Effectiveness: A Pilot-Study for 6-- . *P.W..@*.On

  1. The Effect of Implicit?Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PF...

  2. Leadership Frames and Perceptions of Effectiveness among Health Information Management Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasnett, Bonita; Ross, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Leadership is important to health science education. For program effectiveness, directors should possess leadership skills to appropriately lead and manage their departments. Therefore, it is important to explore the leadership styles of programs' leaders as health science education is undergoing reform. Program directors of two and four-year health information management programs were surveyed to determine leadership styles. The study examined leadership styles or frames, the number of leadership frames employed by directors, and the relationship between leadership frames and their perceptions of their effectiveness as a manager and as a leader. The study shows that program directors are confident of their human resource and structural skills and less sure of the political and symbolic skills required of leaders. These skills in turn are correlated with their self-perceived effectiveness as managers and leaders. Findings from the study may assist program directors in their career development and expansion of health information management programs as a discipline within the health science field. As academic health centers receive greater pressure from the Institute of Medicine and accrediting agencies to reform health science education, the question of leadership arises. These centers have taken a leadership role in reforming health professional education by partnering with educational institutions to improve the health of communities. To achieve health education reform, health sciences educators must apply effective leadership skills.1 College and university leadership is challenged on how to best approach educational reform across health science fields. This article discusses leadership styles employed by program directors of one health science department, health information management, in directing programs for health science education reform. PMID:18066358

  3. Leadership frames and perceptions of effectiveness among health information management program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasnett, Bonita; Ross, Thomas

    2007-10-04

    Leadership is important to health science education. For program effectiveness, directors should possess leadership skills to appropriately lead and manage their departments. Therefore, it is important to explore the leadership styles of programs' leaders as health science education is undergoing reform. Program directors of two and four-year health information management programs were surveyed to determine leadership styles. The study examined leadership styles or frames, the number of leadership frames employed by directors, and the relationship between leadership frames and their perceptions of their effectiveness as a manager and as a leader. The study shows that program directors are confident of their human resource and structural skills and less sure of the political and symbolic skills required of leaders. These skills in turn are correlated with their self-perceived effectiveness as managers and leaders. Findings from the study may assist program directors in their career development and expansion of health information management programs as a discipline within the health science field. As academic health centers receive greater pressure from the Institute of Medicine and accrediting agencies to reform health science education, the question of leadership arises. These centers have taken a leadership role in reforming health professional education by partnering with educational institutions to improve the health of communities. To achieve health education reform, health sciences educators must apply effective leadership skills.1 College and university leadership is challenged on how to best approach educational reform across health science fields. This article discusses leadership styles employed by program directors of one health science department, health information management, in directing programs for health science education reform.

  4. The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Cynicism: The Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak GÜNDÜZ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic effects of the discipline of Business Management on employees have brought leadership into sharp focus; the concept of Spiritual Leadership has recently begun to be included in the scope of the studies on positive leadership and emotional leadership, and probably because Organizational Cynicism, which results from the stresses and strains brought about by globalization, is regarded as an organizational pathological disorder, leadership has become a concept through which the discipline of Business Management is seeking a remedy. Based on these, the aim of this study is to supportthe tautology with an emic approachthat spiritual leadership, which can be favoured by employees who are in search of some meaning in the workplace has inevitably a positive effect on organizational cynicism and emotional intelligence has a mediating effect on the relationship between spiritual leadership and cynicism within the Turkish culture. Stating the negative relationship between spiritual leadership and organizational cynicism and to some extend it may be overcome by emotional intelligence may contribute to leadership.

  5. Effectiveness of interventions for the development of leadership skills among nurses: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Michael; Traynor, Victoria; Joyce-McCoach, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What interventions are the most effective for the development of leadership skills for nurses?The review objective is to systematically review the evidence to identify the effectiveness of interventions for the development of leadership skills among nurses. Centre for Evidence-based Initiatives in Health Care - University of Wollongong: an Affiliate Center of the Joanna Briggs Institute.

  6. Effectiveness of the Use of Spiritual Intelligence in Women Academic Leadership Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandaran, Sharmila Devi; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Idris, Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence into women academic leadership practices. The study designed to provide a clear understanding of the effectiveness of the use of spiritual intelligence practices within women academic leadership practices. In addition, the study will be an ideal…

  7. Investigation of The Effects of Transactional and Transformational Leadership on Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ayla Zehra Öncer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of transactional and transformational leadership styles on entrepreneurial orientation. Transactional leadership discussed with two dimensional model consists of contingent reward and active management by exception, where transformational leadership discussed with four dimensional model consists of idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. On the other hand entrepreneurial orientation was examined under three dimensions as; innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness. The survey of this study is conducted on 171 employees of three multinational companies in Istanbul. The obtained data from the questionnaires are analyzed through the SPSS statistical packaged software. Analyses results showed that transactional leadership affects only proactiveness dimension while transformational leadership affects all three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation. The only insignificance among transformational leadership and entrepreneurial orientation is between individualized consideration and risk taking.

  8. A study on effects of leadership style on innovation: A case study from automaker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdolmaleki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is one of the most important components of management in any business unit. An organization with good leadership tends to have a better chance to survive in todays’ competitive environment. This paper considers the effects of leadership style on innovation in one of the biggest automakers in Iran named Iran Khodro. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among a sample of 278 regular employees and 61 middle level managers of this firm. The results of the survey indicate that there is a meaningful difference between leadership style and standard leadership style among middle level managers when the level of significance is five percent. In addition, there is a meaningful difference between innovation and its components with standards among regular employees. Finally, leadership has positive and meaningful impact on employees’ innovation.

  9. Organizational leadership for building effective health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work.

  10. The effect of gender and leisure preference on transformational leadership behaviour of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekinci Nurullah Emir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate transformational leadership behaviors of high school students according to their leisure preference and gender. Randomly chosen 391 high school students from Kutahya voluntarily took part in the study. In the study Transformational Leadership Scale was used as data gathering tool and after evaluation of dispersion of the data Two-way Analysis of Variance was used as a hypothesis test. As a result, this study showed that transformational leadership behavior differs according to gender and also both leisure preference and gender have an effect on transformational leadership behavior of high school students.

  11. Strategic Leadership Development: An Operation Domain Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatfield, Berlain

    1997-01-01

    .... The success or failure of these goals rests upon the leadership effectiveness. Understanding the identification and development of effective leadership skills and attributes maximize individual leadership effectiveness...

  12. Strong Gravity Effects of Rotating Black Holes: Quasiperiodic Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2012-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: The orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which ...

  13. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D; Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; El-Khoury, P; Egger, J P; Gorke, H; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the low-energy antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (33 refs).

  14. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Augsburger, M.; Borchert, G.; Castelli, C.; Chatellard, D.; El-Khoury, P.; Egger, J.-P.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Indelicato, P.; Kirch, K.; Lenz, S.; Nelms, N.; Rashid, K.; Schult, O. W. B.; Siems, Th.; Simons, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction

  15. Effects of nursing position on transformational leadership practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to identify significant differences in nursing leadership strengths by position title. Recent reports show aspects of transformational leadership (TL) related to position, age, and educational level. This study focuses on differentiating the strength of leadership practices across the range of nursing management positions. The Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-assessment survey, and a variety of demographic questions, were used to anonymously poll voluntary members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders. Nursing positions of director level and above were strongest in leadership practices. Those at manager and below were identified as needing additional leadership development. LPI-S subscales Enable Others to Act and Model the Way were strongest. Those at the manager level and below will benefit most from additional education and training. Even upper levels of management would gain from enhancing the LPI practices of Challenge the Process and Inspire a Shared Vision.

  16. Army Profession: How Effective Leadership Reinforces an Ethos of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    accounts of ethical misconduct among leadership and congressional hearings on the Army’s ability to address sexual assault issues could contribute to a...degree of trust in the leader. Still others like Jung and Avolio (2000) insist that high levels of trust “among followers is what enables a...Bass and Riggio, Transformational Leadership, 6-7. 88 Ibid., 43. 89 Yukl, Leadership, 2006, 268. 90 Dong I. Jung and Bruce J. Avolio. “Opening the

  17. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords "leadership" and then either "trauma" or "resuscitation" as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching followed by simulations. Although programs

  18. Developing a Leadership Brand: The Heart of Effective School Leadership in Turbulent Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Faced with scarce resources and high expectations, school principals must increasingly rely upon the power of persuasion to promote ongoing school improvement. We maintain that the development of a vibrant and tangible leadership brand constructed upon a principal's core values and noble character can motivate stakeholders and stimulate school…

  19. Mapping the Complexities of Effective Leadership for Social Justice Praxis in Urban Auckland Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharona Jayavant

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research is about strengths-based leadership practices that seek to explore leadership for social justice and equity in New Zealand’s culturally and linguistically diverse educational and social landscape. Similar to the diversity in other countries, where leaders demonstrate culturally responsive leadership practices in their quest to educate diverse democracies. This inquiry examines the characteristics and behaviours of effective leadership for social justice and equity for student academic achievement in urban Auckland primary schools. A qualitative, comparative case study, combined with the theoretical framework of applied critical leadership from theories of transformational leadership, critical pedagogy and critical race theory (perspective lens guided the research methods. The research findings presented several applied critical leadership characteristics that highlighted the complexities of leading for social justice in urban Auckland primary schools. A distinct phenomenon was leader’s axiological philosophy (values, beliefs and morals underpinning their leadership that was culturally responsive to the diversity in their educational contexts. These findings suggest the need for research and scholarship yet to be done in this largely unexplored educational leadership academic space.

  20. The effect of sleep deprivation on leadership behaviour in military officers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Pallesen, Ståle; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Espevik, Roar

    2016-12-01

    While several studies show that leaders frequently lack sleep, little is known about how this influences leadership behaviour. The present study encompasses an experiment that investigated how three main types of leadership behaviour: transformational (four sub-facets); transactional (two sub-facets); and passive-avoidant (two sub-facets) leadership differed across a rested and a long-term, partially sleep-deprived condition. A total of 16 military naval officers participated. In both conditions, the leaders managed a team of three subordinates in a navy navigation simulator, instructed to complete a specific mission (A or B). Both sleep state (rested or sleep deprived) and mission were counterbalanced. Leadership behaviour was video recorded and subsequently rated on the three leadership behaviours. Overall, the scores on transformational leadership (and on two of four sub-facets) and transactional leadership (on both sub-facets) decreased from the rested to sleep-deprived condition, whereas scores on passive-avoidant leadership overall (and on both sub-facets) increased from the rested to sleep-deprived condition. This study underscores the importance of including sleep as a potentially important determinant when assessing leadership effectiveness. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Effectively Using Discussion Boards to Engage Students in Introductory Leadership Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah N.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of online asynchronous discussion boards as a valuable tool for connecting students to leadership concepts, theories, and models in introductory leadership survey courses. Recommendations are given for designing effective discussion boards that engage students and enhance their learning. Student outcomes include…

  2. Principals' Leadership Skills and School Effectiveness: The Case of South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanle, Akinola Oluwatoyin

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to find out the leadership skills possessed by Principals of public secondary schools in south western Nigeria and the relationship between these leadership skills and school effectiveness in terms of student academic achievement. The descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. 154 Principals and 770 teachers,…

  3. e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

  4. Effective Stress Management: A Model of Emotional Intelligence, Self-Leadership, and Student Stress Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Jeffery D.; Wu, Jinpei; Godwin, Jeffrey L.; Neck, Christopher P.; Manz, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops and presents a model of the relationships among emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and stress coping among management students. In short, the authors' model suggests that effective emotion regulation and self-leadership, as mediated through positive affect and self-efficacy, has the potential to facilitate stress coping…

  5. Design and Effects of an Academic Development Programme on Leadership for Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunefeld, Hetty; van Tartwijk, Jan; Jongen, Havva; Wubbels, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and assesses the design and effects of one of the first academic development programmes on Leadership for Educational Change. The participants are senior academics, involved in leadership of teaching and learning. We report on an evaluation using a mixed-method approach employing a self-report questionnaire administered to…

  6. Assistant Principals' Perceptions Regarding the Role and the Effectiveness of an Educational Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gary B.; Gurley, D. Keith; Fifolt, Matthew; Collins, Loucrecia; McNeese, Rose

    2016-01-01

    In this study, faculty members of an educational leadership program, situated in a large urban university in the southeastern region of the United States, utilized focus group research to determine the perceptions of K-12 assistant principals regarding the effectiveness of an educational leadership program, and to provide recommendations for…

  7. Design and effects of an academic development programme on leadership for educational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunefeld, Hetty; van Tartwijk, Jan; Jongen, Havva; Wubbels, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and assesses the design and effects of one of the first academic development programmes on Leadership for Educational Change. The participants are senior academics, involved in leadership of teaching and learning. We report on an evaluation using a mixed-method approach

  8. Leadership and organizational tenure diversity as determinants of project team effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Poel, Frouke M.; Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Zee, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals how leadership effectiveness in project teams is dependent on the level of organizational tenure diversity. Data from 34 project teams showed that transformational leadership is related to organizational commitment, creative behavior, and job satisfaction, but only in teams

  9. Leadership and Organizational Tenure Diversity as Determinants of Project Team Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Poel, Frouke M.; Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Zee, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals how leadership effectiveness in project teams is dependent on the level of organizational tenure diversity. Data from 34 project teams showed that transformational leadership is related to organizational commitment, creative behavior, and job satisfaction, but only in teams

  10. The effectiveness of a four-hour challenge course on leadership efficacy and work efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Odello; Eddie Hill; Edwin Gomez

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of participation in a 4-hour challenge course on leadership efficacy and work efficacy of college students. The findings of this research indicate that both leadership and work efficacy increased significantly after participation in a challenge course and that increased levels of the participants' self-efficacy remained 6 weeks...

  11. Demystifying Visionary Leadership: In search of the essence of effective vision communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Venus (Merlijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractVision communication has been heralded as the most defining aspect of outstanding leadership, yet what makes for effective vision communication has eluded leadership scholars so far. Indeed, while vision communication is the only leader behavior that is specified in all influential

  12. Attachment Style, Leadership Behavior, and Perceptions of Leader Effectiveness in Academic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Rehema; Mohr, David; Ross, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The quality of organizational leadership can have a significant impact on organizational success and employee well-being. Some research has shown that leaders with secure attachment styles are more effective leaders, but the connection between different attachment styles and different leadership styles is unclear. Relationships between attachment…

  13. Leadership and Small Firm Performance: The Moderating Effects of Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Rod L.; Bishop, Jacob L.; Brachle, Ben J.; Winn, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study builds on extant leadership literature by examining the role demographic variables (including age, tenure as a leader at the current company, experience in the industry, and level of education) play as moderating effects on the relationship between leadership style and small business financial performance in the national…

  14. The Effect of Authentic Leadership on School Culture: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin; Oztekin-Bayir, Ozge

    2018-01-01

    In the study, the effect of school principals' authentic leadership behaviors on teachers' perceptions of school culture was tested with the structural equation model. The study was carried out with the correlation research design. Authentic leadership behavior was taken as the independent variable, and school culture was taken as the dependent…

  15. Leadership effectiveness in Higher Education: Managerial self-perceptions versus perceptions of others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie H.H. Herbst

    2011-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of selfperception accuracy amongst the managers and to explore the patterns of interaction between self-perception accuracy (regarding their leadership behaviour and perceived transformational leadership behaviour (as measured by composite ‘other’-ratings. Motivation of the study: Research has shown that managers in various work environments typically overestimate their own level of competence and that this could impact on the effectiveness of their leadership behaviour. This phenomenon has however not yet been researched in the context of South African higher education institutions. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative cross-sectional study of the relationship between self-perception accuracy and leadership effectiveness was conducted amongst the total population (N = 204 of staff members in management positions. The response rate was 67% and the realised sample consisted of 137 managers. Leadership behaviour was measured by means of behavioural ratings on the following five dimensions of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI: ‘Challenging the process’, ‘Inspiring a shared vision’, ‘Enabling others to act’, ‘Modelling the way’ and ‘Encouraging the heart’. Main findings: Statistically significant discrepancies were found between self- and observer ratings on all five leadership dimensions, indicating a probable overestimation of their own capabilities. Results further provide evidence that perceived leadership effectiveness on three of the five transformational leadership practices varied as a function of the self-perceptions of managers. Practical/managerial implications: Managerial development practices should sensitise managers to what is essentially introspective and provide opportunities for them to reflect upon and question their leadership practices. Contribution/value-add: A challenge for higher education is to embark on feedback intensive

  16. EFFECTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shania Dwi Rantika

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaders who promote ethical behavior are believed to affect their employees’ well-being. This study was conducted to examine psychological empowerment as the intervening variable that connects ethical leadership to employees’ well-being, work engagement, and emotional exhaustion. By using a mail survey, we distributed questionnaires to 219 auditors from 11 public accounting firms in Jakarta. All the hypotheses in this study were supported. Ethical leadership has a positive effect on psychological empowerment. Thus, psychological empowerment positively relates to work engagement and negatively relates to emotional exhaustion. The result demonstrated that psychological empowerment partially mediates the effect of ethical leadership on work engagement and fully mediates the effect on ethical leadership and emotional exhaustion. The findings reveal that ethical leadership stimulates the psychological empowerment of the employee, thus, it enhances work engagement and also minimizes emotional exhaustion.

  17. The relationship between hospital managers' leadership style and effectiveness with passing managerial training courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ardestani, Abbas; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Abtahi, Seyyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership that rises from managerial training courses is highly constructive in managing hospitals more effectively. This study aims at investigating the relationship between leadership effectiveness with providing management training courses for hospital managers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on top and middle managers of 16 hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. As a sample, 96 participants were selected through census method. Data were collected using leadership effectiveness and style questionnaire, whose validity and reliability were certified in previous studies. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: Leadership effectiveness score was estimated to be 4.36, showing a suitable status for managers' leadership effectiveness compared to the set criteria. No significant difference was found between leadership effectiveness and styles among managers who had passed the training courses with those who had not (p>0.05). Conclusion: Passing managerial training courses may have no significant effect on managers' leadership effectiveness, but there may be some other variables which should be meticulously studied.

  18. Combining a leadership course and multi-source feedback has no effect on leadership skills of leaders in postgraduate medical education. An intervention study with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Bente; Mortensen, Lene; Bonderup, Thomas; Scherpbier, Albert; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2009-12-10

    Leadership courses and multi-source feedback are widely used developmental tools for leaders in health care. On this background we aimed to study the additional effect of a leadership course following a multi-source feedback procedure compared to multi-source feedback alone especially regarding development of leadership skills over time. Study participants were consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education at clinical departments. pre-post measures with an intervention and control group. The intervention was participation in a seven-day leadership course. Scores of multi-source feedback from the consultants responsible for education and respondents (heads of department, consultants and doctors in specialist training) were collected before and one year after the intervention and analysed using Mann-Whitney's U-test and Multivariate analysis of variances. There were no differences in multi-source feedback scores at one year follow up compared to baseline measurements, either in the intervention or in the control group (p = 0.149). The study indicates that a leadership course following a MSF procedure compared to MSF alone does not improve leadership skills of consultants responsible for education in clinical departments. Developing leadership skills takes time and the time frame of one year might have been too short to show improvement in leadership skills of consultants responsible for education. Further studies are needed to investigate if other combination of initiatives to develop leadership might have more impact in the clinical setting.

  19. Promoting Effective Program Leadership in Psychology: A Benchmarking Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Although scholars have scrutinized many aspects of academic life in psychology, the topic of leadership for psychology programs has remained elusive. This article describes the importance of high-quality leadership in the development of thriving psychology programs. The author offers a strategy for evaluating leaders to help provide developmental…

  20. Designing and Evaluating Library Leadership Programs: Improving Performance and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Mary-Jo; Haycock, Ken

    2011-01-01

    It has become accepted wisdom that there is a shortage of leaders in the library profession. A number of leader and leadership development programs have emerged in Australia, Canada and the United States that attract interested participants, yet what is the core purpose of these programs? Do they work? Review of leadership programs reveals that…

  1. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  2. The Effect of a Strengths-Oriented Approach to Leadership Development on the Psychological Capital and Authentic Leadership Capacities of Leaders in Faith-Based Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Academic leaders in the 21st century are required to be both organizationally competent and intentionally collaborative with those they lead to be effective in a world of disruption, change, and complexity. Two current leadership constructs particularly relevant for meeting these needs are the focus of this study: "Authentic Leadership,"…

  3. Leadership and Students' Academic Success: Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannouni, Kais; Ramboarison-Lalao, Lovanirina

    2018-01-01

    When exploring the effects of leadership on students, most studies have focused on either how leadership affects the students' academic outcomes or how it contributes to their personal development. This study merged both approaches and aimed to measure the mediating effects of self-efficacy and self-determination among leadership, students'…

  4. Superconducting proximity effect in the strong-coupling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilvert, W.

    1975-01-01

    A generalization of the theory of the superconducting proximity effect is presented which takes into account strong-coupling in the superconductors. The results are found to agree with a model of weak-coupled superconductors with differing Debye frequencies which are in proximity. It is found that logarithmic averaging of phonon frequencies is an improvement on the original McMillan theory (1968). Comparison of the theory with data on thin films and on eutectic alloys is found to give good agreement. 19 references

  5. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

    2014-01-07

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

  6. A novel approach for effective integration of new faculty leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastings NB

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natalie B Hastings,1 Linda S Centore,2 Stuart A Gansky,3 Frederick C Finzen,4 Joel M White,5 Eric Wong,6 Grayson W Marshall,7 Lisa Chung,3 Elsbeth Kalenderian3 1Division of Clinical General Dentistry, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Division of Behavioral Sciences & Community Dental Education, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Division of Oral Epidemiology & Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Division of Preclinical Simulation, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 6Division of Endodontics, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA; 7Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: We report on an accelerated and effective way of assimilating a new leader into a team at a large academic dental school department.Methods: At University of California, San Francisco (UCSF, a new Chair was recruited through a national search to lead its largest department in the School of Dentistry. Two months after arrival, the new Chair embarked on a process of leadership assimilation among her executive team, facilitated by a professional consultant. Within four

  7. The relationship between servant leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and team effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2014-02-01

    Research purpose: The goal of the study was to analyse the relationships between servant leadership, OCB and team effectiveness in the South African school system. Motivation for the study: The changing nature of leadership, coupled with the increased use of teams, necessitates a study on how follower-focused leadership practices enhance team member effectiveness. Research approach, design and method: A non-probability sample of 288 teachers was drawn from 38 schools in the Western Cape in South Africa. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on the data. Main findings: The team effectiveness and refined servant leadership questionnaires displayed high levels of internal consistency. The organisational citizenship behaviour scale exhibited moderate reliability coefficients. Good fit was found for the structural and measurement models of the latent variables through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Positive relationships were found between servant leadership, team effectiveness and OCB. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the role played by servant leadership behaviours in promoting positive behaviours and outcomes for teams. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further, by identifying other variables that influence team effectiveness positively and testing the model using revenue-oriented teams. Contribution/value-add: Schools today face the challenge of developing strategies for achieving team effectiveness. The servant leadership style recognises and promotes the one-on-one development of followers likely to promote positive outcomes and team effectiveness.

  8. The Effects of Leadership Style on School Culture and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kristal Carey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between principal leadership style and school culture and to determine what effect both factors have on teacher effectiveness. This study was based on the perceptions of teachers and principals in Title I elementary schools (Grades 1-5), with high ESL populations in 10 schools within a West…

  9. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargett, Charles William; Doty, Joseph P; Hauck, Jennifer N; Webb, Allison MB; Cook, Steven H; Tsipis, Nicholas E; Neumann, Julie A; Andolsek, Kathryn M; Taylor, Dean C

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Despite increasing awareness of the importance of leadership in healthcare, our understanding of the competencies of effective leadership remains limited. We used a concept mapping approach (a blend of qualitative and quantitative analysis of group processes to produce a visual composite of the group’s ideas) to identify stakeholders’ mental model of effective healthcare leadership, clarifying the underlying structure and importance of leadership competencies. Methods Literature review, focus groups, and consensus meetings were used to derive a representative set of healthcare leadership competency statements. Study participants subsequently sorted and rank-ordered these statements based on their perceived importance in contributing to effective healthcare leadership in real-world settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of individual sortings was used to develop a coherent model of effective leadership in healthcare. Results A diverse group of 92 faculty and trainees individually rank-sorted 33 leadership competency statements. The highest rated statements were “Acting with Personal Integrity”, “Communicating Effectively”, “Acting with Professional Ethical Values”, “Pursuing Excellence”, “Building and Maintaining Relationships”, and “Thinking Critically”. Combining the results from hierarchical cluster analysis with our qualitative data led to a healthcare leadership model based on the core principle of Patient Centeredness and the core competencies of Integrity, Teamwork, Critical Thinking, Emotional Intelligence, and Selfless Service. Conclusion Using a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach, we developed a graphical representation of a shared leadership model derived in the healthcare setting. This model may enhance learning, teaching, and patient care in this important area, as well as guide future research. PMID:29355249

  11. Effectiveness of Advanced Stay Strong, Stay Healthy in Community Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Crowe MS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of the 10-week, University of Missouri (MU Extension strength training program Advanced Stay Strong, Stay Healthy (ASSSH. It was hypothesized that the program can improve strength, balance, agility, and flexibility—all physical measures of falling among seniors. Matched pair t tests were used to compare differences in five physical measures of health, body composition, and percent body fat (%BF. Two-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the age effects on changes in physical health from the start and finish of the exercise program. Following programming, participants significantly improved strength, flexibility, and balance, and significantly reduced %BF ( p < .05. Our data indicate that ASSSH can improve the physical health of senior citizens and can successfully be translated into community practice by MU Extension professionals.

  12. [Leadership in nursing working groups. Perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Ana; Muñoz-Lobo, M A Jesús; Marzo-Martínez, Azucena; Sánchez-Vicario, Félix

    2009-01-01

    To identify leadership behavior as perceived by the heads and members of working groups and to analyze leadership styles by comparing the perceived behaviors. Cross sectional study. heads and members of working groups. 82-item questionnaire with 5 possible responses. Variables analyzed: behaviors of the heads, leadership styles, extra effort, effectiveness and satisfaction. In the investigation group, the style most frequently identified by the group's members was the transformational style and that identified by the head was the transactional style. In the protocol group, the leadership style most frequently identified by both the head and members was the transformational style. In the quality group, no type of leadership was clearly identified. In the three groups, the percentages identifying extra effort, effectiveness and satisfaction were very high. Paying attention to the leadership style of the managers of units or groups is important, since this factor is a strong dynamic element in organizations.

  13. Leadership Training, Leadership Strategies and Organizational Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard Bro, Louise; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    Leadership is fundamentally important for improving public sector performance, but the existing literature has severe endogeneity problems. Using a field experiment with 720 Danish leaders and 23.000 employees, the LEAP (Leadership and Performance) project will try to overcome these problems. We...... use a field experiment to study the effects of leadership training and leadership strategies on organizational performance. The research question is how leadership training affect leadership strategies, and how these strategies affect performance? This paper takes three steps towards answering...... this question. First, we discuss the conceptualization of leadership strategies. Second, we present our research design and clarify how we expect the leadership training to affect leadership strategies. Third, we discuss briefly how we measure the key concepts: Leadership and performance. Our aim is to develop...

  14. Leadership training, leadership strategies and organizational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Louise; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    Leadership is fundamentally important for improving public sector performance, but the existing literature has severe endogeneity problems. Using a field experiment with 720 Danish leaders and 23.000 employees, the LEAP (Leadership and Performance) project will try to overcome these problems. We...... use a field experiment to study the effects of leadership training and leadership strategies on organizational performance. The research question is how leadership training affect leadership strategies, and how these strategies affect performance? This paper takes three steps towards answering...... this question. First, we discuss the conceptualization of leadership strategies. Second, we present our research design and clarify how we expect the leadership training to affect leadership strategies. Third, we discuss briefly how we measure the key concepts: Leadership and performance. Our aim is to develop...

  15. Effects of RN Age and Experience on Transformational Leadership Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth; Herman, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study reported the evolution of transformational leadership (TL) practices and behaviors across years of age, management experience, and professional nursing practice within a professional nursing leadership organization. Recent studies of CNO TL found valuations peak near age 60 years. This study reported on a wider range of management positions, correlating years of RN practice and management experience and age to TL metrics. This study used Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-Assessment (LPI-S) to survey a nursing leadership organization, the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL). Anonymous responses were analyzed to identify leadership trends in age and years of professional service. On average, LPI-S metrics of leadership skills advance through years of management, RN experience, and age. The TL scores are statistically higher in most LPI-S categories for those with more than 30 years of RN or management experience. Decade-averaged LPI-S TL metrics in the ACNL survey evolve linearly throughout age before peaking in the decade from age 60 to 69 years. A similar evolution of TL metrics is seen in decades of either years of management experience or years of RN experience. Transformational leadership increased with nursing maturity particularly for LPI-S categories of "inspire a shared vision," "challenge the process," and "enable others to act." In the ACNL population studied, decade-averaged leadership metrics advanced. Leadership evolution with age in the broader RN population peaked in age bracket 60 to 69 years. The LPI-S averages declined when older than 70 years, coinciding with a shift from full-time work toward retirement and part-time employment.

  16. The relationship between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Value-based leadership practices play a critical role in teamwork in high-performance organisations. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness. Motivation for the study: The increased eliance on teams for production calls for an analysis of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in enhancing eam effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: A non-probabilityand multicultural sample consisting of 202 primary and secondary school teachers was drawn from 32 chools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found and uni-dimensionality of the subscales was demonstrated through exploratory factor analyses. Good fit with the data was found for the measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling showed a reasonable fit for the structural model. Positive relationships were found amongst servant leadership, team effectiveness and affective team commitment. Standard multiple regression analysis showed that affective team commitment moderated the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness. Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the central role played by servant leadership and affective team commitment in team performance. Servant leadership fosters team effectiveness if employees feel committed to their work team. Contribution/value-add: The servant leadership style alone may not be a sufficient condition for team effectiveness; other variables, such as affective team commitment, also play a role. The study suggested specific variables that may also combine with leadership to positively influence team effectiveness.

  17. Do plastic surgery division heads and program directors have the necessary tools to provide effective leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneja, JS; McInnes, CW; Carr, NJ; Lennox, P; Hill, M; Petersen, R; Woodward, K; Skarlicki, D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective leadership is imperative in a changing health care landscape driven by increasing expectations in a setting of rising fiscal pressures. Because evidence suggests that leadership abilities are not simply innate but, rather, effective leadership can be learned, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to evaluate the training and challenges of their leaders because there may be opportunities for further growth and support. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the practice profiles, education/training, responsibilities and challenges of leaders within academic plastic surgery. METHODS: Following research ethics board approval, an anonymous online survey was sent to division heads and program directors from all university-affiliated plastic surgery divisions in Canada. Survey themes included demographics, education/training, job responsibilities and challenges. RESULTS: A response rate of 74% was achieved. The majority of respondents were male (94%), promoted to their current position at a mean age of 48 years, did not have a leadership-focused degree (88%), directly manage 30 people (14 staff, 16 faculty) and were not provided with a job description (65%). Respondents worked an average of 65 h per week, of which 18% was devoted to their leadership role, 59% clinically and the remainder on teaching and research. A discrepancy existed between time spent on their leadership role (18%) and related compensation (10%). Time management (47%) and managing conflict (24%) were described as the greatest leadership challenges by respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Several gaps were identified among leaders in plastic surgery including predominance of male sex, limitations in formal leadership training and requisite skill set, as well as compensation and human resources management (emotional intelligence). Leadership and managerial skills are key core competencies, not only for trainees, but certainly for those in a position of leadership. The present study provides evidence that

  18. The Effects of Elementary School Principals' Leadership Styles and the Preferred Managerial Styles of Teachers on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Christopher, Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify principal leadership styles and teacher preferred principal leadership styles, as well as to examine the independent and combined effects of these variables on the TAKS Mathematics achievement scores of elementary students. School leadership affects every aspect of an institution. Studies reveal that the…

  19. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching

  20. Leadership and Teamwork in Trauma and Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menchine

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders.  Methods: We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1 how leadership affects patient care; 2 which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3 methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results: We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs

  1. Determining Effective Leadership Behaviors for USAF Company Grade Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Warren

    1998-01-01

    ... (Yukl and Van Fleet, 1986). The purpose of this investigation is to determine the critical leadership behaviors required by junior officers at the direct level of responsibility in the USAF, and to determine differences...

  2. Role of Transformational Leadership in Effective Organizational Knowledge Creation Practices: Mediating Effects of Employees' Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kolb, Judith A.; Lee, Ung Hee; Kim, Hye Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Engagement as an area of increasing interest has been discussed in terms of a wide array of organizational policies, practices, and outcomes. This study focuses on a specific aspect of work engagement and its relationship with leadership practices and the outcome of knowledge creation. The mediating effect of employees' work engagement level was…

  3. Effect of Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction Among Critical Care Nurses in Aseer, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Alshahrani, Fawaz Musaed; Baig, Lubna A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of transformational and transactional leadership styles of head nurses on the job satisfaction of staff nurses in critical care units (CCU) of a tertiary care hospital. Cross-sectional study. Critical care units at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), Abha, Saudi Arabia, from July to December 2012. The multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ-5X) and job satisfaction survey with demographics were used. Staff nurses (N=89) reporting to 8 nurse leaders responded as per the requirements of MLQ-5X and also filled the job satisfaction survey. ANOVA, correlation coefficient (Pearson r) and multiple linear regression were used for analyses. All nurse leaders demonstrated a combination of transactional (TA) and transformational (TF) style of leadership. Nurses working under leaders with a TF style demonstrated significantly (p style of leadership. Pay, fringe benefits and nature of work were not related to the style of leadership. The nurses were moderately satisfied with their work and 23% of the variation in nurses' job satisfaction could be explained by the head nurses 6 leadership facets with positive effect of professional support, intellectual motivation, management by correction and their laissez faire style. The study emphasized the importance of TF style of head nurses for increasing staff nurses' job satisfaction. It is suggested that nurse leaders should be trained in TF style of leadership and provided more support and training for effective management of CCU.

  4. Leadership and Governance in Regional Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2015-01-01

    the idea that market-led governance offers a superior model of leadership for regional tourism. This paper adopts an embedded case study approach, undertaking a comparison of leadership in two RTOs that are operating in the same geographical location but under different governance regimes. Semi...... dimensions of governance such as participation, efficiency, legitimacy, accountability, effectiveness and transparency influence a RTO’s capacity to lead, good governance and strong leadership were not necessarily synonymous. RTOs can demonstrate varying levels of effectiveness in different dimensions...... of governance and leadership can be strong in some aspects and weak in others at the same time. The paper argues for a more nuanced approach to understanding governance and leadership....

  5. Collaborative wisdom from pervasive logic to effective operational leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Greg Park argues that corporate superstars collapse not primarily due to poor products, inadequate market penetration, financial mismanagement or self-aggrandisement, but rather by a leadership lacking the fundamental values, principles, perspectives, attributes and capabilities for long term organisational survival. The resultant inadequate cognitive mental process of leadership invites inevitable failure, through loss of confidence, motivation, cohesion, advocacy and energy amongst the community of stakeholders. Collaborative wisdom is the existence within the dominant coalition of an organi

  6. Leadership styles of business school deans and their perceived effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ahlam Ali

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Leadership as a concept has been an area of significance for several decades. While the contribution of research to leadership concept in the industry has been substantial the same cannot be claimed with regard to the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). There is a paucity of research studies in the context of HEIs, particularly in regard to business schools. Deans of business schools were...

  7. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.

  8. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.

  9. The effect of gender on transformational leadership and job satisfaction among Saudi nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed G; Topp, Robert; AlYami, Mansour S

    2018-01-01

    To compare nurses' job satisfaction and perceptions of transformational leadership style of their manager among four different nurse/manager gender dyads in Saudi Arabia. Women and men differ on many behavioural characteristics and are influenced by the cultural environment. Understanding these differences may have an impact on leadership behaviours and job satisfaction. A descriptive analysis of one-time survey data collected in 2011 from Saudi nurses employed in six general public hospitals located in three cities. Three hundred and eight (51.3%) of 600 Saudi nurses solicited to participate completed anonymous questionnaires that measured their job satisfaction and perceptions of transformational leadership style of their manager. Factorial ANOVA tested the main effects of gender of the nurse, gender of the manager and the interaction term on the nurse's job satisfaction, and perceived transformational leadership style of their manager. These analyses indicated a main effect of gender of the manager on both job satisfaction and perceived transformational leadership style of the manager (p job satisfaction and perceived transformational leadership style of their manager when their manager was male. These findings contrast with what other researchers have reported that nurse job satisfaction and perceived leadership characteristics of their manager are independent of the gender of the manager. These perceptions of Saudi nurses may be a result of "sex-role spillover" in a male-dominated, gender-segregated society. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relationship between leadership styles of hospital pharmacists and perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C R; Grussing, P G; Hutchinson, R A; Stewart, J E

    1988-08-01

    Relationships between hospital pharmacists' perceptions of their own and their immediate supervisors' leadership styles and their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units were examined. Pharmacists practicing in 12 large Chicago-area hospitals were asked to complete a four-part questionnaire that consisted of demographic questions, the LEADSelf instrument, the LEADOther instrument, and a measure of perceived work unit effectiveness. Respondents' primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and their degree of style adaptability were determined and compared with the primary, secondary, and combination leadership styles and style adaptability of their immediate supervisors and with their perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units. Pharmacists involved in providing clinical or drug information services and pharmacists responsible for purchasing activities perceived their work units to be most and least effective, respectively. Most respondents perceived their primary leadership style to be high task-high relationship, but only 32% perceived their immediate supervisors to exhibit this style. Pharmacists who perceived their immediate supervisors to have high relationship leadership styles (based on primary and combination style classifications) had significantly more favorable perceptions of the effectiveness of their work units than did pharmacists who perceived their supervisors to exhibit low relationship styles. Respondents' perceptions of their supervisors' style adaptability were positively and significantly correlated with their perceptions of work-unit effectiveness. Respondents who thought their supervisors' leadership styles were more adaptable than their own had the most favorable perceptions of work-unit effectiveness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Transformational Leadership and the New Zealand Defence Force: Supporting Effective Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Psychological Capital, and Performance.” Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 15, no. 4 (May 2009): 353-367. Harms, Peter D., and Marcus...TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND THE NEW ZEALAND DEFENCE FORCE: SUPPORTING EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE A thesis...Force: Supporting Effective Organizational Change 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major Ian

  12. Leader Affect and Leadership Effectiveness: How leader affective displays influence follower outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to uncover the relationship between leader affective displays and leadership effectiveness. Five empirical studies were conducted to test the influence of several leader affective displays on different follower outcomes that indicate leadership effectiveness. The results showed that leader happy displays enhance followers’ creative performance, whereas leader sad displays enhance followers’ analytical performance. In addition, a leader displaying ha...

  13. The effects of leadership and ward factors on job satisfaction in nursing homes: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Anders K; Skogstad, Anders; Veenstra, Marijke; Romøren, Tor I

    2011-12-01

    To examine (1) the relationships between job satisfaction and task- and relationship-oriented leadership and (2) the direct and moderating effects on job satisfaction of three ward-level factors: workload, use of teams and staff stability. Job satisfaction in nursing homes is vital to meeting the challenges related to recruitment and turnover. Cross-sectional design. A multilevel analysis approach was used to recognise a hierarchal structure of determined factors and to capture variation in job satisfaction at the individual and ward level. A questionnaire was sent to 444 registered nurses, auxiliary nurses and unskilled nursing assistants. Structured interviews were administered to 40 ward managers and 13 directors, and 900 hours of field observations was conducted in 40 nursing home wards throughout Norway. We found a significant relationship between job satisfaction and task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership styles, with a stronger effect for task orientation. The effect of the two leadership styles varied significantly across wards. Furthermore, staff stability had both a significant positive direct effect and a moderating effect on job satisfaction, whereas the two other ward-level predictors yielded no significant contributions. The relatively stronger effect of task-oriented leadership on job satisfaction, particularly in wards with low staff stability, is in contrast to most previous studies and suggests that there may be specific conditions in nursing homes that favour the use of this leadership style. The varying effect of both leadership styles indicates that staff in different nursing home wards could benefit from the use of different leadership styles. The study highlights the importance of using different leadership behaviour and the importance of high staff stability to ensure job satisfaction among nursing home personnel. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Leadership effectiveness in Higher Education: Managerial self-perceptions versus perceptions of others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie H.H. Herbst

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study reported here explores the relationship between managerial selfperceptions and perceptions of others (the manager’s direct supervisor, peers and subordinates with regard to leadership effectiveness (LE in a group of managers in the context of a South African university undergoing a merging process.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of selfperception accuracy amongst the managers and to explore the patterns of interaction between self-perception accuracy (regarding their leadership behaviour and perceived transformational leadership behaviour (as measured by composite ‘other’-ratings.Motivation of the study: Research has shown that managers in various work environments typically overestimate their own level of competence and that this could impact on the effectiveness of their leadership behaviour. This phenomenon has however not yet been researched in the context of South African higher education institutions.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative cross-sectional study of the relationship between self-perception accuracy and leadership effectiveness was conducted amongst the total population (N = 204 of staff members in management positions. The response rate was 67% and the realised sample consisted of 137 managers. Leadership behaviour was measured by means of behavioural ratings on the following five dimensions of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI: ‘Challenging the process’, ‘Inspiring a shared vision’, ‘Enabling others to act’, ‘Modelling the way’ and ‘Encouraging the heart’.Main findings: Statistically significant discrepancies were found between self- and observer ratings on all five leadership dimensions, indicating a probable overestimation of their own capabilities. Results further provide evidence that perceived leadership effectiveness on three of the five transformational leadership practices varied as a function of the

  15. Developing a model for effective leadership in healthcare: a concept mapping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargett CW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles William Hargett,1 Joseph P Doty,2 Jennifer N Hauck,3 Allison MB Webb,4 Steven H Cook,5 Nicholas E Tsipis,4 Julie A Neumann,6 Kathryn M Andolsek,7 Dean C Taylor6 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Feagin Leadership Program, 3Department of Anesthesiology, 4School of Medicine, 5Department of Neurosurgery, 6Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 7Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Purpose: Despite increasing awareness of the importance of leadership in healthcare, our understanding of the competencies of effective leadership remains limited. We used a concept mapping approach (a blend of qualitative and quantitative analysis of group processes to produce a visual composite of the group’s ideas to identify stakeholders’ mental model of effective healthcare leadership, clarifying the underlying structure and importance of leadership competencies.Methods: Literature review, focus groups, and consensus meetings were used to derive a representative set of healthcare leadership competency statements. Study participants subsequently sorted and rank-ordered these statements based on their perceived importance in contributing to effective healthcare leadership in real-world settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of individual sortings was used to develop a coherent model of effective leadership in healthcare.Results: A diverse group of 92 faculty and trainees individually rank-sorted 33 leadership competency statements. The highest rated statements were “Acting with Personal Integrity”, “Communicating Effectively”, “Acting with Professional Ethical Values”, “Pursuing Excellence”, “Building and Maintaining Relationships”, and “Thinking Critically”. Combining the results from hierarchical cluster analysis with our qualitative data led to a healthcare leadership model based on the core principle of Patient

  16. Effectively strengthen party leadership over the work of family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This article tells of the steps taken by the party committee of T'ai-hu Fishery Commune in Wu-hsi municipality, Kiangsu, to strengthen the Party's leadership over family planning. The key lies in realizing how important family planning is to the state, the collective, and the individual. It is important to the state and the collective because, with fewer children, women's hands are freed to help men increase productivity. It is important to the individual becuase, with fewer people to look after, each family will have more to spend to raise their standard of living. Next the committee tried to change thought patterns. They encouraged late marriage and family planning. They tried to convince people to give up outmoded ideas such as it being preferable to have sons rather than daughters; that the more children one has, the greater the support; and that giving birth is a private matter of minor importance. The committee then enlisted the aid of the medical personnel in the commune. At first reluctant to regard family planning as part of their job, they later worked constantly to publicize to the masses the significance of family planning and hygiene. Some members of the commune were sterilized. After a few years the effects of the family planning programs began to show. Of 383 couples with reproductive potential, 345 practice family planning. Over 95% of the unmarried young people plan to marry late. It is estimated that this year's birthrate may drop to 10 or less per 1000.

  17. Transformational Leadership and Innovative Climate: An Examination of the Mediating Effect of Psychological Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnak, Mesut; Kuruoz, Mehmet; Polat, Betül; Soylu, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most important characteristic of today's organizations is too much change. The demand of organizations to fulfill objectives within dynamic environmental aspects has required strong leadership. Organizations' accommodation to changes, generating new ideas, adapting these ideas to organizations, and also the individual and…

  18. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  19. The Effect of Implicit-Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PFT) on benevolent leadership. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses herein. The results, based on a sample of 241 leader-follower dyads from four Chinese family firms, indicated the following: (1) benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP is congruent with follower PFT than when they are incongruent; (2) in cases of congruence, benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP and follower PFT are both high rather than low; (3) in the case of incongruence, there is no significant difference for the level of benevolent leadership in two scenarios: "low leader PFP - high follower PFT" and "high leader PFP - low follower PFT".

  20. The Effect of Implicit–Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PFT) on benevolent leadership. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses herein. The results, based on a sample of 241 leader–follower dyads from four Chinese family firms, indicated the following: (1) benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP is congruent with follower PFT than when they are incongruent; (2) in cases of congruence, benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP and follower PFT are both high rather than low; (3) in the case of incongruence, there is no significant difference for the level of benevolent leadership in two scenarios: “low leader PFP – high follower PFT” and “high leader PFP – low follower PFT”. PMID:27375514

  1. Effects of a veterinary student leadership program on measures of stress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A; Truscott, Marla L; St Clair, Lisa; Klingborg, Donald J

    2007-01-01

    Assuming leadership roles in veterinary student governance or club activities could be considered an added stressor for students because of the impact on time available for personal and academic activities. The study reported here evaluated the effects of participation in a leadership program and leadership activity across two classes of veterinary students on measures of stress, using the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP), and on veterinary school academic performance, measured as annual grade-point average (GPA) over a three-year period. Program participants and their classmates completed the DSP three times across the first three years of veterinary school. On average, participating students reported self-declared stress levels that were higher and measured DSP stress levels that were lower than those of the general population. Students were more likely to assume elected or appointed leadership roles while in their first three years of the veterinary degree program if they participated in the optional leadership program and demonstrated lower stress in several dimensions. Some increased stress, as measured in some of the DSP stress dimensions, had a small but statistically significant influence on professional school GPA. The study determined that the most important predictors of students' cumulative GPA across the three-year period were the GPA from the last 45 credits of pre-veterinary coursework and their quantitative GRE scores. The results of the study indicate that neither participation in the leadership program nor taking on leadership roles within veterinary school appeared to influence veterinary school academic performance or to increase stress.

  2. Self-vs.-Teammate Assessment of Leadership Competence: The Effects of Gender, Leadership Self-Efficacy, and Motivation to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Collier, Daniel A.; Zehr, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    A sample (N = 81) of undergraduates participating in a semester-long team-project engineering course completed assessments of their leadership competence, motivation to lead, and leadership self-efficacy, as well as the leadership competence of their peers who served within their durable teams. Results indicated that peers scored students lower…

  3. Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-01

    Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.

  4. Physiotherapy managers' perceptions of their leadership effectiveness: a multi-frame analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Emer; Walsh, Cathal; Stokes, Emma

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership frames of physiotherapy managers in Ireland. To be effective leaders in today's challenging healthcare environment physiotherapy managers must employ a comprehensive, adaptable and balanced leadership style. This was a purposive, cross-sectional study. Physiotherapy managers were surveyed using the Bolman and Deal Leadership Orientations Instrument. The survey was administered to members of the Chartered Physiotherapists in Management employment group (n=73) of the Irish Society of Chartered Physiotherapists via email. Forty-five physiotherapy managers responded to the survey to give a response rate of 62%. The human resource frame was the most frequently used (61%) and the political frame was the least (9%). The majority of respondents reported using only one or no frames at all (65%). When asked about their effectiveness as a manager 33% of respondents (n=14) gave themselves the top rating of 5, whereas 19% of respondents (n=8) gave themselves the top rating for their leadership effectiveness. There was a statistically significant trend between the number of leadership frames a physiotherapy manager used and their perceived effectiveness as a manager (T JT =380, z=1.975, p=0.048) and as a leader (T JT =431, z=3.245, p=0.001). The physiotherapy managers' use of the human resource frame demonstrates that they see the building of relationships as key to effective leadership. Development of physiotherapy managers' underused skills through appropriate leadership development training may enhance their leadership skill set and make them more confident as leaders. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A SURVEY OF SELECTED SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN IKOSI-KETU COUNCIL DEVELOPMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Obiwuru Timothy C.; Okwu, Andy T.; Akpa, Victoria O.; Nwankwere, Idowu A.

    2011-01-01

    This study has investigated the effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small scale enterprises. The major objective was to determine effect of leadership styles on performance in small scale enterprises. Transformational and transactional leadership styles were considered in this study. Transformational leadership behaviours and performance/outcome considered relevant in the study were charisma, inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation/individual considerati...

  6. Analysis of the effect of leadership and organizational culture on the organizational effectiveness of radiological technologist's working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, C.S.; Kim, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present ideas to upgrade job performance and improve organizational management by analyzing leadership aspects and organizational cultures of radiological technologist organizations. Method: A questionnaire was used to collect data from 261 radiological technologists working in the city of Busan. Then, SPSS/PC + Win 13 was used to statistically analyze the collected data. One-way ANOVA was adopted to test differences among groups, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of organizational culture and leadership upon organizational effectiveness. Results: First, it was found that radiological technologists stressed consensus most among the 4 types of organizational culture and regarded core transformational leadership as the right type of leadership. Second, regarding the relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness, transformational leadership had the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness. Third, as for the relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, it was found that a developmental culture has the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness, followed by a culture of consensus. Conclusion: If transformational leadership and consensual culture are used properly for upgrading job performance in the organization, conflicts among radiological technologists might be reduced, thereby enhancing organizational effectiveness.

  7. Adding to Leader-Follower Transactions: The Augmenting Effect of Charismatic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    AUGMENTING EFFECT OF ChARISMATIC LEADERSHP DAVID A. WALDMAN, BERNARD M. BASS, and FRANCIS J. YAMMARINO School of Management and Center for Leadership...Kanungo, R. N. 1987. Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12: 637-647...Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. 1988. The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice, Academy of Management Review, 13: 471-482. Dansereau

  8. Requirements for effective academic leadership in Iran: A Nominal Group Technique exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Sohrabi, Zohreh; Masiello, Italo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last two decades, medical education in Iran has shifted from elite to mass education, with a considerable increase in number of schools, faculties, and programs. Because of this transformation, it is a good case now to explore academic leadership in a non-western country. The objective of this study was to explore the views on effective academic leadership requirements held by key informants in Iran's medical education system. Methods A nominal group study was c...

  9. Chinese Traditionality Matters: Effects of Differentiated Empowering Leadership on Followers’ Trust in Leaders and Work Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S-L; Huo, Y; Long, L-R

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of the integrative model of organizational trust, this study proposes a multi-level model for whether, how, and when differentiated empowering leadership influences followers’ trust in leaders and their work outcomes. Drawing on a sample of 372 followers from 97 teams in China, it was found that the negative effect of differentiated empowering leadership on followers’ trust in leaders became salient when followers’ Chinese traditionality was low. Moreover, followers’ trus...

  10. The Effect of Transformational Leadership Behavior on Organizational Culture: An Application in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Aydogdu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, conducted on 96 employees from production sector in a pharmaceutical company, the effect of transformational leadership behavior on organizational culture is investigated to determine statistically significant relations. The results of the study support the hypotheses. Transformational leadership behavior has a positive and significant correlation between the components of organizational culture such as long / short term orientation, masculinity / feminity, power distance, individualism / collectivisim and uncertainity avoidance.

  11. The Effects of Increasing Female Leadership at Teck Resources Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn McIlwee

    2015-01-01

    Teck Resources is Canada’s largest diversified mining company with operations in North and South America and exploration projects worldwide. Teck’s overall leadership is currently comprised of 19.2% women; broken down into management (21.8%), senior management (10%) and executive roles (4.5%). Females make up 14.3% of Teck’s Board of Directors. This project evaluates the challenges and opportunities Teck will face in order to increase female leadership. The assessment identified that with a c...

  12. The effect of a nurse team leader on communication and leadership in major trauma resuscitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Alana; Curtis, Kate; Horvat, Leanne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and resuscitation of trauma patients requires an organised, multidisciplinary team. Literature evaluating leadership roles of nurses in trauma resuscitation and their effect on team performance is scarce. To assess the effect of allocating the most senior nurse as team leader of trauma patient assessment and resuscitation on communication, documentation and perceptions of leadership within an Australian emergency department. The study design was a pre-post-test survey of emergency nursing staff (working at resuscitation room level) perceptions of leadership, communication, and documentation before and after the implementation of a nurse leader role. Patient records were audited focussing on initial resuscitation assessment, treatment, and nursing clinical entry. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Communication trended towards improvement. All (100%) respondents post-test stated they had a good to excellent understanding of their role, compared to 93.2% pre-study. A decrease (58.1-12.5%) in 'intimidating personality' as a negative aspect of communication. Nursing leadership had a 6.7% increase in the proportion of those who reported nursing leadership to be good to excellent. Accuracy of clinical documentation improved (P = 0.025). Trauma nurse team leaders improve some aspects of communication and leadership. Development of trauma nurse leaders should be encouraged within trauma team training programmes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager leadership styles and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Jesus; Parker, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    To explore the correlations of leadership styles of nurse managers (NMs) and outcomes.   Little is known about the linkages among leadership styles [transformational (TFL), transactional (TRL)] of NMs and outcomes [a leader's extra effort (LEE), leadership satisfaction (LS) and effectiveness (LE)] using the full-range leadership theory. Methods  An exploratory correlational design was employed using data from a 2007 study in which staff nurses (n = 278) from four hospitals in the Northeastern US were asked to rate the leadership styles of NMs (n = 37) and outcomes using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5x-Short. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. TFL leadership has strong correlations to LEE, LS and LE, and was a predictor for leadership outcomes. Conversely, TRL leadership has week correlations to LEE, LS and LE and did not predict leadership outcomes. NMs who frequently display TFL leadership styles will probably achieve goals in a satisfying manner, warranting further research. TFL leadership training should be a basic competency requirement of NMs. Placing successful and effective TFL leaders in nursing units are the professional and moral obligations of nurse executives. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. School Business Leadership: The Small School District Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefbauer, Christi J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is on everyone's mind this presidential election year as the country's citizens look for a strong candidate to guide them through the next four years. Effective leadership is just as critical in the nation's school districts where people prepare their young people to be the global citizens of tomorrow. In most school…

  15. Does relational leadership generate organizational social capital? A case of exploring the effect of relational leadership on organizational social capital in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyaba Akram; Shen Lei; Syed Talib Hussain; Muhammad Jamal Haider; Muhammad Waqar Akram

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relational leadership on organizational social capital. Three forms of organizational social capital namely structural, relational and cognitive organizational social capital are used as dependent variables. Using self- administered questionnaire, Data of 240 employees was collected from an IT company in China. Data was analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results of this study suggested that relational leadership ...

  16. Leadership for Effective Teacher Training Transfer in Kuwaiti Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Ilene K.; Sperandio, Jill

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study undertaken to examine the links between leadership practices of a transformational nature and the transfer of teacher training in the public high schools in Kuwait. The participants in the study were teachers who had undergone mandated professional development (PD) aimed at improving teaching…

  17. Improve Organizational Effectiveness, Culture, and Climate Through Servant Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    doctrine establishes the foundation to build servant leadership behaviors into practical application within organization level units. Army culture ...into practical application within organization level units. Army culture provides the existing conditions required for the model of servant...honorable service, trust, and stewardship of the profession.8 The third challenge is that Army culture reinforces a results-based organization

  18. Results from school leadership effectiveness studies (2005-2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Steen, Rien; Scheerens, J; Scheerens, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter an overview is presented of recent studies in which the impact of school leadership on student achievement was investigated. The technique of meta-analysis was used to synthesize the results of 25 studies published between 2005 and 2010. In the meta-analysis both studies exploiting

  19. Leading for Learning: Leadership Practices of Effective Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Do school boards have a role in student achievement? Recent research suggests that they do. This article identifies 12 board of education leadership practices associated with higher levels of student achievement: creating a vision, using data, setting goals, monitoring progress and taking corrective action, creating awareness and urgency, engaging…

  20. Self and Followers' Assessment of Leadership Effectiveness: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... power used by the leader, his role in establishing and leading teams and his emotional intelligence. To this ... assessed by different groups of followers – management team members, senior and junior ... Leadership environment is made up of the kind of followers, working culture of the organization and ...

  1. Regulatory focus and burnout in nurses: The mediating effect of perception of transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Zhang, Shilei; Xu, Hang; Liu, Xufeng; Miao, Danmin

    2015-12-01

    This correlation study investigated the relationship between nurses' regulatory focus and burnout, as mediated by their perceptions of transformational leadership, using a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires. In July-August 2012, data were collected from 378 nurses from three hospitals in Shaanxi Province, China, using self-report questionnaires for measuring the nurses' regulatory focus, their level of burnout and their perception of whether the leadership of their supervisor was transformational. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping procedures were used to identify the mediating effect of their perceptions of transformational leadership. The results supported our hypothesized model. The type of regulatory focus emerged as a significant predictor of burnout. Having a perception of transformational leadership partially mediated the relationship between regulatory focus and burnout. Having a promotion focus reduced burnout when the participants perceived transformational leadership, whereas having a prevention focus exhibited the opposite pattern. The mediating effect of the perception of transformational leadership suggests that a promotion focus may help diminish burnout, directly and indirectly. Nurse managers must be aware of the role of a regulatory focus and cultivate promotion focus in their followers. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The impact of mindfulness on leadership effectiveness in a health care setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Holton, Judith; Azar, Rima; Cook, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of mindfulness awareness practice (MAP) on mid-level health-care managers' leadership. In total, 11 mid-level health-care managers in eastern Canada took part in an intensive weekend retreat and a follow-up webinar on mindfulness awareness. Perceived stress and leadership effectiveness were assessed pre- and post-intervention (i.e. four and eight weeks). A control group (n=10) also completed the same measures twice. Additionally, informants (n=28) provided assessments of participants' leadership pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews were carried out with eight participants 12-16 weeks post-intervention. In comparison to controls, retreat participants showed significant increases in mindfulness and corresponding decreases in stress that were sustained across eight weeks post-retreat; retreat participants reported significant positive changes in their leadership effectiveness that were corroborated by informants. Qualitative data, however, suggest that sustaining a mindfulness practice presents significant challenges to middle managers in a health care setting. The findings are useful to management working in health services that are plagued by increasing demands and changes. Despite the small sample and lack of random assignment, the pilot data support the efficacy of MAP in improving leadership. Little empirical research supports the claim that MAP enhances leadership. The present study employed a mixed methods approach to address this gap and demonstrates the potential benefits of MAP among mid-level managers.

  3. A social work study on the effect of different factors on leadership style: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Jannesari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style plays an important role on job satisfaction in educational systems. In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and examines ten hypotheses including the effects of personality trait neuroticism, extroversion, resilience, participative, conscientiousness on job satisfaction. The study also investigates the impacts of transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style and Laissez – fair leadership style on job satisfaction. Finally, the study considers the relationship between personality trait neuroticism and transformational leadership style as well as personality trait extraversion and transformational leadership style. The study uses Pearson correlation test and verify that nine out of ten hypotheses have been confirmed and the relationship between Laissez – fair leadership style and job satisfaction is not confirmed.

  4. Certain relativistic effects due to strong electromagnetic fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, N.L.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the propagation of a strong electromagnetic wave in an electron plasma can lead to a generation of a constant electron current along the direction of propagation and to a large increase in the average electron density. (Auth.)

  5. Transformational leadership: effect on the job satisfaction of Registered Nurses in a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Nantsupawat, Raymoul

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between the transformational leadership of nurse managers and job satisfaction among clinical Registered Nurses at a tertiary care hospital in China. The healthcare system is changing rapidly. Research in Western countries has shown that transformational leadership affects job satisfaction. However, very little research related to this subject has been conducted in healthcare settings in China. The sample consisted of 238 nurses who work at a tertiary care hospital in China. Data were collected from April to August 2006. Research instruments included a demographic data form, a Leadership Practice Inventory and a Job Satisfaction Scale for clinical registered nurses. Both the transformational leadership of nurse managers and job satisfaction among clinical Registered Nurses were at a moderate level. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the transformational leadership of nurse managers and job satisfaction (r = 0·556, P transformational leadership of nurse managers could have an effect on the job satisfaction of clinical Registered Nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Nurses' Innovation Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Afsaneh; Akbari, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on nurses' innovation work behavior and its dimensions. This cross-sectional study employed the 10-item Innovation Work Behavior Questionnaire and the 8-item Entrepreneurial Leadership Questionnaire to explore the impact of entrepreneurial leadership on the innovation work behavior of 273 nurses from public and private hospitals in Iran. Entrepreneurial leadership had a significant positive impact on nurses' innovation work behavior and most strongly improved idea exploration, followed by idea generation, idea implementation, and idea championing. Entrepreneurial leadership was effective in enhancing nurses' innovation work behavior. More attention needs to be focused on developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies and on developing nurse leaders. Healthcare policies and strategies are needed to facilitate the implementation of entrepreneurial leadership by providing healthcare leaders with the appropriate environment. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Effective Field Theories and Strong Interactions. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Effective Field Theories (EFTs) allows us to describe strong interactions in terms of degrees of freedom relevant to the energy regimes of interest, in the most general way consistent with the symmetries of QCD. Observables are expanded systematically in powers of M lo /M hi , where M lo (M hi ) denotes a low-(high-)energy scale. This organizational principle is referred to as 'power counting'. Terms of increasing powers in the expansion parameter are referred to as leading order (LO), next-to-leading order (NLO), etc. Details of the QCD dynamics not included explicitly are encoded in interaction parameters, or 'low-energy constants' (LECs), which can in principle be calculated from an explicit solution of QCD - for example via lattice simulations- but can also be determined directly from experimental data. QCD has an intrinsic scale M QCD ≅ 1 GeV, at which the QCD coupling constant α s (M QCD ) becomes large and the dynamics becomes non-perturbative. As a consequence M QCD sets the scale for the masses of most hadrons, such as the nucleon mass m N ≅ 940 MeV. EFTs can roughly be divided into two categories: those that can be matched onto QCD in perturbation theory, which we call high-energy EFTs, and those that cannot be matched perturbatively, which we call low-energy EFTs. In high-energy EFTs, M QCD typically sets the low-energy scale, and all the dynamics associated with this scale reside in matrix elements of EFT operators. These non-perturbative matrix elements are the LECs and are also referred to as long-distance contributions. Each matrix element is multiplied by a short-distance coefficient, which contains the dynamics from the high scale M hi . Since M hi >> M QCD , α s (M hi ) hi ∼ M Q , the heavy-quark mass, and in addition to M QCD there are low scales associated with the typical relative momentum ∼ M Q v and energy ∼ M Q v 2 of the heavy quarks. Depending on the sizes of M Q and the heavy-quark velocity v these scales can

  8. Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chia-Yen Chad; Owens, Bradley P; Tesluk, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Gender and perceptions of leadership effectiveness: a meta-analysis of contextual moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian-Underdahl, Samantha C; Walker, Lisa Slattery; Woehr, David J

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that men are typically perceived as more appropriate and effective than women in leadership positions, a recent debate has emerged in the popular press and academic literature over the potential existence of a female leadership advantage. This meta-analysis addresses this debate by quantitatively summarizing gender differences in perceptions of leadership effectiveness across 99 independent samples from 95 studies. Results show that when all leadership contexts are considered, men and women do not differ in perceived leadership effectiveness. Yet, when other-ratings only are examined, women are rated as significantly more effective than men. In contrast, when self-ratings only are examined, men rate themselves as significantly more effective than women rate themselves. Additionally, this synthesis examines the influence of contextual moderators developed from role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002). Our findings help to extend role congruity theory by demonstrating how it can be supplemented based on other theories in the literature, as well as how the theory can be applied to both female and male leaders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Can Servant Leaders Fuel the Leadership Fire? The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Followers’ Leadership Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lacroix; Armin Pircher Verdorfer

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidanc...

  11. How strong and generalisable is the Generation Y effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Remaud, Hervé; Chabin, Yann

    2011-01-01

    alcoholic beverage consumption. A number of noticeable differences appeared between countries: wine involvement and consumption increases with age in traditional European wine markets, while they decrease in North America; environmental concerns and purchase channel usage hardly differ between generations......Purpose – This study aims to investigate how strongly Generation Y consumers differ in their values, attitudes and wine and alcoholic beverage consumption behaviour from older generations. The comparison spans seven culturally different markets. Design/methodology/approach – Large representative...

  12. Effects of participation in the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program on women faculty's perceived leadership capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn C; Jackson, Gregg B; Morahan, Page S

    2004-04-01

    This study measured the impact of participation by women academics in the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program as part of a robust evaluation agenda. The design is a classic pre/post, within-group, self-report study. The survey elicits self-perception about leadership in ten constructs: knowledge of leadership, management, and organizational theory; environmental scanning; financial management; communication; networking and coalition building; conflict management; general leadership; assessment of strengths and weaknesses; acceptance of leadership demands; and career advancement sophistication. The post surveys inquire additionally about perceived program usefulness. Data were collected from 79 participants (1997-98, 1998-99, and 2000-01 classes). Response rates were nearly 100% (pre) and 69% to 76% (post). Statistically significant increases (p leadership capabilities were identified across all ten leadership constructs. Gains were large in knowledge of leadership and organizational theory, environmental scanning, financial management, and general leadership. Gains in career building knowledge were large to moderate. More modest were gains in communication, networking, and conflict management. There were significant correlations between each leadership construct and perceived usefulness of the program. Significant improvements were reported on all leadership constructs, even when participants viewed themselves as already skilled. While it cannot be concluded that participation in ELAM directly and solely caused all improvements, it seems unlikely that midcareer women faculty would improve on all ten constructs in 11 months after program completion by natural maturation alone. Future research will investigate whether the changes are due to ELAM or other factors, and assess whether participants show more rapid advancement into leadership than comparable women not participating in ELAM.

  13. EFFECT OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP ON THE CORRUPTION IN THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONOV Oleksandr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to the fact that corruption in one country can affect the situation in other states. A number of top managers worldwide who are willing to pay bribes to keep or expand their business is increasing. However, the most common and dangerous corruption is in the government structures and corruption that associated with the use of administrative resources. The level of corruption in Ukraine is very high and remained stable for the past ten years. One of the factors of increasing corruption in Ukraine is considered the problem of political leadership. Using the Y.Engvalya theory of corruption allows re-evaluating mass and rationality of what is happening, indicates the fallacy of traditionally definition of corruption as unacceptable for majority. Existing corruption model today can be recognized as a widespread one, which significantly increases the role of political leadership. Implementation of new management standards is an important task for many states.

  14. The evolving radiology landscape: the importance of effective leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, Giles W.L.; Guimaraes, Alexander S.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in technology and imaging techniques have propelled radiology into the centre of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. However, all this success has come at a price, with radiology departments persistently struggling to keep up with increasing demand. In response, radiologists in many countries are giving up an increasing proportion of their traditional workload, often driven by teleradiology, causing them to become less visible within their organizations. As such, radiologists now risk being viewed as commodities by their peers. The failure to meet the increasing stakeholder expectations is, at least in part, due to lack of radiology leadership. While the drivers for the radiology profession and the organizational structures for radiologists vary from country to country, this article will discuss the characteristics of good leadership and how these can be used to ensure radiologists remain centre stage in the provision of high-quality clinical care in any healthcare environment. (orig.)

  15. The evolving radiology landscape: the importance of effective leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, Giles W.L.; Guimaraes, Alexander S.; Mueller, Peter R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Advances in technology and imaging techniques have propelled radiology into the centre of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. However, all this success has come at a price, with radiology departments persistently struggling to keep up with increasing demand. In response, radiologists in many countries are giving up an increasing proportion of their traditional workload, often driven by teleradiology, causing them to become less visible within their organizations. As such, radiologists now risk being viewed as commodities by their peers. The failure to meet the increasing stakeholder expectations is, at least in part, due to lack of radiology leadership. While the drivers for the radiology profession and the organizational structures for radiologists vary from country to country, this article will discuss the characteristics of good leadership and how these can be used to ensure radiologists remain centre stage in the provision of high-quality clinical care in any healthcare environment. (orig.)

  16. Sources of motivation, interpersonal conflict management styles, and leadership effectiveness: a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Xu, Ye

    2006-02-01

    126 leaders and 624 employees were sampled to test the relationship between sources of motivation and conflict management styles of leaders and how these variables influence effectiveness of leadership. Five sources of motivation measured by the Motivation Sources Inventory were tested-intrinsic process, instrumental, self-concept external, self-concept internal, and goal internalization. These sources of work motivation were associated with Rahim's modes of interpersonal conflict management-dominating, avoiding, obliging, complying, and integrating-and to perceived leadership effectiveness. A structural equation model tested leaders' conflict management styles and leadership effectiveness based upon different sources of work motivation. The model explained variance for obliging (65%), dominating (79%), avoiding (76%), and compromising (68%), but explained little variance for integrating (7%). The model explained only 28% of the variance in leader effectiveness.

  17. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  18. Effective nursing leadership of older persons in the community - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne Lise; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to increase the knowledge of developing effective nursing leadership and management in order to improve the outcomes of older persons in the community. There is a need for increased knowledge of nursing leadership and management in order to improve the outcomes of older persons in the community. A review of the literature published in different databases between January 2000 and May 2012 was conducted. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated by means of thematic content analysis. Six themes were identified: Ability to change the attitudes towards older persons; Building trust; Ensuring efficacy in management decisions; Lack of knowledge about how to overcome relational challenges; Health system collaboration to achieve goals and visions; and Staff members' experiences of the meaning of and possibility to influence their work, all of which are of importance for effective nursing leadership and management in the care of older persons. Advanced nursing knowledge is necessary in order to improve the work and vision involved in nursing leadership and management. Findings indicate that relational and organisational abilities are necessary components of effective nursing leadership and management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of nurses' ethical leadership and ethical climate perceptions on job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Dilek; Arslan, Gülşah Gürol; Ertuğrul, Büşra; Karakaya, Salih

    2017-01-01

    The development of ethical leadership approaches plays an important role in achieving better patient care. Although studies that analyze the impact of ethical leadership on ethical climate and job satisfaction have gained importance in recent years, there is no study on ethical leadership and its relation to ethical climate and job satisfaction in our country. This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effect of nurses' ethical leadership and ethical climate perceptions on their job satisfaction. The study sample is composed of 285 nurses who agreed to participate in this research and who work at the internal, surgical, and intensive care units of a university hospital and a training and research hospital in İzmir, Turkey. Data were collected using Ethical Leadership Scale, Hospital Ethical Climate Scale, and Minnesota Satisfaction Scale. While the independent sample t-test, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze the data, the correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the scales. Ethical considerations: The study proposal was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University. The nurses' mean scores were 59.05 ± 14.78 for the ethical leadership, 92.62 ± 17 for the ethical climate, and 62.15 ± 13.46 for the job satisfaction. The correlation between the nurses' ethical leadership and ethical climate mean scores was moderately positive and statistically significant (r = +0.625, p = 0.000), was weak but statistically significant between their ethical leadership and job satisfaction mean scores (r = +0.461, p = 0.000), and was moderately positive and statistically significant between their ethical climate and job satisfaction mean scores (r = +0.603, p = 0.000). The nurses' ethical leadership, ethical climate, and job satisfaction levels are moderate, and there is a positive relationship between them. The nurses' perceptions of ethical

  20. MODERN CONCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS: GENERAL AND SPECIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ksenofontova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whatever people do in large or small social groups, the question always arises: what factors determine the effectiveness of these groups and what are specific features of group management? While studying in largely the same, researchers from different scientific schools and various sciences put attention to different objects and use different terminology: some say the leadership styles, some speak about the managerial style, other – about the particularities of leadership, and the third about self-managed teams. The main leadership factors, distinguished by researchers, form the model subject of study or complement and clarify the “basic” model of relevant scientific schools. In the first case the model is often expressed schematically, while the second it is more often described verbally. The difficulty of comparing models of different schools, usually lead to either the conceptual rejection of their bases, or disregard to many significant models because of their anticipated heterogeneity. So the task of this article is to overcome the apparent incompatibility of the different authors’ approaches, it allows “not multiply entities” and seek deep similarity of ideas developed over many decades by different researchers. Using the schematic pairwise comparison of numerous models of management and leadership, the author reveals the conceptual validity of some components and possible redundancy (from a historical perspective of others. When this is considered in detail the transition from 1D to 2D, and then to 3D models of leadership-management and related models: Lajkert’s continuum, managerial grid of Blake-Mouton, model of Aristotle, styles by Lewin, Tannenbaum-Schmidt and Hersey-Blanchard, two theories of McGregor, model of managerial competencies and levels of Covey leadership development, strategies in conflict of Thomas-Kilmann and cubic cultural-values model of leadership from Zankovsky. Particular attention is paid to the

  1. Spin effects in strong-field laser-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, S; Bauke, H; Müller, T-O; Villalba-Chávez, S; Müller, C

    2013-01-01

    The electron spin degree of freedom can play a significant role in relativistic scattering processes involving intense laser fields. In this contribution we discuss the influence of the electron spin on (i) Kapitza-Dirac scattering in an x-ray laser field of high intensity, (ii) photo-induced electron-positron pair production in a strong laser wave and (iii) multiphoton electron-positron pair production on an atomic nucleus. We show that in all cases under consideration the electron spin can have a characteristic impact on the process properties and their total probabilities. To this end, spin-resolved calculations based on the Dirac equation in the presence of an intense laser field are performed. The predictions from Dirac theory are also compared with the corresponding results from the Klein-Gordon equation.

  2. The Effects Of Transactional Leadership Upon Organizational Identification: A Case Of Travel Agencies In Adana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Erdoğan Morçin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of transactional leadership styles upon organizational identificationin group A travel agencies researched. Group A travel agents operating in the Eastern Mediterranean region explored and most studied agent identified as the province is Adana with a lot of practice. 86 groups A of travel agency serving those agents are actively operating in the province of Adana have been identified and 153 employees work in these agencies applied for data collection. As a result, there is a relationship between transactional leadership and organizational identification has emerged and it effects organizational identification. According to the results of t-test and analysis of variance perspective of demographic characteristics transactional leadership and organizational identification among the undifferentiated attitudes has emerged.

  3. Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.

  4. Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)

  5. Effects of the Virtual Environment on Online Faculty Perceptions of Leadership: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how faculty members, teaching in the virtual environment of higher education, perceived the effectiveness of leader actions to understand how principles of existing leadership theory in critical areas such as communication effectiveness, development of trust, and ability to motivate faculty…

  6. Characteristics of Leadership Effectiveness: Implementing Change and Driving Innovation in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Ann; Dixon, Pamela; Gilley, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that numerous variables impact a leader's effectiveness. In this study, the authors explore leadership effectiveness in driving change and innovation, along with the precursory skills necessary to do so. The findings confirm previously identified low rates of organizational success with change and point to skill deficiencies as…

  7. Gwinnett County Public Schools: A Systemic Approach to Scaling Effective School Leadership. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George W. Bush Institute, Education Reform Initiative, 2015

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness among educators and policymakers that effective school leaders are critical to school success and student achievement. Many studies illustrate the important benefits of effective school leadership for teachers, pointing to the significant influence on teacher satisfaction, development, and retention. This case study…

  8. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader prototypicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push

  9. Multilevel Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness in Indian Technical Education: The Mediating Role of Communication, Power and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochhayat, Jyotiranjan; Giri, Vijai N.; Suar, Damodar

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a new conceptualization of educational leadership with a multilevel and integrative approach. It examines the impact of multilevel leadership (MLL) on the effectiveness of technical educational institutes through the mediating effects of organizational communication, bases of power and organizational culture. Data were…

  10. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  11. The Connect Effect Building Strong Personal, Professional, and Virtual Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dulworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneur and executive development expert Mike Dulworth's THE CONNECT EFFECT provides readers with a simple framework and practical tools for developing that crucial competitive advantage: a high-quality personal, professional/organizational and virtual network.

  12. Testing the effects of an empowerment-based leadership development programme: part 1 - leader outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, M; Dahinten, V S; Hejazi, S; Laschinger, H; Kazanjian, A; McCutcheon, A; Skelton-Green, J; O'Brien-Pallas, L

    2014-01-01

    To determine if a leadership development programme based on an empowerment framework significantly increased leaders' use of empowering behaviours. Leadership programmes are effective ways to prepare nurse leaders for their complex roles. Relational competencies, such as leader empowering behaviours, are associated with improved leader, staff and practice environment outcomes. A quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test design was used to compare perceptions and self-reported behaviours of leaders who participated in a year-long leadership programme with those of similar leaders who did not attend the programme. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate a conceptual framework of leader empowerment. The leadership programme was directly associated with leaders' perceptions of using more empowering behaviours. Leader empowering behaviours were also associated with feelings of being structurally empowered, mediated through feelings of being psychologically empowered, although the source of empowerment needs further investigation. Leaders' use of empowering behaviours can be increased through focused training and through a workplace empowerment process. Leader empowering behaviours have been shown to be associated with more engaged staff and healthier work environments. Based on study results, we suggest that these behaviours are teachable, and they should be emphasized in leadership development programmes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effective bounds on strong unicity in L1-approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo B.

    In this paper we present another case study in the general project of Proof Mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation (developed in [17]) t...

  14. Identification of Effective Leadership Indicators in Ghanaian Retail Banks Using AMOS-Based Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanda, Aminu; Kuada, John

    2013-01-01

    In the light of the importance of banks to the economic growth process in Ghana, this study sought to identify the determinants of effective leadership style that is appreciated by employees in retail banking firms in Ghana, towards providing practitioners with crucial information that could enable...... them make informed decisions towards improving the workplace. Using data collected from employees in eleven firms which were analyzed using the AMOS programme, minimum was achieved for the leadership measurement model and the goodness of fit statistics showed that the overall model fit quite well...... and taking care of their complaints as well as putting in place systems for enhancing employees’ career advancement into specialist departments or management positions are also perceived as good determinant of leadership. It is therefore hypothesized that managers of retail banks in Ghana could be perceived...

  15. Leadership practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    5. Top executives identify 'effective leadership' as the single most determinant of organizational success. (Greenberg 2005). Great leaders throughout history have been known to inspire society's goals. Effective leaders do .... are asked to rate their level of satisfaction or the effectiveness of the leader. Subordinates may be ...

  16. Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby

    2017-01-01

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species......’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...

  17. Effect of strong fragrance on olfactory detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Douglas, David Dayo; Adeosun, Aderemi Adeleke; Steinbach, Silke; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the olfactory threshold of healthy volunteers at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to investigate the effect of perfume on their olfactory detection thresholds. A quasi-experimental study on olfactory detection thresholds of healthy volunteers from September 2013 to November 2013. Tertiary health institution. A structured questionniare was administered to the participants in order to obtain information on sociodemographics, occupation, ability to perceive smell, use of perfume, effects of perfume on appetite and self-confidence, history of allergy, and previous nasal surgery. Participants subjectively rated their olfactory performance. Subsequently, they had olfactory detection threshold testing done at baseline and after exposure to perfume with varied concentrations of n-butanol in a forced triple response and staircase fashion. Healthy volunteers, 37 males and 63 females, were evaluated. Their ages ranged from 19 to 59 years with a mean of 31 years ± 8. Subjectively, 94% of the participants had excellent olfactory function. In the pre-exposure forced triple response, 88% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration while in the post-exposure forced triple response, only 66% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration. There is also a statistical significant difference in the olfactory detection threshold score between the pre-exposure and post-exposure period in the participants (P fragrances affects the olfactory detection threshold. Therefore patients and clinicians should be aware of this and its effects on the outcome of test of olfaction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Stirling engines using working fluids with strong real gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Costante M.

    2010-01-01

    Real gas effects typical of the critical region of working fluids are a powerful tool to increase the energy performances of Stirling cycles, mainly at low top temperatures. To carry out the compression near the critical region the working fluids must have a critical temperature near environmental conditions and the use of organic working substances (pure or in suitable mixtures) as a matter of fact begins compulsory. The moderate thermal stability of the organic working fluids limits the maximum temperatures to 300-400 deg. C and as a consequence, the achievable cycles efficiencies result rather low. Carbon dioxide, with a critical temperature of 31 deg. C, is, among the traditionally inorganic gases, an exception and is considered here in comparison with organic substances. But the good thermodynamics of the cycles allows, in the considered cases, conversion efficiencies of about 20%, with good specific powers. The good energy performance of real gas Stirling cycles is obtained at the cost of high maximum cycle pressure, in the range of at least 100-300 bar. These high pressures nevertheless have large positive effects on the heat power transferred per unit of pumping mechanical power, and the low top temperatures have a positive influence on the material problems for the hottest engine parts.

  19. Effects of Inclusive Leadership on Employee Voice Behavior and Team Performance: The Mediating Role of Caring Ethical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging research field of leadership, inclusive leadership reflects the new style of leadership demanded by researchers and practitioners. Is it a leadership style that can better integrate employees and organizations and adapt to new complex management situation? Based on theories of social exchange, organizational support, and self-determination, this study investigated the impact of inclusive leadership on employee voice behavior and team performance through caring ethical climate. We evaluated the model with a time-lagged data of 329 team members from 105 teams in six cities in China. Results indicated as following: inclusive leadership was positively correlated with employee voice behavior at the individual level and team performance at the team level; caring ethical climate mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee voice behavior at the individual level, as well as mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and team performance at the team level. This study revealed the mechanism of the positive cross-level effects of inclusive leadership on the caring ethical climate, employee voice behavior, and team performance. These findings also provided important contributions for human resource management and practice.

  20. Strong surface effect on direct bulk flexoelectric response in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, A. S.; Tagantsev, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of a continuum theory, it is shown that the direct bulk flexoelectric response of a finite sample essentially depends on the surface polarization energy, even in the thermodynamic limit where the body size tends to infinity. It is found that a modification of the surface energy can lead to a change in the polarization response by a factor of two. The origin of the effect is an electric field produced by surface dipoles induced by the strain gradient. The unexpected sensitivity of the polarization response to the surface energy in the thermodynamic limit is conditioned by the fact that the moments of the surface dipoles may scale as the body size

  1. Learning by Doing in Leadership Education: Experiencing Followership and Effective Leadership Communication through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…

  2. Effectiveness of a Leadership Development Program That Incorporates Social and Emotional Intelligence for Aspiring School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Núñez, María Trinidad; Patti, Janet; Holzer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Focus on social and emotional intelligence competencies to improve effective leadership has become commonplace in the corporate arena and is now considered by many a prerequisite to successful job performance and outcomes (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009; Grant, Curtayne, & Burton, 2009; Spence & Grant, 2007; Kampa-Kokesch…

  3. Mediated Leader Effects: The Impact of Newspapers’ Portrayal of Party Leadership on Electoral Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaldering, Loes; van der Meer, Tom; Van der Brug, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that party leaders matter in democratic elections. As very few voters have direct contact with party leaders, media are voters’ primary source of information about these leaders and, thus, the likely origin of leader effects on party support. Our study focuses on these supposed electoral effects of the media coverage of party leaders. We examine the positive and negative effects of specific leadership images in Dutch newspapers on vote intentions. To this end, we combine an extensive automated content analysis of leadership images in the media with a panel data set, the Dutch 1Vandaag Opinion Panel (1VOP), consisting of more than fifty thousand unique respondents and 110 waves of interviews conducted between September 2006 and September 2012. The results confirm that media coverage of party leaders’ character traits affects voters: Positive mediated leadership images increase support for the leader’s party, while negative images decrease this support. However, this influence is not unconditional: During campaign periods, positive leadership images have a stronger effect, while negative images no longer have an impact on subsequent vote intentions. PMID:29527251

  4. Using Film to Elucidate Leadership Effectiveness Models: Reflection on Authentic Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Diana; Andrew, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how students in a third year management unit at a university of technology in Australia evaluate the usefulness of film as a tool for developing a deeper understanding of the theoretical leadership effectiveness model developed by Robbins (1997). The study reviews the range of studies describing the use of films in teaching…

  5. The Relationship of Self-Awareness to Leadership Effectiveness for Experienced Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between leaders' self-awareness and their effectiveness. The population included leaders with at least five years of experience in a leadership role. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling methods; the researcher used a diverse network of professionals to recruit other…

  6. Does good leadership buffer effects of high emotional demands at work on risk of antidepressant treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally demanding work has been associated with increased risk of common mental disorders. Because emotional demands may not be preventable in certain occupations, the identification of workplace factors that can modify this association is vital. This article examines whether effects of emoti...... of emotional demands on antidepressant treatment, as an indicator of common mental disorders, are buffered by good leadership....

  7. Integrating the Beliefs of Dewey, Lewin, and Rogers into a Rationale for Effective Group Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a rationale for effective group leadership grounded in John Withall's articulation of selected beliefs of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Carl Rogers. Teachers and administrators need more and better preparation in collaborative inquiry. Knowledge and skills in collaborative inquiry should undergird the successful functioning of groups of…

  8. Effects of Diversity Experiences on Socially Responsible Leadership over Four Years of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eugene T., III; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2013-01-01

    Regarding collegiate experiences, several studies have examined the effects of diversity experiences on educational, psychosocial, and other college outcomes (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). However, there exists a limited body of research, which has focused on the impact of those types of experiences on leadership development among students…

  9. The Effectiveness of an Embedded Approach to Practicum Experiences in Educational Leadership: Program Candidates' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Mary; Chan, Tak Cheung; Jiang, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how effective an embedded practicum experience in an educational leadership program in a Southeastern University is in serving the purpose of preparing educational leaders to meet future challenges. Findings of this study confirm practicum areas that met the educational demands and highlight areas that need improvement to…

  10. A profile of effective leadership in some South African high-poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The struggle of high-poverty schools for survival is well documented. Some have overcome poverty-related odds and performed exceptionally well, prompting the following research question: What elements constitute a profile of effective leadership in high-poverty schools? Investigations conducted at six successful

  11. Providing Academic Leadership in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria: Assessment of Departmental Heads' Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuegwu, Basil A.; Nwi-ue, Felix D.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed Heads of Departments' effectiveness in providing academic leadership at the departmental level. I research question and 2 hypotheses were formulated to give direction to this investigation. Survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 110 Heads of Departments from 2 universities in Cross River…

  12. Effects of the Leadership Roles of Administrators Who Work at Special Education Schools upon Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effects of the leadership roles of administrators who work at special education schools upon organizational climate. This research has been conducted using the case study technique, which is a kind of qualitative research approach. The study group of this research consists of four administrators including three…

  13. The Effect of Political Decentralization on School Leadership in German Vocational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Ashmawy, Iman K.

    2016-01-01

    In this explorative qualitative study the effect of political decentralization on vocational school leadership is investigated. Through conducting structural interviews with 15 school principals in the states of Bremen and Lower Saxony in Germany, the study was able to conclude that political decentralization entails the creation of elected bodies…

  14. Deromancing leadership: what are the behaviours of highly effective middle managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weide, J.G.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Title: Deromancing leadership: what are the behaviours of highly effective middle managers? Author: Joost Van der Weide, Celeste Wilderom Address: University of Twente, Department of Management and Organizational Behaviour, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. ' University of Twente,

  15. Effects of Leadership Practices on Professional Learning Communities: The Mediating Role of Trust in Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yin, Hongbiao; Liu, Yuan; Ke, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The building of professional learning communities has been widely recognized as an effective strategy for schools wanting to improve student performance and enhance teachers' professional capacity. This study explored the relationship between leadership practices and professional learning communities, with a particular focus on the mediating role…

  16. Innovative Pathways for Effective E-Governance in Africa: The Imperative of Authentic Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwyns Agbude

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolving concept of e-governance has become one of the leading praxis of the 21st Century. This again reinforces, not just the importance of governance in human societies, but the need to redefine, reappraise, reinvent and redirect the path of governance towards effective and efficient service delivery. The paradigm of Science and Technology therefore presents the leading edge in our contemporary world thereby validating the viability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in governance at diverse levels of operations. This paper, employs secondary data and presents the position that in the light of the fact that e-governance covers areas such as government, citizens and businesses/interest groups, the central place of leadership that will authenticate trust and confidence in the effective delivery of the e-governance protocols therefore becomes an imperative. In the gamut of literature on leadership, this paper identifies authentic leadership as a necessary condition that will facilitate effectiveness and efficiency of e-governance. This paper concludes that since there is a human dimension to the process of e-governance, creating innovative pathways for its effectiveness in Africa calls for authentic leadership which emphasizes constructive and developmental interactions between leaders and followers.

  17. Mediated Leader Effects: The Impact of Newspapers' Portrayal of Party Leadership on Electoral Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaldering, Loes; van der Meer, Tom; Van der Brug, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that party leaders matter in democratic elections. As very few voters have direct contact with party leaders, media are voters' primary source of information about these leaders and, thus, the likely origin of leader effects on party support. Our study focuses on these supposed electoral effects of the media coverage of party leaders. We examine the positive and negative effects of specific leadership images in Dutch newspapers on vote intentions. To this end, we combine an extensive automated content analysis of leadership images in the media with a panel data set, the Dutch 1Vandaag Opinion Panel (1VOP), consisting of more than fifty thousand unique respondents and 110 waves of interviews conducted between September 2006 and September 2012. The results confirm that media coverage of party leaders' character traits affects voters: Positive mediated leadership images increase support for the leader's party, while negative images decrease this support. However, this influence is not unconditional: During campaign periods, positive leadership images have a stronger effect, while negative images no longer have an impact on subsequent vote intentions.

  18. The Effects of Family Leadership Orientation on Social Entrepreneurship, Generativity and Academic Success of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Nuri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of family leadership orientation on social entrepreneurship, generativity and academic education success were examined with the views of college students. The study was conducted at a state university in Central Anatolia in Turkey. 402 college students who attending at three different colleges voluntarily participated in…

  19. The Situational Leadership Approach Effects on Employee Motivation in Multi-Generational Information Technology Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Thaddaeus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the three generations comprising today's IT organizations to determine whether the Situational Leadership approach is effective in motivating this diverse work force to perform project-related tasks. Baby Boomer employees, Generation X employees, and Generation Y employees are the three generations actively employed in IT…

  20. Moderating Effects of Employee Expectancies on the Relationship between Leadership Consideration and Job Performance of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Richard D.; Neel, C. Warren

    1974-01-01

    Ninety-four engineers were asked to describe their supervisors' leadership style, to indicate their expectancies whether performing effectively in their jobs would lead to job rewards and the valence of these rewards. Results indicated that leader consideration and employee expectancies operate in joint fashions to affect job performance. (Author)

  1. Effect of Principals' Leadership Style on Teachers' Attitude to Work in Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbesan, Sunday O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate why some principals prefer to embrace certain leadership styles and the effect of such styles on the teachers' attitude to work. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of teachers and principals from the secondary schools in Abeokuta…

  2. Effect of Distributive Leadership Behaviours of Foreign Language Schools' Principals on the Job Satisfaction of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriögen, A.; Iscan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of distributive leadership behavior of foreign language schools' principals on the job satisfaction of instructors. Sample size of 416 instructors working in foreign language school for the academic year 2013 to 2014 was used in the study. The data was gathered using questionnaires tag…

  3. The Effect of Vocational High School Administrators' Leadership Behaviors on Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Said

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of vocational high school administrators' leadership behaviors on teacher job satisfaction. The study group of the research consists of 21 technical teachers who work at vocational high schools in the city of Isparta. The data obtained have been analyzed by calculating the frequency,…

  4. Female Leadership and School Effectiveness in Junior High Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agezo, Clement Kwadzo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine female principal leadership practices that are considered crucial in the effectiveness and improvement of schools and school administration in Ghanaian junior high schools. Design/methodology/approach: The study was qualitative and interpretive. Five principals of junior high schools were…

  5. Participative Leadership and the Organizational Commitment of Civil Servants in China: The Mediating Effects of Trust in Supervisor

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Qing; Newman, Alexander; Schwarz, Gary; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether participative leadership engenders organizational commitment among Chinese civil servants, and analyzes the mechanisms by which it transmits its effects. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling revealed that there was a significant relationship between supervisor-level participative leadership and the affective and normative commitment of subordinates, but no relationship with continuance commitment. Affective trust was identified as th...

  6. A longitudinal study of the effects of charismatic leadership and organizational culture on objective and perceived corporate performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; van den Berg, P.T.; Wiersma, U.J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of charismatic leadership and organizational culture on perceived and objective company performance using a longitudinal design. Employees (N = 1214) in 46 branches of a large Dutch bank rated branch management on charismatic leadership, organizational culture in

  7. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  8. The Effects of Transformational Leadership and the Sense of Calling on Job Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Zimmerli, Laurie; Hoffer, Harry E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effects of transformational leadership of supervisors and the sense of calling on job burnout among special education teachers. A total of 256 special education teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and rated their supervisors on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results reveal that transformational…

  9. School Leadership Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  10. The League of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…

  11. Implicit leadership theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdulhadi, A.; Schyns, B.; Staudigl, L.F.

    2017-01-01

    For over a hundred years, leadership has been an interesting topic for scholars and practitioners who try to understand what makes a good leader and effective leadership. Even today, the word "leadership" appears in the media almost every day and seems to remain in the centre of attention at least in the foreseeable future. This is due to the inherent belief that leadership is important for organisations and individuals to overcome challenges and make positive outcomes materialise. However, a...

  12. Subtractive Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, K. H.; Thomas, Eugene M.; Larwin, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new term and concept to the leadership discourse: Subtractive Leadership. As an extension of the distributive leadership model, the notion of subtractive leadership refers to a leadership style that detracts from organizational culture and productivity. Subtractive leadership fails to embrace and balance the characteristics…

  13. Integrating leadership: The Leadership Circumplex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, M.; de Vries, R.E.; Rouckhout, D.; Vermeren, P.; de Fruyt, F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to integrate leadership conceptualizations into one overarching model, using a "leadership circumplex". Two studies describe the construction and examine the psychometric characteristics of an operationalization of the leadership circumplex, the Circumplex Leadership Scan

  14. Leadership Development in China: How the Companies Develop Their Leaders and What Critical Factors Contribute to Enhancing the Effectiveness of Leadership Development Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, June Xuejun; Rothwell, William J.; Vicere, Albert A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how companies in China develop their leaders and what critical factors contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of leadership development practices. This study adopted a multiple-case study design. Four companies--ABB, BenQ, Lenovo and Motorola were studied. The findings suggest that the four companies in China develop…

  15. How Graduate-Level Preparation Influences the Effectiveness of School Leaders: A Comparison of the Outcomes of Exemplary and Conventional Leadership Preparation Programs for Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Margaret Terry; Orphanos, Stelios

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to determine the influence of exemplary leadership preparation on what principals learn about leadership, their use of effective leadership practices, and how their practices influence school improvement and the school's learning climate. The authors also investigated how the frequency of effective leadership…

  16. Professional development and leadership training opportunities for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Roberta E

    2013-11-01

    Formal leadership training is a relatively recent addition to the educational armamentarium of the health care executive. Leadership training opportunities for physicians, surgeons, and scientists have gradually appeared over the past 15 to 20 years, but information about them has been scant, with few comprehensive reviews made available to the community at large. This article describes the major opportunities available to obtain formal and informal leadership training for careers in medical school administration. Programs that are specifically targeted to women are described in detail. Information was obtained from the author's direct knowledge, direct communication with the leadership of each program, and the Web site of each sponsoring organization, when available. Many opportunities for leadership training are now available to surgeons, with several specifically designed for women. The author strongly encourages surgeons to avail themselves of these opportunities, as both anecdotal information and published data suggest that these programs are highly effective in enhancing leadership careers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative Effects of Makeup Use on Perceptions of Leadership Ability Across Two Ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Esther A; Jenkins, Shauny; Watkins, Christopher D

    2018-01-01

    Cosmetics alter social perceptions, and prior work suggests that cosmetic use may aid female intrasexual competition, making women appear more dominant to other women but more prestigious to other men. It is unclear whether these findings reflect general improvements in perceptions of traits related to women's dominance or if they are specific to mating contexts only. Here, across two ethnicities, we examined effects of cosmetics used for a social night out on perceptions of women's leadership ability, a trait that denotes competence/high status outside of mating contexts. Participants of African and Caucasian ethnicity judged faces for leadership ability where half of the trials differed in ethnicity (own- vs. other-ethnicity face pairs) and the subtlety of the color manipulation (50% vs. 100%). Regardless of the participant's sex or ethnicity, makeup used for a social night out had a negative effect on perceptions of women's leadership ability. Our findings suggest that, in prior work, women are afforded traits related to dominance, as makeup enhances perceptions of traits that are important for successful female mating competition but not other components of social dominance such as leadership.

  18. Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Ping Fung

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more project teams are formed to achieve organizational objectives as organizations generally recognized the importance and benefits of project teams. However, in order to ensure project teams perform effectively, project managers need to learn and exhibit some of the leadership roles proposed by Quinn (1988) as these roles can impact the project team effectiveness. The current study developed a research model underpinned on Cohen and Bailey (1997) team effectiveness framework...

  19. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader prototypicality

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push subordinates to a higher performance level than non-self-sacrificing leaders, and these effects were expected to be more pronounced for less prototypical leaders than for more prototypical leaders. T...

  20. Self and Followers' Assessment of Leadership Effectiveness: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    driving force for other aspects of development because human resources are .... quality management (TQM) programs, automating existing processes with ... performance. Business process reengineering needs continuous improvement hence requires strong follow up, monitoring and evaluation for its sustainability.

  1. Development of managerial leadership skills

    OpenAIRE

    VEJVODOVÁ, Klára

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the most important theoretical approaches of leadership, describes the main styles leadership styles and task of managers in the organization, influences on the effectiveness of leadership, and how to develop leadership skills. The practical part applies this knowledge in practice and provides the particular company guidance of management development on the basis of data collected by questionnaire survey.

  2. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccetta-Chapnick, M

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes in the health care system have caused competition among institutions, as organizations are restructured to increase client satisfaction, resulting in the need for a new style of leadership. The transformational leader communicates the mission and vision of the organization and empowers others to effectively resolve conflicts that may arise with change. The health care team that can cope with changes and conflicts views restructuring as a positive transaction and approaches client satisfaction with energy and motivation. Institutions with transformational leadership are the ones that will survive the transition.

  3. The importance of being ethical. Essential skills for effective leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini-Martin, S; Hanley, K V

    1989-06-01

    The healthcare industry today is in transition from a service industry subject to public regulation to one of self-regulation. The impact of deregulation is severe. Traditional values are being tested; new values are emerging. Can healthcare providers, particularly Catholic providers with their rich history and mission, afford to hang on to traditional values? How do administrators remain competent and compassionate at the same time? Perhaps the time is right to institute corporate ethics to serve as a lifeline for healthcare leaders much in the same way that clinical ethics has served clinicians. The mix of values to which a corporation is committed forms a foundation for practicing corporate ethics. For instance, a corporation can develop means for information gathering and ethical reflection that can shape policy and decisions. Six practical principles for exercising corporate ethics are (1) the chief executive officer is committed to corporate ethics as a management method, (2) the corporation's mission and values are continuously scrutinized to see that they are understood and owned, (3) those responsible for governance and management develop structures and leadership styles consistent with the corporation's value system, (4) the policy-making and decision-making processes include specific ways to ensure that the corporation carefully weighs values as part of business decisions, (5) the corporation evaluates and rewards all employees according to value-driven performance standards, and (6) corporate policy and performance are evaluated annually to determine where the corporation is consistent with its mission and values and where it needs improvement.

  4. [Influence of Nurse Managers' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Focused on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Han Gyo; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship of nurse managers' authentic leadership, with nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The participants in this study were 273 registered nurses working in five University hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The measurements included the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Korea-Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation coefficients, simple and multiple regression techniques with the SPSS 18.0 program. Mediation analysis was performed according to the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test. There were significant correlations among authentic leadership, empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Empowerment showed perfect mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. It had partial mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction. In this study, nurse managers' authentic leadership had significant influences on nurses organizational commitment and job satisfaction via empowerment. Therefore, to enhance nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction, it is necessary to build effective strategies to enhance nurse manager's authentic leadership and to develop empowering education programs for nurses.

  5. EFFECT OF TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE, MOTIVATION AND COMPETENCE TO PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES PT. SANJAYATAMA LESTARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jublina Oktora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective is to conduct a systematic examination Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Style, Motivation and Competence to Employee Performance PT. Sanjayatama Lestari. The samples used were employees of PT. Sanjayatama Lestari the number of respondents as many as 95 people. The analysis used is multiple linear regression. This study examined five variables: Transactional Leadership Style (X1, Transformational Leadership Style (X2, motivation (X3 and Competence (X4 as the independent variable and the performance (Y as the dependent variable. Partial test shows that the transactional leadership style influenced by 3.876 (positive and significant on the performance. Transformational leadership style also influenced significantly by 3.128. Furthermore, the motivation also has a significant influence amounted to 4.210 and the latter is the competence of significant influence amounted to 6.283.

  6. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  7. Military leadership with an operational effect in asymmetric operations - A new military leadership training concept in a new world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Jakob Rømer

    2015-01-01

    Until the fall of the Berlin Wall the Danish Defence was primarily trained in conducting symmetric military operations. With the change of Danish foreign politics and following participating in international operations, especially in Iraq and Afghanistan, the patterns of operations changed....... As tactics, doctrines, technologies and procedures had to be developed and changed, there was also a need for developing the approach to leadership. Suddenly the challenges in the operations were not only IEDs, ambushes, shootings and deprivation of families, but also leadership challenges in military staffs...

  8. Education as a springboard for transformational leadership development: listening to the voices of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Lee A

    2014-02-01

    Nurses must assume a transformational leadership role in increasing the quality, safety, access, and value in the health care system. To lead effectively in this transformation process, nurses must be prepared for leadership roles. A strong leadership knowledge based acquired through education provides the springboard for nursing leadership competency development. This metasynthesis of 27 studies provided a broad understanding of the contribution and effectiveness of education for leadership competency from the perspective of nurses who have experienced it. Four overarching themes emerged: evidence-based relevant content, optimized learning strategies, benefits to the learner and others, and tensions and threats to the application of learning. This study affirms the value of a strong educational foundation for nursing leadership. With the support of a firm, yet flexible, educational platform, nurses will be positioned to more effectively lead and partner in health care transformation.

  9. Leadership, leadership, wherefore art thou leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Charlie G

    2004-06-01

    Leadership is an elusive concept. Although no one best definition exists, some common characteristics, such as charisma and influence, tend to dominate most discussions on leadership qualities and traits. This article presents an overview of the findings of and pitfalls in research on leadership, in its varied and multifaceted contexts. It explores both personal and contextual attributes of leadership.

  10. Leadership Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschneider, Bret N.

    2016-01-01

    The study of leadership is characterized by an expanding set of definitions of the term leadership. Some scholars even set out to know leadership by the identification of traits or behaviors of good leaders. However, the scientific study of leadership requires the identification of a causal theory of leadership. The scientific belief in causation…

  11. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  12. Leadership wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a good leader starts with effectively leading yourself. Good leadership flows from good followership. While leaders need to be adaptive, they need to make sure that change is actually necessary and not merely the illusion of progress. Effective juggling of leadership responsibilities requires identifying the glass balls and making sure that they do not drop. Leaders need to be visible and be out front, especially when things get rough or when they are the most perilous. Anger should never be allowed to reign and cloud a leader's judgment. Leadership is not "one size fits all," those being led are unique and, consequently, different approaches will be necessary to properly motivate followers. When considering important leadership decisions, it is advisable to seek out your own Napoleon's Corporal to be sure that your plan is sound and those who will implement it do in fact fully understand it. Genuine belief in your Soldiers is the most powerful and lasting thing that you can express as a leader. Lastly, mentoring is a solemn responsibility of leaders that must never be eclipsed by the many literal and figurative battles of the day.

  13. Leadership styles and occupational stress among college athletic directors: the moderating effect of program goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, Todd A

    2002-03-01

    The interaction between an individual's abilities and the perceived demands of the workplace appears to make a unique contribution to job-related stress above and beyond that of dispositional or situational factors alone (R. S. Lazarus, 1990). In the present study, the author evaluated this contention among 245 male intercollegiate athletic directors by assessing the combined influence of leadership style and program goals on occupational stress. Regression analyses revealed the presence of both significant main effects and interaction effects of leadership style and program goals in the prediction of emotional exhaustion, daily job stress, and personal accomplishment. Findings are discussed in terms of person-environment fit theory (J. R. P. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the notion of perceived control within the occupational setting.

  14. Health effects on leaders and co-workers of an art-based leadership development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska, Julia; Larsson, Gerry; Eriksson, Maria; Wikström, Britt-Maj; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    There are very few evaluations of the effectiveness of leadership development programs. The purpose of the study was to examine whether an art-based leadership program may have a more beneficial effect than a conventional one on leaders' and their corresponding subordinates' mental and biological stress. Participating leaders were randomized to 2 year-long leadership programs, 1 art-based and 1 conventional, with follow-up of the leaders and their subordinates at 12 and 18 months. The art-based program built on an experimental theatre form, a collage of literary text and music, followed by writing and discussions focused on existential and ethical problems. After 18 months a pattern was clearly visible with advantage for the art-based group. In the art group (leaders and their subordinates together as well as for subordinates only) compared to the conventional group, there was a significant improvement of mental health, covert coping and performance-based self-esteem as well as significantly less winter/fall deterioration in the serum concentration of the regenerative/anabolic hormone dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate. Our findings indicate a more beneficial long-term health effect of the art-based intervention compared to a conventional approach. Positive results for both standardized questionnaires and biological parameters strengthened the findings. The study provides a rationale for further evaluation of the effectiveness of this alternative educational approach. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Understanding the Role and Impact of Effective Country and Community Leadership in Progress Toward the Global Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Charles; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-05-01

    Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress. Interviewees were selected from all levels of traditional hierarchies and sectors to provide a more complete account and representation of leadership, with a particular emphasis on the community, district, and country levels. The leaders interviewed provide insight into their work, motivations, and approaches to effective leadership. Through their experiences, they shed light on the strategies they used to drive changes in policy, programs, practice, and communities that allowed for progress toward the goals of the Global Plan. Leaders also identify future challenges and areas of improvement in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic that they feel require leadership and urgent action. In conclusion, this article identifies common characteristics of effective leadership and reflects on the experiences of individuals who are leaders in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic, and how their lessons learned can be applied to help realize future global public health goals.

  16. How an Effective Leadership and Governance Supports to Achieve Institutional Vision, Mission, and Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher educa...

  17. Effect of Democratic leadership Style on Management of Communication with Customers in Melli Banks of Hamedan

    OpenAIRE

    ALLAFCHI, Naghmeh

    2017-01-01

    Present investigation aims to study the effect of democratic leadership on management of communication with customers in Melli banks in Hamedan city. This study is of applied type and in terms of method is descriptive and of correlative type and in terms of data collection method, it is of quantitative type. Statistical society of the research consists of all staff of Melli banks working in this bank in 2016. Their number is 381. Statistical sample was estimated 192 people using Morgan and Ke...

  18. Organizational culture, leadership style and effectiveness: A case study of middle eastern construction clients

    OpenAIRE

    Alnasseri, Nasser; Osborne, Allan; Steel, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    During the last few decades, organizational effectiveness has received a great deal of attention in many industrial sectors. As a result, a variety of models have been formulated which measure organizational performance. In the construction industry, two factors have subsequently captured the imagination and interest of researchers and practitioners alike: the culture of the organization and the leadership style of project managers. This focus places a requirement upon construction organizati...

  19. What are the effective ways to translate clinical leadership into health care quality improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert McSherry,1 Paddy Pearce2 1School of Health and Social Care, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, 2PKP Consulting, Yarm, United Kingdom Abstract: The presence and/or absence of effective leaders in health care can have a stark consequence on the quality and outcomes of care. The delivery of safe, quality, compassionate health care is dependent on having effective clinical leaders at the frontline. In light of the Kirkup and Francis reports, this article explores some ways of translating clinical leadership into health care quality improvement. This is achieved by exploring what is clinical leadership and why and how this is important to health care quality improvement, clinical leadership, and a duty of candor, along with the importance clinical leadership plays in the provision of quality care improvement and outcomes. Clinical leaders are not predefined roles but emerge from the complex clinical setting by gaining an acquired expertise and from how they then internalize this to develop and facilitate sound relationships within a team. Clinical leaders are effective in facilitating innovation and change through improvement. This is achieved by recognizing, influencing, and empowering individuals through effective communication in order to share and learn from and with each other in practice. The challenge for health care organizations in regard to creating organizational cultures where a duty of candor exists is not to reinvent the wheel by turning something that is simple into something complex, which can become confusing to health care workers, patients, and the public. By focusing on the clinical leader's role and responsibilities we would argue they play a crucial and pivotal role in influencing, facilitating, supporting, and monitoring that this duty of candor happens in practice. This may be possible by highlighting where and how the duty of candor can be aligned within existing clinical governance frameworks. Keywords: governance

  20. What are the effective ways to translate clinical leadership into health care quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Robert; Pearce, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    The presence and/or absence of effective leaders in health care can have a stark consequence on the quality and outcomes of care. The delivery of safe, quality, compassionate health care is dependent on having effective clinical leaders at the frontline. In light of the Kirkup and Francis reports, this article explores some ways of translating clinical leadership into health care quality improvement. This is achieved by exploring what is clinical leadership and why and how this is important to health care quality improvement, clinical leadership, and a duty of candor, along with the importance clinical leadership plays in the provision of quality care improvement and outcomes. Clinical leaders are not predefined roles but emerge from the complex clinical setting by gaining an acquired expertise and from how they then internalize this to develop and facilitate sound relationships within a team. Clinical leaders are effective in facilitating innovation and change through improvement. This is achieved by recognizing, influencing, and empowering individuals through effective communication in order to share and learn from and with each other in practice. The challenge for health care organizations in regard to creating organizational cultures where a duty of candor exists is not to reinvent the wheel by turning something that is simple into something complex, which can become confusing to health care workers, patients, and the public. By focusing on the clinical leader's role and responsibilities we would argue they play a crucial and pivotal role in influencing, facilitating, supporting, and monitoring that this duty of candor happens in practice. This may be possible by highlighting where and how the duty of candor can be aligned within existing clinical governance frameworks.

  1. Leadership Pedagogy: Putting Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Anthony, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Building leadership capacity in college students is both an art and a science. Knowledge of college student development and specifically college leadership development, as well as research in leadership theory and practices, can help college leadership educators become more effective. International Leadership Association (ILA) Guiding Questions…

  2. The Durable Effects of Short-Term Programs on Student Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Caza, Arran

    2012-01-01

    Research involving students (N=612) at a large, research-extensive university who participated in voluntary short-term leadership programs showed an increase in leadership capacity, even when measured three months later. A popular assessment tool, the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS), was used. Not all leadership competency scores…

  3. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND WORK MOTIVATION IN THE APLICATION OF NURSE THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Farida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify effective leadership and the work motivation with the implementation of therapeutic communication, Method: Design used in this study was descriptive design of the correlation with the approach cross sectional study. The population of this study was all of the practising nurse in the in-patient (hospitalized ward at the Dr. Iskak Tulungagung hospital. All datas were taken by using the method of total population of the 98 practising nurses. Result: The result of this study showed that the big proportion of the practising nurses whose ages are less than 30 years old, graduated from Diploma, status are single (unmarried, duration of work was less or same as 6 years, generally never followed a training of communication, whereas effective leadership was in the good category and the category of work motivation wasn’t better. Analysis using chi-square with alpha 0,05 showed that there was relations between the age, old the work, effective leadership and the work motivation and the implementation of therapeutic communication. The marital status and training had not relationship with the implementation of therapeutic communication. Discussion: It is suggested that hospital should encoverage nurse manager to promote therapeutic communication among nurses.

  4. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees’ Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB. PMID:28536550

  5. The Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership and Employees' Deviant Workplace Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Contract Violation and Organizational Cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB.

  6. Efectividad del protagonismo estudiantil Effectiveness of Students' Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Reyes Hernández

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El protagonismo de los jóvenes tiene raíces en nuestra historia. Fueron precisamente jóvenes los que se alzaron contra el colonialismo español y figuras como Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, Ignacio Agramonte y José Martí iluminaron y enseñaron a la generación del centenario encabezada por Fidel Castro a luchar por las ideas de independencia y soberanía, esta misma batalla es la que hoy libran nuestros jóvenes, precisamente por la importancia del protagonismo estudiantil, se realizó un estudio transversal prospectivo en el Instituto Politécnico de Enfermería “Lidia Doce Sánchez” durante el curso 2001 - 2002, nos auxiliamos de la observación de las actividades curriculares y extracurriculares, además de la entrevista a dirigentes estudiantiles, tomamos como universo los 70 estudiantes que fueron matricula del centro y una muestra de 60 estudiantes, conformada con los tres años que cursan estudios, 23 de primero, 25 de segundo y 12 de tercero. Los datos obtenidos se procesaron y se resumieron en tablas estadísticas. Se utilizaron variables como la asistencia y participación a las diferentes actividades, matutinos, vespertinos, información política, programas audiovisuales y otras. Se alcanzaron índices mayores de participación y mayor nivel de calidad y se destacaron con por cientos más significativos los programas audiovisuales, las asambleas integrales y otras actividades, no sólo en el incremento de la asistencia sino también en la calidad de la participaciónThe leadership of young people has deep roots in our history. They were precisely the ones that rebelled against Spanish colonialism, and personalities such as Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Ignacio Agramonte and José Martí illuminated and taught the “Centennial Generation” headed by Fidel Castro to fight for the ideas of independence and sovereignty. This same battle is the one that our youth faces nowadays, but in order to achieve students' protagonism. A

  7. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  8. Leadership Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenschneider, B

    2016-01-01

    The study of leadership is characterized by an expanding set of definitions of the term leadership. Some scholars even set out to know leadership by the identification of traits or behaviors of good leaders. However, the scientific study of leadership requires the identification of a causal theory of leadership. The scientific belief in causation as the common epistemology is the necessary link between the various disciplines interested in leadership (e.g., organizational psychology, statisti...

  9. The effects of leadership competencies and quality of work on the perceived readiness for organizational change among nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Hamad, Sawsan; Darawad, Muhammad; Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-10-02

    Purpose This paper aims to set a leadership guidance program that can promote nurses' knowledge of leadership and, at the same time, to enhance their leadership competencies and quality of work to promote their readiness for change in healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach A pre-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest design was utilized. Out of 90 invited to participate in this study, 61 nurses were accepted to participate. Findings The statistical analyses suggested several significant differences between pre- and in-service nurse managers about leadership competencies, quality of work and readiness for change. Yet, findings from the background characteristics were not found to be significant and had no effects on the perceived readiness for change. Research limitations/implications The present study highlights the importance of leadership competencies and quality of work that healthcare policymakers identify for the success of organizational change efforts. Practical implications Healthcare policymakers, including directors of nursing, should focus on applications that increase leadership competencies and overall satisfaction of the nurse managers to support the changes in hospitals and supporting learning organization. Hence, they should establish policies that decrease the possible negative impact of planned change efforts. Originality/value Competent nurse managers enhance their readiness for change, which in turn helps nurses in constructive change processes. A leadership guidance program should be set for nurse managers. This study has important implications for hospital administrators and directors of nursing.

  10. Emotionally intelligent leadership as a key determinant of strategic and effective management of human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Viskupičová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to outline the strategic importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI in contemporary approaches to management of Human resources (HR. The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual theoretical insight of the relationship between EI and leadership. The paper also reflects the conditions within the present business environment in Slovakia with the emphasis on leadership in the context of EI (based on the research conducted in this field, while answering the following question: To what extent do Slovak organizations incorporate EI measures into the hiring process for managerial positions? The answer to this question would consequently disclose whether organizations in Slovakia consider Emotional Intelligence as a factor determining effective performance of managers – leaders.

  11. Overcoming the four toughest management challenges. Increase your effectiveness by using situational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, S M

    1991-01-01

    The high-pressure work environment of the clinical laboratory presents significant challenges for managers. Often thrust into supervisory roles without formal management training, laboratory managers must find ways to delegate tasks, mediate conflict, minimize office politics, and build effective teams out of employees who may be quite diverse in their experience levels, motivation levels, and cultural backgrounds. This article explores the concept of situational leadership, which was developed by Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey, and its applicability within the clinical laboratory. This practical paradigm involves matching one of four distinct management styles to the four development levels of employees. Each leadership style is explained, along with guidelines for giving performance feedback to employees, so that managers can evaluate their own supervisory styles. Finally, step-by-step recommendations for coping with the four management roles of delegator, referee, influencer, and team builder are presented.

  12. Commitment of Cultural Minorities in Organizations: Effects of Leadership and Pressure to Conform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Joyce; Jehn, Karen A; van Engen, Marloes L; de Reuver, Renée S M

    2010-03-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the commitment of cultural minorities and majorities in organizations. We examined how contextual factors, such as pressure to conform and leadership styles, affect the commitment of minority and majority members. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A field study was conducted on 107 employees in a large multinational corporation. FINDINGS: We hypothesize and found that cultural minorities felt more committed to the organization than majority members, thereby challenging the existing theoretical view that cultural minorities will feel less committed. We also found that organizational pressure to conform and effective leadership increased the commitment of minorities. IMPLICATIONS: Our findings indicate that organizational leaders and researchers should not only focus on increasing and maintaining the commitment of minority members, but should also consider how majority members react to cultural socialization and integration processes. The commitment of minority members can be further enhanced by effective leadership. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: In this study, we challenge the existing theoretical view based on similarity attraction theory and relational demography theory, that cultural minorities would feel less committed to the organization. Past research has mainly focused on minority groups, thereby ignoring the reaction of the majority to socialization processes. In this study, we show that cultural minorities can be more committed than majority members in organizations. Therefore, the perceptions of cultural majority members of socialization processes should also be considered in research on cultural diversity and acculturation.

  13. Effect of Transformational Leadership on the Creativity of Employees: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Teymournejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the accelerated pace of developments and advancements in the current era, organizations which have innovative, change-oriented managers and leaders with a long-term vision are more likely to survive the competitive environment. Undoubtedly, leadership behavior and style considering creativity and innovativeness of employees within the organization as an incentive of organizational change considerably influence employee needs and knowledge. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of transformational leadership involving idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and individualized considerations on organizational creativity of employees in the Maskan Bank in Tehran. This study is an applied research using descriptive data analysis. Data is collected by questionnaires. Correlation is used to analyze the hypotheses. The studied population includes all managers and employees of the Maskan Bank in Tehran Province. Using Cochran formula, 127 employees are selected as a sample. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire are calculated by using expert opinion and Cronbach Alpha. The normal distribution of variables is determined by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and confirmatory factor analysis; hypotheses are tested by using linear structured relationships. All hypotheses are confirmed; that is, transformational leadership as a whole and each of its dimensions, such as idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation have a significant and positive effect on creativity of Maskan Bank employees.

  14. Cultural Values And Leadership Behavior In The United States, Jamaica, And The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Doreen J. Gooden; Robert C. Preziosi

    2011-01-01

    As global companies access business opportunities in other countries, culture and leadership practices become critical issues. Thus, it was timely that this study examined the effects of national culture on leadership behavior of Americans, Jamaicans, and Bahamians. These countries were chosen because of Jamaicas and the Bahamas strong relationship with the United States (economic interdependence). MBA students attending classes in these countries and holding leadership positions within t...

  15. An investigation into the effect of leadership style on stress-related presenteeism in South African knowledge workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben George

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Leadership styles influence knowledge workers’ job-stress-related presenteeism (JSRP and, ultimately, organisational performance. Knowledge workers generally work under strict deadlines in fast-paced, stressful environments, and require organisational support. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine empirically the effect of three leadership styles, namely transformational, transactional and laissez-faire, on job-relatedstress presenteeism in knowledge workers across a number of industries in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Absenteeism has been the subject of much investigation but more research is required into the antecedents and consequences of presenteeism, the phenomenon of employees being physically present at work, but not fully functional and therefore unproductive. Illness as an antecedent to presenteeism has been studied, but limited attention has been given to presenteeism caused by stress. There are very few studies that investigate leadership styles as antecedents for JSRP and this study therefore sets out to provide quantitative evidence of this relationship. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional quantitative approach within the positivism research philosophy. Two questionnaires were administered: the multifactor leadership questionnaire form 6S and the job-related-stress presenteeism questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s product-moment correlation were used to answer the research questions. The participants (N = 242 were knowledge workers, representing 12 widely categorised industries. The researchers analysed job role descriptions to ensure the respondents were all knowledge workers. Main findings: Transformational leadership has a higher negative correlation with JSRP than does transactional leadership, whereas laissez-faire leadership has no significant relationship with job stress or JSRP. Practical/managerial implications: The

  16. The effect of leadership charisma, engagement and group belonging on volunteer work performance: AKUT search and rescue association example

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Caymaz; Fahri Erenel; Burak Gürer

    2013-01-01

    Leadership charisma, has been emphasized in terms of performance improvement by inspiring organization’s values and norms and making employees spend extra effort for oganization’s objectives especially in hospitals and voluntary organizations (Choi, 2006; Etzioni, 1975; Grojean vd., 2004; Pillai ve Meindl, 1998; Shamir vd., 1993; Sims ve Brinkmann, 2002; Yammarino vd., 1993). In previous studies emphasis was usually on the effects of leadership charisma on work performance. Studies in Turkey ...

  17. The Effect of Work Stress and Leadership Styles on Employee Performance PT. Bni (Persero) Tbk. Manado Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Tambalean, Febriany Prichilia

    2014-01-01

    Employees are the human resources of company and its most valuable asset. Company need to concern to all the factors that can affect the performance of their employee. This research is purposed to analyze the effect of work stress and leadership styles on employee performance at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Branch Manado. The study took 50 employees as a sample from PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. The data was analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. Work stress and leadership styles have negative s...

  18. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Fedi; Chiara Rollero

    2016-01-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women ? Study 1 ? and men ? Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with...

  19. An investigation into the effect of leadership style on stress-related presenteeism in South African knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Reuben George; Manoj Chiba; Caren B. Scheepers

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Leadership styles influence knowledge workers’ job-stress-related presenteeism (JSRP) and, ultimately, organisational performance. Knowledge workers generally work under strict deadlines in fast-paced, stressful environments, and require organisational support. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine empirically the effect of three leadership styles, namely transformational, transactional and laissez-faire, on job-relatedstress presenteeism in knowledge w...

  20. Effect of strong electrolytes on edible oils part III: viscosity of canola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of strong electrolytes on the viscosity of canola oil in 1,4 dioxane was undertaken. The viscosity of oil in 1,4 dioxane was found to increase with the concentration of oil and decrease with rise in temperature. Strong electrolytes reduce the rate of flow of oil in 1,4 dioxane. It was noted that amongst these electrolytes, ...

  1. Interpersonal Relationship Skills--Key to Effective Middle School Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Calvin F.; VanHoose, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study comparing the perceptions of principals and teachers toward the performance of instructional leaders. Offers recommendations for improving the principal's effectiveness. (WD)

  2. Leadership in an Egalitarian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393

  3. Anomalous Josephson effect in semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit interaction and Zeeman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio; Nazarov, Yuli

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the Josephson junction using quasi-one dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction, e.g., InSb. First, we examine a simple model using a single scatterer to describe the elastic scattering due to impurities and SO interaction in the normal region.[1] The Zeeman effect is taken into account by the spin-dependent phase shift of electron and hole through the system. The interplay between SO interaction and Zeeman effect results in a finite supercurrent even when the phase difference between two superconductors is zero. Moreover, the critical current depends on its current direction if more than one conduction channel is present in the nanowire. Next, we perform a numerical simulation by the tight-binding model for the nanowire to confirm our simple model. Then, we show that a spin-dependent Fermi velocity due to the SO interaction causes the anomalous Josephson effect.

  4. Teacher Effectiveness through Self-Efficacy, Collaboration and Principal Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Prachee; Nambudiri, Ranjeet; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher effectiveness has been a matter of concern not only for the parents and students but also for the policy makers, researchers, and educationists. Drawing from the "self-efficacy" theory (Bandura, 1977), the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teacher effectiveness. In…

  5. The Impacts of a National Internship Program on Interns' Perceived Leadership, Critical Thinking, and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Birdsong, Victoria; Fuhrman, Nicholas; Borron, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    At perhaps all levels of education, strong leadership skills are often equated with the ability to engage in critical thinking, and effective oral and written communication. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-perceived expansion of animal health interns' leadership, critical thinking and communication competencies using the…

  6. The Impact of Leadership on the Communication Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terek, Edit; Glušac, Dragana; Nikolic, Milan; Tasic, Ivan; Gligorovic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the effects of leadership on the communication satisfaction of teachers. The data was obtained by giving questionnaires to 362 teachers from 57 primary schools in Serbia. Leadership is shown to have a strong and positive impact on the communication satisfaction of teachers in Serbian primary…

  7. Analysis of the effect of leadership and organizational culture on the organizational effectiveness of radiological technologist's working environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, C.S. [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Bugok 3-Dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 607-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.M., E-mail: donald@cup.ac.kr [Department of Computer Education, Graduate School, Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk - gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present ideas to upgrade job performance and improve organizational management by analyzing leadership aspects and organizational cultures of radiological technologist organizations. Method: A questionnaire was used to collect data from 261 radiological technologists working in the city of Busan. Then, SPSS/PC + Win 13 was used to statistically analyze the collected data. One-way ANOVA was adopted to test differences among groups, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of organizational culture and leadership upon organizational effectiveness. Results: First, it was found that radiological technologists stressed consensus most among the 4 types of organizational culture and regarded core transformational leadership as the right type of leadership. Second, regarding the relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness, transformational leadership had the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness. Third, as for the relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, it was found that a developmental culture has the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness, followed by a culture of consensus. Conclusion: If transformational leadership and consensual culture are used properly for upgrading job performance in the organization, conflicts among radiological technologists might be reduced, thereby enhancing organizational effectiveness.

  8. Strong Effect of Azodye Layer Thickness on RM-Stabilized Photoalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-21

    Strong Effect of Azodye Layer Thickness on RM-Stabilized Photoalignment Colin McGinty*, Valerie Finnemeyer**, Robert Reich**, Harry Clark...vertical alignment on these substrates. For the thinner BY layers, we do not see this strong evidence of out of plane reorientation. The out of...In this report we show the surprising effect that thin azodye layers demonstrate improved stability over those that are thicker. Figure 6

  9. Responsible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Johnson, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: At a time when school leadership takes on great import, we must ask how leadership can move beyond a focus on individual- and school-level changes to collective leadership that relies on the strength of relationships between schools and the communities in which they reside to foster and sustain change. Such leadership is termed…

  10. Educational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2003-01-01

    Educational leadership is different from other kinds of leadership, e.g. in leading production or service enterprises or public service institutions ? because educational leaders cannot choose their leadership style. I shall argue that educational leadership must be seen from the perspective...

  11. What Makes CLIL Leadership Effective? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David; González-Davies, Maria; Iñesta, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The swift growth of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has caused a diversification of CLIL models designed to fit specific contexts. Although variation across programmes is inevitable, exploring the main factors for the effective implementation of CLIL may help avoid the risk of promoting inefficient practices. The main purpose of…

  12. “Creation of Effective Managerial Leadership Teams”

    OpenAIRE

    Stevcevska Samrdziska, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    The concept of teamwork, never before in the history of the work, had greater importance for the functioning of successful organizations, as it is today. In the new era of rapid change and global economy, teamwork dramatically affects the performance of organizations. Most organizations rely on teams in the effective execution of tasks and accomplishing the goal, because teamwork provides the performance improvement, share responsibility, creates an atmosphere of trust, supp...

  13. Effective communication: the key to career success and great leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelman, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Good communication is the key to educating, creating, and negotiating with others, and is especially important for security professionals whose jobs involve dealing with an employee having problems, negotiating with another department to get something we need, educating our bosses about hardening our targets or trying to de-escalate a family or patient who is upset or out of control, the author points out. Developing your own communication style, based on your understanding of what is involved in effective communications, will stand you in good stead in succeeding as a leader and advancing your career, she says.

  14. Linking transformational leadership and organizational culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; van Meijen, J.J.; Koopman, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Many authors assume a strong relationship between culture and leadership in organizations. Leaders create, transform and manage organizational cultures. Although this linkage between organizational culture and leadership is often referred to, hypotheses and propositions are often not specific and

  15. Leadership Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    leadership " and " leadership in innovation." 3 THEORY , AS AN INSTRUMENT OF ANALYSIS FOR INNOVATION IN LEADERSHIP There are many...attributes of a leader.𔃺 Attempts to define leadership usually contrast it with "followship", management ," or sometimes - with ’beadship."’" These...plausible theory . - . . . -. - -- Nevertheless, some authors consider, and I agree, that there is no true leadership theory because existing

  16. 2013 CENTER FOR ARMY LEADERSHIP ANNUAL SURVEY OF ARMY LEADERSHIP (CASAL): MAIN FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Leadership Requirements Model and Leader Effectiveness Implicit leadership theory (Eden & Leviatan, 1975; Yukl, 2002) indicates followers’ perceptions...Department of the Army. Eden, D. & Leviatan, U. (1975). Implicit leadership theory as a determinant of the factor structure underlying supervisory...2013 CENTER FOR ARMY LEADERSHIP ANNUAL SURVEY OF ARMY LEADERSHIP (CASAL): MAIN FINDINGS TECHNICAL REPORT 2014-01 Ryan

  17. The impact of leadership styles on innovation management

    OpenAIRE

    Łukowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews research on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management by setting out the organisational framework of the findings to date in four generic dimensions: people, measures, effects, and objectives. Using this framework, an overview has been provided of studies on directive and participative leadership, interactive leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional and instrumental leadership, strategic and executive leadershi...

  18. Uncover it, students would learn leadership from Team-Based Learning (TBL): The effect of guided reflection and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Parmelee, Dean X; Peyton, Elizabeth; Janani, Leila; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about best practices for teaching and learning leadership through Team-Based learning™ (TBL™) with medical students. We hypothesized that guided reflection and feedback would improve shared leadership and shared leadership capacity, and enhance team decision quality in TBL teams. We used the Kolb experiential learning theory as the theoretical framework. The study was conducted at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Three TBL sessions with 206 students (39 teams) participated in the study. Using a quasi-experimental design, one batch received guided reflection and feedback on their team leadership processes (n = 20 teams) and the other received only TBL (n = 19 teams). Observers measured shared leadership using a checklist. Shared leadership capacity was measured using a questionnaire. Scores on a team application exercise were used to assess quality of team decisions. Evidence did not support our first hypothesis that reflection and feedback enhance shared leadership in TBL teams. Percentages of teams displaying shared leadership did not differ between intervention and control groups in sessions 1 (p = 0.6), 2 (p = 1) or 3 (p = 1). The results did not support the second hypothesis. We found no difference in quality of decision making between the intervention and control groups for sessions 1 (p = 0.77), 2 (p = 0.23), or 3 (p = 0.07). The third hypothesis that the reflection and feedback would have an effect on shared leadership capacity was supported (T = -8.55, p > 0.001 adjusted on baseline; T = -8.55, p > 0.001 adjusted on gender). We found that reflection and feedback improved shared leadership capacity but not shared leadership behaviors or team decision quality. We propose medical educators who apply TBL, should provide guided exercise in reflection and feedback so that students may better understand the benefits of working in teams as preparation for their future roles as leaders and

  19. Managing Leadership Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  20. The effects of civility on advice, leadership, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Christine L; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Schorch, Sebastian L

    2015-09-01

    Workplace incivility is rampant and on the rise-with costs to individuals and organizations. Despite the increased need for civility, little is known about potential individual benefits of civility, defined as behavior involving politeness and regard for others in the workplace, within workplace norms for respect (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). Recent research has suggested that being civil may be hazardous to influence, power, and income (see Forni, 2002; Judge et al., 2012).Yet, throughout history, civil behavior has been extolled because it paid dividends to the person who behaved well. The focus of this research is whether that holds true in organizations. Using social exchange theory, we developed hypotheses about how civility benefits people, and investigated this in 2 studies. First, in a 2-wave social network study of a research and development department (n = 31) of a biotechnology firm, we found that people who perceived a colleague as civil would be more likely to seek that person out for work advice and to see that person as a leader. The more the individual was perceived as civil by others in his or her network, the better his or her performance. Being sought out for work advice and being viewed as a leader mediated this effect. In the second experiment (n = 162), we extended our understanding of what drove these benefits. We found that people who are civil were perceived as warm and competent, and these positive perceptions, in turn, helped to explain the benefits garnered. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Some nontrivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial (depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based...... on a slightly modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical...

  2. Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    Some non-trivial effects are investigated, which can occur if strongly damped mechanical systems are subjected to strong high-frequency (HF) excitation. The main result is a theoretical prediction, supported by numerical simulation, that for such systems the (quasi-)equilibrium states can change...... that can be substantial depending on the strength of the HF excitation) for finite values of the damping. The analysis is focused on the differences between the classic results for weakly damped systems, and new effects for which the strong damping terms are responsible. The analysis is based on a slightly...... modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical optimally...

  3. Effects of School Principals' Leadership Behaviors: A Comparison between Taiwan and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Gean; Cheng, Jao-Nan; Sato, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    This study is a cross-national research in school leadership behaviors. Research subjects in this study include primary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan and northeastern Japan. By referring to "School leadership of the future," this study summarized that school leadership is working toward a team approach to instruction…

  4. Mapping the Complexities of Effective Leadership for Social Justice Praxis in Urban Auckland Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayavant, Sharona

    2016-01-01

    This empirical research is about strengths-based leadership practices that seek to explore leadership for social justice and equity in New Zealand's culturally and linguistically diverse educational and social landscape. Similar to the diversity in other countries, where leaders demonstrate culturally responsive leadership practices in their quest…

  5. The Effect of School Principals' Leadership Styles on Elementary School Students' Reading Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal leadership studies have indicated that leadership can play an important role in augmenting students' achievement scores. One significant influence that can affect achievement scores is the leadership style of the principal. This study focuses on fourth-grade achievement scores within urban elementary schools and explores the relationship…

  6. <strong>Effectiveness of Orthoses and Foot Training in patients with Patellofemoral Pain and hyperpronationstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kaalund, Søren; Christensen, Marianne

    of treatment with functional foot orthoses, exercises, or orthoses with exercises. The intrinsic pedal muscles play an important role in support of the medial longitudinal arch. (2) There are however very little information of the effect from specific foot exercise as an imperative part of exercise program...... adolescent females (3). Soft foot orhtoses in addition to an exercise program resulted in significantly greater improvements in pain than treatment with flat insoles and exercises over eight weeks. A study from 2004 by Wiener-Ogilvie & Jones (4) found however no difference in outcome between 8 weeks...... to PFPS patients. The purpose of this prospective single blinded randomised study was to determine the effectiveness of a standardized foot training program combined with foot orthoses in patients with patellofemoral pain. This treatment was additional to a regular conservative patellofemoral regime...

  7. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  8. Ineffective Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Lawson, Leslie M

    2016-07-01

    Radiology leaders can have a profound impact on the success and working environment of a radiology department, promoting core values and inspiring staff members to achieve the organization's mission. On the other hand, ineffective leaders can have a devastating effect on a radiology department by impairing communication among members, undermining staff commitment to the organization's success, and stifling the development of other staff members and leaders in the organization. One of the most important investments a radiology department can make is in identifying, cultivating, and promoting new leaders. The authors describe 13 habits and characteristics of new leaders that lead these individuals to address situations in both ineffective and counterproductive ways, impeding the performance of a radiology department and its capacity to play a meaningful role in shaping the future of radiology. New leaders must continually learn and improve their leadership skills if they are to avoid the destructive habits of ineffective leaders and successfully overcome the challenges facing radiology today. Senior leaders may also benefit from understanding the pitfalls that make leaders ineffective and should strive to continually improve their leadership skills given the critical role of leadership in the success of radiology departments. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards Comparative Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Merete Storgaard

    Globalization is the imitation and adaptation of knowledgesolutions or innovations, as they are diffused from one country to another” (Peter Jarvis 2007) Conducting comparative, educational research of school leadership that effects student achievement in an international perspective is of scient......Globalization is the imitation and adaptation of knowledgesolutions or innovations, as they are diffused from one country to another” (Peter Jarvis 2007) Conducting comparative, educational research of school leadership that effects student achievement in an international perspective...... is of scientific value in qualifying the international and national knowledgebase on effective school leadership. In a methodological perspective comparative analysis in an international setting creates specifically a scientific demand of comparability and a theory based leadership - framework to guide...... the empirical, qualitative research of effective leadership....

  10. Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders' Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership.

  11. The mediating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramat Esmi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contemporary studies of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB are recognized as essential for modern organizations. These studies indicate that organizations with more emphasis on the OCB are healthier and more successful. The results also show that employees, who act beyond their job duties and exert OCB, belong to high productivity workgroup and enterprise with excellent quality in comparison to employees with low level of OCB. Therefore, the investigation of antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior can help the organizations to improve and reinforce it. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the mediating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Method: A descriptive correlation research method was employed in this study. A total of 160 experts at Shiraz University were selected as the research sample through simple random sampling method using Cochran’s formula. Moreover, the study employed three instruments, namely Bass and Avolio’s transformational leadership questionnaire, Podsakoff’s et al.’s (1990 organizational citizenship behavior scale, and Denison organizational culture survey (2006. It is noted that the reliability of all the scales was obtained through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. To analyze the research data, Pearson coefficient and structural equation modeling were used through SPSS 22 and Lisrel 8.8 software. Results: The results indicated that of dimensions of transformational leadership, inspirational motivation (β=0.33, and individualized consideration (β=-0.23 directly influenced OCB. Moreover, these two dimensions indirectly influenced OCB through organizational culture (dimension of involvement. The direct and indirect (β=0.16 effect of inspirational motivation on OCB was positive whereas individualized consideration directly had a negative and indirectly (β=0.14 a positive effect on OCB. Two other dimensions of

  12. Can Servant Leaders Fuel the Leadership Fire? The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Followers’ Leadership Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lacroix

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidance when the congruence with the followers’ ideal leader prototype was high. Furthermore, followers’ core self-evaluations and affective motivation to lead mediated the relationship between servant leadership and reduced leadership avoidance. Implications of these patterns for theory and practice and avenues for future research are discussed.

  13. Computing effective properties of nonlinear structures exposed to strong high-frequency loading at multiple frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2006-01-01

    Effects of strong high-frequency excitation at multiple frequencies (multi-HFE) are analyzed for a class of generally nonlinear systems. The effects are illustrated for a simple pendulum system with a vibrating support, and for a parametrically excited flexible beam. For the latter, theoretical...

  14. SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT OBSERVATIONS OF STRONG LENSING GALAXY CLUSTERS: PROBING THE OVERCONCENTRATION PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralla, Megan B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Bayliss, Matthew; Carlstrom, John E.; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Koester, Benjamin; Leitch, Erik; Sharon, Keren; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Bulbul, Esra; Hasler, Nicole; Culverhouse, Thomas; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James; Gilbank, David G.; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for a sample of 10 strong lensing selected galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA). The SZA is sensitive to structures on spatial scales of a few arcminutes, while the strong lensing mass modeling constrains the mass at small scales (typically <30''). Combining the two provides information about the projected concentrations of the strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radii we measure are twice as large as expected given the masses inferred from SZ scaling relations. A Monte Carlo simulation indicates that a sample randomly drawn from the expected distribution would have a larger median Einstein radius than the observed clusters about 3% of the time. The implied overconcentration has been noted in previous studies and persists for this sample, even when we take into account that we are selecting large Einstein radius systems, suggesting that the theoretical models still do not fully describe the observed properties of strong lensing clusters.

  15. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p effectiveness. The data provided by the leaders was used to assess common source bias, which did not affect the interpretability of the results. Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence. PMID:28861012

  16. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  17. Effective hadronic lagrangian in the strong coupling expansion of lattice QCD with Susskind fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.; Aliev, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    The effective hadronic action in lattice QCD with U(N) and SU(N) gauge groups and with Susskind fermions is constructed in the framework of the strong coupling approximation. For arbitrary finite (odd) N (in particular N=3) we find an effective potential, vacuum expectation value of the (χ-barχ) and an effective action for the physical meson field π(x). (author). 19 refs

  18. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men ( N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.

  19. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women – Study 1 – and men – Study 2 on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem, and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender. Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control x 2 (social identification: high, low x 2 (self-esteem: high, low factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184 showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.

  20. An examination of "nonleadership": from laissez-faire leadership to leader reward omission and punishment omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, Timothy R; Schriesheim, Chester A

    2008-11-01

    Laissez-faire leadership has received much less attention than have the 3 transactional leadership dimensions of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). However, laissez-faire leadership has shown strong negative relationships with various leadership criteria, and the absence of leadership (laissez-faire leadership) may be just as important as is the presence of other types of leadership. This article focuses on a single type of laissez-faire leadership (i.e., the lack of response to subordinate performance). Using a reinforcement perspective, the authors developed measures and examined the effects of the lack of performance-contingent reinforcement in 2 forms: reward omission (leader nonreinforcement of good subordinate performance) and punishment omission (leader nonreinforcement of poor subordinate performance). They found strong evidence in support of the construct validity of the new measures and found that omission was related to follower satisfaction with the leader, subordinate-rated leader effectiveness, subordinate-perceived role clarity, and supervisor-rated subordinate performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Indirect Effects of Servant Leadership Behavior on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance: Organizational Justice as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Zehir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Therelationship between leader and followers plays a vital role, particularly ineducational institutions where a keen understanding of human character and highlevel of social interaction ought to be facilitated. For this reason, in starkcontrast to contemporary leaders who see people only as units of production orexpendable resources in a profit and loss statement, servant leadership focuseson meeting the needs of followers, making them reach their maximum potentialand so perform optimally in order to achieve organizational goals andobjectives. This study examines theeffects of servant leadership behaviors of private college principals onteachers’ organizationalcitizenship behavior and job performance. Using 300 respondents from theprivate education institutes in Turkey, servant leadership behavior is examinedfor its indirect effects on organizational citizenship behavior and jobperformance by its impact on organizational justice. Organizational justiceacts as a mediator between the variables in question. All the results are insupport of the studied mediation effects. Implications of the findings andsuggestions for future research are discussed

  2. The effect of authentic leadership, organizational justice, and achievement motivation on teachers' performance in vocational high school seventeen Temanggung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Slamet, Achmad; Martono, S.

    2018-03-01

    Teachers' performance in Temanggung in 2016 did not show maximal result. It was shown from many indicators. The low score of UN, UKG and PKB result. Individual performance was different. Achievement motivation could be seen through their attitude and behavior performances. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of authentic leadership, organizational justice, and achievement motivation on teachers' performance. The objects of this research are authentic leadership, organizational justice, achievement motivation and teachers' performance in Vocational High School Seventeen in Temanggung. The research method used is quantitative. Data collection was done by questioners. Then, the data were analyzed by using Path SPSS 16. The result of this research showed that authentic leadership, organizational justice, achievement motivation had significant effect on teachers' performance in Vocational High School Seventeen in Temanggung.

  3. The effect of leadership, organizational culture, and competency on teachers' performance in Ibu Kartini vocational high school Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toha, Mohamad; Katoningsih, Sri

    2018-03-01

    The low performance of teachers in organization is influenced many factors. Organizational culture could be the key of organization success; hence many researches were done to identify the value and the attitude norm that gave big contribution for organization success. Competency is a part of employee they perform during work as kind of behavior. Competency depends on the aspects process of teachers' performance. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of leadership, organizational culture and competency on teachers' performance. The objects of this research are leadership, organizational culture, competency and teachers' performance in Ibu Kartini vocational high school. This research is quantitative. To collect the data, questionnaire was used. Then, the data were analyzed by using Path analysis in SPPS 16. The result of this research showed that leadership, organizational culture, competency and performance run well and had significant effect on teachers' performance.

  4. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  5. Exploring the Mediating Effects of Trust on Principal Leadership and Teacher Professional Learning in Hong Kong Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to identify effects of trust between principal leadership and teacher professional learning in Hong Kong primary schools. To verify the potential mediating effects of trust as a component of school capacity, survey data with a sample of 970 teachers from 32 local primary schools was used. Two questionnaires were combined to…

  6. Effects of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on Cognitive Effort and Outcomes during Collaborative Learning within a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahai, Surinder; Jestire, Rebecca; Huang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning is a common e-learning activity. Instructors have to create appropriate social and instructional interventions in order to promote effective learning. We performed a study that examined the effects of two popular leadership interventions, transformational and transactional, on cognitive effort and outcomes…

  7. The Effect of Dimensions of Transformational, Transactional, and Non-Leadership on the Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Teachers in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that transformational and transactional leadership is positively related to the effectiveness of the leader, the subordinate's effort, job satisfaction, and the subordinate's organizational commitment. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of transformational, transactional, and non-leadership on job satisfaction and…

  8. An empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity: A case study of Payame Noor University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity for a case study of Payame Noor University, Iran. The proposed study uses a standard questionnaire for measuring spirituality leadership proposed by Fry (2003 [Fry, L. W. (2003. Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The leadership quarterly, 14(6, 693-727.] and for measuring the impact of organizational learning capacity, the proposed study uses another questionnaire proposed by Teo et al. (2006 [Teo, H. H., Wang, X., Wei, K. K., Sia, C. L., & Lee, M. K. (2006. Organizational learning capacity and attitude toward complex technological innovations: an empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2, 264-279.]. The results of our survey have indicated that all components of spiritual leadership, except love and altruism as meaningful, influence spirituality leadership, significantly.

  9. What Makes a Prime Minister Great?: A Leadership Trait Analysis of the effectiveness of British Prime Ministers from 1902 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Rohrer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What role do the Leadership Trait Analysis (LTA criteria projected by a British Prime Minister (PM have on the perceived effectiveness of their time in office? In this paper, the analysis of 20th-century British PMs utilized automated at-a-distance content analysis and the LTA coding system to determine the conceptual complexity, ability to control events, and need for power scores projected by PMs. The impact these traits had on the perceived effectiveness of the totality of the PMs’ tenure in office, as measured by the 2004 MORI/University of Leeds survey, was then examined via one-tailed ordinary least squares regression. This project provides evidence that British PMs who project traits associated with the LTA measure regarding strong power motivation are significantly viewed as more effective while in office. These findings provide more than a novel historical profile of British PMs. The relationship between effective leadership and LTA traits could be utilized by political campaigns, especially given the introduction of prime ministerial debates, to portray a prime ministerial candidate as more politically effective than his/her competition.

  10. The mediating effects of self-leadership on perceived entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior in the banking sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kör, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Innovative work behavior has been one of the essential attribute of high performing firms, and the roles of entrepreneurial orientation and self-leadership have been important for promoting innovative work behavior. This study advances research on innovative work behavior by examining the mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between perceived entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Structural equation modelling is employed to analyze data from a survey of 404 employees in banking sector. The results of reliability measures and confirmatory factor analysis strongly support the scale of the study. The results from an empirical survey study in the deposit banks reveal that participants' perceptions about high levels of entrepreneurial orientation have a positive impact on innovative work behavior. The results also provide support for the full mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between participants' perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Additionally, this study provides some implications for practitioners in the banking sector to facilitate innovative work behavior through entrepreneurial orientation and self- leadership.

  11. Digital Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Zupanzic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri; Herneoja, Aulikki

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media. With this paper, we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some imp...

  12. Visionary Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    Nanus, after two years of studying leadership theories and interviewing over ninety leaders, concluded that nothing serves an organization better...visions into reality.31 Similar to the Army’s four factors of leadership in EM 22-100, his theory for visionary leadership had thrwe factors: the leader...AD-A272 692 VISIONARY LEADERSHIP U A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the

  13. THE EFFECT OF COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, AND MANAGEMENT INNOVATION OVER THE PERFORMANCE OF STRUCTURAL OFFICIAL OF ECHELON IVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedjo Sujanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of competency, leadership, and innovations management on structural office holder of echelon IVB performance.This research was conducted at the One Stop Service Agency of Province of DKI Jakarta, using the method of path analysis in hypothesis testing. The sample in this research is of 75 people with simple random sampling. The results of this study are: (1 Competency positive direct effect on structural office holder echelon IVB performance. (2 Leadership positive direct effect on structural office holder echelon IVB performance. (3 Management of Innovation positive direct effect on structural office holder echelon IVB performance. (4 Competency positive direct effect on Management of Innovation, and (5 Leadership positive direct effect on Management of Innovation.The results of this research has implications for the effect of competency, leadership, and innovations management which can support on the structural office holder of echelon IVB performance One Stop Service Agency of Province of Jakarta Special Capital Region.

  14. Introducing a Short Measure of Shared Servant Leadership Impacting Team Performance through Team Behavioral Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Milton; Van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was designed to study the influence of shared servant leadership on team performance through the mediating effect of team behavioral integration, while validating a new short measure of shared servant leadership. A round-robin approach was used to collect data in two similar studies. Study 1 included 244 undergraduate students in 61 teams following an intense HRM business simulation of 2 weeks. The following year, study 2 included 288 students in 72 teams involved in the same simulation. The most important findings were that (1) shared servant leadership was a strong determinant of team behavioral integration, (2) information exchange worked as the main mediating process between shared servant leadership and team performance, and (3) the essence of servant leadership can be captured on the key dimensions of empowerment, humility, stewardship and accountability, allowing for a new promising shortened four-dimensional measure of shared servant leadership. PMID:26779104

  15. Planning, Instruction, and Assessment: Effective Teaching Practices. James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leslie W.; Hindman, Jennifer; Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on specific strategies teachers can use to improve the quality of their instruction. Studies have shown teacher quality to be the top indicator of student achievement, with the effects of good teachers apparent even as students move on to successive grades. In this book, Grant,…

  16. Engineering the Dynamics of Effective Spin-Chain Models for Strongly Interacting Atomic Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Petrosyan, D.; Valiente, M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional gas of cold atoms with strong contact interactions and construct an effective spin-chain Hamiltonian for a two-component system. The resulting Heisenberg spin model can be engineered by manipulating the shape of the external confining potential of the atomic gas. We...

  17. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...

  18. Parity violation effects in the hydrogen atom in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labzovsky, L.N.; Mitrushchenkov, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    The parity violation effects in the hydrogen atom in a strong electromagnetic laser field are considered. It is shown that there is the possibility of hyperrate measurements of different constants of the weak interaction in the hydrogen magnetic resonance experiments. (orig.)

  19. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calcula...

  20. Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in strongly turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, Günter; Brown, Eric; Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Funfschilling, Denis; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on the Nusselt number $Nu$ and Reynolds number $\\hbox{\\it Re}$ in strongly turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection in liquids were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments the heat current, the temperature difference, and the

  1. Theoretical aspects of leadership and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the theory of leadership which, within the organizational context, can contribute to the development of organizational creativity, as well as employee creativity . First, we observe the most dominant theories of creativity in the organizational context such as the componential theory of creativity and the theory of organizational creativity. Later we examine the theory of leadership within organizations that can increase and have a positive effect on creativity. Among the most important approaches to research of organizational behavior, and leadership theories, are the following : theories of personality traits, behavioral theory of leadership, situational leadership theory and new concepts of leadership. New concepts of leadership include charismatic leadership, transactional leadership theory and transformational leadership theory. According to the previous research, the latter, i.e. transformational leadership theory, has a large and significant impact on encouraging creativity within organizations.

  2. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  3. Understanding Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Theory , Behavior Theory , Situation Theory , Transformational Leadership , Leader, Manager 16. SECURITY...TERMS: Trait Theory , Behavior Theory , Situation Theory , Transformational Leadership , Leader, Manager CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The purpose of...in the Army prior to and during the Cold War. It is arguably still the most practiced form of leadership today. Management theories (also known

  4. Trans* Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T J; Simmons, Symone L

    2017-06-01

    Focusing on emerging literature on trans* and gender-nonconforming students and their leadership, this chapter outlines the ways trans* students are engaged in leadership in educational institutions and outside of them and discusses implications for staff and faculty regarding how to support and engage these students and their leadership. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. Active learning and leadership in an undergraduate curriculum: How effective is it for student learning and transition to practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Rebekkah

    2013-03-01

    Nurses are being increasingly asked to develop leadership skills in their practice and to be actively involved in continuous change processes in the workplace. Nursing students need to be developing leadership skills prior to entering the workplace to ensure they are able to meet the challenges associated with organisations and the cultures present in nursing, along with having highly tuned communication skills and leadership attributes that contribute to best patient care and outcomes. This paper looks at how the use of Active Learning in an undergraduate setting enabled the development and implementation of a leadership subject for nursing students preparing for professional practice. Through the use of a specific model of Active Learning, incorporating multiple intelligences into education allows students to bring deeper learning to their conscience so that whole person learning is an engaged experience. It seems apparent that Active Learning is an effective means of learning about leadership in undergraduate students who are developing towards a career as a health professional. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A; Kinicki, Angelo J; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Fugate, Mel; Doyle Corner, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations ( p transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals ( p transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  8. Heavy quark mass effects and improved tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.N. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); SLD Collaboration

    1998-08-01

    A review is given of latest results on tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions. Heavy quark mass effects are evident in the data and are now taken into account at next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The strong-coupling ratios {alpha}{sub s}{sup b}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup c}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} are found to be consistent with unity. Determinations of the b-quark mass m{sub b} (M{sub Z}) are discussed.

  9. Strong interaction effects in high-Z K sup minus atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, C.J.; Eckhause, M.; Gall, K.P.; Guss, P.P.; Hertzog, D.W.; Kane, J.R.; Kunselman, A.R.; Miller, J.P.; O' Brien, F.; Phillips, W.C.; Powers, R.J.; Roberts, B.L.; Sutton, R.B.; Vulcan, W.F.; Welsh, R.E.; Whyley, R.J.; Winter, R.G. (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, United Kingdom (GB) College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

    1989-11-01

    A systematic experimental study of strong interaction shifts, widths, and yields from high-{ital Z} kaonic atoms is reported. Strong interaction effects for the {ital K}{sup {minus}}(8{r arrow}7) transition were measured in U, Pb, and W, and the {ital K}{sup {minus}}(7{r arrow}6) transition in W was also observed. This is the first observation of two measurably broadened and shifted kaonic transitions in a single target and thus permitted the width of the upper state to be determined directly, rather than being inferred from yield data. The results are compared with optical-model calculations.

  10. Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Kenyan and U.S. Financial Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walumbwa, Fred O.; Orwa, Bani; Wang, Peng; Lawler, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the nature of the relationship between transformational leadership and two work-related attitudes, organizational commitment and job satisfaction, by comparing Kenya and the United States. The results show that transformational leadership has a strong and positive effect on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in both…

  11. A Test of the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership and Some Suggested Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriesheim, Janet Fulk; Schriesheim, Chester A.

    1980-01-01

    No support was found for the moderating effect of task structure, despite multiple analyses and statistically significant differences in moderator variables. Instrumental leadership obtained few significant correlations with criteria regardless of task structure. Supportive leadership was strongly related to criteria at all levels of task…

  12. School Leadership and Its Impact on Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of School Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…

  13. Auger effect in the presence of strong x-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jicai; Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Aagren, Hans; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of propagation of strong x-ray free-electron laser pulses on the Auger effect. When the system is exposed to a strong x-ray pulse the stimulated emission starts to compete with the Auger decay. As an illustration we present numerical results for Ar gas with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. It is shown that the pulse propagation is accompanied by two channels of amplified spontaneous emission, 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which reshape the pulse when the system is inverted. The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where lasing without inversion enhances the Stokes component. The results of simulations show that the propagation of the strong x-ray pulses affect intensively the Auger branching ratio.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP AND TEAM PERFORMANCE OF AN ORGANIZATION’S EMPLOYEES BASED ON EFFECTIVE COACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila BILAS; Masadeh ADEEB,

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the role of leadership and teams in the context of a fast-paced world. It analyses the notion of leadership suggested by different authors. The paper emphasizes the need for a further understanding of such team elements as its type, composition, and size. The article also reviews different stages of teambuilding in business organizations and the leaders’ tasks. It focuses on coaching as one of the key factors of leadership development and team...

  15. Leadership strategies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaker, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is one of the largest and most important industries in the United States because it affects every individual in the nation. Numerous parties are stakeholders in healthcare, which contributes to the complexity of change efforts. Physicians and administrators play a significant role by providing direct care and influencing other decisions that impact the delivery of patient care. Success in the healthcare industry is influenced by numerous factors, some of which are controllable and others that are not. Understanding leadership and change management will be increasingly important to overcome resistance to change and to improve relationships, the core of leadership in an environment that will become more challenging. In what follows, different approaches to understanding leadership and change management are presented along with other leadership strategies to enhance the effectiveness of leaders. Raising leader awareness regarding transformational leadership behaviors and developing strategies to increase the use of these behaviors may be helpful to enhance organizational performance.

  16. Digital Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media....... With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills....

  17. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Gkorezis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees’ emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees’ emotional exhaustion.

  18. The Detrimental Effect of Machiavellian Leadership on Employees' Emotional Exhaustion: Organizational Cynicism as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Petridou, Eugenia; Krouklidou, Theodora

    2015-11-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined predictors of emotional exhaustion. In this vein, both positive and negative leadership styles have been associated with this outcome. Yet, little is known about the role of Machiavellian leadership in fostering employees' emotional exhaustion. As such, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellian leadership and emotional exhaustion. Even more, we investigated an explanatory mechanism of this association by encompassing organizational cynicism as a mediator. Results showed that Machiavellian leadership has a both direct and indirect, through organizational cynicism, on employees' emotional exhaustion.

  19. The Every Student Succeeds Act, State Efforts to Improve Access to Effective Educators, and the Importance of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Edward J.; Hollingworth, Liz; Pendola, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our primary purpose is to examine the degree to which state equity plans identify the distribution of principals and principal turnover as factors influencing three leadership mechanisms that affect student access to effective teachers--namely, hiring of teachers, building instructional capacity of teachers, and managing teacher turnover.…

  20. The Effect of Educational Leadership on Organizational Variables: A Meta-Analysis Study in the Sample of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çogaltay, Nazim; Karadag, Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the effect of educational leadership on some organizational variables using meta-analysis method. In this context, the results of independent researches were merged together and the hypotheses created within the scope of the study were tested. In order to determine the researches to be included in the study,…

  1. The Effects of Autonomy Gap in Personnel Policy, Principal Leadership and Teachers' Self-Efficacy on Their Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Diya; Devos, Geert; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    School autonomy in personnel policy is important to effective personnel management. With increased autonomy in personnel policy, principals could wield their leadership to improve teachers' organizational commitment. However, little is known about whether the given autonomy in personnel policy meets principals' expectation and whether and how the…

  2. Preparing Tomorrow's Administrators: A Quantitative Correlation Study of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Vollmar, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to identify whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership practices, specifically with school administrators in Southern California K-12 public schools. Methods: This study was conducted using a quantitative descriptive design, correlation…

  3. The Effects of Secondary School Administrators' Servant Leadership Behaviors on Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Fatma; Gül, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of secondary school administrators' servant leadership behavior on teachers' organizational commitment. This research was designed based on the relational screening model. The population of the study consists of 753 secondary school teachers. 438 teachers from the total population participated…

  4. Investigating Best Practice and Effectiveness of Leadership Wisdom among Principals of Excellent Secondary School Malaysia: Perceptions of Senior Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdul Razaq; Salleh, Mohamad Johdi; Awang, Mohd Mahzan; Mohamad, Nazifah Alwani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the practices and effectiveness of leadership wisdom among the principals of excellent secondary schools as perceived by the Senior Assistants. This research employed survey approach by using a validated questionnaire. The respondents were 417 Senior Assistants, who were randomly selected from the…

  5. A Survey of the Effect of Leader's Social Intelligence on Employee's Perception of Interpersonal Justice: The Mediating Role of Shared Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpoori, Amirhooshang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a leader's social intelligence (SI) on an employee's perception of interpersonal justice by considering the mediating role of shared leadership. Conceptual model and research hypotheses have been developed by the Marlowe's SI model (1986), and the theory of shared leadership and…

  6. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  7. Leadership in rural medicine: the organization on thin ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hana, Jan; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the personal experiences of and conceptions regarding leading rural primary care in Northern Norway. DESIGN. Qualitative content analysis of focus-group interviews. SETTING. Lead primary care physicians in the three northernmost counties. Subjects. Four groups with 22 out of 88 municipal lead physicians in the region. RESULTS. Three main categories were developed and bound together by an implicit theme. Demands and challenges included the wide leadership span of clinical services and public health, placed in a merged line/board position. Constraints of human resources and time and the ever changing organizational context added to the experience of strain. Personal qualifications indicates the lack of leadership motivation and training, which was partly compensated for by a leader role developed through clinical undergraduate training and then through the responsibilities and experiences of clinical work. In Exercising the leadership, the participants described a vision of a coaching and coordinating leadership and, in practice, a display of communication skills, decision-making ability, result focusing, and ad hoc solutions. Leadership was made easier by the features of the small, rural organization, such as overview, close contact with cooperating partners, and a supportive environment. There was incongruence between demands and described qualifications, and between desired and executed leadership, but nevertheless the organization was running. Leadership demonstrated a "working inadequacy". CONCLUSION. Under resource constraints, leadership based on clinical skills favours management by exception which, in the long run, appears to make the leadership less effective. Leadership training which takes into account the prominent features of rural and decentralized primary care is strongly needed.

  8. Leadership in rural medicine: The organization on thin ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hana, Jan; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the personal experiences of and conceptions regarding leading rural primary care in Northern Norway. Design Qualitative content analysis of focus-group interviews. Setting Lead primary care physicians in the three northernmost counties. Subjects Four groups with 22 out of 88 municipal lead physicians in the region. Results Three main categories were developed and bound together by an implicit theme. Demands and challenges included the wide leadership span of clinical services and public health, placed in a merged line/board position. Constraints of human resources and time and the ever changing organizational context added to the experience of strain. Personal qualifications indicates the lack of leadership motivation and training, which was partly compensated for by a leader role developed through clinical undergraduate training and then through the responsibilities and experiences of clinical work. In Exercising the leadership, the participants described a vision of a coaching and coordinating leadership and, in practice, a display of communication skills, decision-making ability, result focusing, and ad hoc solutions. Leadership was made easier by the features of the small, rural organization, such as overview, close contact with cooperating partners, and a supportive environment. There was incongruence between demands and described qualifications, and between desired and executed leadership, but nevertheless the organization was running. Leadership demonstrated a “working inadequacy”. Conclusion Under resource constraints, leadership based on clinical skills favours management by exception which, in the long run, appears to make the leadership less effective. Leadership training which takes into account the prominent features of rural and decentralized primary care is strongly needed. PMID:21526921

  9. Promoting clinical involvement in hospital quality improvement efforts: the effects of top management, board, and physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B J; Shortell, S M; Alexander, J

    1997-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: An examination of the effects of top management, board, and physician leadership for quality on the extent of clinical involvement in hospital CQI/TQM efforts. DATA SOURCES: A sample of 2,193 acute care community hospitals, created by merging data from a 1989 national survey on hospital governance and a 1993 national survey on hospital quality improvement efforts. STUDY DESIGN: Hypotheses were tested using Heckman's two-stage modeling approach. Four dimensions of clinical involvement in CQI/TQM were examined: physician participation in formal QI training, physician participation in QI teams, clinical departments with formally organized QA/QI project teams, and clinical conditions and procedures for which quality of care data are used by formally organized QA/QI project teams. Leadership measures included CEO involvement in CQI/TQM, board quality monitoring, board activity in quality improvement, active-staff physician involvement in governance, and physician-at-large involvement in governance. Relevant control variables were included in the analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of top management leadership for quality and board leadership for quality showed significant, positive relationships with measures of clinical involvement in CQI/TQM. Active-staff physician involvement in governance showed positive, significant relationships with clinical involvement measures, while physician-at-large involvement in governance showed significant, negative relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Study results suggest that leadership from the top promotes clinical involvement in CQI/TQM. Further, results indicate that leadership for quality in healthcare settings may issue from several sources, including managers, boards, and physician leaders. PMID:9327815

  10. Fostering employee service creativity: Joint effects of customer empowering behaviors and supervisory empowering leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuntao; Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-01

    Integrating insights from the literature on customers' central role in service and the literature on employee creativity, we offer theoretical and empirical account of how and when customer empowering behaviors can motivate employee creativity during service encounters and, subsequently, influence customer satisfaction with service experience. Using multilevel, multisource, experience sampling data from 380 hairstylists matched with 3550 customers in 118 hair salons, we found that customer empowering behaviors were positively related to employee creativity and subsequent customer satisfaction via employee state promotion focus. Results also showed that empowering behaviors from different agents function synergistically in shaping employee creativity: supervisory empowering leadership strengthened the indirect effect of customer empowering behaviors on employee creativity via state promotion focus. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  12. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  13. Empty creditors and strong shareholders: The real effects of credit risk trading. Second draft

    OpenAIRE

    Colonnello, Stefano; Efing, Matthias; Zucchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Credit derivatives give creditors the possibility to transfer debt cash flow rights to other market participants while retaining control rights. We use the market for credit default swaps (CDSs) as a laboratory to show that the real effects of such debt unbundling crucially hinge on shareholder bargaining power. We find that creditors buy more CDS protection when facing strong shareholders to secure themselves a valuable outside option in distressed renegotiations. After the start of CDS trad...

  14. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  15. Principal Perceptions of the Effectiveness of University Educational Leadership Preparation and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arvin D.

    2016-01-01

    Principals and assistant principals currently serving in Florida and Georgia school districts were surveyed about their perceptions of university educational leadership preparation and professional learning. The results revealed that many principals and assistant principals agreed that university educational leadership preparation programs…

  16. The Effect of Educational Leadership on Students' Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin; Bektas, Fatih; Çogaltay, Nazim; Yalçin, Mikail

    2015-01-01

    In this meta-analysis study, different leadership styles were combined, and the relationship between educational leadership and student achievement was analyzed. In the literature review, 57 research articles/dissertations, independent from one another, were brought together, and 28,964 study subjects were included in the sample group. The results…

  17. Effects Associated with Leadership Program Participation in International Students Compared to Domestic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Daniel A.; Rosch, David M.

    2016-01-01

    International student enrollment in the U.S. higher education system has recently experienced profound growth. This research examines leadership-oriented differences between international and domestic students and focuses on their growth in capacity associated with participation in co-curricular leadership programs. Similarly-sized gains emerged…

  18. Fostering Effective Leadership in Foreign Contexts through Study of Cultural Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    While leadership styles have been extensively examined, cultural biases implicit within research methodologies often preclude application of results in foreign contexts. To more holistically comprehend the impact of culture on leadership, belief systems were empirically correlated to both transactional and transformational tendencies in public…

  19. The effect of leadership style on the information receivers' reaction to management accounting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E. Pieter

    Although we know that the use of accounting information and the leadership styles of managers are related, only little is known about how the leadership styles of managers affect the information receivers' reaction to management accounting change. Therefore, using a case study of a company that owns

  20. Leadership Style and Organizational Learning: The Mediate Effect of School Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Hanna; Peretz, Hilla; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Fundamentally, the success of schools depends on first-rate school leadership, on leaders reinforcing the teachers' willingness to adhere to the school's vision, creating a sense of purpose, binding them together and encouraging them to engage in continuous learning. Leadership, vision and organizational learning are considered to be the…

  1. The Effect of Leadership, Organizational Culture, Emotional Intellegence, and Job Satisfaction on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Abdullah, Tamrin

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to study the influence of Leadership, Organizational Culture, Emotional Quotation, and Job Satisfaction to Teacher Performance of Senior High School at Palopo Municipality South Sulawesi. There were 78 teachers participated in this research. The results were: (1) Leadership directly affects teacher performance; (2) Emotional…

  2. Common Pitfalls in the Chief Resident Role: Impact on Effective Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Garg, Avni; Desanghere, Loni

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper explores the leadership and management needs of medical resident leaders, skills that contribute to the success in their role. The importance of leadership development for physicians is reflected in the specific recommendations in the FMEC-MD and FMEC-PG reports of the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada and…

  3. Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Ryan H.; Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Brown, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools…

  4. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff : a cross-sectional pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Van Zweeden, Nely F.; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Aim To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Background Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff

  5. [Effects of strong reductive approach on remediation of degraded facility vegetable soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong-Bin; Meng, Tian-Zhu; Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-Cong

    2013-09-01

    High application rate of chemical fertilizers and unreasonable rotation in facility vegetable cultivation can easily induce the occurrence of soil acidification, salinization, and serious soil-borne diseases, while to quickly and effectively remediate the degraded facility vegetable soil can considerably increase vegetable yield and farmers' income. In this paper, a degraded facility vegetable soil was amended with 0, 3.75, 7.50, and 11.3 t C x hm(-2) of air-dried alfalfa and flooded for 31 days to establish a strong reductive environment, with the variations of soil physical and chemical properties and the cucumber yield studied. Under the reductive condition, soil Eh dropped quickly below 0 mV, accumulated soil NO3(-) was effectively eliminated, soil pH was significantly raised, and soil EC was lowered, being more evident in higher alfalfa input treatments. After treated with the strong reductive approach, the cucumber yield in the facility vegetable field reached 53.3-57.9 t x hm(-2), being significantly higher than that in un-treated facility vegetable field in last growth season (10.8 t x hm(-2)). It was suggested that strong reductive approach could effectively remediate the degraded facility vegetable soil in a short term.

  6. Examining Determinants of Leadership Style Among Montenegrin Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lojpur An൭elko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As a leader's behavior can have a strong impact on different employee workrelated outcomes, various approaches have been put forth in an effort to determine the most effective form of leadership and determinants of individuals' choice of leadership style. This paper analyzed whether one's choice of leadership style is due more to personal or organizational characteristics. We used survey data to investigate the determinants of leadership style among Montenegrin managers. Our analysis showed that, although demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and education do not influence the choice of leadership style, internal organizational characteristics such as hierarchical level, managerial orientation to tasks/people, and decision-making characteristics such as decisionmaking style and decision-making environment are positively associated with the choice of democratic leadership style. This contributes to recent research in leadership that shows how some personal characteristics are considered to be less important in developing certain styles and that the choice of style is more dependent and contingent on external influences and situations.

  7. A study on ranking the effects of transformational leadership style on organizational agility and mediating role of organizational creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidmehdi Veiseh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the components of transformational leadership style on organizational agility and mediating role of organizational creativity in Ilam Gas Refinery located in province of Ilam, Iran. The method of the present study was descriptive and correlational-structural equation modeling. The population of this research included all 400 workers of Ilam gas refinery and the study chose a sample of196 employees. The questionnaire was standardized using Cronbach's alpha; the obtained reliability was 0.90, which indicated the reliability of the questionnaire. At the end, the data was analyzed by LISREL software and structural equation modeling analysis was conducted. The findings showed that transformational leadership style had an effect on organizational agility. In addition, organizational creativity maintained a mediator role on influencing the transformational leadership on organizational agility. The four dimensions of transformational leadership, hopeful influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual encouragement as well as personal considerations also influenced on the agility of organizations.

  8. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Runge--Kutta Methods of Maximal Effective Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2013-07-23

    We apply the concept of effective order to strong stability preserving (SSP) explicit Runge--Kutta methods. Relative to classical Runge--Kutta methods, methods with an effective order of accuracy are designed to satisfy a relaxed set of order conditions but yield higher order accuracy when composed with special starting and stopping methods. We show that this allows the construction of four-stage SSP methods with effective order four (such methods cannot have classical order four). However, we also prove that effective order five methods---like classical order five methods---require the use of nonpositive weights and so cannot be SSP. By numerical optimization, we construct explicit SSP Runge--Kutta methods up to effective order four and establish the optimality of many of them. Numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of these methods in practice.

  9. COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP: A Case Study of the All Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A key finding is the strong senior collective leadership that has been ever present. Originally led by senior players informally from ‘the back seat of the bus’ this internal leadership has been formalised by the most recent coaching team and has proved to be very effective with regards to maintaining a winning culture in an ever-changing organizational and socio-cultural environment. The learning culture and learning leadership demonstrated within the All Blacks collective leadership model instils a commitment to total honesty in self and team evaluation and reflection. It is anticipated that these findings will be transferable to other business and team sport contexts and assist in organizational development.

  10. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...... the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments....

  11. Three-loop Standard Model effective potential at leading order in strong and top Yukawa couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Stephen P. [Santa Barbara, KITP

    2014-01-08

    I find the three-loop contribution to the effective potential for the Standard Model Higgs field, in the approximation that the strong and top Yukawa couplings are large compared to all other couplings, using dimensional regularization with modified minimal subtraction. Checks follow from gauge invariance and renormalization group invariance. I also briefly comment on the special problems posed by Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential, and on the numerical impact of the result on the relations between the Higgs vacuum expectation value, mass, and self-interaction coupling.

  12. Attosecond counter-rotating-wave effect in xenon driven by strong fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M.; Pabst, Stefan; Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, Dong Eon

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the subfemtosecond dynamics of a highly excited xenon atom coherently driven by a strong control field at which the Rabi frequency of the system is comparable to the frequency of a driving laser. The widely used rotating-wave approximation breaks down at such fields, resulting in features such as the counter-rotating-wave (CRW) effect. We present a time-resolved observation of the CRW effect in the highly excited 4 d-1n p xenon using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Time-dependent many-body theory confirms the observation and explains the various features of the absorption spectrum seen in experiment.

  13. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson; Ingi Runar Edvardsson; Vilma Zydziunaite; Vlad Vaiman

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects fro...

  14. Global veterinary leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  15. Interaction effects in a microscopic quantum wire model with strong spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G. W.; Ganahl, M.; Schuricht, D.; Evertz, H. G.; Andergassen, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effect of strong interactions on the spectral properties of quantum wires with strong Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction in a magnetic field, using a combination of matrix product state and bosonization techniques. Quantum wires with strong Rashba SO interaction and magnetic field exhibit a partial gap in one-half of the conducting modes. Such systems have attracted wide-spread experimental and theoretical attention due to their unusual physical properties, among which are spin-dependent transport, or a topological superconducting phase when under the proximity effect of an s-wave superconductor. As a microscopic model for the quantum wire we study an extended Hubbard model with SO interaction and Zeeman field. We obtain spin resolved spectral densities from the real-time evolution of excitations, and calculate the phase diagram. We find that interactions increase the pseudo gap at k = 0 and thus also enhance the Majorana-supporting phase and stabilize the helical spin order. Furthermore, we calculate the optical conductivity and compare it with the low energy spiral Luttinger liquid result, obtained from field theoretical calculations. With interactions, the optical conductivity is dominated by an excotic excitation of a bound soliton-antisoliton pair known as a breather state. We visualize the oscillating motion of the breather state, which could provide the route to their experimental detection in e.g. cold atom experiments.

  16. Charging-delay effect on longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the charging-delay effect, the nonlinear propagation characteristics of longitudinal dust acoustic wave in strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma described by generalized hydrodynamic model have been investigated. In the 'hydrodynamic limit', a Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation with a damping term arising due to dust-neutral collision is derived in which the Burger term is proportional to the dissipation due to dust viscosity through dust-dust correlation and charging-delay-induced anomalous dissipation. On the other hand, in the 'kinetic limit', a KdVB equation with a damping term and a nonlocal nonlinear forcing term arising due to memory-dependent strong correlation effect of dust fluid is derived in which the Burger term depends only on the charging-delay-induced dissipation. Numerical solution of integrodifferential equations reveals that (i) dissipation due to dust viscosity and principally due to charging delay causes excitation of the longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma and (ii) dust-neutral collision does not appear to play any direct role in shock formation. The condition for the generation of shock is also discussed briefly

  17. Challenges in inflationary magnetogenesis: Constraints from strong coupling, backreaction, and the Schwinger effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramkishor; Jagannathan, Sandhya; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Models of inflationary magnetogenesis with a coupling to the electromagnetic action of the form f2Fμ νFμ ν , are known to suffer from several problems. These include the strong coupling problem, the backreaction problem and also strong constraints due to the Schwinger effect. We propose a model which resolves all these issues. In our model, the coupling function, f , grows during inflation and transits to a decaying phase post-inflation. This evolutionary behavior is chosen so as to avoid the problem of strong coupling. By assuming a suitable power-law form of the coupling function, we can also neglect backreaction effects during inflation. To avoid backreaction post-inflation, we find that the reheating temperature is restricted to be below ≈1.7 ×104 GeV . The magnetic energy spectrum is predicted to be nonhelical and generically blue. The estimated present day magnetic field strength and the corresponding coherence length taking reheating at the QCD epoch (150 MeV) are 1.4 ×10-12 G and 6.1 ×10-4 Mpc , respectively. This is obtained after taking account of nonlinear processing over and above the flux-freezing evolution after reheating. If we consider also the possibility of a nonhelical inverse transfer, as indicated in direct numerical simulations, the coherence length and the magnetic field strength are even larger. In all cases mentioned above, the magnetic fields generated in our models satisfy the γ -ray bound below a certain reheating temperature.

  18. Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

    2014-02-01

    Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

  19. Building a leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies.

  20. Strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and MIM nanocavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM nanocavity. By changing the meta-atom sizes, we achieve the meta-atomic electric dipole, quadrupole or multipole interaction with the plasmonic nanocavity, in which characteristic anticrossing behaviors demonstrate the occurrence of the strong coupling. The various interactions present obviously different splitting values and behaviors of dependence on the meta-atomic position. The largest Rabi-type splittings, about 360.0 meV and 306.1 meV, have been obtained for electric dipole and quadrupole interaction, respectively. We attribute the large splitting to the highly-confined cavity mode and the large transition dipole of the meta-atom. Also the Rabi-type oscillation in time domain is given.

  1. Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming; Guan Xiwen; Batchelor, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  2. Effects of Strong Correlations on the Disorder-Induced Zero Bias Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, William; Song, Yun; Bulut, Sinan; Wortis, Rachel

    2009-03-01

    In conventional metals and semiconductors, density of states anomalies result from the interplay between disorder and interactions. Motivated by a number of experiments that find zero bias anomalies (ZBA) in transition metal oxides, we have performed calculations to determine the effect of strong correlations on the ZBA in disordered interacting systems. We use a self-consistent mean-field theory that incorporates strong correlations and treats spatial fluctuations of the disorder potential exactly. We discuss both the Anderson-Hubbard model and the extended Anderson-Hubbard model. We find that, even for a zero-range interaction, nonlocal self-energy corrections lead to the formation of an Altshuler-Aronov-like ZBA. In the extended Anderson-Hubbard model, Efros-Shklovskii-like physics dominates at large disorder.

  3. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  4. Leadership styles and its relationship with subordinates' self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.

  5. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  6. Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, N.

    2005-01-01

    We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρ r and its conjugate variable, the phase θ r of the pairing order parameter Δ r . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρ r /2, where the bosons have a mass m B =2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude g B =4πa B /m B ,a B =2a (a the s-wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude t B =J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction U B =2Jz, where J=4t 2 /U (t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites)

  7. Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, N.

    2005-07-01

    We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρr and its conjugate variable, the phase θr of the pairing order parameter Δr . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρr/2 , where the bosons have a mass mB=2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude gB=4πaB/mB,aB=2a ( a the s -wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude tB=J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction UB=2Jz , where J=4t2/U ( t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites).

  8. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Paul Leuteritz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty. Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p < 0.05. Although transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p < 0.05, this seems not to contribute to team effectiveness. The data provided by the leaders was used to assess common source bias, which did not affect the interpretability of the results. Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  9. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.

  10. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factor, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations (registrants and licensees) and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks

  11. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.

  12. Leadership and Management for Safety. General Safety Requirements (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.

  13. Effects of strong radiation reaction and quantum-electrodynamics on relativistic transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Thomas, A. G. R.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2013-10-01

    Relativistic transparency is the process that optically switches the overdense plasma from opaque to transparent and enables light propagation through the otherwise opaque plasma, when light of sufficient intensity drives the electrons in the plasma to near light speeds. We study the relativistic transparency in radiation dominant and strong quantum electrodynamic (QED) regime, for the interaction of high-intensity laser pulses with a thin foil solid target. We analytically study the simplified motion of an electron in a circularly polarized plane wave to understand the physics of the transmissivity and absorption in the presence of classical and quantum-corrected, semiclassical radiation-reaction forces and the trapping of particles in nodes of laser standing wave through radiative cooling. These arguments are supported by both one dimensional and two dimensional particle-in-cell calculations including strong field QED effects. Measurement of the transmission of these pulses would be experimentally feasible and a robust test of the strong field QED particle-in-cell framework.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP AND TEAM PERFORMANCE OF AN ORGANIZATION’S EMPLOYEES BASED ON EFFECTIVE COACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BILAS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of leadership and teams in the context of a fast-paced world. It analyses the notion of leadership suggested by different authors. The paper emphasizes the need for a further understanding of such team elements as its type, composition, and size. The article also reviews different stages of teambuilding in business organizations and the leaders’ tasks. It focuses on coaching as one of the key factors of leadership development and team performance. It concludes with the suggestions and recommendations on coaching at the national companies.

  15. Effective integration of environmental leadership and environmental management systems within Cameco's Mining Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Borchardt, S.

    2010-01-01

    To support the implementation of its integrated Safety, Health, Environment & Quality (SHEQ) Policy, Cameco has undertaken an environmental leadership initiative with the goal of moving beyond regulatory compliance and significantly reducing environmental impacts in five key areas: air emissions, treated water quality and quantity, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation. To ensure environmental leadership becomes routine business practice, it was necessary to integrate the initiative into Cameco's programs and management systems at the corporate and operational levels. Operations-based environmental leadership strategies and action plans have since been developed, as well as a corporate reporting system to monitor Cameco's environmental performance. (author)

  16. Effective integration of environmental leadership and environmental management systems within Cameco's Mining Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, K.; Borchardt, S., E-mail: kevin_nagy@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    To support the implementation of its integrated Safety, Health, Environment & Quality (SHEQ) Policy, Cameco has undertaken an environmental leadership initiative with the goal of moving beyond regulatory compliance and significantly reducing environmental impacts in five key areas: air emissions, treated water quality and quantity, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation. To ensure environmental leadership becomes routine business practice, it was necessary to integrate the initiative into Cameco's programs and management systems at the corporate and operational levels. Operations-based environmental leadership strategies and action plans have since been developed, as well as a corporate reporting system to monitor Cameco's environmental performance. (author)

  17. Drag Effect of Kompsat-1 During Strong Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the orbital variation of the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-1(KOMPSAT-1 in a strong space environment due to satellite drag by solar and geomagnetic activities. The satellite drag usually occurs slowly, but becomes serious satellite drag when the space environment suddenly changes via strong solar activity like a big flare eruption or coronal mass ejections(CMEs. Especially, KOMPSAT-1 as a low earth orbit satellite has a distinct increase of the drag acceleration by the variations of atmospheric friction. We consider factors of solar activity to have serious effects on the satellite drag from two points of view. One is an effect of high energy radiation when the flare occurs in the Sun. This radiation heats and expands the upper atmosphere of the Earth as the number of neutral particles is suddenly increased. The other is an effect of Joule and precipitating particle heating caused by current of plasma and precipitation of particles during geomagnetic storms by CMEs. It also affects the density of neutral particles by heating the upper atmosphere. We investigate the satellite drag acceleration associated with the two factors for five events selected based on solar and geomagnetic data from 2001 to 2002. The major results can be summarized as follows. First, the drag acceleration started to increase with solar EUV radiation with the best cross-correlation (r = 0.92 for 1 day delayed F10.7. Second, the drag acceleration and Dst index have similar patterns when the geomagnetic storm is dominant and the drag acceleration abruptly increases during the strong geomagnetic storm. Third, the background variation of the drag accelerations is governed by the solar radiation, while their short term (less than a day variations is governed by geomagnetic storms.

  18. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  19. Leadership and management in the aged care sector: a narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Merlyn, Teri; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the issues and the progress being made in leadership and management with relevance for the residential aged care workforce. A systematic review was conducted using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care. Strong, effective leadership and management promotes staff job satisfaction and retention, high care quality and the well-being of care recipients, and reduces associated costs. Good leadership and effective management also play a key role in bringing about a successful change to a positive workplace culture through innovative programs and research projects. Organisational investment in improving leadership and management skills and capabilities can only improve outcomes for staff stability and productivity, care quality and budgets, and better prepare the aged care sector.

  20. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles provide strong adjuvant effect for hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borchard, Gerrit; Borges, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells. The addition of pRC/CMV-HBs to the HBsAg-adsorbed NPs inhibited IL-17 secretion but had minor effect on IFN-γ levels. Lastly, pRC/CMV-HBs-loaded NPs generated a weak serum antibody response. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan NPs provide a strong humoral adjuvant effect for HBsAg and induce a Th1/Th17-mediated cellular immune responses worth explore for hepatitis B virus vaccination.