Pop, P.C.; Still, Georg J.
1999-01-01
In linear programming it is known that an appropriate non-homogeneous Farkas Lemma leads to a short proof of the strong duality results for a pair of primal and dual programs. By using a corresponding generalized Farkas lemma we give a similar proof of the strong duality results for semidefinite
Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Fang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.
Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niculescu, Maria Ioana [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-08-01
The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.
String Theory, Strongly Correlated Systems, and Duality Twists
Torres Chicon, Nesty Ray
In the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 1), I present a construction of a six dimensional (2,0)-theory model that describes the dynamics of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The FQHE appears as part of the low energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A1 (2,0)-theory formulated on a geometry (S 1 x R2)/Zk. At low-energy, the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on a cone (R2/Z k) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged "quasi-particles" are BPS strings of the (2,0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. In this framework, a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of k quasi-particles, which can be used to understand the dynamics of the FQHE. In the second part of this dissertation (Chapters 2-3), I investigate the N=4 SYM theory compactified on a circle, with a varying coupling constant (Janus configuration) and an S-duality twist. I relate this setup to a three dimensional topological theory and to a dual string theory. The equality of these descriptions is exhibited by matching the operator algebra, and the dimensions of the Hilbert space. Additionally, this dissertation addresses a classic result in number theory, called quadratic reciprocity, using string theory language. I present a proof that quadratic reciprocity is a direct consequence of T-duality of Type-II string theory. This is demonstrated by analyzing a partition function of abelian N=4 SYM theory on a certain supersymmetry-preserving four-manifold with variable coupling constant and a SL(2,Z)-duality twist.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Upadhyay Balendu B.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we define some new generalizations of strongly convex functions of order m for locally Lipschitz functions using Clarke subdifferential. Suitable examples illustrating the non emptiness of the newly defined classes of functions and their relationships with classical notions of pseudoconvexity and quasiconvexity are provided. These generalizations are then employed to establish sufficient optimality conditions for a nonsmooth multiobjective optimization problem involving support functions of compact convex sets. Furthermore, we formulate a mixed type dual model for the primal problem and establish weak and strong duality theorems using the notion of strict efficiency of order m. The results presented in this paper extend and unify several known results from the literature to a more general class of functions as well as optimization problems.
Nonperturbative Dynamics of Strong Interactions from Gauge/Gravity Duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigoryan, Hovhannes [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
2008-08-01
This thesis studies important dynamical observables of strong interactions such as form factors. It is known that Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory which describes strong interactions. For large energies, one can apply perturbative techniques to solve some of the QCD problems. However, for low energies QCD enters into the nonperturbative regime, where di erent analytical or numerical tools have to be applied to solve problems of strong interactions. The holographic dual model of QCD is such an analytical tool that allows one to solve some nonperturbative QCD problems by translating them into a dual ve-dimensional theory de ned on some warped Anti de Sitter (AdS) background. Working within the framework of the holographic dual model of QCD, we develop a formalism to calculate form factors and wave functions of vector mesons and pions. As a result, we provide predictions of the electric radius, the magnetic and quadrupole moments which can be directly veri ed in lattice calculations or even experimentally. To nd the anomalous pion form factor, we propose an extension of the holographic model by including the Chern-Simons term required to reproduce the chiral anomaly of QCD. This allows us to nd the slope of the form factor with one real and one slightly o -shell photon which appeared to be close to the experimental ndings. We also analyze the limit of large virtualities (when the photon is far o -shell) and establish that predictions of the holographic model analytically coincide with those of perturbative QCD with asymptotic pion distribution amplitude. We also study the e ects of higher dimensional terms in the AdS/QCD model and show that these terms improve the holographic description towards a more realistic scenario. We show this by calculating corrections to the vector meson form factors and corrections to the observables such as electric radii, magnetic and quadrupole moments.
Strong/weak coupling duality relations for non-supersymmetric string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, J.D.; Dienes, K.R.
1998-01-01
Both the supersymmetric SO(32) and E 8 x E 8 heterotic strings in ten dimensions have known strong-coupling duals. However, it has not been known whether there also exist strong-coupling duals for the non-supersymmetric heterotic strings in ten dimensions. In this paper, we construct explicit open-string duals for the circle compactifications of several of these non-supersymmetric theories, among them the tachyon-free SO(16) x SO(16) string. Our method involves the construction of heterotic and open-string interpolating models that continuously connect non-supersymmetric strings to supersymmetric strings. We find that our non-supersymmetric dual theories have exactly the same massless spectra as their heterotic counterparts within a certain range of our interpolations. We also develop a novel method for analyzing the solitons of non-supersymmetric open-string theories, and find that the solitons of our dual theories also agree with their heterotic counterparts. These are therefore the first known examples of strong/weak coupling duality relations between non-supersymmetric, tachyon-free string theories. Finally, the existence of these strong-coupling duals allows us to examine the non-perturbative stability of these strings, and we propose a phase diagram for the behavior of these strings as a function of coupling and radius. (orig.)
Probing the cosmic distance duality with strong gravitational lensing and supernovae Ia data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holanda, R.F.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58429-500, Campina Grande PB (Brazil); Busti, V.C. [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br, E-mail: vcbusti@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)
2016-02-01
We propose and perform a new test of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR), D{sub L}(z) / D{sub A}(z) (1 + z){sup 2} = 1, where D{sub A} is the angular diameter distance and D{sub L} is the luminosity distance to a given source at redshift z, using strong gravitational lensing (SGL) and type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) data. We show that the ratio D=D{sub A{sub 1{sub 2}}}/D{sub A{sub 2}} and D{sup *}=D{sub L{sub 1{sub 2}}}/D{sub L{sub 2}}, where the subscripts 1 and 2 correspond, respectively, to redshifts z{sub 1} and z{sub 2}, are linked by D/D{sup *}=(1+z{sub 1}){sup 2} if the CDDR is valid. We allow departures from the CDDR by defining two functions for η(z{sub 1}), which equals unity when the CDDR is valid. We find that combination of SGL and SNe Ia data favours no violation of the CDDR at 1σ confidence level (η(z) ≅ 1), in complete agreement with other tests and reinforcing the theoretical pillars of the CDDR.
Chesler, Paul M.
We study dynamics in conformal field theories with gravitational duals. Attention is focused on heavy and light quark jets as well as far-from-equilibrium dynamics. The stress-energy tensor of a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma is evaluated using gauge/gravity duality. The accuracy with which the resulting wake, in position space, is reproduced by hydrodynamics is examined. Remarkable agreement is found between hydrodynamics and the complete result down to distances less than 2/ T away from the quark. We also compute the penetration depth of a light quark moving through a N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. We find that the maximum distance a quark with energy E can travel through a plasma is given by Dxmax E= C/T E/Tl 1/3 with C ≈ 0.5. For the study of dynamics far-from-equilibrium, we consider the creation and evolution of boost invariant anisotropic, strongly coupled conformal plasma. In the dual gravitational description, this corresponds to horizon formation in a geometry driven to be anisotropic by a time-dependent change in boundary conditions.
Gauge/string duality and hadronic physics
Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.
2006-01-01
We review some recent results on phenomenological approaches to strong interactions inspired in gauge/string duality. In particular, we discuss how such models lead to very good estimates for hadronic masses.
Bruch, Anton; Lewenkopf, Caio; von Oppen, Felix
2018-03-01
We develop a Landauer-Büttiker theory of entropy evolution in time-dependent, strongly coupled electron systems. The formalism naturally avoids the problem of the system-bath distinction by defining the entropy current in the attached leads. This current can then be used to infer changes of the entropy of the system which we refer to as the inside-outside duality. We carry out this program in an adiabatic expansion up to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. When combined with particle and energy currents, as well as the work required to change an external potential, our formalism provides a full thermodynamic description, applicable to arbitrary noninteracting electron systems in contact with reservoirs. This provides a clear understanding of the relation between heat and entropy currents generated by time-dependent potentials and their connection to the occurring dissipation.
Review of lattice supersymmetry and gauge-gravity duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joseph, Anosh
2015-12-01
We review the status of recent investigations on validating the gauge-gravity duality conjecture through numerical simulations of strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric thermal gauge theories. In the simplest setting, the gauge-gravity duality connects systems of D0-branes and black hole geometries at finite temperature to maximally supersymmetric gauged quantum mechanics at the same temperature. Recent simulations show that non-perturbative gauge theory results give excellent agreement with the quantum gravity predictions, thus proving strong evidence for the validity of the duality conjecture and more insight into quantum black holes and gravity.
Duality and 'particle' democracy
Castellani, Elena
2017-08-01
Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.
S-Duality for Linearized Gravity
Nieto, J. A.
1999-01-01
We develope the analogue of S-duality for linearized gravity in (3+1)-dimensions. Our basic idea is to consider the self-dual (anti-self-dual) curvature tensor for linearized gravity in the context of the Macdowell-Mansouri formalism. We find that the strong-weak coupling duality for linearized gravity is an exact symmetry and implies small-large duality for the cosmological constant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurt L. Polzin
2017-06-01
Full Text Available There is no theoretical underpinning that successfully explains how turbulent mixing is fed by wave breaking associated with nonlinear wave-wave interactions in the background oceanic internal wavefield. We address this conundrum using one-dimensional ray tracing simulations to investigate interactions between high frequency internal waves and inertial oscillations in the extreme scale separated limit known as “Induced Diffusion”. Here, estimates of phase locking are used to define a resonant process (a resonant well and a non-resonant process that results in stochastic jumps. The small amplitude limit consists of jumps that are small compared to the scale of the resonant well. The ray tracing simulations are used to estimate the first and second moments of a wave packet’s vertical wavenumber as it evolves from an initial condition. These moments are compared with predictions obtained from the diffusive approximation to a self-consistent kinetic equation derived in the ‘Direct Interaction Approximation’. Results indicate that the first and second moments of the two systems evolve in a nearly identical manner when the inertial field has amplitudes an order of magnitude smaller than oceanic values. At realistic (oceanic amplitudes, though, the second moment estimated from the ray tracing simulations is inhibited. The transition is explained by the stochastic jumps obtaining the characteristic size of the resonant well. We interpret this transition as an adiabatic ‘saturation’ process which changes the nominal background wavefield from supporting no mixing to the point where that background wavefield defines the normalization for oceanic mixing models.
Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Israel Szajnbok
Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.
Dualities and emergent gravity: Gauge/gravity duality
de Haro, Sebastian
2017-08-01
In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', from the physics literature, cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. I argue that the former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and that AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense of background-independence. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. It suggests some directions for possible generalisations of gauge/gravity dualities. The interpretation of dualities is discussed; and the so-called 'internal' vs. 'external' viewpoints are articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on
Wadia, Spenta R.
We begin with a few words about Salam's contribution to the growth of String Theory in India. In the technical talk we review results in SU(N) Chern-Simons plus vector matter theories in 2+1 dim in the large N limit. The dressing of charged matter by Chern-Simons gauge fields leads to anyons that interpolate between fermions and bosons and lead to a duality symmetry between fermionic and bosonic theories. The S-matrix (defined in the large N limit) besides exhibiting this duality, also exhibits novel properties due to the presence of anyons. The S-matrix is not analytic, like in Aharonov-Bohm scattering, and satisfies modified crossing symmetry relations.
Xu, Cenke; Moore, Joel
2005-03-01
We discuss models of superconducting arrays and frustrated magnets in two dimensions which show quantum phase transitions and self-dualities that are characteristic of one-dimensional problems. The first part of the talk explains how the geometric dependence of Josephson tunneling in time-reversal-breaking superconductors leads naturally to effective Hamiltonians containing four-point interactions rather than two-point interactions. This work was motivated by the observation of possible T-breaking p+ip order in Sr2RuO4, but similar four-point interactions appear in the 1/S expansion of certain standard models of frustrated magnetism. We show that many models on the square lattice with four-point interactions contain infinitely many gauge-like symmetries, and generalize the self-duality of the quantum Ising model in one dimension to related models in all higher dimensions. The existence of these nonperturbative self-dualities gives exact information on the phase diagram of the superconducting array models and on the phase transition between globally T-ordered and globally T-breaking states.
Lagrangean Duality Applied on Vehicle Routing with Time Windows - Experimental Results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallehauge, Brian; Larsen, Jesper; Madsen, Oli B.G.
2001-01-01
This report presents the results of the application of a non-differentiable optimization method in connection with the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is an extension of the Vehicle Routing Problem. In the VRPTW the service at each customer must start within an associ...
Sacramento, P. D.; Vieira, V. R.
2018-04-01
Mappings between models may be obtained by unitary transformations with preservation of the spectra but in general a change in the states. Non-canonical transformations in general also change the statistics of the operators involved. In these cases one may expect a change of topological properties as a consequence of the mapping. Here we consider some dualities resulting from mappings, by systematically using a Majorana fermion representation of spin and fermionic problems. We focus on the change of topological invariants that results from unitary transformations taking as examples the mapping between a spin system and a topological superconductor, and between different fermionic systems.
Electric-magnetic duality in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizrachi, L.
1982-03-01
The duality transformation of the vacuum expectation value of the operator which creates magnetic vortices (the 't Hooft loop operator in the Higgs phase) is performed in the radial gauge (xsub(μ)Asub(μ)sup(a)(x)=0). It is found that in the weak coupling region (small g) of a pure Yang-Mills theory the dual operator creates electric vortices whose strength is 1/g. The theory is self dual in this region, and the effective coupling of the dual Lagrangian is 1/g. Thus the above duality transformation reduces to electric-magnetic duality where the electric field in the 't Hooft loop operator transforms into a magnetic field in the dual operator. In a spontaneously broken gauge theory these results are valid only within the region where the vortices (or the monopoles) are concentrated, or in directions of the algebra space of unbroken symmetry, as self duality holds only for this subset of fields. In the strong coupling region a strong coupling expansion in powers of 1/g is suggested. (author)
Duality Games and Operational Duality Relations
Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Bergou, János A.; Hillery, Mark
2018-01-01
We give operational meaning to wave-particle duality in terms of discrimination games. Duality arises as a constraint on the probability of winning these games. The games are played with the aid of an n -port interferometer, and involve 3 parties, Alice and Bob, who cooperate, and the House, who supervises the game. In one game called ways they attempt to determine the path of a particle in the interferometer. In another, called phases, they attempt to determine which set of known phases have been applied to the different paths. The House determines which game is to be played by flipping a coin. We find a tight wave-particle duality relation that allows us to relate the probabilities of winning these games, and use it to find an upper bound on the probability of winning the combined game. This procedure allows us to express wave-particle duality in terms of discrimination probabilities.
Quark-hadron duality in electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel
2004-08-01
The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.
Dualities in five dimensions and charged string solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, S.; Maharana, J.
1996-01-01
We consider an eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on K3 x T 2 and show that the resulting five dimensional theory has identical massless states as that of a heterotic string compactified on a specific five torus T 5 . The strong-weak coupling duality of the five dimensional theory is argued to represent a ten dimensional Type IIA string compactified on K3 x S 1 , supporting the conjecture of string-string duality in six dimensions. In this perspective, we present a magnetically charged solution of the low energy heterotic string effective action in five dimensions with a charge defined on a three sphere S 3 due to the two form potential. We use the Poincare duality to replace the antisymmetric two form with a gauge field in the effective action and obtain a string solution with charge on a two sphere S 2 instead of that on a three sphere S 3 in the five dimensional spacetime. We note that the string-particle duality is accompanied by a change of topology from S 3 to S 2 and vice versa. (orig.)
Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories
Iwanari, Isamu
2014-01-01
We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.
Color-kinematic duality for form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boels, Rutger H.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.; Yang, Gang
2012-12-01
Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.
Color-kinematic duality for form factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boels, Rutger H.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.; Yang, Gang [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2012-12-15
Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.
Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeller, Hansjoerg
2014-01-01
In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the
Duality ensures modular covariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao; Yu Ming
1989-11-01
We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)
Daenzer, Calder
2011-01-01
We incorporate metric data into the framework of Tannaka-Krein duality. Thus, for any group with left invariant metric, we produce a dual metric on its category of unitary representations. We characterize the conditions under which a "double-dual" metric on the group may be recovered from the metric on representations, and provide conditions under which a metric agrees with its double-dual. We also consider some applications to T-duality and quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance.
Of gluons and gravitons. Exploring color-kinematics duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isermann, Reinke Sven
2013-06-15
In this thesis color-kinematics duality will be investigated. This duality is a statement about the kinematical dependence of a scattering amplitude in Yang-Mills gauge theories obeying group theoretical relations similar to that of the color gauge group. The major consequence of this duality is that gravity amplitudes can be related to a certain double copy of gauge theory amplitudes. The main focus of this thesis is on exploring the foundations of color-kinematics duality and its consequences. It is shown how color-kinematics duality can be made manifest at the one-loop level for rational amplitudes. A Lagrangian-based argument will be given for the validity of the double copy construction for these amplitudes including explicit examples at four points. Secondly, it is studied how color-kinematics duality can be used to improve powercounting in gravity theories. To this end the duality is reformulated in terms of linear maps. It is shown as an example how this can be used to derive the large BCFW shift behavior of a gravity integrand constructed through the duality to any loop order up to subtleties inherent to the duality that is addressed. As it becomes clear the duality implies massive cancellations with respect to the usual powercounting of Feynman graphs indicating that gravity theories are much better behaved than naively expected. As another example the linear map approach will be used to investigate the question of UV-finiteness of N=8 supergravity, and it is seen that the amount of cancellations depends on the exact implementation of the duality at loop level. Lastly, color-kinematics duality is considered from a Feynman-graph perspective reproducing some of the results of the earlier chapters thus giving non-trivial evidence for the duality at the loop level from a different perspective.
Of gluons and gravitons. Exploring color-kinematics duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isermann, Reinke Sven
2013-06-01
In this thesis color-kinematics duality will be investigated. This duality is a statement about the kinematical dependence of a scattering amplitude in Yang-Mills gauge theories obeying group theoretical relations similar to that of the color gauge group. The major consequence of this duality is that gravity amplitudes can be related to a certain double copy of gauge theory amplitudes. The main focus of this thesis is on exploring the foundations of color-kinematics duality and its consequences. It is shown how color-kinematics duality can be made manifest at the one-loop level for rational amplitudes. A Lagrangian-based argument will be given for the validity of the double copy construction for these amplitudes including explicit examples at four points. Secondly, it is studied how color-kinematics duality can be used to improve powercounting in gravity theories. To this end the duality is reformulated in terms of linear maps. It is shown as an example how this can be used to derive the large BCFW shift behavior of a gravity integrand constructed through the duality to any loop order up to subtleties inherent to the duality that is addressed. As it becomes clear the duality implies massive cancellations with respect to the usual powercounting of Feynman graphs indicating that gravity theories are much better behaved than naively expected. As another example the linear map approach will be used to investigate the question of UV-finiteness of N=8 supergravity, and it is seen that the amount of cancellations depends on the exact implementation of the duality at loop level. Lastly, color-kinematics duality is considered from a Feynman-graph perspective reproducing some of the results of the earlier chapters thus giving non-trivial evidence for the duality at the loop level from a different perspective.
Nonlinear self-duality and supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzenko, Sergei M.; McCarthy, Shane A.
2003-01-01
The concept of self-dual supersymmetric nonlinear electrodynamics is generalized to a curved superspace of N=1 supergravity, for both the old minimal and the new minimal versions of N=1 supergravity. We derive the self-duality equation, which has to be satisfied by the action functional of any U(1) duality invariant model of a massless vector multiplet, and construct a family of self-dual nonlinear models. This family includes a curved superspace extension of the N=1 super Born-Infeld action. The supercurrent and supertrace in such models are proved to be duality invariant. The most interesting and unexpected result is that the requirement of nonlinear self-duality yields nontrivial couplings of the vector multiplet to Kaehler sigma models. We explicitly derive the couplings to general Kaehler sigma models in the case when the matter chiral multiplets are inert under the duality rotations, and more specifically to the dilaton-axion chiral multiplet when the group of duality rotations is enhanced to SL(2,R). (author)
Dual projection and self duality in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Wotzasek, Clovis
2000-01-01
Full text follows: We discuss the notion of duality and self duality in the context of the dual projection operation that creates an internal space of potentials. This technique is applicable to both even and odd dimensions. We derive the appropriate invariant actions, discuss the symmetry groups and their proper generators. In particular, the novel concept of duality symmetry and self duality in Maxwell theory in (2+1) dimensions is analysed in details. The corresponding action is a 3D version of the familiar duality symmetric electromagnetic theory in 4D. Finally, the duality symmetric actions in the different dimensions constructed here manifest both the SO(2) and Z 2 symmetries, contrary to conventional results. (author)
From Koszul duality to Poincaré duality
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-06-09
Jun 9, 2012 ... Abstract. We discuss the notion of Poincaré duality for graded algebras and its connections with the Koszul duality for quadratic Koszul algebras. The relevance of the Poincaré duality is pointed out for the existence of twisted potentials associated to Koszul algebras as well as for the extraction of a good ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
field theory (for open strings as well as closed strings), tachyon condensation, and an ... string theory. a flavour of some of these works in this article. We will therefore restrict ourselves to a discussion of S-duality, the work cited for the Prize. However, I cannot resist .... physics of strongly coupled system. Clearly the number.
New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen
Gotta, D; Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; El-Khoury, P; Egger, J P; Gorke, H; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M
1999-01-01
Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the low-energy antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (33 refs).
New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Augsburger, M.; Borchert, G.; Castelli, C.; Chatellard, D.; El-Khoury, P.; Egger, J.-P.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Indelicato, P.; Kirch, K.; Lenz, S.; Nelms, N.; Rashid, K.; Schult, O. W. B.; Siems, Th.; Simons, L. M.
1999-01-01
Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction
String dualities and superpotential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Tae-Won
2010-09-01
The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)
String dualities and superpotential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ha, Tae-Won
2010-09-15
The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, T.W.
2010-11-15
The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)
Daenzer, Calder
2013-08-01
We incorporate metric data into the framework of Tannaka-Krein duality. Thus, for any group with left invariant metric, we produce a dual metric on its category of unitary representations. We characterize the conditions under which a "double-dual" metric on the group may be recovered from the metric on representations, and provide conditions under which a metric agrees with its double-dual. We also explore a diverse class of possible applications of the theory, including applications to T-duality and to quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance.
General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Guilu
2006-01-01
In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.
Residues and duality for singularity categories of isolated Gorenstein singularities
Murfet, Daniel
2009-01-01
We study Serre duality in the singularity category of an isolated Gorenstein singularity and find an explicit formula for the duality pairing in terms of generalised fractions and residues. For hypersurfaces we recover the residue formula of the string theorists Kapustin and Li. These results are obtained from an explicit construction of complete injective resolutions of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules.
Pro-torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, it is shown that some of the results of torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces, Borel's dimension formula and topological splitting principle to local weights, hold if 'torus' is replaced by 'pro-torus'. Keywords. Pro-torus; Poincaré duality space; local weight. 1. Introduction. In the theory of linear representations of ...
Duality group actions on fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pantev, Tony; Sharpe, Eric
2016-01-01
In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2,ℤ) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by ℤ 2 , to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial ℤ 2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.
Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates
Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio
2018-02-01
An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.
Magnetic vortices in gauge/gravity duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strydom, Migael
2014-07-18
We study strongly-coupled phenomena using gauge/gravity duality, with a particular focus on vortex solutions produced by magnetic field and time-dependent problems in holographic models. The main result is the discovery of a counter-intuitive effect where a strong non-abelian magnetic field induces the formation of a triangular vortex lattice ground state in a simple holographic model. Gauge/gravity duality is a powerful theoretical tool that has been used to study strongly-coupled systems ranging from the quark-gluon plasma produced at particle colliders to condensed matter theories. The most important idea is that of duality: a strongly coupled quantum field theory can be studied by investigating the properties of a particular gravity background described by Einstein's equations. One gravity background we study in this dissertation is AdS-Schwarzschild with an SU(2) gauge field. We switch on the gauge field component that gives the field theory an external magnetic field. When the magnetic field is above a critical value, we find that the system is unstable, indicating a superconducting phase transition. We find the instability in two ways. Firstly, we do a quasinormal mode analysis, studying fluctuations about the background. Secondly, we rewrite the equations in Schroedinger form and numerically find that, as the magnetic field is increased, the potential deepens until it is capable of supporting a bound state. Next we show that the resulting superconducting ground state is a triangular vortex lattice. This is done by performing a perturbative expansion in a small parameter proportional to the condensate size. After solving the equations to third order, we use the holographic dictionary to calculate the total energy of different lattice solutions and identify the minimum energy state. In addition, we show that the result holds in an AdS-hard wall model as well, which is dual to a confining theory. Next we extend the simple gravity model to include a
Ferrara, Sergio; Orazi, Emanuele; Trigiante, Mario
2013-01-01
In 4-dimensional supergravity theories, covariant under symplectic electric-magnetic duality rotations, a significant role is played by the symplectic matrix M({\\phi}), related to the coupling of scalars {\\phi} to vector field-strengths. In particular, this matrix enters the twisted self-duality condition for 2-form field strengths in the symplectic formulation of generalized Maxwell equations in the presence of scalar fields. In this investigation, we compute several properties of this matrix in relation to the attractor mechanism of extremal (asymptotically flat) black holes. At the attractor points with no flat directions (as in the N = 2 BPS case), this matrix enjoys a universal form in terms of the dyonic charge vector Q and the invariants of the corresponding symplectic representation RQ of the duality group G, whenever the scalar manifold is a symmetric space with G simple and non-degenerate of type E7. At attractors with flat directions, M still depends on flat directions, but not MQ, defining the so-...
Modern Supersymmetry, Dynamics and Duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papadopoulos, Georgios [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London (United Kingdom)
2007-01-21
Since its proposition over 35 years ago, supersymmetry has been the focus of intense investigation in both theoretical and particle physics. There are many excellent textbooks in the literature which give an introduction to the 'traditional' topics of supersymmetry like the supersymmetry algebra, superfields, supersymmetric gauge theories and supergravity. In recent years our understanding of non-perturbative phenomena in supersymmetric gauge theories has undergone something of a revolution with the use of non-renormalization theorems, duality and holomorphy. These powerful techniques have given new insights into vacuum structure, confinement and strong coupling behaviour of some gauge theories. Non-renormalization theorems in supersymmetric theories have been known for some time. These state that, under some conditions, certain terms of supersymmetric actions are not renormalized in the quantum theory. These include for example the potential term in the Wess-Zumino model and the ultra-violet finiteness of N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory in four dimensions. The original proof of these theorems was given using light-cone techniques, supergraph methods and anomaly arguments. More recently, non-renormalization theorems have been shown using holomorphy. In many cases, the interaction terms of supersymmetric theories depend holomorphically on chiral superfields and some coupling constants. In addition, these interaction terms are invariant under transformations that act both on the coupling constants and on the fields. Holomorphy is the assertion that after quantum corrections are taken into account, the above interaction terms remain holomorphic in the way suggested above and invariant under the transformations that act on the fields and couplings. This leads to strong restrictions on the type of effective potentials that can occur. In turn, it gives insights into the vacuum structure of gauge theories. Some time ago, it was observed by Montonen and Olive
The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.N.Shalaev
2005-01-01
Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.
Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We prove a local duality for some schemes associated to a 2-dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an -dimensional local field in the sense of Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case =0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.
Direct mediation, duality and unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, Steven; Khoze, Valentin V.
2008-01-01
It is well-known that in scenarios with direct gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking the messenger fields significantly affect the running of Standard Model couplings and introduce Landau poles which are difficult to avoid. Among other things, this appears to remove any possibility of a meaningful unification prediction and is often viewed as a strong argument against direct mediation. We propose two ways that Seiberg duality can circumvent this problem. In the first, which we call 'deflected-unification', the SUSY-breaking hidden sector is a magnetic theory which undergoes a Seiberg duality to an electric phase. Importantly, the electric version has fewer fundamental degrees of freedom coupled to the MSSM compared to the magnetic formulation. This changes the β-functions of the MSSM gauge couplings so as to push their Landau poles above the unification scale. We show that this scenario is realised for recently suggested models of gauge mediation based on a metastable SCQD-type hidden sector directly coupled to MSSM. The second possibility for avoiding Landau poles, which we call 'dual-unification', begins with the observation that, if the mediating fields fall into complete SU(5) multiplets, then the MSSM+messengers exhibits a fake unification at unphysical values of the gauge couplings. We show that, in known examples of electric/magnetic duals, such a fake unification in the magnetic theory reflects a real unification in the electric theory. We therefore propose that the Standard Model could itself be a magnetic dual of some unknown electric theory in which the true unification takes place. This scenario maintains the unification prediction (and unification scale) even in the presence of Landau poles in the magnetic theory below the GUT scale. We further note that this dual realization of grand unification can explain why Nature appears to unify, but the proton does not decay.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Lindley, Sam; Montesi, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
Wadler introduced Classical Processes (CP), a calculus based on a propositions-as-types correspondence between propositions of classical linear logic and session types. Carbone et al. introduced Multiparty Classical Processes, a calculus that generalises CP to multiparty session types, by replacing...... the duality of classical linear logic (relating two types) with a more general notion of coherence (relating an arbitrary number of types). This paper introduces variants of CP and MCP, plus a new intermediate calculus of Globally-governed Classical Processes (GCP). We show a tight relation between...
Duality constraints on effective actions
Garousi, Mohammad R.
2017-08-01
Superstring theories at low energy limit are described by the corresponding supergravities, and their non-perturbative D-brane/O-plane excitations are described by DBI and WZ actions. Higher derivative corrections to these effective actions are important for understanding the stringy behaviour of the fundamental objects. They may be extracted from the contact terms of the corresponding S-matrix elements. On the other hand, the superstring theories enjoy the T- and S-dualities which appear in the S-matrix elements as duality Ward identities. These Ward identities might be used as generating functions for constructing the S-matrix elements. The dualities may also be used directly to construct the effective actions. In this article, we review the duality Ward identities which can be used to generate S-matrix elements, and review the dualities which may be used directly to construct the higher derivative corrections to the effective actions.
S-duality, 't Hooft operators and the operator product expansion
Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuya
2009-09-01
We study S-duality in Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills with an arbitrary gauge group by determining the operator product expansion of the circular BPS Wilson and 't Hooft loop operators. The coefficients in the expansion of an 't Hooft loop operator for chiral primary operators and the stress-energy tensor are calculated in perturbation theory using the quantum path-integral definition of the 't Hooft operator recently proposed. The corresponding operator product coefficients for the dual Wilson loop operator are determined in the strong coupling expansion. The results for the 't Hooft operator in the weak coupling expansion exactly reproduce those for the dual Wilson loop operator in the strong coupling expansion, thereby demonstrating the quantitative prediction of S-duality for these observables.
Exact Boson-Fermion Duality on a 3D Euclidean Lattice
Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Jun Ho; Wang, Chao; Raghu, S.
2018-01-01
The idea of statistical transmutation plays a crucial role in descriptions of the fractional quantum Hall effect. However, a recently conjectured duality between a critical boson and a massless two-component Dirac fermion extends this notion to gapless systems. This duality sheds light on highly nontrivial problems such as the half-filled Landau level, the superconductor-insulator transition, and surface states of strongly coupled topological insulators. Although this boson-fermion duality has undergone many consistency checks, it has remained unproven. We describe the duality in a nonperturbative fashion using an exact UV mapping of partition functions on a 3D Euclidean lattice.
Pro-torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, it is shown that some of the results of torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces, Borel's dimension formula and topological splitting principle to local weights, hold if `torus' is replaced by `pro-torus'.
Dualities for multi-state probabilistic cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López, F Javier; Sanz, Gerardo; Sobottka, Marcelo
2008-01-01
In this paper a new form of duality for probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) is introduced. Using this duality, an ergodicity result for processes having a dual is proved. Also, conditions on the probabilities defining the evolution of the processes for the existence of a dual are provided. The results are applied to wide classes of PCA which include multi-opinion voter models, competition models and the Domany–Kinzel model
Topological field theories and duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephany, J.; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas
1996-05-01
Topologically non trivial effects appearing in the discussion of duality transformations in higher genus manifold are discussed in a simple example, and their relation with the properties of Topological Field Theories is established. (author). 16 refs
Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rakêt, Lars Lau
We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X...... the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function such that the interpolation assumption is directly modeled. This reparametrization is a powerful trick that results in a number of appealing properties, in particular...
Gauge/gravity duality. A road towards reality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerner, Patrick
2012-02-23
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled systems. In particular, we consider applications of the duality to real-world systems such as condensed matter systems and the quark-gluon plasma created by heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Gauge/gravity duality which originates from string theory relates strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly coupled gravity theories. This duality allows for computations of non-perturbative results on the field theory side by perturbative calculations on the gravity side. As we have learned in the recent years, the duality is especially suitable to describe hot and dense plasmas as well as real-time processes related to transport properties or spectral functions. Unfortunately, so far there is no dual gravity description modeling every aspect of a strongly coupled real-world system. However, there are many gravity duals which describe several phenomena. The general idea of this thesis is to study different gravity duals in order to develop a gravity description of hot and dense plasmas. In particular, we focus on physics in thermal equilibrium and close to equilibrium. Motivated by the experimentally observed mesonic resonances in the quark-gluon plasma, we first study quasinormal modes of a gravity dual which contains such resonances. The quasinormal modes on the gravity side are identified with the poles of the Green's function on the field theory side. By studying these quasinormal modes, we observe how quasiparticle resonances develop in a hot and dense plasma. We find interesting trajectories of quasinormal frequencies which may be found experimentally as the temperature and density is varied. In addition, we find an instability in the quasinormal mode spectrum at large chemical potential or magnetic field. At large chemical potential, this instability triggers the condensation of a field which
Gauge/gravity duality. A road towards reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, Patrick
2012-01-01
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled systems. In particular, we consider applications of the duality to real-world systems such as condensed matter systems and the quark-gluon plasma created by heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Gauge/gravity duality which originates from string theory relates strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly coupled gravity theories. This duality allows for computations of non-perturbative results on the field theory side by perturbative calculations on the gravity side. As we have learned in the recent years, the duality is especially suitable to describe hot and dense plasmas as well as real-time processes related to transport properties or spectral functions. Unfortunately, so far there is no dual gravity description modeling every aspect of a strongly coupled real-world system. However, there are many gravity duals which describe several phenomena. The general idea of this thesis is to study different gravity duals in order to develop a gravity description of hot and dense plasmas. In particular, we focus on physics in thermal equilibrium and close to equilibrium. Motivated by the experimentally observed mesonic resonances in the quark-gluon plasma, we first study quasinormal modes of a gravity dual which contains such resonances. The quasinormal modes on the gravity side are identified with the poles of the Green's function on the field theory side. By studying these quasinormal modes, we observe how quasiparticle resonances develop in a hot and dense plasma. We find interesting trajectories of quasinormal frequencies which may be found experimentally as the temperature and density is varied. In addition, we find an instability in the quasinormal mode spectrum at large chemical potential or magnetic field. At large chemical potential, this instability triggers the condensation of a field which breaks
Mordell integrals and Giveon-Kutasov duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giasemidis, Georgios [CountingLab LTD & Centre for the Mathematics of Human Behaviour (CMoHB),Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AX (United Kingdom); Tierz, Miguel [Departamento de Matemática, Grupo de Física Matemática, Faculdade de Ciências,Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C6, Lisboa, 1749-016 (Portugal); Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)
2016-01-12
We solve, for finite N, the matrix model of supersymmetric U(N) Chern-Simons theory coupled to N{sub f} massive hypermultiplets of R-charge (1/2), together with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term. We compute the partition function by identifying it with a determinant of a Hankel matrix, whose entries are parametric derivatives (of order N{sub f}−1) of Mordell integrals. We obtain finite Gauss sums expressions for the partition functions. We also apply these results to obtain an exhaustive test of Giveon-Kutasov (GK) duality in the N=3 setting, by systematic computation of the matrix models involved. The phase factor that arises in the duality is then obtained explicitly. We give an expression characterized by modular arithmetic (mod 4) behavior that holds for all tested values of the parameters (checked up to N{sub f}=12 flavours).
The braneology of 3D dualities
Amariti, Antonio; Klare, Claudius; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the reduction of four-dimensional Seiberg duality to three dimensions from a brane perspective. We reproduce the non-perturbative dynamics of the three-dimensional field theory via a T-duality at finite radius and the action of Euclidean D-strings. In this way we also overcome certain issues regarding the brane description of Aharony duality. Moreover we apply our strategy to more general dualities, such as toric duality for M2-branes and dualities with adjoint matter fields.
Three lectures on electric-magnetic duality
Aschieri, Paolo; Ferrara, Sergio; Zumino, Bruno
2009-01-01
Duality rotations in nonlinear electromagnetism are presented and basic examples reviewed. We then describe the nontrivi al example of Born-Infeld theory with n abelian gauge fields and with Sp (2 n, R ) self-duality. The central role of duality symmetry in four dimensional extended supergravity theories is explained and ex- plicitly illustrated in two examples ( N =4and N = 8 supergravities). Duality rotations in N = 2 supergravities are also discussed
Tannakian duality over Dedekind rings and applications
Duong, Nguyen Dai; Hai, Phùng Hô
2013-01-01
We establish a duality between flat affine group schemes and rigid tensor categories equipped with a neutral fiber functor (called Tannakian lattice), both defined over a Dedekind ring. We use this duality and the known Tannakian duality due to Saavedra to study morphisms between flat affine group schemes. Next, we apply our new duality to the category of stratified sheaves on a smooth scheme over a Dedekind ring R to define the relative differential fundamental group scheme of the given sche...
A cosmological interpretation of duality
Osorio, M A R
1994-01-01
We study the cosmological meaning of duality symmetry by considering a two dimensional model of string cosmology. We find that as seen by an internal observer in this universe, the scale factor rebounds at the self-dual length. This rebound is a consequence of the adiabatic expansion. Furthermore, in this situation there are four mathematically different scenarios which describe physically equivalent universes which are in fact indistinguishable. We also stress that $R$-duality suffices to prove that all possible evolutions present a maximum temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd El-Sattar, A. Dabbour.
1987-07-01
The K-Kolmogorov cohomology construction H k over a pair of discrete coefficient groups is given and discussed from the point of view of Eilenberg-Steenrod's axiom of the cohomology theory. This construction has many points of contiguity with other cohomology groups. The K-Kolmogorov cohomology groups on a pair of compact groups have been topologized by using their duality with the K-Kolmogorov homology groups. In the present work the Kolmogorov duality theorem is proved for H k . 11 refs
Lectures on strings and dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vafa, C.
1997-01-01
In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)
Duality in twisted N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions
Labastida, J.M.F.; Lozano, Carlos
1999-01-01
We consider a twisted version of the four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3), and bare masses for two of its chiral multiplets, thereby breaking N=4 down to N=2. Using the wall-crossing technique introduced by Moore and Witten within the u-plane approach to twisted topological field theories, we compute the partition function and all the topological correlation functions for the case of simply-connected spin four-manifolds of simple type. By including 't Hooft fluxes, we analyse the properties of the resulting formulae under duality transformations. The partition function transforms in the same way as the one first presented by Vafa and Witten for another twist of the N=4 supersymmetric theory in their strong coupling test of S-duality. Both partition functions coincide on K3. The topological correlation functions turn out to transform covariantly under duality, following a simple pattern which seems to be inherent in a general type of topological quantum field ...
((F, D1), D3) bound state, S-duality and noncommutative open string/Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, J.X.; Roy, S.; Singh, H.
2000-01-01
We study decoupling limits and S-dualities for noncommutative open string/Yang-Mills theory in a gravity setup by considering an SL(2,Z) invariant supergravity solution of the form ((F, D1), D3) bound state of type IIB string theory. This configuration can be regarded as D3-branes with both electric and magnetic fields turned on along one of the spatial directions of the brane and preserves half of the space-time supersymmetries of the string theory. Our study indicates that there exists a decoupling limit for which the resulting theory is an open string theory defined in a geometry with noncommutativity in both space-time and space-space directions. We study S-duality of this noncommutative open string (NCOS) and find that the same decoupling limit in the S-dual description gives rise to a space-space noncommutative Yang-Mills theory (NCYM). We also discuss independently the decoupling limit for NCYM in this D3 brane background. Here we find that S-duality of NCYM theory does not always give a NCOS theory. Instead, it can give an ordinary Yang-Mills with a singular metric and an infinitely large coupling. We also find that the open string coupling relation between the two S-duality related theories is modified such that S-duality of a strongly coupled open-string/Yang-Mills theory does not necessarily give a weakly coupled theory. The relevant gravity dual descriptions of NCOS/NCYM are also given. (author)
A duality web in condensed matter systems
Ma, Chen-Te
2018-03-01
We study various dualities in condensed matter systems. The dualities in three dimensions can be derived from a conjecture of a duality between a Dirac fermion theory and an interacting scalar field theory at a Wilson-Fisher fixed point and zero temperature in three dimensions. We show that the dualities are not affected by non-trivial holonomy, use a mean-field method to study the dualities, and discuss the dualities at a finite temperature. Finally, we combine a bulk theory, which is an Abelian p-form theory with a theta term in 2 p + 2 dimensions, and a boundary theory, which is a 2 p + 1 dimensional theory, to discuss constraints and difficulties of a 2 p + 1 dimensional duality web.
Sociological Duality in Era of Three Qajar Kings in Viewpoints of English Female Itinerary Writers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatemeh Jamili Kohneh Shahri
2016-06-01
This study has tried to answer the mentioned question using typology approach, theory of Morton about kinds of psychological and sociological duality, and techniques of historical investigation and content analysis. The result of this study shows 5 kinds of cultural and social duality among Iranians from viewpoint of English female travelers.
S-duality in N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theories with arbitrary gauge group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorey, Nicholas; Fraser, Christophe; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Kneipp, Marco A.C.
1996-12-01
The Goddard, Nuyts and Olive conjecture for electric-magnetic duality in the Yang-Mills theory with an arbitrary gauge group G is extended by including a non-vanishing vacuum angle θ. This extended S-duality conjecture includes the case when the unbroken gauge group in non-Abelian and a definite prediction for the spectrum of dyons results. (author)
The higher spin/vector model duality
Giombi, Simone; Yin, Xi
2013-05-01
This paper is mainly a review of the dualities between Vasiliev’s higher spin gauge theories in AdS4 and three dimensional large N vector models, with focus on the holographic calculation of correlation functions of higher spin currents. We also present some new results in the computation of parity odd structures in the three point functions in parity violating Vasiliev theories. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.
Duality and dimensional reduction of 5D BF theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amoretti, A.; Blasi, A.; Caruso, G.; Maggiore, N.; Magnoli, N. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy)
2013-06-15
A planar boundary introduced a la Symanzik in the 5D topological BF theory, with only the requirements of locality and power counting, allows to uniquely determine a gauge invariant, non-topological 4D Lagrangian. The boundary condition on the bulk fields is interpreted as a duality relation for the boundary fields, in analogy with the fermionization duality which holds in the 3D case. This suggests that the 4D degrees of freedom might be fermionic, although starting from a bosonic bulk theory. The method we propose to dimensionally reduce a Quantum Field Theory and to identify the resulting degrees of freedom can be applied to a generic spacetime dimension. (orig.)
Vector optimization and monotone operators via convex duality recent advances
Grad, Sorin-Mihai
2014-01-01
This book investigates several duality approaches for vector optimization problems, while also comparing them. Special attention is paid to duality for linear vector optimization problems, for which a vector dual that avoids the shortcomings of the classical ones is proposed. Moreover, the book addresses different efficiency concepts for vector optimization problems. Among the problems that appear when the framework is generalized by considering set-valued functions, an increasing interest is generated by those involving monotone operators, especially now that new methods for approaching them by means of convex analysis have been developed. Following this path, the book provides several results on different properties of sums of monotone operators.
Duality and dimensional reduction of 5D BF theory
Amoretti, A.; Blasi, A.; Caruso, G.; Maggiore, N.; Magnoli, N.
2013-06-01
A planar boundary introduced à la Symanzik in the 5D topological BF theory, with only the requirements of locality and power counting, allows to uniquely determine a gauge invariant, non-topological 4D Lagrangian. The boundary condition on the bulk fields is interpreted as a duality relation for the boundary fields, in analogy with the fermionization duality which holds in the 3D case. This suggests that the 4D degrees of freedom might be fermionic, although starting from a bosonic bulk theory. The method we propose to dimensionally reduce a Quantum Field Theory and to identify the resulting degrees of freedom can be applied to a generic spacetime dimension.
Kleshchev, Alexander
2017-01-01
The authors study imaginary representations of the Khovanov-Lauda-Rouquier algebras of affine Lie type. Irreducible modules for such algebras arise as simple heads of standard modules. In order to define standard modules one needs to have a cuspidal system for a fixed convex preorder. A cuspidal system consists of irreducible cuspidal modules-one for each real positive root for the corresponding affine root system {\\tt X}_l^{(1)}, as well as irreducible imaginary modules-one for each l-multiplication. The authors study imaginary modules by means of "imaginary Schur-Weyl duality" and introduce an imaginary analogue of tensor space and the imaginary Schur algebra. They construct a projective generator for the imaginary Schur algebra, which yields a Morita equivalence between the imaginary and the classical Schur algebra, and construct imaginary analogues of Gelfand-Graev representations, Ringel duality and the Jacobi-Trudy formula.
The Plane-Wave/Super Yang-Mills Duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadri, D
2003-10-14
We present a self-contained review of the Plane-wave/super-Yang-Mills duality, which states that strings on a plane-wave background are dual to a particular large R-charge sector of N=4, D=4 superconformal U(N) gauge theory. This duality is a specification of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence in the ''Penrose limit''. The Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} S{sup 5} leads to the maximally supersymmetric ten dimensional plane-wave (henceforth the plane-wave) and corresponds to restricting to the large R-charge sector, the BMN sector, of the dual superconformal field theory. After assembling the necessary background knowledge, we state the duality and review some of its supporting evidence. We review the suggestion by 't Hooft that Yang-Mills theories with gauge groups of large rank might be dual to string theories and the realization of this conjecture in the form of the AdS/CFT duality. We discuss plane-waves as exact solutions of supergravity and their appearance as Penrose limits of other backgrounds, then present an overview of string theory on the plane-wave background, discussing the symmetries and spectrum. We then make precise the statement of the proposed duality, classify the BMN operators, and mention some extensions of the proposal. We move on to study the gauge theory side of the duality, studying both quantum and non-planar corrections to correlation functions of BMN operators, and their operator product expansion. The important issue of operator mixing and the resultant need for re-diagonalization is stressed. Finally, we study strings on the plane-wave via light-cone string field theory, and demonstrate agreement on the one-loop correction to the string mass spectrum and the corresponding quantity in the gauge theory. A new presentation of the relevant superalgebra is given.
Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-01-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, and find the same angular distribution of radiated power, up to an overall prefactor. In both regimes, the angular distribution is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circula...
A Duality Theory for Non-convex Problems in the Calculus of Variations
Bouchitté, Guy; Fragalà, Ilaria
2018-02-01
We present a new duality theory for non-convex variational problems, under possibly mixed Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The dual problem reads nicely as a linear programming problem, and our main result states that there is no duality gap. Further, we provide necessary and sufficient optimality conditions, and we show that our duality principle can be reformulated as a min-max result which is quite useful for numerical implementations. As an example, we illustrate the application of our method to a celebrated free boundary problem. The results were announced in Bouchitté and Fragalà (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 353(4):375-379, 2015).
Duality and supersymmetry breaking in string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, S. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland) California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Magnoli, N.; Veneziano, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Taylor, T.R. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA))
1990-08-16
Target-space duality is incorporated in previously proposed effective actions describing non-perturbative supersymmetry breaking in string theory via gaugino condensation. Duality-preserving vacua with broken supersymmetry and fixed unified coupling constant do generically occur. The question of the vanishing of the cosmological constant is also briefly addressed. (orig.).
A Metrized Duality Theorem for Markov Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2014-01-01
We extend our previous duality theorem for Markov processes by equipping the processes with a pseudometric and the algebras with a notion of metric diameter. We are able to show that the isomorphisms of our previous duality theorem become isometries in this quantitative setting. This opens the way...
Morita duality for monoids / Peeter Normak
Normak, Peeter
1990-01-01
In this paper Morita duality for monoids is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for two monoids S and T to be Morita dual are given. Moreover, it is shown that if S and T are Morita dual monoids, then S and U are Moriaddition, every finite monoid having Morita duality is selfdual and even reflexive.
Managing Dualities in Planned Change Initiatives
Barge, J. Kevin; Lee, Michael; Maddux, Kristy; Nabring, Richard; Townsend, Bryan
2008-01-01
Dualities play an important role in creating the conditions for change and managing planned change initiatives. Building on Seo, Putnam, and Bartunek's (2003) work, this study focuses on the dualities associated with managing change processes. A case study of a planned change process called the Circle of Prosperity Initiative, a multi-stakeholder…
Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2007-06-15
We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.
Gauge fields and infinite chains of dualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boulanger, Nicolas [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons - UMONS,20 place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello - UNAB,Av. República 252, Santiago (Chile); West, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King’s College,London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
We show that the particle states of Maxwell’s theory, in D dimensions, can be represented in an infinite number of ways by using different gauge fields. Using this result we formulate the dynamics in terms of an infinite set of duality relations which are first order in space-time derivatives. We derive a similar result for the three form in eleven dimensions where such a possibility was first observed in the context of E{sub 11}. We also give an action formulation for some of the gauge fields. In this paper we give a pedagogical account of the Lorentz and gauge covariant formulation of the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, used previously in higher spin theories, as this plays a key role in our constructions. It is clear that our results can be generalised to any particle.
Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2011-01-01
Over the last decade, both experimental and theoretical advances have brought the need for strong coupling techniques in the analysis of deconfined QCD matter and heavy ion collisions to the forefront. As a consequence, a fruitful interplay has developed between analyses of strongly-coupled non-abelian plasmas via the gauge/string duality (also referred to as the AdS/CFT correspondence) and the phenomenology of heavy ion collisions. We review some of the main insights gained from this interplay to date. To establish a common language, we start with an introduction to heavy ion phenomenology and finite-temperature QCD, and a corresponding introduction to important concepts and techniques in the gauge/string duality. These introductory sections are written for nonspecialists, with the goal of bringing readers ranging from beginning graduate students to experienced practitioners of either QCD or gauge/string duality to the point that they understand enough about both fields that they can then appreciate their in...
Dualities in Nonholonomic Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Udrişte Constantin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article deals with optimizing problems whose restrictions are nonholonomic. The central issue relates to dual nonholonomic programs (what they mean and how they are solved? when the nonholonomic constraints are given by Pfaff equations. We emphasize that nonholonomic critical points are not the classical ones and that the nonholonomic Lagrange multipliers are not the classical (holonomic Lagrange multipliers. Topological significance of Lagrange multipliers and dual function theory introduced by EDO and EDP are key results. Also new Riemannian geometries attached to a given nonholonomic constrained optimization problem are introduced. The original results are surprising and include: (i aspects derived from the Vranceanu theory of nonholonomic manifolds, and from the geometric distributions theory, (ii optimal problems in Darboux canonical coordinates.
Strong Lensing Science Results from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey
Wong, Kenneth; HSC SSP Strong Lens Working Group
2018-01-01
Strong gravitational lenses are valuable objects for studying galaxy structure and cosmology. Lensing is a unique probe of the dark matter structure of galaxies, groups, and clusters, as well as an independent tool for constraining cosmological parameters. Lensing also magnifies the background source population, allowing for detailed studies of their properties at high resolution. However, strong lenses are rare and difficult to find, requiring deep wide-area high-resolution imaging surveys. With data from the ongoing Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program, we have discovered over 100 new strong lenses at the galaxy and group scale to expand the sample of lensing systems, particularly at redshifts z > 0.5, where there have previously been relatively few known lenses. We present a summary of the latest strong lensing science results from the HSC survey data taken through the S17A semester.
Ring wormholes via duality rotations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary W. Gibbons
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.
Duality transformations for general abelian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savit, R.
1982-01-01
We describe the general structure of duality transformations for a very broad set of abelian statistical and field theoretic systems. This includes theories with many different types of fields and a large variety of kinds of interactions including, but not limited to nearest neighbor, next nearest neighbor, multi-spin interactions, etc. We find that the dual form of a theory does not depend directly on the dimensionality of the theory, but rather on the number of fields and number of different kinds of interactions. The dual forms we find have a generalized gauge symmetry and posses the usual property of having a temperature (or coupling constant) which is inverted from that of the original theory. Our results reduce to the well-known results in those particular cases that have heretofore been studied. Our procedure also suggests variations capable of generating other forms of the dual theory which may be useful in various specific cases. (orig.)
arXiv Recent results from the strong interactions program of NA61/SHINE
Pulawski, Szymon
2017-01-01
The NA61/SHINE experiment studies hadron production in hadron+hadron, hadron+nucleus and nucleus+nucleus collisions. The strong interactions program has two main purposes: study the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the signatures of the critical point of strongly interacting matter. This aim is pursued by performing a two-dimensional scan of the phase diagram by varying the energy/momentum (13A-158A GeV/c) and the system size (p+p, Be+Be, Ar+Sc, Xe+La) of the collisions. This publication reviews recent results from p+p, Be+Be and Ar+Sc interactions. Measured particle spectra are discussed and compared to NA49 results from Pb+Pb collisions. The results illustrate the progress towards scanning the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter.
Superdualities, brane tensions and massive IIA/IIB duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavrinenko, I.V.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1999-01-01
The gauge transformations of p-form fields in supergravity theories acquire a non-commuting character when one introduces potentials both for the theory's original field strengths and for their duals. This has previously been shown in the 'doubled' formalism for maximal supergravities, where a generalised duality relation between original and dual field strengths replaces the equations of motion. In the doubled formalism, the gauge transformations generate a superalgebra, and the corresponding symmetries have accordingly been called 'superdualities'. The corresponding Noether charges form a representation of the cohomology ring on the space-time manifold. In this paper, we show that the gauge symmetry superalgebra implies certain non-trivial relations among the various p-brane tensions, which can straightforwardly be read off from the superalgebra commutation relations. This provides an elegant derivation of the brane-tension relations purely within a given theory, without the need to make use of duality relations between different theories, such as the type IIA/IIB T-duality, although the results are consistent with such dualities. We present the complete set of brane-tension relations in M-theory, in the type IIA and type IIB theories, and in all the lower-dimensional maximal supergravities. We also construct a doubled formalism for massive type IIA supergravity, and this enables us to obtain the brane-tension relations involving the D8-brane, purely within the framework of the massive IIA theory. We also obtain explicit transformations for the nine-dimensional T-duality between the massive type IIA theory and the Scherk-Schwarz reduced type IIB theory
Introduction of the chronon in the theory of electron and the wave-particle duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldirola, P.
1984-01-01
The author summarizes the more important results obtained in the electron theory based on the chronon and stresses some peculiarities of the wave-particle duality directly connected with the introduction of the chronon. (Auth.)
Fuzzy bags, Polyakov loop and gauge/string duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuo Fen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Confinement in SU(N gauge theory is due to the linear potential between colored objects. At short distances, the linear contribution could be considered as the quadratic correction to the leading Coulomb term. Recent lattice data show that such quadratic corrections also appear in the deconfined phase, in both the thermal quantities and the Polyakov loop. These contributions are studied systematically employing the gauge/string duality. “Confinement” in N${\\cal N}$ = 4 SU(N Super Yang-Mills (SYM theory could be achieved kinematically when the theory is defined on a compact space manifold. In the large-N limit, deconfinement of N${\\cal N}$ = 4 SYM on S3${{\\Bbb S}^3}$ at strong coupling is dual to the Hawking-Page phase transition in the global Anti-de Sitter spacetime. Meantime, all the thermal quantities and the Polyakov loop achieve significant quadratic contributions. Similar results can also be obtained at weak coupling. However, when confinement is induced dynamically through the local dilaton field in the gravity-dilaton system, these contributions can not be generated consistently. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no dimension-2 gauge-invariant operator in the boundary gauge theory. Based on these results, we suspect that quadratic corrections, and also confinement, should be due to global or non-local effects in the bulk spacetime.
General Duality for Perpetual American Options
Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin
2006-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the generalization of the Call-Put duality equality obtained in Alfonsi and Jourdain (preprint, 2006, available at ) for perpetual American options when the Call-Put payoff (y - x)+ is replaced by ϕ(x,y). It turns out that the duality still holds under monotonicity and concavity assumptions on ϕ. The specific analytical form of the Call-Put payoff only makes calculations easier but is not crucial unlike in the derivation of the Call-Put duality equality for Europ...
Persson, Daniel; Volpato, Roberto
2018-04-01
We define a very general class of CHL-models associated with any string theory S (bosonic or supersymmetric) compactified on an internal CFT C× Td . We take the orbifold by a pair (g, δ) , where g is a (possibly non-geometric) symmetry of C and δ is a translation along T n . We analyze the T-dualities of these models and show that in general they contain Atkin–Lehner type symmetries. This generalizes our previous work on N=4 CHL-models based on heterotic string theory on T 6 or type II on K3× T2 , as well as the ‘monstrous’ CHL-models based on a compactification of heterotic string theory on the Frenkel–Lepowsky–Meurman CFT V\
Duality for discrete integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quispel, G R W; Capel, H W; Roberts, J A G
2005-01-01
A new class of discrete dynamical systems is introduced via a duality relation for discrete dynamical systems with a number of explicitly known integrals. The dual equation can be defined via the difference of an arbitrary linear combination of integrals and its upshifted version. We give an example of an integrable mapping with two parameters and four integrals leading to a (four-dimensional) dual mapping with four parameters and two integrals. We also consider a more general class of higher-dimensional mappings arising via a travelling-wave reduction from the (integrable) MKdV partial-difference equation. By differencing the trace of the monodromy matrix we obtain a class of novel dual mappings which is shown to be integrable as level-set-dependent versions of the original ones
Duality for Multitime Multiobjective Ratio Variational Problems on First Order Jet Bundle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Postolache
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a new class of multitime multiobjective variational problems of minimizing a vector of quotients of functionals of curvilinear integral type. Based on the efficiency conditions for multitime multiobjective ratio variational problems, we introduce a ratio dual of generalized Mond-Weir-Zalmai type, and under some assumptions of generalized convexity, duality theorems are stated. We prove our weak duality theorem for efficient solutions, showing that the value of the objective function of the primal cannot exceed the value of the dual. Direct and converse duality theorems are stated, underlying the connections between the values of the objective functions of the primal and dual programs. As special cases, duality results of Mond-Weir-Zalmai type for a multitime multiobjective variational problem are obtained. This work further develops our studies in (Pitea and Postolache (2011.
Matrix Models and String World Sheet Duality
de Alwis, S. P.
1997-01-01
The scaling limit used recently to derive matrix models, and a certain analyticity assumption, are invoked to argue that the agreement between some matrix model calculations and supergravity is a consequence of string world sheet duality.
Challenges in assessing college students' conception of duality: the case of infinity
Babarinsa-Ochiedike, Grace Olutayo
Interpreting students' views of infinity posits a challenge for researchers due to the dynamic nature of the conception. There is diversity and variation among students' process-object perceptions. The fluctuations between students' views however reveal an undeveloped duality conception. This study examined college students' conception of duality in understanding and representing infinity with the intent to design strategies that could guide researchers in categorizing students' views of infinity into different levels. Data for the study were collected from N=238 college students enrolled in Calculus sequence courses (Pre-Calculus, Calculus I through Calculus III) at one of the southwestern universities in the U.S. using self-report questionnaires and semi-structured individual task-based interviews. Data was triangulated using multiple measures analyzed by three independent experts using self-designed coding sheets to assess students' externalization of the duality conception of infinity. Results of this study reveal that college students' experiences in traditional Calculus sequence courses are not supportive of the development of duality conception. On the contrary, it strengthens the singularity perspective on fundamental ideas of mathematics such as infinity. The study also found that coding and assessing college students' conception of duality is a challenging and complex process due to the dynamic nature of the conception that is task-dependent and context-dependent. Practical significance of the study is that it helps to recognize misconceptions and starts addressing them so students will have a more comprehensive view of fundamental mathematical ideas as they progress through the Calculus coursework sequence. The developed duality concept development framework called Action-Process-Object-Duality (APOD) adapted from the APOS theory could guide educators and researchers as they engage in assessing students' conception of duality. The results of this study
A nonabelian particle–vortex duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeff Murugan
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We define a nonabelian particle–vortex duality as a 3-dimensional analogue of the usual 2-dimensional worldsheet nonabelian T-duality. The transformation is defined in the presence of a global SU(2 symmetry and, although derived from a string theoretic setting, we formulate it generally. We then apply it to so-called “semilocal strings” in an SU(2G×U(1L gauge theory, originally discovered in the context of cosmic string physics.
Duality, Entropy and ADM Mass in Supergravity
Cerchiai, Bianca L; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno
2009-01-01
We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both "large" and "small" extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.
Probing the distance-duality relation with high- z data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holanda, R.F.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58429-500, Campina Grande—PB (Brazil); Busti, V.C. [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo—SP (Brazil); Lima, F.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58429-900, Campina Grande—PB (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br, E-mail: viniciusbusti@gmail.com, E-mail: limasdl@bol.com.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro—RJ (Brazil)
2017-09-01
Measurements of strong gravitational lensing jointly with type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observations have been used to test the validity of the cosmic distance duality relation (CDDR), D{sub L}( z )/[(1+ z ){sup 2D{sub A}}( z )]=η=1, where D{sub L}(z) and D{sub A}(z) are the luminosity and the angular diameter distances to a given redshift z , respectively. However, several lensing systems lie in the interval 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 3.6 i.e., beyond the redshift range of current SNe Ia compilations ( z ≈ 1.50), which prevents this kind of test to be fully explored. In this paper, we circumvent this problem by testing the CDDR considering observations of strong gravitational lensing along with SNe Ia and (a subsample from) the latest gamma-ray burst distance modulus data, whose redshift range is 0.033 ≤ z ≤ 9.3. We parameterize their luminosity distances with a second degree polynomial function and search for possible deviations from the CDDR validity by using four different η( z ) functions: η( z )=1+η{sub 0z}, η( z )=1+η{sub 0z}/(1+ z ), η( z )=(1+ z ){sup η{sub 0}} and η( z )=1+η{sub 0ln}(1+ z ). Unlike previous tests done at redshifts lower than 1.50, the likelihood for η{sub 0} depends strongly on the η( z ) function considered, but we find no significant deviation from the CDDR validity (η{sub 0}=0). However, our analyses also point to the fact that caution is needed when one fits data in higher redshifts to test the CDDR as well as a better understanding of the mass distribution of lenses also is required for more accurate results.
Obers, N A
1999-01-01
This work is intended as a pedagogical introduction to M-theory and to its maximally supersymmetric toroidal compactifications, in the frameworks of 11D supergravity, type II string theory and M(atrix) theory. U-duality is used as the main tool and guideline in uncovering the spectrum of BPS states. We review the 11D supergravity algebra and elementary 1/2-BPS solutions, discuss T-duality in the perturbative and non-perturbative sectors from an algebraic point of view, and apply the same tools to the analysis of U-duality at the level of the effective action and the BPS spectrum, with a particular emphasis on Weyl and Borel generators. We derive the U-duality multiplets of BPS particles and strings, U-duality invariant mass formulae for 1/2- and 1/4-BPS states for general toroidal compactifications on skew tori with gauge backgrounds, and U-duality multiplets of constraints for states to preserve a given fraction of supersymmetry. A number of mysterious states are encountered in $D\\le 3$, whose existence is i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szyniszewski, Marcin; Manchester Univ.; Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka
2014-10-01
We employ exact diagonalization with strong coupling expansion to the massless and massive Schwinger model. New results are presented for the ground state energy and scalar mass gap in the massless model, which improve the precision to nearly 10 -9 %. We also investigate the chiral condensate and compare our calculations to previous results available in the literature. Oscillations of the chiral condensate which are present while increasing the expansion order are also studied and are shown to be directly linked to the presence of flux loops in the system.
An evaluation of the analytic continuation by duality technique
Takeuchi, T; Ignjatovic, S R; Wijewardhana, L C R
1997-01-01
In Nucl. Phys. B391 (1993) 127, Sundrum and Hsu estimated the value of the oblique correction parameter S for walking technicolor theories using a technique called Analytic Continuation by Duality (ACD). We apply the ACD technique to the perturbative vacuum polarization function and find that it fails to reproduce the well known result S=1/6\\pi. This brings into question the reliability of the ACD technique and the Sundrum and Hsu estimate of S.
On the Duality Principle by Casazza, Kutyniok, and Lammers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young
2011-01-01
The R-dual sequences of a frame {f i } i∈I , introduced by Casazza, Kutyniok and Lammers in (J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 10(4):383–408, 2004), provide a powerful tool in the analysis of duality relations in general frame theory. In this paper we derive conditions for a sequence {ω j } j∈I to be an R......-dual of a given frame {f i } i∈I . In particular we show that the R-duals {ω j } j∈I can be characterized in terms of frame properties of an associated sequence {n i } i∈I . We also derive the duality results obtained for tight Gabor frames in (Casazza et al. in J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 10(4):383–408, 2004...
The super-correlator/super-amplitude duality: Part II
Eden, Burkhard; Korchemsky, Gregory P; Sokatchev, Emery
2013-01-01
We continue the study of the duality between super-correlators and scattering super-amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM. We provide a number of further examples supporting the conjectured duality relation between these two seemingly different objects. We consider the five- and six-point one-loop NMHV and the six-point tree-level NNMHV amplitudes, obtaining them from the appropriate correlators of strength tensor multiplets in N=4 SYM. In particular, we find exact agreement between the rather non-trivial parity-odd sector of the integrand of the six-point one-loop NMHV amplitude, as obtained from the correlator or from BCFW recursion relations. Together these results lead to the conjecture that the integrands of any N^kMHV amplitude at any loop order in planar N=4 SYM can be described by the correlators of stress-tensor multiplets.
Duality and BPS spectra in N = 2 supersymmetric QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, F.
1997-01-01
I review, with some pedagogy, two different approaches to the computation of BPS spectra in N = 2 supersymmetric QCD with gauge group SU(2). The first one is semiclassical and has been widely used in the literature. The second one makes use of constraints coming from the non perturbative, global structure of the Coulomb branch of these theories. The second method allows for a description of discontinuities in the BPS spectra at strong coupling, and should lead to accurate test of duality conjectures in N = 2 theories. (orig.)
Open string T-duality in double space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sazdovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia)
2017-09-15
The role of double space is essential in the new interpretation of T-duality and consequently in an attempt to construct M-theory. The case of the open string is missing in such an approach because until now there has been no appropriate formulation of open string T-duality. In the previous paper (Sazdovic, From geometry to non-geometry via T-duality, arXiv:1606.01938, 2017), we showed how to introduce vector gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} at the end-points of an open string in order to enable open string invariance under local gauge transformations of the Kalb-Ramond field and its T-dual ''restricted general coordinate transformations''. We demonstrated that gauge fields A{sup N}{sub a} and A{sup D}{sub i} are T-dual to each other. In the present article we prove that all above results can be interpreted as coordinate permutations in double space. (orig.)
Actions for non-abelian twisted self-duality
Samtleben, Henning
2011-10-01
The dynamics of abelian vector and antisymmetric tensor gauge fields can be described in terms of twisted self-duality equations. These first-order equations relate the p-form fields to their dual forms by demanding that their respective field strengths are dual to each other. It is well known that such equations can be integrated to a local action that carries on equal footing the p-forms together with their duals and is manifestly duality invariant. Space-time covariance is no longer manifest but still present with a non-standard realization of space-time diffeomorphisms on the gauge fields. In this paper, we give a non-abelian generalization of this first-order action by gauging part of its global symmetries. The resulting field equations are non-abelian versions of the twisted self-duality equations. A key element in the construction is the introduction of proper couplings to higher-rank tensor fields. We discuss possible applications (to Yang-Mills and supergravity theories) and comment on the relation to previous no-go theorems.
Leo Esakia on duality in modal and intuitionistic logics
Bezhanishvili, Guram
2014-01-01
This volume is dedicated to Leo Esakia's contributions to the theory of modal and intuitionistic systems. Consisting of 10 chapters, written by leading experts, this volume discusses Esakia's original contributions and consequent developments that have helped to shape duality theory for modal and intuitionistic logics and to utilize it to obtain some major results in the area. Beginning with a chapter which explores Esakia duality for S4-algebras, the volume goes on to explore Esakia duality for Heyting algebras and its generalizations to weak Heyting algebras and implicative semilattices. The book also dives into the Blok-Esakia theorem and provides an outline of the intuitionistic modal logic KM which is closely related to the Gödel-Löb provability logic GL. One chapter scrutinizes Esakia's work interpreting modal diamond as the derivative of a topological space within the setting of point-free topology. The final chapter in the volume is dedicated to the derivational semantics of modal logic and other re...
arXiv Recent results and future of the NA61/SHINE strong interactions program
Lysakowski, Bartosz
2018-01-01
NA61/SHINE is a fixed target experiment at the CERN Super-Proton- Synchrotron. The main goals of the experiment are to discover the critical point of strongly interacting matter and study the properties of the onset of deconfnement. In order to reach these goals the collaboration studies hadron production properties in nucleus-nucleus, proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions. In this talk, recent results on particle production in p+p interactions, as well as Be+Be and Ar+Sc collisions in the SPS energy range are reviewed. The results are compared with available world data. The future of the NA61/SHINE scientifc program is also presented.
Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.
2013-12-01
The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be
Optimality Conditions and Duality for DC Programming in Locally Convex Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Xianyun
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the DC programming problem where and are proper convex functions defined on locally convex Hausdorff topological vector spaces and respectively, and is a linear operator from to . By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, the optimality conditions and strong duality of are obtained.
A demonstration of particle duality of light
Jiang, Haili; Liu, Zhihai; Sun, Qiuhua; Zhao, Yancheng
2017-08-01
The need of understanding and teaching about wave-particle duality if light with gets more and more apparent in the background of the attention of modern physics. As early as the beginning of twentieth Century, Einstein dared to "deny" the development of a very perfect light electromagnetic theory, so that the quantum of light can be developed. In 1924, De Broglie put forward wave-particle duality if light to other micro particles and the concept of matter wave, pointed out that all micro particle has wave-particle duality. This is a very abstract concept for students, most college physics teaching all lack of demonstration about particle duality of light. The present article aims to contribute to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light at the same time using a simple way based on fiber optical tweezers. It is hoped that useful lesson can be absorbed so that students can deepen the understanding of the particle and wave properties of light. To complement the demonstration experiment for this attribute light has momentum.
Gravitational duality in General Relativity and Supergravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehouck, F. [Service de physique mathematique et interactions fondamentales. Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine CP-231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-07-15
We quickly review the current status of gravitational duality in General Relativity. We summarize and comment some recent work on constructing dual (topological) charges and understanding how this duality acts in supergravity theories.
Holographic duality from random tensor networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Thomas, Nathaniel; Walter, Michael; Yang, Zhao [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2016-11-02
Tensor networks provide a natural framework for exploring holographic duality because they obey entanglement area laws. They have been used to construct explicit toy models realizing many of the interesting structural features of the AdS/CFT correspondence, including the non-uniqueness of bulk operator reconstruction in the boundary theory. In this article, we explore the holographic properties of networks of random tensors. We find that our models naturally incorporate many features that are analogous to those of the AdS/CFT correspondence. When the bond dimension of the tensors is large, we show that the entanglement entropy of all boundary regions, whether connected or not, obey the Ryu-Takayanagi entropy formula, a fact closely related to known properties of the multipartite entanglement of assistance. We also discuss the behavior of Rényi entropies in our models and contrast it with AdS/CFT. Moreover, we find that each boundary region faithfully encodes the physics of the entire bulk entanglement wedge, i.e., the bulk region enclosed by the boundary region and the minimal surface. Our method is to interpret the average over random tensors as the partition function of a classical ferromagnetic Ising model, so that the minimal surfaces of Ryu-Takayanagi appear as domain walls. Upon including the analog of a bulk field, we find that our model reproduces the expected corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi formula: the bulk minimal surface is displaced and the entropy is augmented by the entanglement of the bulk field. Increasing the entanglement of the bulk field ultimately changes the minimal surface behavior topologically, in a way similar to the effect of creating a black hole. Extrapolating bulk correlation functions to the boundary permits the calculation of the scaling dimensions of boundary operators, which exhibit a large gap between a small number of low-dimension operators and the rest. While we are primarily motivated by the AdS/CFT duality, the main
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we firstly briefly review the duality quantum computer. Distinctly, the generalized quantum gates, the basic evolution operators in a duality quantum computer are no longer unitary, and they can be expressed in terms of linear combinations of unitary operators. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. A d-slits duality quantum computer can be realized in...
Evidence for heterotic/heterotic duality
Duff, M.J.; Witten, Edward; Witten, Edward
1996-01-01
We re-examine the question of heterotic - heterotic string duality in six dimensions and argue that the E_8\\times E_8 heterotic string, compactified on K3 with equal instanton numbers in the two E_8's, has a self-duality that inverts the coupling, dualizes the antisymmetric tensor, acts non-trivially on the hypermultiplets, and exchanges gauge fields that can be seen in perturbation theory with gauge fields of a non-perturbative origin. The special role of the symmetric embedding of the anomaly in the two E_8's can be seen from field theory considerations or from an eleven-dimensional point of view. The duality can be deduced by looking in two different ways at eleven-dimensional M-theory compactified on K3\\times {\\bf S}^1/\\Z_2.
Duality property for a hermitian scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisognano, J.J.
1975-01-01
A general hermitian scalar Wightman field is considered. On the Hilbert space of physical states ''natural'' domains for certain complex Lorentz transformations are constructed, and a theorem relating these transformations to the TCP symmetry is stated and proved. Under the additional assumption that the field is ''locally'' essentially self-adjoint, duality is considered for the algebras generated by spectral projections of smeared fields. For a class of unbounded regions duality is proved, and for certain bounded regions ''local'' extensions of the algebras are constructed which satisfy duality. The relationship of the arguments presented to the Tomita--Takesaki theory of modular Hilbert algebras is discussed. A separate analysis for the free field is also given. (auth)
Master Space, Hilbert Series and Seiberg Duality
Forcella, Davide; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2009-01-01
We analyze the action of Toric (Seiberg) duality on the combined mesonic and baryonic moduli space of quiver gauge theories obtained from D3 branes at Calabi-Yau singularities. We analyze in particular the structure of the master space, the complete moduli space for one brane, for different toric phases of a given singularity. We show that the Hilbert Series for the largest component of the master space of different phases is the same, when refined with all the non anomalous charges. This reflects the fact that the quiver gauge theories associated with different phases are related by Seiberg duality when the number of branes is greater than one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thijs, Lore; Montero Sistiaga, Maria Luz; Wauthle, Ruben; Xie, Qingge; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Van Humbeeck, Jan
2013-01-01
Selective laser melting (SLM) makes use of a high energy density laser beam to melt successive layers of metallic powders in order to create functional parts. The energy density of the laser is high enough to melt refractory metals like Ta and produce mechanically sound parts. Furthermore, the localized heat input causes a strong directional cooling and solidification. Epitaxial growth due to partial remelting of the previous layer, competitive growth mechanism and a specific global direction of heat flow during SLM of Ta result in the formation of long columnar grains with a 〈1 1 1〉 preferential crystal orientation along the building direction. The microstructure was visualized using both optical and scanning electron microscopy equipped with electron backscattered diffraction and the global crystallographic texture was measured using X-ray diffraction. The thermal profile around the melt pool was modeled using a pragmatic model for SLM. Furthermore, rotation of the scanning direction between different layers was seen to promote the competitive growth. As a result, the texture strength increased to as large as 4.7 for rotating the scanning direction 90° every layer. By comparison of the yield strength measured by compression tests in different orientations and the averaged Taylor factor calculated using the viscoplastic self-consistent model, it was found that both the morphological and crystallographic texture observed in SLM Ta contribute to yield strength anisotropy
Gauge/gravity duality. Exploring universal features in quantum matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klug, Steffen
2013-01-01
In this dissertation strongly correlated quantum states of matter are explored with the help of the gauge/gravity duality, relating strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly curved gravitational theories. The main focus of the present work is on applications to condensed matter systems, in particular high temperature superconductors and quantum matter close to criticality at zero temperature. The gauge/gravity duality originates from string theory and is a particular realization of the holographic principle. Therefore, a brief overview of the conceptual ideas behind string theory and the ramifications of the holographic principle are given. Along the way, supersymmetry and supersymmetric field theories needed to understand the low energy effective field theories of superstring theory will be discussed. Armed with the string theory background, the double life of D-branes, extended object where open strings end, is explained as massive solitonic solutions to the type II supergravity equations of motion and their role in generating supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Connecting these two different pictures of D-branes will give an explicit construction of a gauge/gravity duality, the AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence between N=4 supersymmetric SU(N c ) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions with vanishing β-function to all orders, describing a true CFT, and type IIB supergravity in ten-dimensional AdS 5 x S 5 spacetime. Furthermore, the precise dictionary relating operators of the conformal field theory to fields in the gravitational theory is established. More precisely, the partitions functions of the strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the large N c limit is equal to the on-shell supergravity partition evaluated at the boundary of the AdS space. Applying the knowledge of perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to the quantum partition function the dictionary may be extended to finite temperature and finite density states. Thus, all aspects
Renormalized Polyakov loop in the deconfined phase of SU(N) gauge theory and gauge-string duality.
Andreev, Oleg
2009-05-29
We use gauge-string duality to analytically evaluate the renormalized Polyakov loop in pure Yang-Mills theories. For SU(3), the result is in quite good agreement with lattice simulations for a broad temperature range.
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio
We construct for arbitrary dimensions a universal T-duality covariant expression for the Wess-Zumino terms of supersymmetric String Solitons in toroidally compactified string theories with 32 supercharges. The worldvolume fields occurring in the effective action of these String Solitons form either
Duality invariant class of exact string backgrounds
Klimcík, C
1994-01-01
We consider a class of $2+D$ - dimensional string backgrounds with a target space metric having a covariantly constant null Killing vector and flat `transverse' part. The corresponding sigma models are invariant under $D$ abelian isometries and are transformed by $O(D,D)$ duality into models belonging to the same class. The leading-order solutions of the conformal invariance equations (metric, antisymmetric tensor and dilaton), as well as the action of $O(D,D)$ duality transformations on them, are exact, i.e. are not modified by $\\a'$-corrections. This makes a discussion of different space-time representations of the same string solution (related by $O(D,D|Z)$ duality subgroup) rather explicit. We show that the $O(D,D)$ duality may connect curved $2+D$-dimensional backgrounds with solutions having flat metric but, in general, non-trivial antisymmetric tensor and dilaton. We discuss several particular examples including the $2+D=4$ - dimensional background that was recently interpreted in terms of a WZW model.
String duality and novel theories without gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachru, Shamit
1998-01-01
We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory
Duality properties of Gorringe Leach equations
Grandati, Yves; Bérard, Alain; Mohrbach, Hervé
2009-02-01
In the category of motions preserving the angular momentum direction, Gorringe and Leach exhibited two classes of differential equations having elliptical orbits. After enlarging slightly these classes, we show that they are related by a duality correspondence of the Arnold Vassiliev type. The specific associated conserved quantities (Laplace Runge Lenz vector and Fradkin Jauch Hill tensor) are then dual reflections of each other.
Intergenerational equity and dynamic duality principles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hirofumi Uzawa
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The concept of intergenerational equity concerning intertemporal paths of consumption and capital accumulation is introduced and the analysis of the dynamic processes of capital accumulation and changes in environmental quality that are intergenerationally equitable is developed. The analysis is based upon the dynamic duality principles, as originally developed by Koopmans and Uzawa, and later extended to the case involving environmental quality.
Refined large N duality for knots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi
We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...
Duality as a category-theoretic concept
Corfield, David
2017-08-01
In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Bin
Full Text Available Tree size distributions have long been of interest to ecologists and foresters because they reflect fundamental demographic processes. Previous studies have assumed that size distributions are often associated with population trends or with the degree of shade tolerance. We tested these associations for 31 tree species in a 20 ha plot in a Dinghushan south subtropical forest in China. These species varied widely in growth form and shade-tolerance. We used 2005 and 2010 census data from that plot. We found that 23 species had reversed J shaped size distributions, and eight species had unimodal size distributions in 2005. On average, modal species had lower recruitment rates than reversed J species, while showing no significant difference in mortality rates, per capita population growth rates or shade-tolerance. We compared the observed size distributions with the equilibrium distributions projected from observed size-dependent growth and mortality. We found that observed distributions generally had the same shape as predicted equilibrium distributions in both unimodal and reversed J species, but there were statistically significant, important quantitative differences between observed and projected equilibrium size distributions in most species, suggesting that these populations are not at equilibrium and that this forest is changing over time. Almost all modal species had U-shaped size-dependent mortality and/or growth functions, with turning points of both mortality and growth at intermediate size classes close to the peak in the size distribution. These results show that modal size distributions do not necessarily indicate either population decline or shade-intolerance. Instead, the modal species in our study were characterized by a life history strategy of relatively strong conservatism in an intermediate size class, leading to very low growth and mortality in that size class, and thus to a peak in the size distribution at intermediate sizes.
Duality in a Supersymmetric Gauge Theory From a Perturbative Viewpoint
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert
2018-01-01
We study duality in $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric QCD in the non-Abelian Coulomb phase, order-by-order in scheme-independent series expansions. Using exact results, we show how the dimensions of various fundamental and composite chiral superfields, and the quantities $a$, $a/c$, and $b......$ at superconformal fixed points of the renormalization group emerge in scheme-independent series expansions in the electric and magnetic theories. We further demonstrate that truncations of these series expansions to modest order yield very accurate approximations to these quantities....
Duality in a Supersymmetric Gauge Theory From a Perturbative Viewpoint
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert
2018-01-01
points of the renormalization group emerge in scheme-independent series expansions in the electric and magnetic theories. We further demonstrate that truncations of these series expansions to modest order yield very accurate approximations to these quantities and suggest possible implications......We study duality in N ¼ 1 supersymmetric QCD in the non-Abelian Coulomb phase, order-by-order in scheme-independent series expansions. Using exact results, we show how the dimensions of various fundamental and composite chiral superfields, and the quantities a, c, a=c, and b at superconformal fixed...... for nonsupersymmetric theories...
Numerical implementation of the loop-tree duality method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchta, Sebastian; Rodrigo, German [Universitat de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Parc Cientific, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Chachamis, Grigorios [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Draggiotis, Petros [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Agia Paraskevi (Greece)
2017-05-15
We present a first numerical implementation of the loop-tree duality (LTD) method for the direct numerical computation of multi-leg one-loop Feynman integrals. We discuss in detail the singular structure of the dual integrands and define a suitable contour deformation in the loop three-momentum space to carry out the numerical integration. Then we apply the LTD method to the computation of ultraviolet and infrared finite integrals, and we present explicit results for scalar and tensor integrals with up to eight external legs (octagons). The LTD method features an excellent performance independently of the number of external legs. (orig.)
Color-kinematics duality for pure Yang-Mills and gravity at one and two loops
Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott; Dennen, Tristan; Huang, Yu-tin; Nohle, Josh
2015-08-01
We provide evidence in favor of the conjectured duality between color and kinematics for the case of nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitudes by constructing a form of the one-loop four-point amplitude of this theory that makes the duality manifest. Our construction is valid in any dimension. We also describe a duality-satisfying representation for the two-loop four-point amplitude with identical four-dimensional external helicities. We use these results to obtain corresponding gravity integrands for a theory containing a graviton, dilaton, and antisymmetric tensor, simply by replacing color factors with specified diagram numerators. Using this, we give explicit forms of ultraviolet divergences at one loop in four, six, and eight dimensions, and at two loops in four dimensions.
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subbialgebras and Duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjuan Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate connections between bialgebras and Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Firstly we define an intuitionistic fuzzy subbialgebra of a bialgebra with an intuitionistic fuzzy subalgebra structure and also with an intuitionistic fuzzy subcoalgebra structure. Secondly we investigate the related properties of intuitionistic fuzzy subbialgebras. Finally we prove that the dual of an intuitionistic fuzzy strong subbialgebra is an intuitionistic fuzzy strong subbialgebra.
Time scales: from Nabla calculus to Delta calculus and vice versa via duality
Caputo, M. Cristina
2009-01-01
In this note we show how one can obtain results from the nabla calculus from results on the delta calculus and vice versa via a duality argument. We provide applications of the main results to the calculus of variations on time scales.
Dimensional-duality and Its Lie Groups
Sinha, Nilotpal
2009-01-01
For a claim to a dimensional duality, we consider here that, the relativity is depending on a "double-fold" complex number for locally dense fourth axis within an enveloping 3D-space. This dimensional duality has been made here for locally dense m-dimensional geometry within n-space, for m > n, if every axis of m-space is dimensional-dual to its enveloping n-space. This locally dense m-dimensional geometry describes a reflexive complex function, viz., "transfusion" transformation, which establishes that, Lie group U(2) is the simply connected 1 to 2 enveloping group of SO(3, 1) within D-dual spaces only. Again, using the weight vectors, it is found that, there exists a SU(4) group, which may be a symmetry group for gravitons.
Holographic duality in condensed matter physics
Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad
2015-01-01
A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...
Conference on Strings, Duality, and Geometry
Phong, Duong; Yau, Shing-Tung; Mirror Symmetry IV
2002-01-01
This book presents contributions of participants of a workshop held at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), University of Montréal. It can be viewed as a sequel to Mirror Symmetry I (1998), Mirror Symmetry II (1996), and Mirror Symmetry III (1999), copublished by the AMS and International Press. The volume presents a broad survey of many of the noteworthy developments that have taken place in string theory, geometry, and duality since the mid 1990s. Some of the topics emphasized include the following: Integrable models and supersymmetric gauge theories; theory of M- and D-branes and noncommutative geometry; duality between strings and gauge theories; and elliptic genera and automorphic forms. Several introductory articles present an overview of the geometric and physical aspects of mirror symmetry and of corresponding developments in symplectic geometry. The book provides an efficient way for a very broad audience of mathematicians and physicists to explore the frontiers of research into this rapi...
Duality of Health Promotion and Sustainable Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit; Kjærgård, Bente
2015-01-01
A In this article we introduce the concept of duality of structures as our starting point for understanding the linkages between sustainability and health. We argue that the two concepts cannot be separated but must be understood as mutually dependent in the sense that health conditions sustainab......A In this article we introduce the concept of duality of structures as our starting point for understanding the linkages between sustainability and health. We argue that the two concepts cannot be separated but must be understood as mutually dependent in the sense that health conditions...... reduction and how these strategies affect the prospects for promoting health and sustainable food production and consumption. Danish food waste reduction strategies are used as examples with references to selected policy documents on food waste reduction strategies launched by international organisations...
Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
theorem (§31.1 of [12]), B is a quotient of a regular local ring. Hence Spec B admits a dualizing complex. Now, assume in the first step that the residue field of B is separably closed (B is strictly local). Then, for X = Spec B\\{x } and for any l prime to char(A), there is a Poincaré duality theory (Exposé I, Remarque 4.7.17 of [18]).
Canonical Duality Theory for Topology Optimization
Gao, David Yang
2016-01-01
This paper presents a canonical duality approach for solving a general topology optimization problem of nonlinear elastic structures. By using finite element method, this most challenging problem can be formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP), i.e. for a given deformation, the first-level optimization is a typical linear constrained 0-1 programming problem, while for a given structure, the second-level optimization is a general nonlinear continuous minimization pro...
Managing dualities in organizational change projects
Shaw, David
2016-01-01
When managers want to change their organisation they often set up a project to do it, in the belief that doing so simplifies and focuses the change initiative and brings greater assurance of success. Case studies of three organisational change projects undertaken by Arts Council England during 2006-2007 are used to examine the notion of project management and change management as a duality. It is argued that the structured, systematic approach associated with project management needs to be ba...
Tannakian duality for affine homogeneous spaces
Banica, Teodor
2017-01-01
Associated to any closed quantum subgroup $G\\subset U_N^+$ and any index set $I\\subset\\{1,\\ldots,N\\}$ is a certain homogeneous space $X_{G,I}\\subset S^{N-1}_{\\mathbb C,+}$, called affine homogeneous space. We discuss here the abstract axiomatization of the algebraic manifolds $X\\subset S^{N-1}_{\\mathbb C,+}$ which can appear in this way, by using Tannakian duality methods.
Patching DFT, T-duality and gerbes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howe, P.S.; Papadopoulos, G. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2017-04-12
We clarify the role of the dual coordinates as described from the perspectives of the Buscher T-duality rules and Double Field Theory. We show that the T-duality angular dual coordinates cannot be identified with Double Field Theory dual coordinates in any of the proposals that have been made in the literature for patching the doubled spaces. In particular, we show with explicit examples that the T-duality angular dual coordinates can have non-trivial transition functions over a spacetime and that their identification with the Double Field Theory dual coordinates is in conflict with proposals in which the latter remain inert under the patching of the B-field. We then demonstrate that the Double Field Theory coordinates can be identified with some C-space coordinates and that the T-dual spaces of a spacetime are subspaces of the gerbe in C-space. The construction provides a description of both the local O(d,d) symmetry and the T-dual spaces of spacetime.
De Sitter space in gauge/gravity duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilia Anguelova
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate gauge/gravity duality for gauge theories in de Sitter space. More precisely, we study a five-dimensional consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity, which encompasses a wide variety of gravity duals of strongly coupled gauge theories, including the Maldacena–Nunez solution and its walking deformations. We find several solutions of the 5d theory with dS4 spacetime and nontrivial profiles for (some of the scalars along the fifth (radial direction. In the process, we prove that one of the equations of motion becomes dependent on the others, for nontrivial warp factor. This dependence reduces the number of field equations and, thus, turns out to be crucial for the existence of solutions with (AdS4 spacetime. Finally, we comment on the implications of our dS4 solutions for building gravity duals of Glueball Inflation.
Cosmological Quantum String Vacua and String-String Duality
Rey, Soo-Jong
1996-01-01
Implications of string-string dualities to cosmological string vacua are discussed. Cosmological vacua of classical string theories comprise of disjoint classses mapped one another by scale-factor T-duality. Each classes are, however, afflicted with initial/final cosmological singularities. It is argued that quantum string theories and string-string dualities dramatically resolve these cosmological singularities out so that disjoint classical cosmological vacua are continuously connected in a...
Non-Abelian T-duality for nonrelativistic holographic duals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araujo, Thiago R.; Nastase, Horatiu [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil)
2015-11-30
We find new type II backgrounds with non-relativistic symmetries via non-Abelian T-duality. First we consider geometries with Galilean symmetries in type IIA, which have been identified as non-relativistic generalizations of the ABJM background and massive IIA supergravities. We then consider the non-Abelian T-duality transformation on the backgrounds with Lifshitz symmetry constructed by Donos and Gauntlett. Using gauge/gravity duality we study aspects of the field theory dual to these backgrounds.
A duality view of spectral methods for dimensionality reduction
Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun; Boyd, Stephen
2006-01-01
We present a unified duality view of several recently emerged spectral methods for nonlinear dimensionality reduction, including Isomap, locally linear embedding, Laplacian eigenmaps, and maximum variance unfolding. We discuss the duality theory for the maximum variance unfolding problem, and show that other methods are directly related to either its primal formulation or its dual formulation, or can be interpreted from the optimality conditions. This duality framework reveals close connectio...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelis, Francois; Venugopalan, Raju
2006-01-01
We develop a formalism for particle production in a field theory coupled to a strong time-dependent external source. An example of such a theory is the color glass condensate. We derive a formula, in terms of cut vacuum-vacuum Feynman graphs, for the probability of producing a given number of particles. This formula is valid to all orders in the coupling constant. The distribution of multiplicities is non-Poissonian, even in the classical approximation. We investigate an alternative method of calculating the mean multiplicity. At leading order, the average multiplicity can be expressed in terms of retarded solutions of classical equations of motion. We demonstrate that the average multiplicity at next-to-leading order can be formulated as an initial value problem by solving equations of motion for small fluctuation fields with retarded boundary conditions. The variance of the distribution can be calculated in a similar fashion. Our formalism therefore provides a framework to compute from first principles particle production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions beyond leading order in the coupling constant and to all orders in the source density. We also provide a transparent interpretation (in conventional field theory language) of the well-known Abramovsky-Gribov-Kancheli (AGK) cancellations. Explicit connections are made between the framework for multi-particle production developed here and the framework of reggeon field theory
T-Duality Group for Open String Theory
Kajiura, Hiroshige
2001-01-01
We study T-duality for open strings on tori $\\T^d$. The general boundary conditions for the open strings are constructed, and it is shown that T-duality group, which preserves the mass spectrum of closed strings, preserves also the mass spectrum of the open strings. The open strings are transformed to those with different boundary conditions by T-duality. We also discuss the T-duality for D-brane mass spectrum, and show that the D-branes and the open strings with both ends on them are transfo...
Topological duality twist and brane instantons in F-theory
Martucci, Luca
2014-06-01
A variant of the topological twist, involving SL(2, ℤ) dualities and hence named topological duality twist, is introduced and explicitly applied to describe a U(1) N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory on a Kähler space with holomorphically space-dependent coupling. Three-dimensional duality walls and two-dimensional chiral theories naturally enter the formulation of the duality twisted theory. Appropriately generalized, this theory is relevant for the study of Euclidean D3-brane instantons in F-theory compactifications. Some of its properties and implications are discussed.
Duality and calculus of convex objects (theory and applications)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brinkhuis, Ya; Tikhomirov, V M
2007-01-01
A new approach to convex calculus is presented, which allows one to treat from a single point of view duality and calculus for various convex objects. This approach is based on the possibility of associating with each convex object (a convex set or a convex function) a certain convex cone without loss of information about the object. From the duality theorem for cones duality theorems for other convex objects are deduced as consequences. The theme 'Duality formulae and the calculus of convex objects' is exhausted (from a certain precisely formulated point of view). Bibliography: 5 titles.
Duality between k-essence and Rastall gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronnikov, Kirill A. [VNIIMS, Moscow (Russian Federation); RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Fabris, Julio C. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Piattella, Oliver F.; Rodrigues, Denis C.; Santos, Edison C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2017-06-15
The k-essence theory with a power-law function of (∂φ){sup 2} and Rastall's non-conservative theory of gravity with a scalar field are shown to have the same solutions for the metric under the assumption that both the metric and the scalar fields depend on a single coordinate. This equivalence (called k-R duality) holds for static configurations with various symmetries (spherical, plane, cylindrical, etc.) and all homogeneous cosmologies. In the presence of matter, Rastall's theory requires additional assumptions on how the stress-energy tensor non-conservation is distributed between different contributions. Two versions of such non-conservation are considered in the case of isotropic spatially flat cosmological models with a perfect fluid: one (R1) in which there is no coupling between the scalar field and the fluid, and another (R2) in which the fluid separately obeys the usual conservation law. In version R1 it is shown that k-R duality holds not only for the cosmological models themselves but also for their adiabatic perturbations. In version R2, among other results, a particular model is singled out that reproduces the same cosmological expansion history as the standard ΛCDM model but predicts different behaviors of small fluctuations in the k-essence and Rastall frameworks. (orig.)
Black hole thermodynamics from calculations in strongly coupled gauge theory.
Kabat, D; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A
2001-02-19
We develop an approximation scheme for the quantum mechanics of N D0-branes at finite temperature in the 't Hooft large- N limit. The entropy of the quantum mechanics calculated using this approximation agrees well with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a ten-dimensional nonextremal black hole with 0-brane charge. This result is in accordance with the duality conjectured by Itzhaki, Maldacena, Sonnenschein, and Yankielowicz [Phys. Rev. D 58, 046004 (1998)]. Our approximation scheme provides a model for the density matrix which describes a black hole in the strongly coupled quantum mechanics.
Boeneman, Kelly; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Buckhout-White, Susan; Prasuhn, Duane E; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B; Dawson, Philip E; Stewart, Michael H; Susumu, Kimihiro; Goldman, Ellen R; Ancona, Mario; Medintz, Igor L
2010-12-28
The unique properties provided by hybrid semiconductor quantum dot (QD) bioconjugates continue to stimulate interest for many applications ranging from biosensing to energy harvesting. Understanding both the structure and function of these composite materials is an important component in their development. Here, we compare the architecture that results from using two common self-assembly chemistries to attach DNA to QDs. DNA modified to display either a terminal biotin or an oligohistidine peptidyl sequence was assembled to streptavidin/amphiphilic polymer- or PEG-functionalized QDs, respectively. A series of complementary acceptor dye-labeled DNA were hybridized to different positions on the DNA in each QD configuration and the separation distances between the QD donor and each dye-acceptor probed with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The polyhistidine self-assembly yielded QD-DNA bioconjugates where predicted and experimental separation distances matched reasonably well. Although displaying efficient FRET, data from QD-DNA bioconjugates assembled using biotin-streptavidin chemistry did not match any predicted separation distances. Modeling based upon known QD and DNA structures along with the linkage chemistry and FRET-derived distances was used to simulate each QD-DNA structure and provide insight into the underlying architecture. Although displaying some rotational freedom, the DNA modified with the polyhistidine assembles to the QD with its structure extended out from the QD-PEG surface as predicted. In contrast, the random orientation of streptavidin on the QD surface resulted in DNA with a wide variety of possible orientations relative to the QD which cannot be controlled during assembly. These results suggest that if a particular QD biocomposite structure is desired, for example, random versus oriented, the type of bioconjugation chemistry utilized will be a key influencing factor.
Boeneman, Kelly; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Buckhout-White, Susan; Prasuhn, Duane E.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Philip E.; Stewart, Michael H.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Goldman, Ellen R.; Ancona, Mario; Medintz, Igor L.
2010-01-01
The unique properties provided by hybrid semiconductor quantum dot- (QD) bioconjugates continue to stimulate interest for many applications ranging from biosensing to energy harvesting. Understanding both the structure and function of these composite materials is an important component in their development. Here, we compare the architecture that results from using two common self-assembly chemistries to attach DNA to QDs. DNA modified to display either a terminal biotin or an oligohistidine peptidyl sequence was assembled to streptavidin/amphiphilic polymer- or PEG-functionalized QDs, respectively. A series of complementary acceptor dye-labeled DNA were hybridized to different positions on the DNA in each QD configuration and the separation distances between the QD donor and each dye-acceptor probed with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The polyhistidine self-assembly yielded QD-DNA bioconjugates where predicted and experimental separation distances matched reasonably well. Although displaying efficient FRET, data from QD-DNA bioconjugates assembled using biotin-streptavidin chemistry did not match any predicted separation distances. Modeling based upon known QD and DNA structures along with the linkage chemistry and FRET-derived distances was used to simulate each QD-DNA structure and provide insight into the underlying architecture. Although displaying some rotational freedom, the DNA modified with the polyhistidine assembles to the QD with its structure extended out from the QD-PEG surface as predicted. In contrast, the random orientation of streptavidin on the QD surface resulted in DNA with a wide variety of possible orientations relative to the QD which cannot be controlled during assembly. These results suggest that if a particular QD-biocomposite structure is desired, for example, random versus oriented, the type of bioconjugation chemistry utilized will be a key influencing factor. PMID:21082822
Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-06-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle α˜1/γ. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.
T-duality transformation and universal structure of noncritical string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asatani, T.; Kuroki, T.; Okawa, Y.; Sugino, F.; Yoneya, T.
1997-01-01
We discuss a T-duality transformation for the c=1/2 matrix model for the purpose of studying duality transformations in a possible toy example of nonperturbative frameworks of string theory. Our approach is to first investigate the scaling limit of the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the stochastic Hamiltonian in terms of the dual variables and then compare the results with those using the original spin variables. It is shown that the c=1/2 model in the scaling limit is T-duality symmetric in the sphere approximation. In the case of the standard two-matrix model, however, the duality symmetry is violated when the higher-genus effects are taken into account, due to the nonsymmetrical appearence of global Z 2 vector fields corresponding to nontrivial homology cycles. Some universal properties of the stochastic Hamiltonians which play an important role in discussing the scaling limit and have been discussed in a previous work by Sugino and Yoneya are refined in both the original and dual formulations. We also report a number of new explicit results for various amplitudes containing macroscopic loop operators. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Pro-torus actions on Poincaré duality spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
duality spaces, Borel's dimension formula and topological splitting principle to local weights, hold if 'torus' is replaced by 'pro-torus'. Keywords. Pro-torus; Poincaré duality space; local weight. 1. Introduction. In the theory of linear representations of compact connected Lie groups, the crucial first step is restriction to the ...
Wave-particle duality from stochastic electrodynamics
Hernández, Cesar A. Díaz
2014-01-01
The wave-particle duality is one of the most mysterious phenomena of the quantum theory, in this paper first it's studied the rise of the wave properties of matter from the theory of stochastic electrodynamics (SED), in which de Broglie's idea of a guiding wave that follows the particle and determine its trajectory is taken back. In the frame of the theory (SED) this wave is of electromagnetic character and is a traveling wave that propagates within the zero point field (ZPF) which according ...
A CMB/Dark Energy Cosmic Duality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2004-01-01
We investigate a possible connection between the suppression of the power at low multipoles in the CMB spectrum and the late time acceleration. We show that, assuming a cosmic IR/UV duality between the UV cutoff and a global infrared cutoff given by the size of the future event horizon, the equat......, the equation of state of the dark energy can be related to the apparent cutoff in the CMB spectrum. The present limits on the equation of state of dark energy are shown to imply an IR cutoff in the CMB multipole interval of 9>l>8.5....
Non-geometric flux vacua, S-duality and algebraic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guarino, Adolfo; Weatherill, George James
2009-01-01
The four dimensional gauged supergravities descending from non-geometric string compactifications involve a wide class of flux objects which are needed to make the theory invariant under duality transformations at the effective level. Additionally, complex algebraic conditions involving these fluxes arise from Bianchi identities and tadpole cancellations in the effective theory. In this work we study a simple T and S-duality invariant gauged supergravity, that of a type IIB string compactified on a T 6 /Z 2 x Z 2 orientifold with O3/O7-planes. We build upon the results of recent works and develop a systematic method for solving all the flux constraints based on the algebra structure underlying the fluxes. Starting with the T-duality invariant supergravity, we find that the fluxes needed to restore S-duality can be simply implemented as linear deformations of the gauge subalgebra by an element of its second cohomology class. Algebraic geometry techniques are extensively used to solve these constraints and supersymmetric vacua, centering our attention on Minkowski solutions, become systematically computable and are also provided to clarify the methods.
Static duality and a stationary-action application
McEneaney, William M.; Dower, Peter M.
2018-01-01
Conservative dynamical systems propagate as stationary points of the action functional. Using this representation, it has previously been demonstrated that one may obtain fundamental solutions for two-point boundary value problems for some classes of conservative systems via solution of an associated dynamic program. Further, such a fundamental solution may be represented as a set of solutions of differential Riccati equations (DREs), where the solutions may need to be propagated past escape times. Notions of "static duality" and "stat-quad duality" are developed, where the relationship between the two is loosely analogous to that between convex and semiconvex duality. Static duality is useful for smooth functionals where one may not be guaranteed of convexity or concavity. Some simple properties of this duality are examined, particularly commutativity. Application to stationary action is considered, which leads to propagation of DREs past escape times via propagation of stat-quad dual DREs.
Fermionic T-duality in massive type IIA supergravity on AdS{sub 10-k} x M{sub k}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakhmatov, Ilya [Kazan Federal University, General Relativity Department, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)
2016-04-15
Fermionic T-duality transformation is studied for supersymmetric solutions of massive type IIA supergravity with the metric AdS{sub 10-k} x M{sub k} for k = 3 and 5. We derive the Killing spinors of these backgrounds and use them as input for the fermionic T-duality transformation. The resulting dual solutions form a large family of supersymmetric deformations of the original solutions by complex valued RR fluxes. We observe that the Romans mass parameter does not change under fermionic T-duality, and prove its invariance in the k = 3 case. (orig.)
Superconformal quantum field theories in string. Gauge theory dualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiegandt, Konstantin
2012-08-14
In this thesis aspects of superconformal field theories that are of interest in the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence are investigated. The AdS/CFT correspondence states a duality between string theories living on Anti-de Sitter space and superconformal quantum field theories in Minkowski space. In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence the so-called Wilson loop/amplitude duality was discovered, stating the equality of the finite parts of n-gluon MHV amplitudes and n-sided lightlike polygonal Wilson loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. It is the subject of the first part of this thesis to investigate the Wilson loop side of a possible similar duality in N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons matter (ABJM) theory. The main result is, that the expectation value of n-sided lightlike polygonal Wilson loops vanishes at one-loop order and at two-loop order is identical in its functional form to the Wilson loop in N=4 SYM theory at one-loop order. Furthermore, an anomalous conformal Ward identity for Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory is derived. Related developments and symmetries of amplitudes and correlators in ABJM theory are discussed as well. In the second part of this thesis we calculate three-point functions of two protected operators and one twist-two operator with arbitrary even spin j in N=4 SYM theory. In order to carry out the calculations, the indices of the spin j operator are projected to the light-cone and the correlator is evaluated in a soft-limit where the momentum coming in at the spin j operator becomes zero. This limit largely simplifies the perturbative calculation, since all three-point diagrams effectively reduce to two-point diagrams and the dependence on the one-loop mixing matrix drops out completely. The result is in agreement with the analysis of the operator product expansion of four-point functions of half-BPS operators by Dolan and Osborn in 2004.
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M.
2016-01-01
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
Two-field Born–Infeld with diverse dualities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ferrara
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We elaborate on how to build, in a systematic fashion, two-field Abelian extensions of the Born–Infeld Lagrangian. These models realize the non-trivial duality groups that are allowed in this case, namely U(2, SU(2 and U(1×U(1. For each class, we also construct an explicit example. They all involve an overall square root and reduce to the Born–Infeld model if the two fields are identified, but differ in quartic and higher interactions. The U(1×U(1 and SU(2 examples recover some recent results obtained with different techniques, and we show that the U(1×U(1 model admits an N=1 supersymmetric completion. The U(2 example includes some unusual terms that are not analytic at the origin of field space.
N=1 Mirror Symmetry and Open/Closed String Duality
Mayr, Peter
2002-01-01
We show that the exact N=1 superpotential of a class of 4d string compactifications is computed by the closed topological string compactified to two dimensions. A relation to the open topological string is used to define a special geometry for N=1 mirror symmetry. Flat coordinates, an N=1 mirror map for chiral multiplets and the exact instanton corrected superpotential are obtained from the periods of a system of differential equations. The result points to a new class of open/closed string dualities which map individual string world-sheets with boundary to ones without. It predicts an mathematically unexpected coincidence of the closed string Gromov-Witten invariants of one Calabi-Yau geometry with the open string invariants of the dual Calabi-Yau.
Foundations of Grothendieck duality for diagrams of schemes
Lipman, Joseph
2009-01-01
The first part written by Joseph Lipman, accessible to mid-level graduate students, is a full exposition of the abstract foundations of Grothendieck duality theory for schemes (twisted inverse image, tor-independent base change,...), in part without noetherian hypotheses, and with some refinements for maps of finite tor-dimension. The ground is prepared by a lengthy treatment of the rich formalism of relations among the derived functors, for unbounded complexes over ringed spaces, of the sheaf functors tensor, hom, direct and inverse image. Included are enhancements, for quasi-compact quasi-separated schemes, of classical results such as the projection and Künneth isomorphisms. In the second part, written independently by Mitsuyasu Hashimoto, the theory is extended to the context of diagrams of schemes. This includes, as a special case, an equivariant theory for schemes with group actions. In particular, after various basic operations on sheaves such as (derived) direct images and inverse images are set up, ...
Transformation of Black-Hole Hair under Duality and Supersymmetry
Alvarez, Enrique; Ortín, Tomas; Alvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick; Ortin, Tomas
1997-01-01
We study the transformation under the String Theory duality group of the observable charges (mass, angular momentum, NUT charge, electric, magnetic and different scalar charges) of four dimensional point-like objects whose asymptotic behavior constitutes a subclass closed under duality. The charges fall into two complex four-dimensional representations of the duality group. T duality (including Buscher's) has an O(1,2) action on them and S duality a U(1) action. The generalized Bogomol'nyi bound is an U(2,2)-invariant built out of one representations while the other representation (which includes the angular momentum) never appears in it. The bound is manifestly duality-invariant. Consistency between T duality and supersymmetry requires that primary scalar hair is included in the Bogomol'nyi bound. Four-dimensional supersymmetric massless black holes are the T duals in time of massive supersymmetric black holes. Non-extreme massless ``black holes'' are the T duals of the non-extreme black holes and have prima...
On Various R-duals and the Duality Principle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoeva, Diana T.; Christensen, Ole
2016-01-01
to a characterization of frames in terms of associated Riesz sequences; however, it is still an open question whether this abstract theory is a generalization of the duality principle. In this paper we prove that a modified version of the R-duals leads to a generalization of the duality principle that keeps all......The duality principle states that a Gabor system is a frame if and only if the corresponding adjoint Gabor system is a Riesz sequence. In general Hilbert spaces and without the assumption of any particular structure, Casazza, Kutyniok and Lammers have introduced the so-called R-duals that also lead...
Some Global Aspects of Duality is String Theory
Alvarez, Enrique; Barbón, José L F; Lozano, Y
1994-01-01
We explore some of the global aspects of duality transformations in String Theory and Field Theory. We analyze in some detail the equivalence of dual models corresponding to different topologies at the level of the partition function and in terms of the operator correspondence for abelian duality. We analyze the behavior of the cosmological constant under these transformations. We also explore several examples of non-abelian duality where the classical background interpretation can be maintained for the original and the dual theories. In particular we construct a non-abelian dual of $SL(2,R)$ which turns out to be a three-dimensional black hole
Gauge/string duality in confining theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edelstein, J.D.; Portugues, R.
2006-01-01
This is the content of a set of lectures given at the ''XIII Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School on Particles and Fields'', Campos do Jordao, Brazil in January 2005. They intend to be a basic introduction to the topic of gauge/gravity duality in confining theories. We start by reviewing some key aspects of the low energy physics of non-Abelian gauge theories. Then, we present the basics of the AdS/CFT correspondence and its extension both to gauge theories in different spacetime dimensions with sixteen supercharges and to more realistic situations with less supersymmetry. We discuss the different options of interest: placing D-branes at singularities and wrapping D-branes in calibrated cycles of special holonomy manifolds. We finally present an outline of a number of non-perturbative phenomena in non-Abelian gauge theories as seen from supergravity. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Gauge/string duality in confining theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edelstein, J.D. [Departamento de Fi sica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de La Plata (IFLP), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Portugues, R. [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)
2006-07-03
This is the content of a set of lectures given at the ''XIII Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School on Particles and Fields'', Campos do Jordao, Brazil in January 2005. They intend to be a basic introduction to the topic of gauge/gravity duality in confining theories. We start by reviewing some key aspects of the low energy physics of non-Abelian gauge theories. Then, we present the basics of the AdS/CFT correspondence and its extension both to gauge theories in different spacetime dimensions with sixteen supercharges and to more realistic situations with less supersymmetry. We discuss the different options of interest: placing D-branes at singularities and wrapping D-branes in calibrated cycles of special holonomy manifolds. We finally present an outline of a number of non-perturbative phenomena in non-Abelian gauge theories as seen from supergravity. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Bubbling surface operators and S-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji
2007-01-01
We construct smooth asymptotically /ADS solutions of Type IIB supergravity corresponding to all the half-BPS surface operators in N = 4 SYM. All the parameters labeling a half-BPS surface operator are identified in the corresponding bubbling geometry. We use the supergravity description of surface operators to study the action of the SL(2,Z) duality group of N 4 SYM on the parameters of the surface operator, and find that it coincides with the recent proposal by Gukov and Witten in the framework of the gauge theory approach to the geometrical Langlands with ramification. We also show that whenever a bubbling geometry becomes singular that the path integral description of the corresponding surface operator also becomes singular
New dualities of supersymmetric gauge theories
2016-01-01
This book reviews a number of spectacular advances that have been made in the study of supersymmetric quantum field theories in the last few years. Highlights include exact calculations of Wilson loop expectation values, and highly nontrivial quantitative checks of the long-standing electric-magnetic duality conjectures. The book starts with an introductory article presenting a survey of recent advances, aimed at a wide audience with a background and interest in theoretical physics. The following articles are written for advanced students and researchers in quantum field theory, string theory and mathematical physics, our goal being to familiarize these readers with the forefront of current research. The topics covered include recent advances in the classification and vacuum structure of large families of N=2 supersymmetric field theories, followed by an extensive discussion of the localisation method, one of the most powerful tools for exact studies of supersymmetric field theories. The quantities that have ...
More on the duality correlators/amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eden, Burkhard [Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Korchemsky, Gregory P., E-mail: gregory.korchemsky@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Theorique (Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS URA 2306), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sokatchev, Emery [LAPTH (Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, UMR 5108), Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France)
2012-03-19
We continue the study of n-point correlation functions of half-BPS protected operators in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in the limit where the positions of the adjacent operators become light-like separated. We compute the l-loop corrections by making l Lagrangian insertions. We argue that there exists a simple relation between the (n+l)-point Born-level correlator with l Lagrangian insertions and the integrand of the n-particle l-loop MHV scattering amplitude, as obtained by the recent momentum twistor construction of Arkani-Hamed et al. We present several examples of this new duality, at one and two loops.
Minimal duality breaking in the Kallen-Lehman approach to 3D Ising model: A numerical test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astorino, Marco; Canfora, Fabrizio; Martinez, Cristian; Parisi, Luca
2008-01-01
A Kallen-Lehman approach to 3D Ising model is analyzed numerically both at low and high temperatures. It is shown that, even assuming a minimal duality breaking, one can fix three parameters of the model to get a very good agreement with the Monte Carlo results at high temperatures. With the same parameters the agreement is satisfactory both at low and near critical temperatures. How to improve the agreement with Monte Carlo results by introducing a more general duality breaking is shortly discussed
Latorre, Vittorio
2014-01-01
We propose to solve large instances of the non-convex optimization problems reformulated with canonical duality theory. To this aim we propose an interior point potential reduction algorithm based on the solution of the primal-dual total complementarity (Lagrange) function. We establish the global convergence result for the algorithm under mild assumptions and demonstrate the method on instances of the Sensor Network Localization problem. Our numerical results are promising and show the possi...
Quiver gauge theory and extended electric-magnetic duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyoshi, Kazunobu
2009-01-01
We construct N = 1 A-D-E quiver gauge theory with the gauge kinetic term which depends on the adjoint chiral superfields, as a low energy effective theory on D5-branes wrapped on 2-cycles of Calabi-Yau 3-fold in IIB string theory. The field-dependent gauge kinetic term can be engineered by introducing B-field which holomorphically varies on the base space (complex plane) of Calabi-Yau. We consider Weyl reflection on A-D-E node, which acts non-trivially on the gauge kinetic term. It is known that Weyl reflection is related to N = 1 electric-magnetic duality. Therefore, the non-trivial action implies an extension of the electric-magnetic duality to the case with the field-dependent gauge kinetic term. We show that this extended duality is consistent from the field theoretical point of view. We also consider the duality map of the operators.
Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bierenbaum, Isabella; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German
2012-11-01
We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.
Fermionic T-duality in massive type IIA supergravity on AdS_{10-k} × M_k
Bakhmatov, Ilya
2016-04-01
Fermionic T-duality transformation is studied for supersymmetric solutions of massive type IIA supergravity with the metric AdS_{10-k} × M_k for k=3 and 5. We derive the Killing spinors of these backgrounds and use them as input for the fermionic T-duality transformation. The resulting dual solutions form a large family of supersymmetric deformations of the original solutions by complex valued RR fluxes. We observe that the Romans mass parameter does not change under fermionic T-duaity, and prove its invariance in the k=3 case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mª Katiuska Cabrera-Suárez
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect that certain characteristics of board of directors in Spanish non-listed family firms have on performance. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis on a database of 544 firms show a negative effect of a higher proportion of executive directors and a positive effect of CEO duality. No effects were found in relation to the diversity of family directors (executive or non-executive. In relation to the effect of outside boards, the influence on performance is negative except when this variable was considered in interaction with CEO duality. In this case, the effect on performance was positive.
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Duality, exchange-degeneracy breaking, and exotic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, G.R.; Haridas, P.
1979-01-01
We study the connection between exchange-degeneracy breaking and multiquark states within the framework of a highly constrained dual approach. We show that M 4 (baryonium) states emerge at the daughter trajectory level as a consequence of small exchange-degeneracy breaking in the meson-meson system (approx.delta) and larger exchange-degeneracy breaking of the baryon trajectories in the meson-baryon system (approx.epsilon). The M 4 states are coupled weakly to external mesons in proportion to the breaking parameter delta. Assuming M 4 couplings to B-barB channels are strong, as determined by duality with normal mesons in the B-barB system, consistency requires epsilon approx. √delta-bar, thereby relating the larger breaking of baryon trajectories to the violation of the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-type rule for M 4 . It is shown that exotic baryon states, B 5 , also emerge from this scheme at the daughter level and that dibaryons will appear at the second daughter level
Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Holanda, R.F.L., E-mail: montirana1992@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Aracaju—SE (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η( z ) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ{sub 0} and Einstein radius θ {sub E} . In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance D {sub A} {sub ol} of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.
Gauge/gravity duality — From lattice gauge theory to black hole
Kadoh, Daisuke
2017-12-01
The duality conjecture states that p + 1-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature is expected to be dual to the non extremal black p-brane at large N. We perform the lattice simulations of SYM for p = 0, 1 to investigate the validity of the conjecture. We show that the conjecture is qualitatively valid by comparing lattice results of the black p-branes mass with analytic expectations in the gravity side.
Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, Ayan [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, CNRS URA 2306,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petkou, Anastasios C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Siampos, Konstadinos [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons, UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium)
2014-04-23
We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D{sub t}. Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality.
Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Petkou, Anastasios C.; Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos
2014-01-01
We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D t . Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tschudi-Madsen Hedda
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of knowledge about the pattern of symptom reporting in the general population as most research focuses on specific diseases or symptoms. The number of musculoskeletal pain sites is a strong predictor for disability pensioning and, hence, is considered to be an important dimension in symptom reporting. The simple method of counting symptoms might also be applicable to non-musculoskeletal symptoms, rendering further dimensions in describing individual and public health. In a general population, we aimed to explore the association between self-reported non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites. Methods With a cross-sectional design, the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory were used to record pain at ten different body sites and 13 non-musculoskeletal symptoms, respectively, among seven age groups in Ullensaker, Norway (n = 3,227. Results Results showed a strong, almost linear relationship between the number of non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites (r = 0.55. The number and type of non-musculoskeletal symptoms had an almost equal explanatory power in the number of pain sites reported (27.1% vs. 28.2%. Conclusion The linear association between the number of non-musculoskeletal and musculoskeletal symptoms might indicate that the symptoms share common characteristics and even common underlying causal factors. The total burden of symptoms as determined by the number of symptoms reported might be an interesting generic indicator of health and well-being, as well as present and future functioning. Research on symptom reporting might also be an alternative pathway to describe and, possibly, understand the medically unexplained multisymptom conditions.
Drag force in strongly coupled, anisotropic plasma at finite chemical potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)
2014-12-30
We employ methods of gauge/string duality to analyze the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled, anisotropic N=4,SU(N) super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a finite U(1) chemical potential. We present numerical results valid for any value of the anisotropy parameter and the U(1) charge density and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. In the small anisotropy limit we are also able to furnish analytical results.
Model of the N-quark potential in SU(N gauge theory using gauge-string duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Andreev
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We use gauge-string duality to model the N-quark potential in pure Yang–Mills theories. For SU(3, the result agrees remarkably well with lattice simulations. The model smoothly interpolates between almost the Δ-law at short distances and the Y-law at long distances.
Higher-derivative couplings in string theory: Dualities and the B field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, James T., E-mail: jimliu@umich.edu [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Minasian, Ruben [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2013-09-11
The first quantum correction to the IIA string effective action arises at the eight-derivative level and takes the schematic form (t{sub 8}t{sub 8}−1/8 ϵ{sub 10}ϵ{sub 10})R{sup 4}+B{sub 2}∧X{sub 8}. This correction, however, cannot be complete by itself, as it is neither supersymmetric nor T-duality covariant. We reexamine these eight-derivative couplings and conjecture that the simple replacement R→R(Ω{sub +}), where Ω{sub +}=Ω+1/2 H is the connection with torsion, nearly completely captures their dependence on the B field. The exception is in the odd–odd spin structure sector, where additional terms are needed. We present here a complete result at the level of the five-point function and a partial one for the six-point function. Further evidence for this conjecture comes from considering T-duality as well as heterotic/IIA duality beyond leading order. Finally, we discuss the eleven-dimensional lift of the modified one-loop type IIA couplings.
Integral group actions on symmetric spaces and discrete duality symmetries of supergravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbone, Lisa [Mathematics Rutgers University, Hill Center-Busch Campus, 110 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Murray, Scott H. [Mathematics & Statistics, University of Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Sati, Hisham [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, 301 Thackeray Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)
2015-10-15
For G = G(ℝ), a split, simply connected, semisimple Lie group of rank n and K the maximal compact subgroup of G, we give a method for computing Iwasawa coordinates of K∖G using the Chevalley generators and the Steinberg presentation. When K∖G is a scalar coset for a supergravity theory in dimensions ≥3, we determine the action of the integral form G(ℤ) on K∖G. We give explicit results for the action of the discrete U-duality groups SL{sub 2}(ℤ) and E{sub 7}(ℤ) on the scalar cosets SO(2)∖SL{sub 2}(ℝ) and [SU(8)/( ± Id)]∖E{sub 7(+7)}(ℝ) for type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions and 11-dimensional supergravity reduced to D = 4 dimensions, respectively. For the former, we use this to determine the discrete U-duality transformations on the scalar sector in the Borel gauge and we describe the discrete symmetries of the dyonic charge lattice. We determine the spectrum-generating symmetry group for fundamental BPS solitons of type IIB supergravity in D = 10 dimensions at the classical level and we propose an analog of this symmetry at the quantum level. We indicate how our methods can be used to study the orbits of discrete U-duality groups in general.
$R^2$ Corrections and Non-perturbative Dualities of N=4 String ground states
Gregori, A; Kounnas, Costas; Obers, N A; Petropoulos, P M; Pioline, B
1998-01-01
We compute and analyse a variety of four-derivative gravitational terms in the effective action of six- and four-dimensional type II string ground states with N=4 supersymmetry. In six dimensions, we compute the relevant perturbative corrections for the type II string compactified on K3. In four dimensions we do analogous computations for several models with (4,0) and (2,2) supersymmetry. Such ground states are related by heterotic-type II duality or type II-type II U-duality. Perturbative computations in one member of a dual pair give a non-perturbative result in the other member. In particular, the exact CP-even R^2 coupling on the (2,2) side reproduces the tree-level term plus NS 5-brane instanton contributions on the (4,0) side. On the other hand, the exact CP-odd coupling yields the one-loop axionic interaction a.R\\wedge R together with a similar instanton sum. In a subset of models, the expected breaking of the SL(2,Z)_S S-duality symmetry to a \\Gamma(2)_S subgroup is observed on the non-perturbative th...
Serre duality, Abel's theorem, and Jacobi inversion for supercurves over a thick superpoint
Rothstein, Mitchell J.; Rabin, Jeffrey M.
2015-04-01
The principal aim of this paper is to extend Abel's theorem to the setting of complex supermanifolds of dimension 1 | q over a finite-dimensional local supercommutative C-algebra. The theorem is proved by establishing a compatibility of Serre duality for the supercurve with Poincaré duality on the reduced curve. We include an elementary algebraic proof of the requisite form of Serre duality, closely based on the account of the reduced case given by Serre in Algebraic groups and class fields, combined with an invariance result for the topology on the dual of the space of répartitions. Our Abel map, taking Cartier divisors of degree zero to the dual of the space of sections of the Berezinian sheaf, modulo periods, is defined via Penkov's characterization of the Berezinian sheaf as the cohomology of the de Rham complex of the sheaf D of differential operators. We discuss the Jacobi inversion problem for the Abel map and give an example demonstrating that if n is an integer sufficiently large that the generic divisor of degree n is linearly equivalent to an effective divisor, this need not be the case for all divisors of degree n.
Applications of gauge/gravity dualities with charged Anti-de Sitter black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grass, Viviane Theresa
2010-05-17
In this thesis, we deal with different applications of the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence, which is also more generally referred to as gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured duality in superstring theory between strongly-coupled four-dimensional N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory and weakly-coupled type IIB string theory in five-dimensional AdS spacetime. This duality provides a powerful method to investigate strongly-coupled low-energy systems in four dimensions by substitutionally carrying out calculations in five-dimensional weakly-coupled supergravity. In this work, we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore three different strongly-coupled systems, namely a brane world accommodating a strongly-coupled field theory, a strongly-coupled fluid on a three-sphere and a strongly-coupled p-wave superfluid. In all these cases, the dual supergravity descriptions involve charged AdS black holes. The first system studied here is a Randall-Sundrum brane world moving in the background of a five-dimensional non-extremal black hole of N=2 gauged supergravity. The equations of motion of the brane are found to be equal to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) equations for a closed universe. The closed brane universe has special thermodynamic properties. The energy of the brane field theory exhibits a subextensive Casimir contribution, and the entropy can be expressed as a Cardy-Verlinde-type formula. We show that the equations for both quantities can take forms that strongly resemble the two FRW equations. At the horizon of the black hole, these two sets of equations are shown to even merge with each other which might suggest the existence of a common underlying theory. In addition, as a by-product result, the non-extremal black hole solutions considered here are found to admit an alternative description in terms of first-order flow equations similar to those which are well-known from the attractor mechanism of
Stringy horizons and generalized FZZ duality in perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giribet, Gaston [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-02-14
We study scattering amplitudes in two-dimensional string theory on a black hole bakground. We start with a simple derivation of the Fateev-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov (FZZ) duality, which associates correlation functions of the sine-Liouville integrable model on the Riemann sphere to tree-level string amplitudes on the Euclidean two-dimensional black hole. This derivation of FZZ duality is based on perturbation theory, and it relies on a trick originally due to Fateev, which involves duality relations between different Selberg type integrals. This enables us to rewrite the correlation functions of sine-Liouville theory in terms of a special set of correlators in the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) theory, and use this to perform further consistency checks of the recently conjectured Generalized FZZ (GFZZ) duality. In particular, we prove that n-point correlation functions in sine-Liouville theory involving n−2 winding modes actually coincide with the correlation functions in the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) gauged WZW model that include n−2 oscillator operators of the type described by Giveon, Itzhaki and Kutasov in reference https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2016)157. This proves the GFZZ duality for the case of tree level maximally winding violating n-point amplitudes with arbitrary n. We also comment on the connection between GFZZ and other marginal deformations previously considered in the literature.
Radiation of a circulating quark in strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-12-01
The energy density and angular distribution of power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is computed using gauge/gravity duality. The results are qualitatively similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: At large velocities the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle α˜1/γ and radial thickness scaling like ˜1/γ3.
Classical Duality from Compactification of Self Dual 5-form Maxwell Theory in 10 dimensions
Berman, D S
1997-01-01
Duality of abelian gauge theories are considered. By compactifying a self dual p-form theory on some compact space, we determine the duality generator of the gauge theory. In this picture duality is seen as a consequence of the geometry of the compact space. We describe the compactification of 10-dimensional self dual 4-form Maxwell theory to give a theory in 4-dimensions with scalar, one form and two form fields that all transform non trivially under duality.
Generalized gravitational S-duality and the cosmological constant problem
Ellwanger, Ulrich
2005-05-01
We study S-duality transformations that mix the Riemann tensor with the field strength of a 3-form field. The dual of an (A)dS spacetime—with arbitrary curvature—is seen to be flat Minkowski spacetime if the 3-form field has vanishing field strength before the duality transformation. It is discussed whether matter could couple to the dual metric, related to the Riemann tensor after a duality transformation. This possibility is supported by the facts that the Schwarzschild metric can be obtained as a suitable contraction of the dual of a Taub-NUT-AdS metric, and that metrics describing FRW cosmologies can be obtained as duals of theories with matter in the form of torsion.
The Jarzynski identity and the AdS/CFT duality
Minic, Djordje; Pleimling, Michel
2011-06-01
We point out a remarkable analogy between the Jarzynski identity from non-equilibrium statistical physics and the AdS/CFT duality. We apply the logic that leads to the Jarzynski identity to renormalization group (RG) flows of quantum field theories and then argue for the natural connection with the AdS/CFT duality formula. This application can be in principle checked in Monte Carlo simulations of RG flows. Given the existing generalizations of the Jarzynski identity in non-equilibrium statistical physics, and the analogy between the Jarzynski identity and the AdS/CFT duality, we are led to suggest natural but novel generalizations of the AdS/CFT dictionary.
N = (4,4 Supersymmetry and T-Duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malin Göteman
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A sigma model with four-dimensional target space parametrized by chiral and twisted chiral N =(2,2 superfields can be extended to N =(4,4 supersymmetry off-shell, but this is not true for a model of semichiral fields, where the N = (4,4 supersymmetry can only be realized on-shell. The two models can be related to each other by T-duality. In this paper we perform a duality transformation from a chiral and twisted chiral model with off-shell N = (4,4 supersymmetry to a semichiral model. We find that additional non-linear terms must be added to the original transformations to obtain a semichiral model with N =(4,4 supersymmetry, and that the algebra closes on-shell as a direct consequence of the T-duality.
Unification of type-II strings and T duality.
Hohm, Olaf; Kwak, Seung Ki; Zwiebach, Barton
2011-10-21
We present a unified description of the low-energy limits of type-II string theories. This is achieved by a formulation that doubles the space-time coordinates in order to realize the T-duality group O(10,10) geometrically. The Ramond-Ramond fields are described by a spinor of O(10,10), which couples to the gravitational fields via the Spin(10,10) representative of the so-called generalized metric. This theory, which is supplemented by a T-duality covariant self-duality constraint, unifies the type-II theories in that each of them is obtained for a particular subspace of the doubled space. © 2011 American Physical Society
Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study
Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning
2017-01-01
This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization. With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...
Hyperasymptotics and quark-hadron duality violations in QCD
Boito, Diogo; Caprini, Irinel; Golterman, Maarten; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago
2018-03-01
We investigate the origin of the quark-hadron duality-violating terms in the expansion of the QCD two-point vector correlation function at large energies in the complex q2 plane. Starting from the dispersive representation for the associated polarization, the analytic continuation of the operator product expansion from the Euclidean to the Minkowski region is performed by means of a generalized Borel-Laplace transform, borrowing techniques from hyperasymptotics. We establish a connection between singularities in the Borel plane and quark-hadron duality-violating contributions. Starting with the assumption that for QCD at Nc=∞ the spectrum approaches a Regge trajectory at large energy, we obtain an expression for quark-hadron duality violations at large, but finite Nc.
N = 1 quasi self-duality in the N = 2 Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlik, O.V.; Yatsun, V.A.
1998-01-01
The system of first-order equations-quasi self-duality equations-for component fields of the N = 2 SUSY Yang-Mills theory is suggested, which leads to equations of motion and reduces to self-duality equations if scalar fields vanish. The symmetries of quasi self-duality equations are studied
Aspects of U-duality in matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, M.; O'Loughlin, M.
1997-12-01
We explore various aspects of implementing the full M-theory U-duality group E d+1 , and thus Lorentz invariance, in the finite N matrix theory (DLCQ of M-theory) describing toroidal IIA-compactifications on d-tori: (1) We generalize the analysis of Elitzur et al. (hep-th/9707217) from E d to E d+1 and identify the highest weight states unifying the momentum and flux E d -multiplets into one E d+1 -orbit, (2) We identify the new symmetries, in particular the Weyl group symmetry associated to the (d+1)'th node of the E d+1 Dynkin diagram, with Nahm-duality-like symmetries (N-duality) exchanging the rank N of the matrix theory gauge group with other (electric, magnetic, ...) quantum numbers. (3) We describe the action of N-duality on BPS bound states, thus making testable predictions for the Lorentz invariance of matrix theory. (4) We discuss the problems that arise in the matrix theory limit for BPS states with no top-dimensional branes, i.e. configurations with N = 0. (5) We show that N-duality maps the matrix theory SYM picture to the matrix string picture and argue that, for d even, the latter should be thought of as an M-theory membrane description (which appears to be well defined even for d > 5). (6) We find a compact and unified expression for a U-duality invariant of E d+1 for all d and show that in d = 5,6 it reduces to the black hole entropy cubic E 6 - and quartic E 7 -invariants respectively. (7) Finally, we describe some of the solitonic states in d = 6,7 and give an example (a 'rolled-up' Taub-NUT 6-brane) of a configuration exhibiting the unusual 1/g 3 s -behaviour. (author)
Tagore, Amitpal S.; Barnes, David J.; Jackson, Neal; Kay, Scott T.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2018-03-01
Cosmological parameter constraints from observations of time-delay lenses are becoming increasingly precise. However, there may be significant bias and scatter in these measurements due to, among other things, the so-called mass-sheet degeneracy. To estimate these uncertainties, we analyse strong lenses from the largest EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation. We apply a mass-sheet transformation to the radial density profiles of lenses, and by selecting lenses near isothermality, we find that the bias on H0 can be reduced to 5 per cent with an intrinsic scatter of 10 per cent, confirming previous results performed on a different simulation data set. We further investigate whether combining lensing observables with kinematic constraints helps to minimize this bias. We do not detect any significant dependence of the bias on lens model parameters or observational properties of the galaxy, but depending on the source-lens configuration, a bias may still exist. Cross lenses provide an accurate estimate of the Hubble constant, while fold (double) lenses tend to be biased low (high). With kinematic constraints, double lenses show bias and intrinsic scatter of 6 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively, while quad lenses show bias and intrinsic scatter of 0.5 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively. For lenses with a reduced χ2 > 1, a power-law dependence of the χ2 on the lens environment (number of nearby galaxies) is seen. Lastly, we model, in greater detail, the cases of two double lenses that are significantly biased. We are able to remove the bias, suggesting that the remaining biases could also be reduced by carefully taking into account additional sources of systematic uncertainty.
Gaugino condensates and chiral-linear duality an effective lagrangian analysis
Burgess, C P; Quevedo, Fernando; Quirós, Mariano; Burgess, C P; Derendinger, J P; Quevedo, F; Quiros, M
1995-01-01
We show how to formulate the phenomenon of gaugino condensation in a super-Yang-Mills theory with a field-dependent gauge coupling described with a linear multiplet. We prove the duality equivalence of this approach with the more familiar formulation using a chiral superfield. In so doing, we resolve a longstanding puzzle as to how a linear-multiplet formulation can be consistent with the dynamical breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry which is thought to occur once the gauginos condense. In our approach, the composite gauge degrees of freedom are described by a real vector superfield, V, rather than the chiral superfield that is obtained in the traditional dual formulation. Our dualization, when applied to the case of several condensing gauge groups, provides strong evidence that this duality survives strong-coupling effects in string theory. We show how to formulate the phenomenon of gaugino condensation in a super-Yang-Mills theory with a field-dependent gauge coupling described with a linear multiplet. We...
Duality transformations for generalized WDVV in Seiberg-Witten theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoevenaars, L.K.
2004-01-01
In Seiberg-Witten theory the solutions to these equations come in certain classes according to the gauge group. We show that the duality transformations transform solutions within a class to another solution within the same class, by using a subset of the Picard-Fuchs equations on the Seiberg-Witten family of Riemann surfaces. The electric-magnetic duality transformations can be thought of as changes of a canonical homology basis on the surfaces which in our derivation is clearly responsible for the covariance of the generalized WDVV system
Quark-hadron duality of nucleon spin structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Y.B.
2005-01-01
Bloom-Gilman quark-hadron duality of nuclear spin structure function is studied by comparing the integral of g 1 from perturbative QCD prediction in the scaling region to the moment of g 1 in the resonance region. The spin structure function in the resonance region is estimated by the parametrization forms of non-resonance background and of resonance contributions. The uncertainties of our calculations due to those parametrization forms are discussed. Moreover, the effect of the Δ(1232)-resonance in the first resonance region and the role of the resonances in the second resonance region are explicitly shown. Elastic peak contribution to the duality is also analyzed. (orig.)
Thermal duality and Hagedorn transition from p-adic strings.
Biswas, Tirthabir; Cembranos, Jose A R; Kapusta, Joseph I
2010-01-15
We develop the finite temperature theory of p-adic string models. We find that the thermal properties of these nonlocal field theories can be interpreted either as contributions of standard thermal modes with energies proportional to the temperature, or inverse thermal modes with energies proportional to the inverse of the temperature, leading to a thermal duality at leading order (genus one) analogous to the well-known T duality of string theory. The p-adic strings also recover the asymptotic limits (high and low temperature) for arbitrary genus that purely stringy calculations have yielded. We also discuss our findings surrounding the nature of the Hagedorn transition.
Interpreting multiple dualities conjectured from superconformal index identities
Khmelnitsky, A
2010-01-01
We consider field theory side of new multiple Seiberg dualities conjectured within superconformal index matching approach. We study the case of SU(2) supersymmetric QCD and find that the numerous conjectured duals are different faces of handful of master theories. These different faces are inequivalent to each other in a very peculiar sense. Some master theories are fully known; we construct superpotentials for others. We confirm that all index identities correspond to theories flowing to one and the same theory in the infrared, thus supporting the conjecture of index matching for Seiberg dual theories. However, none of the index identities considered in this paper actually implies an entirely new, unknown duality.
2D Seiberg-like dualities with an adjoint matter
Cho, Kyoungho; Kim, Hyungchul; Park, Jaemo
2017-10-01
We consider the analogue of Kutasov-Schwimmer-Seiberg duality for two-dimensional N=(2,2)U(k) gauge theory with one adjoint X with the superpotential Tr X l+1 and with fundamental and anti-fundamental chiral multiplets. We give the evidences for the proposed dualities by analytically proving that the elliptic genus of dual pair coincides with each other. For some of the dual pairs flowing to the superconformal field theory, we show the nonperturbative truncation of the chiral ring. For the theory with one adjoint and N f > k fundamental fields, we argue the theory exhibits mass gap.
A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanpeng Ji
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.
Superstrings, conformal field theories and holographic duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benichou, R.
2009-06-01
The first half of this work is dedicated to the study of non-compact Gepner models.The Landau-Ginzburg description provides an easy and direct access to the geometry of the singularity associated to the non-compact Gepner models. Using these tools, we are able to give an intuitive account of the chiral rings of the models, and of the massless moduli in particular. By studying orbifolds of the singular linear dilaton models, we describe mirror pairs of non-compact Gepner models by suitably adapting the Greene-Plesser construction of mirror pairs for the compact case. For particular models, we take a large level, low curvature limit in which we can analyze corrections to a flat space orbifold approximation of the non-compact Gepner models. We have also studied bound states in N=2 Liouville theory with boundary and deep throat D-branes. We have shown that the bound states can give rise to massless vector and hyper multiplets in a low-energy gauge theory on D-branes deep inside the throat. The second half of this work deals with the issue of the quantization of the string in the presence of Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. Using the pure spinor formalism on the world-sheet, we derive the T-duality rules for all target space couplings in an efficient manner. The world-sheet path integral derivation is a proof of the equivalence of the T-dual Ramond-Ramond backgrounds which is valid non-perturbatively in the string length over the curvature radius and to all orders in perturbation theory in the string coupling. Sigma models on supergroup manifolds are relevant for quantifying string in various Anti-de-Sitter space-time with Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. We show that the conformal current algebra is realized in non-linear sigma models on supergroup manifolds with vanishing dual Coxeter number, with or without a Wess-Zumino term. The current algebra is computed. We also prove that these models realize a non-chiral Kac-Moody algebra and construct an infinite set of commuting
Applications of Space-Time Duality
Plansinis, Brent W.
The concept of space-time duality is based on a mathematical analogy between paraxial diffraction and narrowband dispersion, and has led to the development of temporal imaging systems. The first part of this thesis focuses on the development of a temporal imaging system for the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Using an electro-optic phase modulator as a time lens, a time-to-frequency converter is constructed capable of imaging pulses between 3 and 12 ps. Numerical simulations show how this system can be improved to image the 1-30 ps range used in OMEGA-EP. By adjusting the timing between the pulse and the sinusoidal clock of the phase modulator, the pulse spectrum can be selectively narrowed, broadened, or shifted. An experimental demonstration of this effect achieved spectral narrowing and broadening by a factor of 2. Numerical simulations show narrowing by a factor of 8 is possible with modern phase modulators. The second part of this thesis explores the space-time analog of reflection and refraction from a moving refractive index boundary. From a physics perspective, a temporal boundary breaks translational symmetry in time, requiring the momentum of the photon to remain unchanged while its energy may change. This leads to a shifting and splitting of the pulse spectrum as the boundary is crossed. Equations for the reflected and transmitted frequencies and a condition for total internal reflection are found. Two of these boundaries form a temporal waveguide, which confines the pulse to a narrow temporal window. These waveguides have a finite number of modes, which do not change during propagation. A single-mode waveguide can be created, allowing only a single pulse shape to form within the waveguide. Temporal reflection and refraction produce a frequency dependent phase shift on the incident pulse, leading to interference fringes between the incident light and the reflected light. In a waveguide, this leads to self-imaging, where the pulse shape reforms
Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske
2010-01-01
We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.
Some remarks on defects and T-duality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarkissian, Gor; Schweigert, Christoph
2009-01-01
conditions. We also exhibit a class of diagonal defects that induce a shift of the B-field. We finally study T-dualities for S1 -fibrations in the example of the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SU(2) and lens spaces. Using standard techniques from D-branes, we derive from algebraic data in rational conformal...
Duality transformations for generalized WDVV in Seiberg-Witten theory
Hoevenaars, L.K.
2004-01-01
In Seiberg–Witten theory the solutions to these equations come in certain classes according to the gauge group. We show that the duality transformations transform solutions within a class to another solution within the same class, by using a subset of the Picard–Fuchs equations on the Seiberg–Witten
Time evolution in string field theory and T-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilderton, A.; Mansfield, P.
2005-01-01
The time evolution operator (Schrodinger functional) of quantum field theory can be expressed in terms of first quantised particles moving on S 1 /Z 2 . We give a graphical derivation of this that generalises to second quantised string theory. T-duality then relates evolution through time t with evolution through 1/t and an interchange of string fields and backgrounds
Unity from duality: gravity, gauge theory and strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachas, C.; Bilal, A.; Douglas, M.; Nekrasov, N.; David, F.
2002-01-01
The 76. session of the summer school in theoretical physics was devoted to recent developments in string theory, gauge theories and quantum gravity. Superstring theory is the leading candidate for a unified theory of all fundamental physical forces and elementary particles. The discovery of dualities and of important tools such as D-branes, has greatly reinforced this point of view. This document gathers the papers of 9 lectures: 1) supergravity, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories, 3) an introduction to duality symmetries, 4) large N field theories and gravity, 5) D-branes on the conifold and N = 1 gauge/gravity dualities, 6) de Sitter space, 7) string compactification with N = 1 supersymmetry, 8) open strings and non-commutative gauge theories, and 9) condensates near the Argyres-Douglas point in SU(2) gauge theory with broken N = 2 supersymmetry, and of 8 seminars: 1) quantum field theory with extra dimensions, 2) special holonomy spaces and M-theory, 3) four dimensional non-critical strings, 4) U-opportunities: why ten equal to ten?, 5) exact answers to approximate questions - non-commutative dipoles, open Wilson lines and UV-IR duality, 6) open-string models with broken supersymmetry, 7) on a field theory of open strings, tachyon condensation and closed strings, and 8) exceptional magic. (A.C.)
Supersymmetry and Duality in Field Theory and String Theory
Kiritsis, Elias B
1999-01-01
This is a set of lectures given at the 99' Cargese Summer School, "Particle Physics : Ideas and Recent Developments". They contain a pedestrian exposition of recent theoretical progress in non-perturbative field theory and string theory based on ideas of duality.
Leadership of International Schools: Understanding and Managing Dualities
Keller, Dan
2015-01-01
Leaders of international schools find themselves operating within a loosely defined, yet rapidly growing, specialty niche of education. The leadership context for these schools is often filled with ambiguity and complex tensions between opposing forces. This article proposes a two-stage framework for critically analyzing the dualities of…
Duality spectral sequences for Weierstrass fibrations and applications
Lo, Jason; Zhang, Ziyu
2018-01-01
We study duality spectral sequences for Weierstraß fibrations. Using these spectral sequences, we show that on a K-trivial Weierstraß threefold over a K-numerically trivial surface, any line bundle of nonzero fiber degree is taken by a Fourier-Mukai transform to a slope stable locally free sheaf.
Superspace actions and duality transformations for N=2 tensor multiplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.
1985-01-01
General actions for self-interacting N=2 tensor multiplets are considered in the harmonic superspace approach. All of them are shown to be equivalent, by superfield duality transformations, to some restricted class of the hypermultiplets actions. In particular, the improved tensor multiplet theory is dual to a free hypermultiplet one. Superspace couplings of these improved matter multiplets against conformal supergravity are also constructed
Gaugino condensation, loop corrections and S-duality constraint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saririan, K.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA
1996-11-01
This talk is a brief review of gaugino condensation in superstring effective field theories and some related issues (such as renormalization of the gauge coupling in the effective supergravity theories and modular anomaly cancellation). As a specific example, we discuss a model containing perturbative (1-loop) corrections to the Kaehler potential and approximate S-duality symmetry
Wave-particle duality in a quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudder, S.P.
1984-01-01
A quark model based on finite-dimensional quantum mechanics is presented. Observables associated with color, flavor, charge, and spin are considered. Using these observables, quark and baryon Hamiltonians are constructed. Wave-particle dualities in this model are pointed out. (Auth.)
On an injectivity lemma in the proof of Tannakian duality
Hai, Phùng Hô
2015-01-01
In this short work we give a very short and elementary proof of the injectivity lemma, which plays an important role in the Tannakian duality for Hopf algebras over a field. Based on this we provide some generalizations of this fact to the case of flat algebras over a noetherian domain.
On domain-wall/QFT dualities in various dimensions
Behrndt, Klaus; Bergshoeff, Eric; Halbersma, Rein; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der
1999-01-01
We investigate domain-wall/quantum field-theory correspondences in various dimensions. Our general analysis covers not only the well studied cases in 10 and 11 dimensions, but also enables us to discuss new cases like a type I/heterotic 6-brane in 10 dimensions and domain-wall dualities in lower
On the amplitude/Wilson loop duality in N=2 SCQCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Leoni
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We compute the four-point amplitude with external adjoint particles in N=2 SCQCD at two loops using N=1 superspace Feynman diagrams, extending the results of arXiv:1406.7283. We consider the diagrammatic difference with the corresponding process of N=4 SYM finding a non-vanishing result, which is a non-trivial function of the kinematic variables. This demonstrates that in N=2 SCQCD, even in the sector with external particles in the vector multiplet, the amplitude/Wilson loop duality is inevitably broken at two loops.
Kiani, M.; Abdolali, A.; Safari, M.
2018-03-01
In this article, an analytical approach is presented for the analysis of electromagnetic (EM) scattering from radially inhomogeneous spherical structures (RISSs) based on the duality principle. According to the spherical symmetry, similar angular dependencies in all the regions are considered using spherical harmonics. To extract the radial dependency, the system of differential equations of wave propagation toward the inhomogeneity direction is equated with the dual planar ones. A general duality between electromagnetic fields and parameters and scattering parameters of the two structures is introduced. The validity of the proposed approach is verified through a comprehensive example. The presented approach substitutes a complicated problem in spherical coordinate to an easy, well posed, and previously solved problem in planar geometry. This approach is valid for all continuously varying inhomogeneity profiles. One of the major advantages of the proposed method is the capability of studying two general and applicable types of RISSs. As an interesting application, a class of lens antenna based on the physical concept of the gradient refractive index material is introduced. The approach is used to analyze the EM scattering from the structure and validate strong performance of the lens.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solvignon, Patricia [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2006-08-01
of quark-hadron duality has then been performed for the ^{3}He and neutron structure functions. The study of spin duality for the neutron will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of the strong interaction. Moreover, if duality is well understood, our resonance data will bring information on the high x region where theoretical predictions for A_{1} are drastically different.
Selected Issues Illustrating Duality in Relation to Lakota Identity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perlíková Klára
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article deals with selected issues which - as we perceive it - can provide an insight into what the Lakota consider essential and generic for their self-identification with their culture (What does it mean to be Lakota?. The study is based on observations gained during fieldwork research, and issues in the text reflect data collected within this period. As a result, we examine the following issues: tribal museums in Lakota reservations, Native perception of time, selected issues of Lakota religion, and Lakota relation to the land and environment they live in and to the world on a global scale. We believe that in all these issues we can also recognize an underlying dual structure which - in its most general meaning - could be understood as a dichotomy of Native and Western/Euro-American worldview and mind-set. The question was how non-Native elements distort or affect the system of Lakota culture. In the section on tribal museums and perception of time we have shown that circular way of thinking about the course of the world which is, according to Donald Fixico (FIXICO 2009, characteristic of all Native cultures affects the way tribal museums organize and present their exhibitions. In this case, the influence of the Native/Euro-American dualism does not have to be necessarily negative. The same can be said about another example where the dichotomy projects itself - in the issue of Lakota relation to the land or Unci Maka (Grandmother Earth: Though Lakota religion and identity is regionally bound (BUCKO 2008, their concern for this integral part of their Native-self can surprisingly well fit into the global issue of protection of environment. On the case of Lakota struggle to stop construction of a KXL pipeline1 we demonstrate how the same (Native/Euro-American duality interacts and through which the Lakota (Native, regionallybound voice is strengthened by its non-Native counterpart and vice versa.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
A key player in energy transition, the EDF Group is an integrated electricity company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, energy supply and trading, energy services. A global leader in low-carbon energies, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, hydropower, new renewable energies and thermal energy. The Group is involved in supplying energy and services to approximately 37.6 million customers, of which 27.8 million in France. The Group generated consolidated sales of Euro 75 billion in 2015, of which 47.2% outside of France. EDF is listed on the Paris Stock exchange. EDF achieved all its targets in 2015. The year was marked by strong operational performance, reflecting the significant efforts the teams made. With the end of the regulated Yellow and Green Tariffs, most clients turned to EDF. Nuclear output reached its highest level, since 2011 in France, and since 2005 in the United Kingdom. EDF is also continuing its significant development in renewable energy, with an additional 1 GW of net installed capacity. The transformation of EDF Group is essential in the unfavourable market conditions. EDF has embarked on this transformation, and is accelerating innovation to serve the energy transition
Yang, Gang
2016-12-30
Using color-kinematics duality, we construct for the first time the full integrand of the five-loop Sudakov form factor in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions. This result also provides a first manifestation of the color-kinematics duality at five loops. The integrand is explicitly ultraviolet finite when D<26/5, coincident with the known finiteness bound for amplitudes. If the double-copy method could be applied to the form factor, this would indicate an interesting ultraviolet finiteness bound for N=8 supergravity at five loops. The result is also expected to provide an essential input for computing the five-loop nonplanar cusp anomalous dimension.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.
1986-01-01
Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures
Heterotic/Type-I Duality in D<10 Dimensions, Threshold Corrections and D-Instantons
Kiritsis, E.
1997-01-01
We continue our study of heterotic/type-I duality in D4. The heterotic result is compared with the associated type-I result. In D<9 dimensions, the type-I theory has instanton corrections due to D1 instantons. In D=8 we use heterotic-type I duality to give a simple prescription of the D-instanton calculation on the type I side. We allow arbitrary Wilson lines and show that the D1-instanton determinant is the affine character-valued elliptic genus evaluated at the induced complex structure of the D1-brane world-volume. The instanton result has an expansion in terms of Hecke operators that suggest an interpretation in terms of an SO(N) matrix model of the D1-brane. The total result can be written in terms of generalized prepotentials revealing an underlying holomorphic structure. In D<8 we calculate again the heterotic perturbative thresholds and show that they agree with the D1-instanton calculation using the rules derived in D=8.
U-duality and D-brane combinatorics
Pioline, B
1998-01-01
We investigate D-brane instanton contributions to R^4 couplings in any toroidal compactification of type II theories. Starting from the 11D supergravity one-loop four-graviton amplitude computed by Green, Gutperle and Vanhove, we derive the non-perturbative O(e^{-1/\\lambda}) corrections to R^4 couplings by a sequence of T-dualities, and interpret them as precise configurations of bound states of D-branes wrapping cycles of the compactification torus. Dp-branes explicitely appear as fluxes on D(p+2)-branes, and as gauge instantons on D(p+4)-branes. Specific rules for weighting these contributions are obtained, which should carry over to more general situations. Furthermore, it is shown that U-duality in D<=6 relates these D-brane configurations to O(e^{-1/\\lambda^2}) instantons for which a geometric interpretation is still lacking.
Background Independence and Duality Invariance in String Theory.
Hohm, Olaf
2017-03-31
Closed string theory exhibits an O(D,D) duality symmetry on tori, which in double field theory is manifest before compactification. I prove that to first order in α^{'} there is no manifestly background independent and duality invariant formulation of bosonic string theory in terms of a metric, b field, and dilaton. To this end I use O(D,D) invariant second order perturbation theory around flat space to show that the unique background independent candidate expression for the gauge algebra at order α^{'} is inconsistent with the Jacobi identity. A background independent formulation exists instead for frame variables subject to α^{'}-deformed frame transformations (generalized Green-Schwarz transformations). Potential applications for curved backgrounds, as in cosmology, are discussed.
Gauge symmetry, T-duality and doubled geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hull, C.M. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences]|[Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Blackett Laboratory; Reid-Edwards, R.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2007-11-15
String compactifications with T-duality twists are revisited and the gauge algebra of the dimensionally reduced theories calculated. These reductions can be viewed as string theory on T-fold backgrounds, and can be formulated in a 'doubled space' in which each circle is supplemented by a T-dual circle to construct a geometry which is a doubled torus bundle over a circle. We discuss a conjectured extension to include T-duality on the base circle, and propose the introduction of a dual base coordinate, to give a doubled space which is locally the group manifold of the gauge group. Special cases include those in which the doubled group is a Drinfel'd double. This gives a framework to discuss backgrounds that are not even locally geometric. (orig.)
Heterotic / type-I duality and D-brane instantons
Bachas, C P; Kiritsis, Elias B; Obers, N A; Vanhove, P
1998-01-01
We study heterotic/type-I duality in d=8,9 uncompactified dimensions. We consider the special (``BPS saturated'') F^4 and R^4 terms in the effective one-loop heterotic action, which are expected to be non-perturbatively exact. Under the standard duality map these translate to tree-level, perturbative and non-perturbative contributions on the type I side. We check agreement with the one-loop open string calculation, and discuss the higher-order perturbative contributions, which arise because of the mild non-holomorphicities of the heterotic elliptic genus. We put the heterotic world-sheet instanton corrections in a form that can be recognized easily as arising from a D-brane instanton calculation on the type-I side.
On Λ-Type Duality of Frames in Banach Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renu Chugh
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Frames are redundant system which are useful in the reconstruction of certain classes of spaces. The dual of a frame (Hilbert always exists and can be obtained in a natural way. Due to the presence of three Banach spaces in the definition of retro Banach frames (or Banach frames duality of frames in Banach spaces is not similar to frames for Hilbert spaces. In this paper we introduce the notion of Λ-type duality of retro Banach frames. This can be generalized to Banach frames in Banach spaces. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the dual of retro Banach frames are obtained. A special class of retro Banach frames which always admit a dual frame is discussed.
Higher derivative corrections, dimensional reduction and Ehlers duality
Michel, Yann; Pioline, Boris
2007-09-01
Motivated by applications to black hole physics and duality, we study the effect of higher derivative corrections on the dimensional reduction of four-dimensional Einstein, Einstein-Liouville and Einstein-Maxwell gravity to one direction, as appropriate for stationary, spherically symmetric solutions. We construct a field redefinition scheme such that the one-dimensional Lagrangian is corrected only by powers of first derivatives of the fields, eliminating spurious modes and providing a suitable starting point for quantization. We show that the Ehlers symmetry, broken by the leading R2 corrections in Einstein-Liouville gravity, can be restored by including contributions of Taub-NUT instantons. Finally, we give a preliminary discussion of the duality between higher-derivative F-term corrections on the vector and hypermultiplet branches in N = 2 supergravity in four dimensions.
Experimental observation of entanglement duality for identical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, J-J; Yuan, X-X; Zu, C; Chang, X-Y; Hou, P-Y; Duan, L-M
2014-01-01
It was shown recently that entanglement of identical particles has a feature called dualism (Bose and Home 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 140404), which is fundamentally connected with quantum indistinguishability. Here we report an experiment that observes the entanglement duality for the first time with two identical photons, which manifest polarization entanglement when labeled by different paths or path entanglement when labeled by polarization states. By adjusting the mismatch in frequency or arrival time of the entangled photons, we tune the photon indistinguishability from the quantum to the classical limit and observe that the entanglement duality disappears under the emergence of classical distinguishability, confirming it as a characteristic feature of quantum indistinguishable particles. (paper)
Oxidation of Self-Duality to 12 Dimensions and Beyond
Devchand, Chandrashekar
2014-07-01
Using (partial) curvature flows and the transitive action of subgroups of on the indices of the components of the Yang-Mills curvature in an orthonormal basis, we obtain a nested system of equations in successively higher dimensions d, each implying the Yang-Mills equations on d-dimensional Riemannian manifolds possessing special geometric structures. This `matryoshka' of self-duality equations contains the familiar self-duality equations on Riemannian fourfold as well as their generalisations on complex Kähler threefold and on seven- and eight-dimensional manifolds with G2 and Spin(7) holonomy. The matryoshka allows enlargement (`oxidation') to a remarkable system in 12 dimensions, invariant under Sp(3). There are hints that the underlying geometry is related to the sextonions, a six-dimensional algebra between the quaternions and octonions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitri Papagiannopoulos
2016-01-01
Conclusions: This proof-of-concept pilot study gives encouraging results, in that PCT was a good predictor of positive cultures (P = 0.02, AUC 0.812. Given, the small sample size, one cannot directly compare PCT to other markers of infection. However, PCT shows promise in this arena and warrants future investigation.
Vershik, A.
2017-01-01
The paper presents a general duality theory for vector measure spaces taking its origin in the author's papers written in the 1960s. The main result establishes a direct correspondence between the geometry of a measure in a vector space and the properties of the space of measurable linear functionals on this space regarded as closed subspaces of an abstract space of measurable functions. An example of useful new features of this theory is the notion of a free measure and its applications.
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1989-01-01
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)
On the Heterotic/F-Theory Duality in Eight Dimensions
Lerche, Wolfgang
2001-01-01
We review quantitative tests on the duality between the heterotic string on T^2 and F-theory on K3. On the heterotic side, certain threshold corrections to the effective action can be exactly computed at one-loop order, and the issue is to reproduce these from geometric quantities pertaining to the K3 surface. In doing so we learn about certain non-perturbative interactions of 7-branes.
Rowlands' Duality Principle: A Generalization of Noether's Theorem?
Karam, Sabah E.
This paper will examine a physical principle that has been used in making valid predictions and generalizes established conservation laws. In a previous paper it was shown how Rowlands' zero-totality condition could be viewed as a generalization of Newton's third law of motion. In this paper it will be argued that Rowlands' Duality Principle is a generalization of Noether's Theorem and that the two principles taken together are truly foundational principles that have tamed Metaphysics.
A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options
Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin
2006-01-01
International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...
Duality of Illusion and Reality in Desai's In Custody
Sharma, Narinder K
2012-01-01
In his article "Duality of Illusion and Reality in Desai's In Custody," Narinder K. Sharma analyses Anita Desai's internal confrontation of choices. In the novel, Desai's narration offers various options at every step and the author suggests that it becomes difficult to decide what actually should be done. The attempt is to personalize impersonal time and space thereby brings it into the domain of conflicting choices signifying an existential desire to manifest freedom. Going a step further, ...
The Onset of Quark-Hadron Duality in Pion Electroproduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tigran Navasardyan; Gary Adams; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Tatiana Angelescu; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Nawal Benmouna; Crystal Bertoncini; Henk Blok; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Herbert Breuer; Michael Christy; Simon Connell; Yonggang Cui; Mark Dalton; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; T. Dodario; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Najib Elkhayari; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Valera Frolov; Liping Gan; David Gaskell; Kawtar Hafidi; Wendy Hinton; Roy Holt; Tanja Horn; Garth Huber; Ed Hungerford; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; V. Kubarovski; Ya Li; Yongguang Liang; Simona Malace; Pete Markowitz; Erin McGrath; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Brian Moziak; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Allena Opper; Tanya Ostapenko; Paul Reimer; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Stephen Rock; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; G.R. Smith; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Maurizio Ungaro; Alicia Uzzle; Sandra Vidakovic; Anthony Villano; William Vulcan; Miao Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Stephen Wood; Chuncheng Xu; Lulin Yuan; Xiaochao Zheng; Hong Guo Zhu
2006-08-29
A large data set of charged-pion electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-to- pion production mechanisms.
Non Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Santos-Silva, Roberto
2018-04-01
Abelian T-duality in Gauged Linear Sigma Models (GLSM) forms the basis of the physical understanding of Mirror Symmetry as presented by Hori and Vafa. We consider an alternative formulation of Abelian T-duality on GLSM's as a gauging of a global U(1) symmetry with the addition of appropriate Lagrange multipliers. For GLSMs with Abelian gauge groups and without superpotential we reproduce the dual models introduced by Hori and Vafa. We extend the construction to formulate non-Abelian T-duality on GLSMs with global non-Abelian symmetries. The equations of motion that lead to the dual model are obtained for a general group, they depend in general on semi-chiral superfields; for cases such as SU(2) they depend on twisted chiral superfields. We solve the equations of motion for an SU(2) gauged group with a choice of a particular Lie algebra direction of the vector superfield. This direction covers a non-Abelian sector that can be described by a family of Abelian dualities. The dual model Lagrangian depends on twisted chiral superfields and a twisted superpotential is generated. We explore some non-perturbative aspects by making an Ansatz for the instanton corrections in the dual theories. We verify that the effective potential for the U(1) field strength in a fixed configuration on the original theory matches the one of the dual theory. Imposing restrictions on the vector superfield, more general non-Abelian dual models are obtained. We analyze the dual models via the geometry of their susy vacua.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, G.
1998-01-01
Echographic imaging could potentially play a major role in the field of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS). For doctors and surgeons to make full use of tool in planning and executing surgical operations, they also need user-friendly automatic software based on fast, precise and reliable algorithms. The main goal of this thesis is to take advantage of the segmentation/registration duality to extract the relevant information from echo graphical images. This information will allow the precise and automatic registration both of anatomical structures contained in the pre-operative model and of per-operative data contained in echographic images. The result of registration will be further to guide a computer-assisted tool. In the first part we propose different methods for filtering, segmentation and calibration of echographic images. The development of fast, precise and reliable algorithms is emphasized. The second part concerns the segmentation-registration duality and the corrections of elastic deformations of soft tissues. High-level segmentation algorithms for echographic images were developed. They are based on results of low -level segmentation, a priori anatomical knowledge as well as on information provided by the pre-operative model. The third part deals with detailed descriptions of applications and interpretation of results. The cases studied include: screwing inside the vertebral pedicles, ilio-sacral screwing, prostatic radiotherapy and puncture of pericardial effusion. Future developments for this approach are discussed. (author)
BPS States in the Duality Web of the Omega deformation
Hellerman, Simeon; Reffert, Susanne
2013-01-01
In this note, we study different limits of an Omega-deformed (2,0) six-dimensional gauge theory realized in a M-theory fluxtrap background. Via a chain of dualities, we connect the Omega-deformed SYM to a new four-dimensional gauge theory which we refer to as the reciprocal gauge theory. This theory has several properties in common with Liouville field theory, such as its gauge coupling b^2 =\\epsilon_2 / \\epsilon_1, and its behavior under S-duality. Finally, we realize the BPS states on the SYM side of the AGT correspondence and follow them along the chain of dualities. In the fluxtrap frame, we are dealing with two distinct types of states localized in different radial positions, while in the reciprocal frame, we find single states carrying both charges localized in one place which appear to be perturbatively stable. Our microscopic picture of the small-b limit exhibits semiclassically BPS bound states, which are not visible at the level of the partition function.
S-matrix elements from T-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babaei Velni, Komeil; Garousi, Mohammad R.
2013-01-01
Recently it has been speculated that the S-matrix elements satisfy the Ward identity associated with the T-duality. This indicates that a group of S-matrix elements is invariant under the linear T-duality transformations on the external states. If one evaluates one component of such T-dual multiplet, then all other components may be found by the simple use of the linear T-duality. The assumption that fields must be independent of the Killing coordinate, however, may cause, in some cases, the T-dual multiplet not to be gauge invariant. In those cases, the S-matrix elements contain more than one T-dual multiplet which are intertwined by the gauge symmetry. In this paper, we apply the T-dual Ward identity on the S-matrix element of one RR (p−3)-form and two NSNS states on the world volume of a D p -brane to find its corresponding T-dual multiplet. In the case that the RR potential has two transverse indices, the T-dual multiplet is gauge invariant, however, in the case that it has one transverse index the multiplet is not gauge invariant. We find a new T-dual multiplet in this case by imposing the gauge symmetry. We show that the multiplets are reproduced by explicit calculation, and their low energy contact terms at order α ′2 are consistent with the existing couplings in the literature
Dualities in the analysis of phage DNA packaging motors
Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen
2012-01-01
The DNA packaging motors of double-stranded DNA phages are models for analysis of all multi-molecular motors and for analysis of several fundamental aspects of biology, including early evolution, relationship of in vivo to in vitro biochemistry and targets for anti-virals. Work on phage DNA packaging motors both has produced and is producing dualities in the interpretation of data obtained by use of both traditional techniques and the more recently developed procedures of single-molecule analysis. The dualities include (1) reductive vs. accretive evolution, (2) rotation vs. stasis of sub-assemblies of the motor, (3) thermal ratcheting vs. power stroking in generating force, (4) complete motor vs. spark plug role for the packaging ATPase, (5) use of previously isolated vs. new intermediates for analysis of the intermediate states of the motor and (6) a motor with one cycle vs. a motor with two cycles. We provide background for these dualities, some of which are under-emphasized in the literature. We suggest directions for future research. PMID:23532204
T-Duality: Topology Change from H-Flux
Bouwknegt, Peter; Evslin, Jarah; Mathai, Varghese
T-duality acts on circle bundles by exchanging the first Chern class with the fiberwise integral of the H-flux, as we motivate using E8 and also using S-duality. We present known and new examples including NS5-branes, nilmanifolds, lens spaces, both circle bundles over Pn, and the AdS5×S5 to AdS5×P2×S1 with background H-flux of Duff, Lü and Pope. When T-duality leads to M-theory on a non-spin manifold the gravitino partition function continues to exist due to the background flux, however the known quantization condition for G4 receives a correction. In a more general context, we use correspondence spaces to implement isomorphisms on the twisted K-theories and twisted cohomology theories and to study the corresponding Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem. Interestingly, in the case of decomposable twists, both twisted theories admit fusion products and so are naturally rings.
Holography in flat spacetime: 4D theories and electromagnetic duality on the border
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amoretti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genovavia Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); Braggio, Alessandro [CNR-SPIN,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146, Genova (Italy); Caruso, Giacomo; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genovavia Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy)
2014-04-23
We consider a free topological model in 5D Euclidean flat spacetime, built from two rank-2 tensor fields. Despite the fact that the bulk of the model does not have any particular physical interpretation, on its 4D planar edge nontrivial gauge field theories are recovered, whose features descend from the gauge and discrete symmetries of the bulk. In particular the 4D dynamics cannot be obtained without imposing a Time Reversal invariance in the bulk. Remarkably, one of the two possible edge models selected by the Time Reversal symmetries displays a true electromagnetic duality, which relates strong and weak coupling regimes. Moreover the same model, when considered on-shell, coincides with the Maxwell theory, which therefore can be thought of as a 4D boundary theory of a seemingly harmless 5D topological model.
Towards 1/N corrections to deep inelastic scattering from the gauge/gravity duality
Jorrin, David; Kovensky, Nicolas; Schvellinger, Martin
2016-04-01
1 /N 2 corrections to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons from glueballs at strong coupling are investigated in the framework of the gauge/gravity duality. The structure functions F 1 and F 2 (and also F L ) are studied at subleading order in the 1 /N 2 expansion, in terms of q 2 and the Bjorken parameter x. The relevant type IIB supergravity one-loop diagrams (which correspond to DIS with two-hadron final states) are studied in detail, while n-loop diagrams (corresponding to DIS with ( n + 1)-hadron final states) are briefly discussed. The 1 /N 2 n and Λ2 /q 2 dependence of the structure functions is analyzed. Within this context two very different limits are considered: one is the large N limit and the other one is when the virtual photon momentum transfer q is much larger than the infrared confining scale Λ. These limits do not commute.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin
2001-01-01
reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...
Temperature duality on Riemann surface and cosmological solutions for genus g = 1 and 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Jun; Wang Shunjin
1999-01-01
A bosonic string model at finite temperature on the gravitation g μν and the dilaton φ background field is examined. Moreover, the duality relation of energy momentum tensor on high genus Riemann surface is derived. At the same time, the temperature duality invariance for the action of string gas matter is proved in 4-D Robertson-Walker metric, the string cosmological solutions and temperature duality of the equations of motion for genus g = 1 and 2 are also investigated
Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang
2012-06-28
Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2012-11-19
AdS. Crucially, the ’t Hooft coupling λ and the number of colors N of the 4D supersymmetric Yang – Mills theory were related to the AdS curvature in...mapping, the quantum field theory (QFT) is a QCD-like theory known as the N = 4 supersymmetric (SUSY) Yang – Mills theory [230]. This theory is conformal...the theory is in the plasma phase for all values of the coupling. The particle content of the N = 4 SUSY Yang – Mills theory differs from that of QCD
Duality relation between coherence and path information in the presence of quantum memory
Bu, Kaifeng; Li, Lu; Wu, Junde; Fei, Shao-Ming
2018-02-01
Wave-particle duality demonstrates a competition relation between wave and particle behavior for a particle going through an interferometer. This duality can be formulated as an inequality, which upper bounds the sum of interference visibility and path information. However, if the particle is entangled with a quantum memory, then the bound may decrease. Here, we find the duality relation between coherence and path information for a particle going through a multipath interferometer in the presence of a quantum memory, offering an upper bound on the duality relation which is directly connected with the amount of entanglement between the particle and the quantum memory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Ireson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we extend the results of previous derivations of Seiberg-like dualities (level-rank duality between gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten theories. The arguments in use to identify a potential dual for the supersymmetric WZW theory based on the coset U(N+MkU(Nk can be extended to be applied to a wider variety of gauge groups, notably USp(2N+2M2kUSp(2N2k and SO(2N+2M2kSO(2N2k, which will be dealt with briefly. Most interestingly, non-supersymmetric versions of the latter theories can also be shown to have duals in a similar fashion. These results are supported by several pieces of evidence, string phenomenological interpretations of Seiberg duality, even in non-supersymmetric backgrounds, are helpful to justify the formulation, then, from field theory, quantities such as central charges or Witten indices are shown to match exactly. The stability of these non-supersymmetric models is also discussed and shown to be consistent.
The Semiotics of Nature: Code-Duality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmeyer, Jesper
2010-01-01
A prolific science writer and journalist, as well as a working university professor and molecular biologist, Jesper Hoffmeyer was born in Copenghagen, Denmark on Februrary 21, 1942. "Born during the second world war in occupied Denmark and to a family with strong anticlerical and moderate leftist...... persuasions," recounts Hoffmeyer, "I was destined to develop a materialistic, and indeed a positivistic, understanding of our world. To fight irrationalism in all its disguises was an inherent value in my upbringing and in choosing to become a biochemist, I faithfully continued along this path. ...But over...
Duality, Gauge Symmetries, Renormalization Groups and the BKT Transition
José, Jorge V.
2017-03-01
In this chapter, I will briefly review, from my own perspective, the situation within theoretical physics at the beginning of the 1970s, and the advances that played an important role in providing a solid theoretical and experimental foundation for the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory (BKT). Over this period, it became clear that the Abelian gauge symmetry of the 2D-XY model had to be preserved to get the right phase structure of the model. In previous analyses, this symmetry was broken when using low order calculational approximations. Duality transformations at that time for two-dimensional models with compact gauge symmetries were introduced by José, Kadanoff, Nelson and Kirkpatrick (JKKN). Their goal was to analyze the phase structure and excitations of XY and related models, including symmetry breaking fields which are experimentally important. In a separate context, Migdal had earlier developed an approximate Renormalization Group (RG) algorithm to implement Wilson’s RG for lattice gauge theories. Although Migdal’s RG approach, later extended by Kadanoff, did not produce a true phase transition for the XY model, it almost did asymptotically in terms of a non-perturbative expansion in the coupling constant with an essential singularity. Using these advances, including work done on instantons (vortices), JKKN analyzed the behavior of the spin-spin correlation functions of the 2D XY-model in terms of an expansion in temperature and vortex-pair fugacity. Their analysis led to a perturbative derivation of RG equations for the XY model which are the same as those first derived by Kosterlitz for the two-dimensional Coulomb gas. JKKN’s results gave a theoretical formulation foundation and justification for BKT’s sound physical assumptions and for the validity of their calculational approximations that were, in principle, strictly valid only at very low temperatures, away from the critical TBKT temperature. The theoretical predictions were soon tested
Duality Centre - Suburbs: Origins by the Re-use of Religious Buildings
Virtudes, Ana
2017-12-01
The nationalization of religious properties; churches, convents and monasteries, signifying the decline and the end of the religious orders and a selling-off (by auction) of their properties was a universal phenomenon that took place in several countries in different times. In Portugal, this process occurred in 1834 and has contributed greatly to urban transformations. The changing of European cities in the transition to the twenty century has some aspects in common, such as is the resultant transformation of the compact urban fabric to a city with the duality between centre and suburbs, but there are others which are unique and Santarém is one such case. This uniqueness lies not in the result but in the cause of the change: this process means the re-using, transforming and rebuilding of religious spaces and their functions in order to meet new demands for the city. If on the one hand a bullfighting arena, some military buildings or even a prison were the new facilities of the suburbs, a theatre, an archaeological museum, a bank agency, a high school or a housing area for the bourgeoisie on the other hand were to become the new architecture of the city centre in the religious spaces. All the examples mentioned above were to lead to the adjustment of city limits. The city limits ceased to be identified in relation to the city-walls and the concept of a new city was formed by an internal dualism between city centre and suburbs. This process made the example of this city unique and caused a series of unique urban changes. During this peculiar socio-political process in Santarém, the new commercial bourgeoisie arose and its strong desire for land-ownership and buying-up the religious spaces. There were a large number of convents and their location was both inside and outside the city-walls. The city geography was this: it lay on a platform on top of the hill above the Tagus River and this brought in turn some unexpected beauty and quality to the urban design. The
Mapping Anomalous Currents in Supersymmetric Dualities
Abel, Steven; Komargodski, Zohar
2011-01-01
In many strongly-coupled systems, the infrared dynamics is described by different degrees of freedom from the ultraviolet. It is then natural to ask how operators written in terms of the microscopic variables are mapped to operators composed of the macroscopic ones. Certain types of operators, like conserved currents, are simple to map, and in supersymmetric theories one can also follow the chiral ring. In this note, we consider supersymmetric theories and extend the mapping to anomalous currents (and gaugino bilinears). Our technique is completely independent of subtleties associated with the renormalization group, thereby shedding new light on previous approaches to the problem. We demonstrate the UV/IR mapping in several examples with different types of dynamics, emphasizing the uniformity and simplicity of the approach. Natural applications of these ideas include the effects of soft breaking on the dynamics of various theories and new models of electroweak symmetry breaking.
Wilson loop correlators at strong coupling: from matrices to bubbling geometries
Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji; Okuda, Takuya; Trancanelli, Diego
2008-08-01
We compute at strong coupling the large N correlation functions of supersymmetric Wilson loops in large representations of the gauge group with local operators of Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. The gauge theory computation of these correlators is performed using matrix model techniques. We show that the strong coupling correlator of the Wilson loop with the stress tensor computed using the matrix model exactly matches the semiclassical computation of the correlator of the 't Hooft loop with the stress tensor, providing a non-trivial quantitative test of electric-magnetic duality of Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. We then perform these calculations using the dual bulk gravitational picture, where the Wilson loop is described by a ``bubbling'' geometry. By applying holographic methods to these backgrounds we calculate the Wilson loop correlation functions, finding perfect agreement with our gauge theory results.
Electric-magnetic duality as a secondary symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, R.A.; Young, K.
1980-01-01
In both the abelian and non-abelian classical point magnetic monopole theories, electric current conservation is a consequence of gauge invariance, but, since there is no magnetic gauge group, magnetic current conservation is not a Noether-type conservation law. In the abelian models, the equations of motion (but not the lagrangian) are invariant to the duality rotations in electric-magnetic charge space, but this is not the case in the non-abelian models. In an attempt to understand these and related points, we introduce a generalization of Noether's theorem. Consider a physical system described by a set of variables THETA and characterized by a lagrangian density L(THETA). A transormation law THETA → G THETA which leaves L invariant leads to a conserved current Jsub(μ)(THETA). We then call G a primary symmetry. A second transformation law THETA → D THETA which leaves the equations of motion, but not L, invariant then leads to another conserved current Jsub(μ)(D THETA). We then call D a secondary symmetra. Our main point is that Jsub(μ) (D THETA) may be conserved even if the equations of motion are not invariant under D. All that is required is that the change of the equations of motion under D is perpendicular (in the field space) to the change of the fields under G. Then we call D an incomplete secondary symmetry. We show that in both the abelian and non-abelian monopole theories, duality is an incomplete secondary symmetry whose associated conservation law is magnetic current conservation. Thus it is the interpretation of duality as a secondary symmetry which explains magnetic current conservation and which generalizes from the abelian theories to the non-abelian ones. This suggests that magnetic current conservation may remain valid in quantum field theory. (orig.)
On R-Duals and the Duality Principle in Gabor Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoeva, Diana T.; Christensen, Ole
2015-01-01
The concept of R-duals of a frame was introduced by Casazza, Kutyniok and Lammers in 2004, with the motivation to obtain a general version of the duality principle in Gabor analysis. For tight Gabor frames and Gabor Riesz bases the three authors were actually able to show that the duality principle...
The Bloom-Gilman duality and leading logarithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, C.E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, N.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
1994-04-01
The existing inclusive electroproduction data base allows the authors a look at the issue of the relative behaviors of background and resonance excitations, a part of the Bloom-Gilman duality. These data lack accuracy at high Q{sup 2} but establish PQCD scaling in the resonance region and even allow the authors a glimpse at the leading logarithmic corrections due to the gluon radiation and its possible quenching at large W and x. These should inspire better quality experimental tests at facilities like CEBAF II.
Supersymmetric quantum corrections and Poisson-Lie T-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assaoui, F.; Lhallabi, T.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste
2000-07-01
The quantum actions of the (4,4) supersymmetric non-linear sigma model and its dual in the Abelian case are constructed by using the background superfield method. The propagators of the quantum superfield and its dual and the gauge fixing actions of the original and dual (4,4) supersymmetric sigma models are determined. On the other hand, the BRST transformations are used to obtain the quantum dual action of the (4,4) supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model in the sense of Poisson-Lie T-duality. (author)
Topological twist in four dimensions, R-duality and hyperinstantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmi, D.; Fre, P.
1993-01-01
In this paper we continue the programme of topologically twisting N=2 theories in D=4, focusing on the coupling of vector multiplets to N=2 supergravity. We show that in the minimal case, namely when the special gometry prepotential F(X) is a quadratic polynomial, the theory has a so far unknown on-shell U(1) symmetry, that we name R-duality. R-duality is a generalization of the chiral-dual on-shell symmetry of N=2 pure supergravity and of the R-symmetry of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. Thanks to this, the theory can be topologically twisted and topologically shifted, precisely as pure N=2 supergravity, to yield a natural coupling of topological gravity to topological Yang-Mills theory. The gauge-fixing condition that emerges from the twisting is the self-duality condition on the gauge field strength and on the spin connection. Hence our theory reduces to intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons living in gravitational instanton backgrounds. We remark that, for deep properties of the parent N=2 theory, the topological Yang-Mills theory we obtain by taking the flat space limit of our gravity-coupled lagrangian is different from the Donaldson theory constructed by Witten. Whether this difference is substantial and what its geometrical implications may be is yet to be seen. We also discuss the topological twist of the hypermultiplets leading to topological quaternionic sigma-models. The instantons of these models, named by us hyperinstantons, correspond to a notion of triholomorphic mappings discussed in the paper. In all cases the new ghost number is the sum of the old ghost number plus the R-duality charge. The observables described by the theory are briefly discussed. In conclusion, the topological twist of the complete N=2 theory defines intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons plus gravitational instantons plus hyperinstantons. This is possibly a new subject for further mathematical investigation. (orig.)
N=1 field theory duality from M theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmaltz, M.; Sundrum, R.
1998-01-01
We investigate Seiberg close-quote s N=1 field theory duality for four-dimensional supersymmetric QCD with the M-theory 5-brane. We find that the M-theory configuration for the magnetic dual theory arises via a smooth deformation of the M-theory configuration for the electric theory. The creation of Dirichlet 4-branes as Neveu-Schwarz 5-branes are passed through each other in type IIA string theory is given an elegant derivation from M theory. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
A case study of an organisation development of duality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Mads R.; Gertsen, Frank
2008-01-01
This paper seeks to comprehend what the organisational circumstances (conditions) look like that induces an organisation to develop its exploitation and exploration capabilities to duality. This is done by studying changes in the organisational characteristics in a Danish manufacturer...... of accessories for house windows during the expansion leading to global operation. The study comprises 2½ years of detailed study and a retrospective study of approximately 30 years. The data collection was mainly based on semi-structured interviews. The findings add a new approach to continuous innovation...... theory by uncovering how organisational conditions affect the development and integration of exploitation and exploration capabilities....
Duality Group for Calabi-Yau 2-Moduli Space
Ceresole, A.; D'Auria, R.; Regge, T.
1993-01-01
We present an efficient method for computing the duality group $\\Gamma$ of the moduli space \\cM for strings compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold described by a two-moduli deformation of the quintic polynomial immersed in $\\CP(4)$, $\\cW={1\\over5}(\\iy_1^5+\\cdots+\\iy_5^5)-a\\,\\iy_4^3 \\iy_5^2 -b\\, \\iy_4^2 \\iy_5^3$. We show that $\\Gamma$ is given by a $3$--dimensional representation of a central extension of $B_5$, the braid group on five strands.
Duality transformations in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity
Ceresole, Anna T; Ferrara, Sergio; Van Proeyen, A; Ceresole, A; D'Auria, R; Ferrara, S; Van Proeyen, A
1995-01-01
We consider duality transformations in N=2, d=4 Yang-Mills theory coupled to N=2 supergravity. A symplectic and coordinate covariant framework is established, which allows one to discuss stringy `classical and quantum duality symmetries' (monodromies), incorporating T and S dualities. In particular, we shall be able to study theories (like N=2 heterotic strings) which are formulated in symplectic basis where a `holomorphic prepotential' F does not exist, and yet give general expressions for all relevant physical quantities. Duality transformations and symmetries for the N=1 matter coupled Yang--Mills supergravity system are also exhibited. The implications of duality symmetry on all N>2 extended supergravities are briefly mentioned. We finally give the general form of the central charge and the N=2 semiclassical spectrum of the dyonic BPS saturated states (as it comes by truncation of the N=4 spectrum).
T-duality transformation of gauged linear sigma model with F-term
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tetsuji Kimura
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We develop the duality transformation rules in two-dimensional theories in the superfield formalism. Even if the chiral superfield which we dualize involves an F-term, we can dualize it by virtue of the property of chiral superfields. We apply the duality transformation rule of the neutral chiral superfield to the N=(4,4 gauged linear sigma model for five-branes. We also investigate the duality transformation rule of the charged chiral superfield in the N=(4,4 gauged linear sigma model for the A1-type ALE space. In both cases we obtain the dual Lagrangians in the superfield formalism. In the low energy limit we find that their duality transformations are interpreted as T-duality transformations consistent with the Buscher rule.
S-duality and the prepotential in N=2⋆ theories (I): the ADE algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billó, M.; Frau, M.; Fucito, F.; Lerda, A.; Morales, J.F.
2015-01-01
The prepotential of N=2 ⋆ supersymmetric theories with unitary gauge groups in an Ω background satisfies a modular anomaly equation that can be recursively solved order by order in an expansion for small mass. By requiring that S-duality acts on the prepotential as a Fourier transform we generalise this result to N=2 ⋆ theories with gauge algebras of the D and E type and show that their prepotentials can be written in terms of quasi-modular forms of SL(2,ℤ). The results are checked against microscopic multi-instanton calculus based on localization for the A and D series and reproduce the known 1-instanton prepotential of the pure N=2 theories for any gauge group of ADE type. Our results can also be used to obtain the multi-instanton terms in the exceptional theories for which the microscopic instanton calculus and the ADHM construction are not available.
S-duality and the prepotential in N={2}^{star } theories (I): the ADE algebras
Billó, M.; Frau, M.; Fucito, F.; Lerda, A.; Morales, J. F.
2015-11-01
The prepotential of N={2}^{star } supersymmetric theories with unitary gauge groups in an Ω background satisfies a modular anomaly equation that can be recursively solved order by order in an expansion for small mass. By requiring that S-duality acts on the prepotential as a Fourier transform we generalise this result to N={2}^{star } theories with gauge algebras of the D and E type and show that their prepotentials can be written in terms of quasi-modular forms of SL(2, {Z}) . The results are checked against microscopic multi-instanton calculus based on localization for the A and D series and reproduce the known 1-instanton prepotential of the pure N=2 theories for any gauge group of ADE type. Our results can also be used to obtain the multi-instanton terms in the exceptional theories for which the microscopic instanton calculus and the ADHM construction are not available.
Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an n-dimensional local field in the sense of. Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case n = 0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.
Some Applications of Holography to Study Strongly Correlated Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhatnagar Neha
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study the transport coefficients of strongly coupled condensed matter systems using gauge/gravity duality (holography. We consider examples from the real world and evaluate the conductivities from their gravity duals. Adopting the bottom-up approach of holography, we obtain the frequency response of the conductivity for (1+1-dimensional systems. We also evaluate the DC conductivities for non-relativistic condensed matter systems with hyperscaling violating geometry.
Bukhvostov–Lipatov model and quantum-classical duality
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Vladimir V. Bazhanov
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The Bukhvostov–Lipatov model is an exactly soluble model of two interacting Dirac fermions in 1+1 dimensions. The model describes weakly interacting instantons and anti-instantons in the O(3 non-linear sigma model. In our previous work [arXiv:1607.04839] we have proposed an exact formula for the vacuum energy of the Bukhvostov–Lipatov model in terms of special solutions of the classical sinh-Gordon equation, which can be viewed as an example of a remarkable duality between integrable quantum field theories and integrable classical field theories in two dimensions. Here we present a complete derivation of this duality based on the classical inverse scattering transform method, traditional Bethe ansatz techniques and analytic theory of ordinary differential equations. In particular, we show that the Bethe ansatz equations defining the vacuum state of the quantum theory also define connection coefficients of an auxiliary linear problem for the classical sinh-Gordon equation. Moreover, we also present details of the derivation of the non-linear integral equations determining the vacuum energy and other spectral characteristics of the model in the case when the vacuum state is filled by 2-string solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations.
Bilinear covariants and spinor fields duality in quantum Clifford algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abłamowicz, Rafał, E-mail: rablamowicz@tntech.edu [Department of Mathematics, Box 5054, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Gonçalves, Icaro, E-mail: icaro.goncalves@ufabc.edu.br [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1010, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170 Santo André, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170 Santo André, SP (Brazil); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)
2014-10-15
Classification of quantum spinor fields according to quantum bilinear covariants is introduced in a context of quantum Clifford algebras on Minkowski spacetime. Once the bilinear covariants are expressed in terms of algebraic spinor fields, the duality between spinor and quantum spinor fields can be discussed. Thus, by endowing the underlying spacetime with an arbitrary bilinear form with an antisymmetric part in addition to a symmetric spacetime metric, quantum algebraic spinor fields and deformed bilinear covariants can be constructed. They are thus compared to the classical (non quantum) ones. Classes of quantum spinor fields classes are introduced and compared with Lounesto's spinor field classification. A physical interpretation of the deformed parts and the underlying Z-grading is proposed. The existence of an arbitrary bilinear form endowing the spacetime already has been explored in the literature in the context of quantum gravity [S. W. Hawking, “The unpredictability of quantum gravity,” Commun. Math. Phys. 87, 395 (1982)]. Here, it is shown further to play a prominent role in the structure of Dirac, Weyl, and Majorana spinor fields, besides the most general flagpoles and flag-dipoles. We introduce a new duality between the standard and the quantum spinor fields, by showing that when Clifford algebras over vector spaces endowed with an arbitrary bilinear form are taken into account, a mixture among the classes does occur. Consequently, novel features regarding the spinor fields can be derived.
Bukhvostov-Lipatov model and quantum-classical duality
Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Lukyanov, Sergei L.; Runov, Boris A.
2018-02-01
The Bukhvostov-Lipatov model is an exactly soluble model of two interacting Dirac fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions. The model describes weakly interacting instantons and anti-instantons in the O (3) non-linear sigma model. In our previous work [arxiv:arXiv:1607.04839] we have proposed an exact formula for the vacuum energy of the Bukhvostov-Lipatov model in terms of special solutions of the classical sinh-Gordon equation, which can be viewed as an example of a remarkable duality between integrable quantum field theories and integrable classical field theories in two dimensions. Here we present a complete derivation of this duality based on the classical inverse scattering transform method, traditional Bethe ansatz techniques and analytic theory of ordinary differential equations. In particular, we show that the Bethe ansatz equations defining the vacuum state of the quantum theory also define connection coefficients of an auxiliary linear problem for the classical sinh-Gordon equation. Moreover, we also present details of the derivation of the non-linear integral equations determining the vacuum energy and other spectral characteristics of the model in the case when the vacuum state is filled by 2-string solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations.
Heterotic String/F-theory Duality from Mirror Symmetry
Berglund, Per
1998-01-01
We use local mirror symmetry in type IIA string compactifications on Calabi-Yau n+1 folds $X_{n+1}$ to construct vector bundles on (possibly singular) elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau n-folds Z_n. The interpretation of these data as valid classical solutions of the heterotic string compactified on Z_n proves F-theory/heterotic duality at the classical level. Toric geometry is used to establish a systematic dictionary that assigns to each given toric n+1-fold $X_{n+1}$ a toric n fold Z_n together with a specific family of sheafs on it. This allows for a systematic construction of phenomenologically interesting d=4 N=1 heterotic vacua, e.g. on deformations of the tangent bundle, with grand unified and SU(3)\\times SU(2) gauge groups. As another application we find non-perturbative gauge enhancements of the heterotic string on singular Calabi-Yau manifolds and new non-perturbative dualities relating heterotic compactifications on different manifolds.
On the Octonionic Self Duality equations of 3-brane Instantons arXiv
Floratos, Emmanuel
We study the octonionic selfduality equations for $p=3$-branes in the light cone gauge and we construct explicitly, instanton solutions for spherical and toroidal topologies in various flat spacetime dimensions $(D=5+1,7+1,8+1,9+1)$, extending previous results for $p=2$ membranes. Assuming factorization of time we reduce the self-duality equations to integrable systems and we determine explicitly periodic, in Euclidean time, solutions in terms of the elliptic functions. These solutions describe 4d associative and non-associative calibrations in $D=7,8$ dimensions. It turns out that for spherical topology the calibration is non compact while for the toroidal topology is compact. We discuss possible applications of our results to the problem of 3-brane topology change and its implications for a non-perturbative definition of the 3-brane interactions.
T-duality simplifies bulk-boundary correspondence: the noncommutative case
Hannabuss, Keith C.; Mathai, Varghese; Thiang, Guo Chuan
2017-11-01
We state and prove a general result establishing that T-duality, or the Connes-Thom isomorphism, simplifies the bulk-boundary correspondence, given by a boundary map in K-theory, in the sense of converting it to a simple geometric restriction map. This settles in the affirmative several earlier conjectures of the authors and provides a clear geometric picture of the correspondence. In particular, our result holds in arbitrary spatial dimension, in both the real and complex cases, and also in the presence of disorder, magnetic fields, and H-flux. These special cases are relevant both to string theory and to the study of the quantum Hall effect and topological insulators with defects in condensed matter physics.
Penrose limits and spin chains in the GJV/CS-SYM duality
Araujo, Thiago; Itsios, Georgios; Nastase, Horatiu; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.
2017-12-01
We examine Penrose limits of the duality proposed by Guarino, Jafferis and Varela between a type IIA massive background of the type of a warped, squashed AdS 4 × S 6, and a 2+1 dimensional IR fixed point of N=8 super Yang-Mills deformed by Chern-Simons terms to N=2 supersymmetry. One type of Penrose limit for closed strings corresponds to a large charge closed spin chain, and another, for open strings on giant graviton D-branes, corresponds to an open spin chain on sub-determinant operators. For the first limit, we find that like in the ABJM case, there are functions f a ( λ) that interpolate between the perturbative and nonperturbative (string) regions for the magnon energy. For the second, we are unable to match the gravity result with the expected field theory result, making this model more interesting than ones with more supersymmetry.
The Duality of Authenticity in ELT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. John Love Joy
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to find out the dual-perspectives on authenticity in English language teaching.Problem: The concept of authenticity has generated quite a ripple in ESL/EFL classrooms. Contrasting perspectives have emerged over the years in reaction to this concept. Some regard authenticity as an inevitable part of teaching as it provides students with opportunities to interact with reality in the classroom itself, whereas, some others consider it an ambitious construct and suggest approaching it with caution.Method: In order to verify these perspectives, a survey of literature has been done to trace the genesis of authenticity and its various facets.Conclusion: As a result, we have found that a balanced outlook on authenticity is required by the teachers to promote better teaching-learning experiences.
Duality and multi-gluon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mangano, M.; Parke, S.; Xu Zhan
1988-01-01
For the six-gluon scattering process we give explicit and simple expressions for the amplitude and its square. To achieve this we use an analogy with string theories to identify a unique procedure for writing the multi-gluon scattering amplitudes in terms of a sum of gauge invariant dual sub-amplitudes multiplied by an appropriate color (Chan-Paton) factor. The sub-amplitudes defined in this way are invariant under cyclic permutations, satisfy powerful identities which relate different non-cyclic permutations and factorize in the soft gluon limit, the two-gluon collinear limit and on multi-gluon poles. Also, to leading order in the number of colors these sub-amplitudes sum incoherently in the square of the full matrix element. The results contained here are important for Monte Carlo studies of multi-jet processes at hadron colliders as well as for understanding the general structure of QCD. (orig.)
Interactions of a Stabilized Radion and Duality
Chacko, Zackaria; Stolarski, Daniel; Verhaaren, Christopher B.
2015-01-01
We determine the couplings of the graviscalar radion in Randall-Sundrum models to Standard Model fields propagating in the bulk of the space, taking into account effects arising from the dynamics of the Goldberger-Wise scalar that stabilizes the size of the extra dimension. The leading corrections to the radion couplings are shown to arise from direct contact interactions between the Goldberger-Wise scalar and the Standard Model fields. We obtain a detailed interpretation of the results in terms of the holographic dual of the radion, the dilaton. In doing so, we determine how the familiar identification of the parameters on the two sides of the AdS/CFT correspondence is modified in the presence of couplings of the bulk Standard Model fields to the Goldberger-Wise scalar. We find that corrections to the form of the dilaton couplings from effects associated with the stabilization of the extra dimension are suppressed by the square of the ratio of the dilaton mass to the Kaluza-Klein scale, in good agreement wit...
The Duality of Social Media in Tourism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Maiorescu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Today’s technologies offer many opportunities for communication and for developing the social, political and economic environments. Social media is one of the channels highly used for personal and business communication in our informational society. However, the various facets of the social media may not be employed in the same manner for the needs of the individual as they are for the needs of the businesses aiming to develop in the tourism sector. This paper aims to identify which of the social media platforms are appropriate for being used for personal purposes and which are more suitable for developing a business in tourism, amongst the users of social media. The paper bases its conclusions on a survey applied on a sample of Romanian young people (18 – 35 years old involved in tourism business environment, as according to research in the field such as Lenhart, Purcell, Smith and Zichur (2010 and Cabral (2011 this is the most active segment in social media. The findings presented in the paper result from the analysis of the survey responses and they indicate that all four types of social media platforms taken into account: social networks, blogs, micro-blogs and video file sharing platforms are used for both personal and business purposes. However, inside each of the four types of platforms surveyed there were noticed certain preferences, from the point of view of users’ interests in communication: personal purpose communication or business in tourism purpose communication.
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishii Takaaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.
A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)
2004-08-01
Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.
A duality web in 2 + 1 dimensions and condensed matter physics
Seiberg, Nathan; Senthil, T.; Wang, Chong; Witten, Edward
2016-11-01
Building on earlier work in the high energy and condensed matter communities, we present a web of dualities in 2 + 1 dimensions that generalize the known particle/vortex duality. Some of the dualities relate theories of fermions to theories of bosons. Others relate different theories of fermions. For example, the long distance behavior of the 2 + 1-dimensional analog of QED with a single Dirac fermion (a theory known as U(1)1/2) is identified with the O(2) Wilson-Fisher fixed point. The gauged version of that fixed point with a Chern-Simons coupling at level one is identified as a free Dirac fermion. The latter theory also has a dual version as a fermion interacting with some gauge fields. Assuming some of these dualities, other dualities can be derived. Our analysis resolves a number of confusing issues in the literature including how time reversal is realized in these theories. It also has many applications in condensed matter physics like the theory of topological insulators (and their gapped boundary states) and the problem of electrons in the lowest Landau level at half filling. (Our techniques also clarify some points in the fractional Hall effect and its description using flux attachment.) In addition to presenting several consistency checks, we also present plausible (but not rigorous) derivations of the dualities and relate them to 3 + 1-dimensional S-duality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shatskiy, A. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D.
2015-01-01
The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-05-15
The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations.
Chief Executive Officer Duality And Financial Performance of Firms In Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominic Ose Erah (B.Sc, M.Sc
2013-07-01
Full Text Available the work is centred on CEO Duality and Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to find out the relationship between CEO Duality and the Financial Performance of Firm. We adopted the use of secondary data from the Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact book drawn from various industries during the period 2001 – 2010 and the regression analysis with its Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUES was employed to test our hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that CEO Duality is harmful to the Financial Performance of a firm. The study proffered useful recommendations, which when implemented will help improve financial performance of firms in Nigeria.
Self-duality for the two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belitsky, V. [Instituto de Matemática e Estátistica, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1010, CEP 05508-090 São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Schütz, G. M. [Institute of Complex Systems II, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)
2015-08-15
We study a two-component asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) that is equivalent to the ASEP with second-class particles. We prove self-duality with respect to a family of duality functions which are shown to arise from the reversible measures of the process and the symmetry of the generator under the quantum algebra U{sub q}[gl{sub 3}]. We construct all invariant measures in explicit form and discuss some of their properties. We also prove a sum rule for the duality functions.
Duality in Left-Right Symmetric Seesaw Mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Frigerio, M.
2006-01-01
We consider type I+II seesaw mechanism, where the exchanges of both right-handed neutrinos and isotriplet Higgs bosons contribute to the neutrino mass. Working in the left-right symmetric framework and assuming the mass matrix of light neutrinos m ν and the Dirac-type Yukawa couplings to be known, we find the triplet Yukawa coupling matrix f, which carries the information about the masses and mixing of the right-handed neutrinos. We show that in this case there exists a duality: for any solution f, there is a dual solution f-circumflex=m ν /v L -f, where v L is the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs boson. Thus, unlike in pure type I (II) seesaw, there is no unique allowed structure for the matrix f. For n lepton generations the number of solutions is 2 n . We develop an exact analytic method of solving the seesaw nonlinear matrix equation for f
Duality-invariant class of two-dimensional field theories
Sfetsos, K
1999-01-01
We construct a new class of two-dimensional field theories with target spaces that are finite multiparameter deformations of the usual coset G/H-spaces. They arise naturally, when certain models, related by Poisson-Lie T-duality, develop a local gauge invariance at specific points of their classical moduli space. We show that canonical equivalences in this context can be formulated in loop space in terms of parafermionic-type algebras with a central extension. We find that the corresponding generating functionals are non-polynomial in the derivatives of the fields with respect to the space-like variable. After constructing models with three- and two-dimensional targets, we study renormalization group flows in this context. In the ultraviolet, in some cases, the target space of the theory reduces to a coset space or there is a fixed point where the theory becomes free.
Inflationary susceptibilities, duality and large-scale magnetic fields generation
Giovannini, Massimo
2013-01-01
We investigate what can be said about the interaction of scalar fields with Abelian gauge fields during a quasi-de Sitter phase of expansion and under the assumption that the electric and the magnetic susceptibilities do not coincide. The duality symmetry, transforming the magnetic susceptibility into the inverse of the electric susceptibility, exchanges the magnetic and electric power spectra. The mismatch between the two susceptibilities determines an effective refractive index affecting the evolution of the canonical fields. The constraints imposed by the duration of the inflationary phase and by the magnetogenesis requirements pin down the rate of variation of the susceptibilities that is consistent with the observations of the magnetic field strength over astrophysical and cosmological scales but avoids back-reaction problems. The parameter space of this magnetogenesis scenario is wider than in the case when the susceptibilities are equal, as it happens when the inflaton or some other spectator field is ...
Coupling a QFT to a TQFT and duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan
2014-01-01
We consider coupling an ordinary quantum field theory with an infinite number of degrees of freedom to a topological field theory. On ℝ d the new theory differs from the original one by the spectrum of operators. Sometimes the local operators are the same but there are different line operators, surface operators, etc. The effects of the added topological degrees of freedom are more dramatic when we compactify ℝ d , and they are crucial in the context of electric-magnetic duality. We explore several examples including Dijkgraaf-Witten theories and their generalizations both in the continuum and on the lattice. When we couple them to ordinary quantum field theories the topological degrees of freedom allow us to express certain characteristic classes of gauge fields as integrals of local densities, thus simplifying the analysis of their physical consequences
Gauge field improvement, form-scalar duality and conformal invariance
Deser, Stanley
1994-01-01
The problem of maintaining scale and conformal invariance in Maxwell and general N-form gauge theories away from their critical dimension d=2(N+1) is analyzed.We first exhibit the underlying group-theoretical clash between locality,gauge,Lorentz and conformal invariance require- ments. "Improved" traceless stress tensors are then constructed;each violates one of the above criteria.However,when d=N+2,there is a duality equivalence between N-form models and massless scalars.Here we show that conformal invariance is not lost,by constructing a quasilocal gauge invariant improved stress tensor.The correlators of the scalar theory are then reproduced including the latter's trace anomaly.
Vector and axial nucleon form factors: A duality constrained parameterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodek, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Bradford, R.; Budd, H.
2008-01-01
We present new parameterizations of vector and axial nucleon form factors. We maintain an excellent descriptions of the form factors at low momentum transfers, where the spatial structure of the nucleon is important, and use the Nachtman scaling variable ξ to relate elastic and inelastic form factors and impose quark-hadron duality constraints at high momentum transfers where the quark structure dominates. We use the new vector form factors to re-extract updated values of the axial form factor from neutrino experiments on deuterium. We obtain an updated world average value from ν μ d and pion electroproduction experiments of M A =1.014±0.014 GeV/c 2 . Our parameterizations are useful in modeling neutrino interactions at low energies (e.g. for neutrino oscillations experiments). The predictions for high momentum transfers can be tested in the next generation electron and neutrino scattering experiments. (orig.)
Fundamentals of convex analysis duality, separation, representation, and resolution
Panik, Michael J
1993-01-01
Fundamentals of Convex Analysis offers an in-depth look at some of the fundamental themes covered within an area of mathematical analysis called convex analysis. In particular, it explores the topics of duality, separation, representation, and resolution. The work is intended for students of economics, management science, engineering, and mathematics who need exposure to the mathematical foundations of matrix games, optimization, and general equilibrium analysis. It is written at the advanced undergraduate to beginning graduate level and the only formal preparation required is some familiarity with set operations and with linear algebra and matrix theory. Fundamentals of Convex Analysis is self-contained in that a brief review of the essentials of these tool areas is provided in Chapter 1. Chapter exercises are also provided. Topics covered include: convex sets and their properties; separation and support theorems; theorems of the alternative; convex cones; dual homogeneous systems; basic solutions and comple...
Duality and Spontaneously Broken Supergravity in Flat Backgrounds
Andrianopoli, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Lledó, M A
2002-01-01
It is shown that the super Higgs mechanism that occurs in a wide class of models with vanishing cosmological constant (at the classical level) is obtained by the gauging of a flat group which must be an electric subgroup of the duality group. If the residual massive gravitinos which occur in the partial supersymmetry breaking are BPS saturated, then the flat group is non abelian. This is so for all the models obtained by a Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking mechanism. If gravitinos occur in long multiplets, then the flat groups may be abelian. This is the case of supersymmetry breaking by string compactifications on an orientifold $T^6/\\Z_2$ with non trivial brane fluxes.
Duality reconstruction algorithm for use in electrical impedance tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdullah, M.Z.; Dickin, F.J.
1996-01-01
A duality reconstruction algorithm for solving the inverse problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is described. In this method, an algorithm based on the Geselowitz compensation (GC) theorem is used first to reconstruct an approximate version of the image. It is then fed as a first guessed data to the modified Newton-Raphson (MNR) algorithm which iteratively correct the image until a final acceptable solution is reached. The implementation of the GC and MNR based algorithms using the finite element method will be discussed. Reconstructed images produced by the algorithm will also be presented. Consideration is also given to the most computationally intensive aspects of the algorithm, namely the inversion of the large and sparse matrices. The methods taken to approximately compute the inverse ot those matrices will be outlined. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, Indranil; Roy, Shibaji
2002-01-01
We generalize the nonthreshold bound state in type IIB supergravity of the form (NS5-brane, D5-brane, D3-brane) constructed by the present authors [J. High Energy Phys. 02, 026 (2001)] to a nonzero asymptotic value of the axion (χ 0 ). We identify the decoupling limits corresponding to both the open D3-brane theory and open D5-brane theory for this supergravity solution as expected. However, we do not find any noncommutative Yang-Mills theory (NCYM) limit for this solution in the presence of NS5-branes. We then study the SL(2,Z) duality symmetry of type IIB theory for both open D3-brane (OD3) limit and open D5-brane (OD5) limit. We find that for OD3 theory, a generic SL(2,Z) duality always gives another OD3 theory irrespective of the value of χ 0 being rational or not. This indicates that OD3 theory is self-dual. But, under a special set of SL(2,Z) transformations for which χ 0 is rational, OD3 theory goes over to a (5+1)-dimensional NCYM theory and these two theories in this case are related to each other by strong-weak duality symmetry. On the other hand, for OD5 theory, a generic SL(2,Z) duality gives another OD5 theory if χ 0 is irrational, but when χ 0 is rational it gives the little string theory limit indicating that OD5 theory is S dual to the type IIB little string theory
Minimal Regge model for meson--baryon scattering: duality, SU(3) and phase-modified absorptive cuts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egli, S.E.
1975-10-01
A model is presented which incorporates economically all of the modifications to simple SU(3)-symmetric dual Regge pole theory which are required by existing data on 0 -1 / 2 + → -1 / 2 + processes. The basic assumptions are no-exotics duality, minimally broken SU(3) symmetry, and absorptive Regge cuts phase-modified by the Ringland prescription. First it is described qualitatively how these assumptions suffice for the description of all measured reactions, and then the results of a detailed fit to 1987 data points are presented for 18 different reactions. (auth)
The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)
2017-11-15
Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)
The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burikham, Piyabut; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.
2017-01-01
Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV -1 . We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ f . This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ f with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10 14 g cm -3 . Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ f , producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)
Vosmaer, J.
2010-01-01
In this dissertation we discuss three subjects: canonical extensions of lattice-based algebras, Stone duality for distributive lattices with operators, and a generalization of the point-free Vietoris powerlocale construction.
String duality transformations in f(R) gravity from Noether symmetry approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Gionti, Gabriele S.J. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See); Vernieri, Daniele, E-mail: capozziello@na.inf.it, E-mail: ggionti@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: vernieri@iap.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO, 98bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)
2016-01-01
We select f(R) gravity models that undergo scale factor duality transformations. As a starting point, we consider the tree-level effective gravitational action of bosonic String Theory coupled with the dilaton field. This theory inherits the Busher's duality of its parent String Theory. Using conformal transformations of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the tree-level dilaton-graviton string effective action into f(R) gravity, relating the dilaton field to the Ricci scalar curvature. Furthermore, the duality can be framed under the standard of Noether symmetries and exact cosmological solutions are derived. Using suitable changes of variables, the string-based f(R) Lagrangians are shown in cases where the duality transformation becomes a parity inversion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salabura Piotr
2017-01-01
Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.
Marginal and non-commutative deformations via non-abelian T-duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoare, Ben [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel & The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2017-02-10
In this short article we develop recent proposals to relate Yang-Baxter sigma-models and non-abelian T-duality. We demonstrate explicitly that the holographic space-times associated to both (multi-parameter)-β-deformations and non-commutative deformations of N=4 super Yang-Mills gauge theory including the RR fluxes can be obtained via the machinery of non-abelian T-duality in Type II supergravity.
S- and T-self-dualities in dilatonic f(R) theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rador, Tonguc [Bogazici University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Izmir (Turkey)
2017-12-15
We search for theories, in general spacetime dimensions, that would incorporate a dilaton and higher powers of the scalar Ricci curvature such that they have exact S- or T-self-dualities. The theories we find are free of Ostrogradsky instabilities. We also show that within the framework we are confining ourselves, a theory of the form mentioned above cannot have both T- and S-dualities except for the case where the action is linear in the scalar curvature. (orig.)
Siegmund duality with applications to the neutral Moran model conditioned on never being absorbed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huillet, Thierry
2010-01-01
We first consider the classical neutral Moran model with two alleles whose fate is either to become extinct or to reach fixation. We study an ergodic version of the Moran model obtained by conditioning it to never hit the boundaries, making use of a Doob transform. We call it the recurrent Moran model. We show that the Siegmund dual of the recurrent Moran process exists and is a substochastic birth and death chain. Conditioning this process to exit in its natural absorbing state, we construct a process with a unique absorbing state which is intertwined to the original recurrent Moran process. The time needed for the intertwined process to first hit its absorbing state is related to the time needed to reach stationarity for the recurrent Moran process. Using spectral information on the intertwined chain, we extract limiting information on this first hitting time that shows that there is no abrupt relaxation to equilibrium for the recurrent Moran chain. This makes use of the relation between duality and intertwining and strong stationary times. Other related transition times of the recurrent Moran chain are also briefly investigated, namely the first return time to the ground state and the expected time needed to move from one end to the other end of the state space.
Towards 1/N corrections to deep inelastic scattering from the gauge/gravity duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jorrin, David; Kovensky, Nicolas; Schvellinger, Martin [IFLP-CCT-La Plata, CONICET and Departamento de Física,Universidad Nacional de La Plata,Calle 49 y 115, C.C. 67 (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-04-19
1/N{sup 2} corrections to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons from glueballs at strong coupling are investigated in the framework of the gauge/gravity duality. The structure functions F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} (and also F{sub L}) are studied at subleading order in the 1/N{sup 2} expansion, in terms of q{sup 2} and the Bjorken parameter x. The relevant type IIB supergravity one-loop diagrams (which correspond to DIS with two-hadron final states) are studied in detail, while n-loop diagrams (corresponding to DIS with (n+1)-hadron final states) are briefly discussed. The 1/N{sup 2n} and Λ{sup 2}/q{sup 2} dependence of the structure functions is analyzed. Within this context two very different limits are considered: one is the large N limit and the other one is when the virtual photon momentum transfer q is much larger than the infrared confining scale Λ. These limits do not commute.
Siegmund duality with applications to the neutral Moran model conditioned on never being absorbed
Huillet, Thierry
2010-09-01
We first consider the classical neutral Moran model with two alleles whose fate is either to become extinct or to reach fixation. We study an ergodic version of the Moran model obtained by conditioning it to never hit the boundaries, making use of a Doob transform. We call it the recurrent Moran model. We show that the Siegmund dual of the recurrent Moran process exists and is a substochastic birth and death chain. Conditioning this process to exit in its natural absorbing state, we construct a process with a unique absorbing state which is intertwined to the original recurrent Moran process. The time needed for the intertwined process to first hit its absorbing state is related to the time needed to reach stationarity for the recurrent Moran process. Using spectral information on the intertwined chain, we extract limiting information on this first hitting time that shows that there is no abrupt relaxation to equilibrium for the recurrent Moran chain. This makes use of the relation between duality and intertwining and strong stationary times. Other related transition times of the recurrent Moran chain are also briefly investigated, namely the first return time to the ground state and the expected time needed to move from one end to the other end of the state space.
Testing the Distance-Duality Relation in the Rh = ct Universe
Hu, J.; Wang, F. Y.
2018-04-01
In this paper, we test the cosmic distance duality (CDD) relation using the luminosity distances from joint light-curve analysis (JLA) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sample and angular diameter distance sample from galaxy clusters. The Rh = ct and ΛCDM models are considered. In order to compare the two models, we constrain the CCD relation and the SNe Ia light-curve parameters simultaneously. Considering the effects of Hubble constant, we find that η ≡ DA(1 + z)2/DL = 1 is valid at the 2σ confidence level in both models with H0 = 67.8 ± 0.9 km/s/Mpc. However, the CDD relation is valid at 3σ confidence level with H0 = 73.45 ± 1.66 km/s/Mpc. Using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), we find that the ΛCDM model is very strongly preferred over the Rh = ct model with these data sets for the CDD relation test.
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bennett, Ed; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C.-J. David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-06-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover,our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.
Hyperunified field theory and gravitational gauge-geometry duality
Wu, Yue-Liang
2018-01-01
A hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, D_h-1). The dimension D_h of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge-gravity and gravity-geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge-geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond.
Deep Restricted Kernel Machines Using Conjugate Feature Duality.
Suykens, Johan A K
2017-08-01
The aim of this letter is to propose a theory of deep restricted kernel machines offering new foundations for deep learning with kernel machines. From the viewpoint of deep learning, it is partially related to restricted Boltzmann machines, which are characterized by visible and hidden units in a bipartite graph without hidden-to-hidden connections and deep learning extensions as deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines. From the viewpoint of kernel machines, it includes least squares support vector machines for classification and regression, kernel principal component analysis (PCA), matrix singular value decomposition, and Parzen-type models. A key element is to first characterize these kernel machines in terms of so-called conjugate feature duality, yielding a representation with visible and hidden units. It is shown how this is related to the energy form in restricted Boltzmann machines, with continuous variables in a nonprobabilistic setting. In this new framework of so-called restricted kernel machine (RKM) representations, the dual variables correspond to hidden features. Deep RKM are obtained by coupling the RKMs. The method is illustrated for deep RKM, consisting of three levels with a least squares support vector machine regression level and two kernel PCA levels. In its primal form also deep feedforward neural networks can be trained within this framework.
Hyperunified field theory and gravitational gauge-geometry duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2018-01-01
A hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, D h - 1). The dimension D h of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge-gravity and gravity-geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge-geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond. (orig.)
On KKLT/CFT and LVS/CFT dualities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alwis, Senarath de [UCB 390, Physics Department, University of Colorado,Boulder CO 80309 (United States); Gupta, Rajesh Kumar [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Valandro, Roberto [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Trieste and INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)
2015-07-08
We present a general discussion of the properties of three dimensional CFT duals to the AdS string theory vacua coming from type IIB Calabi-Yau flux compactifications. Both KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS) minima are considered. In both cases we identify the large ‘central charge’, find a separation of scales between the radius of AdS and the size of the extra dimensions and show that the dual CFT has only a limited number of operators with small conformal dimension. Differences between the two sets of duals are identified. Besides a different amount of supersymmetry (N=1 for KKLT and N=0 for LVS) we find that the LVS CFT dual has only one scalar operator with O(1) conformal dimension, corresponding to the volume modulus, whereas in KKLT the whole set of h{sup 1,1} Kähler moduli have this property. Also, the maximal number of degrees of freedom is estimated to be larger in LVS than in KKLT duals. In both cases we explicitly compute the coefficient of the logarithmic contribution to the one-loop vacuum energy which should be invariant under duality and therefore provides a non-trivial prediction for the dual CFT. This coefficient takes a particularly simple form in the KKLT case.
On KKLT/CFT and LVS/CFT dualities
de Alwis, Senarath; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Quevedo, Fernando; Valandro, Roberto
2015-07-01
We present a general discussion of the properties of three dimensional CFT duals to the AdS string theory vacua coming from type IIB Calabi-Yau flux compactifi-cations. Both KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS) minima are considered. In both cases we identify the large `central charge', find a separation of scales between the radius of AdS and the size of the extra dimensions and show that the dual CFT has only a limited number of operators with small conformal dimension. Differences between the two sets of duals are identified. Besides a different amount of supersymmetry ( for KKLT and for LVS) we find that the LVS CFT dual has only one scalar operator with O(1) conformal dimension, corresponding to the volume modulus, whereas in KKLT the whole set of h 1,1 Kähler moduli have this property. Also, the maximal number of degrees of freedom is estimated to be larger in LVS than in KKLT duals. In both cases we explic-itly compute the coefficient of the logarithmic contribution to the one-loop vacuum energy which should be invariant under duality and therefore provides a non-trivial prediction for the dual CFT. This coefficient takes a particularly simple form in the KKLT case.
Duality, Confinement and Supersymmetry in Restricted Quantum Chromodynamics (rcd)
Rana, J. M. S.
Electromagnetic duality has been utilized to study the isocolor charge-dyon interactions in Restricted Quantum Chromodynamics (RCD),in terms of current-current correlation (in magnetic gauge)using dielectric and permeability parameters of the associated vacuum. In the state of dyonic superconductivity, it has been shown that the dual propagators behave as 1/k4 (for small k2), which in analogy with superconductivity (dual superconductivity) leads to the confinement of colored fluxes associated with dyonic quarks vide generalized Meissner effect. Based on semi-quantitative analysis of vortex solutions of RCD and by calculating the masses for the massive collective modes of the condensed vacuum, the expressions for the London penetration depth, coherence length and the associated flux energy functions for the type I and type II superconducting media have been obtained. It has further been demonstrated that in the type I medium, vortices tend to coalesce and hence are attractive, while the energy function supports repulsive forces between vortices in the type II superconducting medium. The RCD has been supersymmetrized in N=1 limit and the supersymmetric dyonic solutions have been obtained. In the dyonic background gauge one-loop quantum corrections to the dyonic mass have been calculated and it has been shown that the one-loop quantum corrections lead no change in classical mass of the dyon.
Critical behavior and duality in extended Sine-Gordon theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.
1991-01-01
We study the critical properties of vectorial sine-Gordon theories based on the root system of simply-laced Lie algebras. We introduce the dual operators and study the renormalization aspects of these theories. These models are identified with vectorial Coulomb gas models of electric and magnetic charges and generalized Toda field theories. We prove that these theories are consistently renormalizable for simply-laced Lie algebras, but non-renormalizable in general in the non-simply-laced case. These models provide a description for the statistical mechanics of melting in the SU(3) case. They also provide a simplified model for strings compactified on root lattices. We compute the RG beta functions to quadratic order for general simply-laced algebras and find that in general there is a Weyl singlet, self-dual fixed point. This fixed point describes a critical theory with condensates of electric and magnetic charges corresponding to tachyonic and winding modes in string language. The different phases are related by Weyl and duality symmetry. The phase structure is conjectured in the general case, and analyzed in detail for SU(3) and SO(6). We compute Zamolodchikov's c-function to cubic order in the couplings in the general case and the conformal anomaly at the self-dual fixed point for SU(N). (orig.)
Four-dimensional unsubtraction from the loop-tree duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular,Universitat de València - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Driencourt-Mangin, Félix [Instituto de Física Corpuscular,Universitat de València - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Hernández-Pinto, Roger J. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular,Universitat de València - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 80000, Culiacán, Sinaloa (Mexico); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular,Universitat de València - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)
2016-08-29
We present a new algorithm to construct a purely four dimensional representation of higher-order perturbative corrections to physical cross-sections at next-to-leading order (NLO). The algorithm is based on the loop-tree duality (LTD), and it is implemented by introducing a suitable mapping between the external and loop momenta of the virtual scattering amplitudes, and the external momenta of the real emission corrections. In this way, the sum over degenerate infrared states is performed at integrand level and the cancellation of infrared divergences occurs locally without introducing subtraction counter-terms to deal with soft and final-state collinear singularities. The dual representation of ultraviolet counter-terms is also discussed in detail, in particular for self-energy contributions. The method is first illustrated with the scalar three-point function, before proceeding with the calculation of the physical cross-section for γ{sup ∗}→qq̄(g), and its generalisation to multi-leg processes. The extension to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) is briefly commented.
Four-dimensional unsubtraction from the loop-tree duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sborlini, Germán F.R.; Driencourt-Mangin, Félix; Hernández-Pinto, Roger J.; Rodrigo, Germán
2016-01-01
We present a new algorithm to construct a purely four dimensional representation of higher-order perturbative corrections to physical cross-sections at next-to-leading order (NLO). The algorithm is based on the loop-tree duality (LTD), and it is implemented by introducing a suitable mapping between the external and loop momenta of the virtual scattering amplitudes, and the external momenta of the real emission corrections. In this way, the sum over degenerate infrared states is performed at integrand level and the cancellation of infrared divergences occurs locally without introducing subtraction counter-terms to deal with soft and final-state collinear singularities. The dual representation of ultraviolet counter-terms is also discussed in detail, in particular for self-energy contributions. The method is first illustrated with the scalar three-point function, before proceeding with the calculation of the physical cross-section for γ ∗ →qq̄(g), and its generalisation to multi-leg processes. The extension to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) is briefly commented.
Penguins with charm and quark-hadron duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beneke, M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik E, Aachen (Germany); CERN Theory Department, Geneve (Switzerland); Buchalla, G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany); Neubert, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (THEP), Mainz (Germany); Sachrajda, C.T. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom)
2009-06-15
The integrated branching fraction of the process B{yields}X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} is dominated by resonance background from narrow charmonium states, such as B{yields}X{sub s}{psi}{yields}X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -}, which exceeds the non-resonant charm-loop contribution by two orders of magnitude. The origin of this fact is discussed in view of the general expectation of quark-hadron duality. The situation in B{yields}X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} is contrasted with charm-penguin amplitudes in two-body hadronic B decays of the type B{yields}{pi}{pi}, for which it is demonstrated that resonance effects and the potentially non-perturbative c anti c threshold region do not invalidate the standard picture of QCD factorization. This holds irrespective of whether the charm quark is treated as a light or a heavy quark. (orig.)
Duality, phase structures, and dilemmas in symmetric quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Tsutsui, Izumi
2007-01-01
Symmetric quantum games for 2-player, 2-qubit strategies are analyzed in detail by using a scheme in which all pure states in the 2-qubit Hilbert space are utilized for strategies. We consider two different types of symmetric games exemplified by the familiar games, the Battle of the Sexes (BoS) and the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). These two types of symmetric games are shown to be related by a duality map, which ensures that they share common phase structures with respect to the equilibria of the strategies. We find eight distinct phase structures possible for the symmetric games, which are determined by the classical payoff matrices from which the quantum games are defined. We also discuss the possibility of resolving the dilemmas in the classical BoS, PD, and the Stag Hunt (SH) game based on the phase structures obtained in the quantum games. It is observed that quantization cannot resolve the dilemma fully for the BoS, while it generically can for the PD and SH if appropriate correlations for the strategies of the players are provided
Farrell, Gillian; Comiskey, Catherine
2014-01-01
In Europe, an estimated 33% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the experiences of patients ineligible for or not responding to treatment. Patients attending an HIV/HCV clinic were interviewed. A qualitative design using hermeneutic interpretive phenomenology was employed. Transcripts, field notes, and a reflexive journal were analyzed to extract themes and identify commonalities, differences, and hidden meanings. In line with the duality of co-infection, duality was observed in responses. Participants described defining negative moments in their lives that resulted in developing positive health care strategies. Another dichotomy was one of loneliness and of social relationships. Finally, participants described a revival phenomenon, moving from feelings of death to looking forward to unexpected futures. Those working with co-infected patients need to be aware of how duality impacts people who are ineligible for or nonresponsive to treatment. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The SU(3)/Z3 QCD(adj) deconfinement transition via the gauge theory/"affine" XY-model duality
Anber, Mohamed M.; Collier, Scott; Poppitz, Erich
2013-01-01
Earlier, two of us and M. Ünsal [1] showed that a class of 4d gauge theories, when compactified on a small spatial circle of size L and considered at temperatures β-1 near the deconfinement transition, are dual to 2d "affine" XY-spin models. We exploit this duality to study the deconfinement phase transition in SU(3)/{{{Z}}_3} gauge theories with n f > 1 massless adjoint Weyl fermions, QCD(adj) on {{{R}}^2}× {S}_{β}^1× {S}_L^1 . The dual "affine" XY-model describes two "spins" — compact scalars taking values in the SU(3) root lattice. The spins couple via nearest-neighbor interactions and are subject to an "external field" perturbation preserving the topological {Z}_3^t and a discrete {Z}_3^{{{d_{\\upchi}}}} subgroup of the anomaly-free chiral symmetry of the 4d gauge theory. The equivalent Coulomb gas representation of the theory exhibits electric-magnetic duality, which is also a high-/low-temperature duality. A renormalization group analysis suggests — but is not convincing, due to the onset of strong coupling — that the self-dual point is a fixed point, implying a continuous deconfinement transition. Here, we study the nature of the transition via Monte Carlo simulations. The {Z}_3^t× {Z}_3^{{{d_{\\upchi}}}} order parameter, its susceptibility, the vortex density, the energy per spin, and the specific heat are measured over a range of volumes, temperatures, and "external field" strengths (in the gauge theory, these correspond to magnetic bion fugacities). The finite-size scaling of the susceptibility and specific heat we find is characteristic of a first-order transition. Furthermore, for sufficiently large but still smaller than unity bion fugacity (as can be achieved upon an increase of the {S}_L^1 size), at the critical temperature we find two distinct peaks of the energy probability distribution, indicative of a first-order transition, as has been seen in earlier simulations of the full 4d QCD(adj) theory. We end with discussions of the global
Level-rank duality of WZW theories and isomorphisms of N=2 coset models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.; Schweigert, C.
1993-07-01
Mappings between certain infinite series of WZW theories, and of N = 2 superconformal coset models are constructed. In the WZW case these mappings provide level-rank dualities for B, C and D type theories, which to some extent were known previously. The WZW level-rank dualities do not constitute isomorphisms of the theories; for example, for B and D type WZW theories, only simple current orbits rather than individual primary fields are mapped onto each other. Nevertheless these WZW dualities lead to level-rank dualities of N = 2 coset models that preserve the conformal field theory properties in such a manner that the coset models related by duality are expected to be in fact isomorphic as conformal field theories; in particular, the representation of the modular group on the characters and the ground states of the Ramond sector are shown to coincide. The construction also gives some further insight in the nature of the resolution of field identification fixed points of coset theories. (orig.)
U duality, D-branes, and black hole emission rates: Agreements and disagreements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowker, F.; Kastor, D.; Traschen, J.
1998-01-01
An expression for the spacetime absorption coefficient of a scalar field in a five-dimensional, near-extremal black hole background is derived, which has the same form as that presented by Maldacena and Strominger, but is valid over a larger, U-duality invariant region of parameter space and in general disagrees with the corresponding D-brane result. We develop an argument, based on D-brane thermodynamics, which specifies the range of parameters over which agreement should be expected. For neutral emission, the spacetime and D-brane results agree over this range. However, for charged emission, we find disagreement in the 'fat black hole' regime, in which charge is quantized in smaller units on the brane than in the bulk of spacetime. We indicate a possible problem with the D-brane model in this regime. We also use the Born approximation to study the high frequency limit of the absorption coefficient and find that it approaches unity, for large black hole backgrounds, at frequencies still below the string scale, again in disagreement with D-brane results. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Gálvez, Rafael; Schäfer, Michael; Hans, Guy; Falke, Dietmar; Steigerwald, Ilona
2013-03-01
This open-label, phase 3b study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of oral tapentadol prolonged release (PR; 50-250 mg twice daily [b.i.d.]) for managing severe, chronic low back pain in patients responding to World Health Organization (WHO) step III opioids but tolerating treatment poorly. Equianalgesic ratios for tapentadol to prior strong opioids were calculated. Patients rotated directly from prior WHO step III opioids to tapentadol. Patients received tapentadol PR (50-250 mg b.i.d.) during 5-week titration and 7-week maintenance periods. Tapentadol immediate release (IR) 50 mg (≤ twice/day, ≥ 4 h apart) was allowed (total daily dose of tapentadol PR and IR ≤ 500 mg/day). The primary endpoint was responder rate 1 at week 6 (percentage of patients with the same or less pain intensity [11-point numerical rating scale (NRS; 3-day average)] vs week -1). Responder rate 1 at week 6 (last observation carried forward [LOCF]) was 80.9% (76/94; P pain intensity and neuropathic pain symptoms were observed at weeks 6 and 12 with tapentadol PR (P comparable pain relief and improved tolerability versus prior strong opioids in patients with severe, chronic low back pain responding to WHO step III therapy. Conversion from strong opioids to tapentadol PR, with its two mechanisms of action, went smoothly considering overall effectiveness and tolerability outcomes. Equianalgesic ratios of tapentadol to oxycodone and other strong opioids were in line with other phase 3/3b studies.
van de Poll, M L; van Vugt, M J; Lenferink, A E; van Zoelen, E J
1997-06-17
Recently, it has been shown that the activation of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) by its natural ligand Spitz is inhibited by Argos [Schweitzer, R., et al. (1995) Nature 376, 699-702]. Argos and Spitz both have an EGF-like domain which in the case of Argos differs from that of Spitz and other EGF receptor agonists in that it has an extended B-loop of 20 amino acids instead of 10 amino acids which in addition contains an unusual cluster of charged residues. To investigate whether B-loop sequences are an important determinant for receptor activation and play a causal role in the antagonistic activity of Argos, three human (h)EGF mutants were constructed in which amino acids derived from the Argos B-loop were introduced. In one mutant (E3A4E/B10), replacement of four amino acids in the B-loop of hEGF (123, E24, D27, and K28) by the corresponding Argos residues neither altered the binding affinity of the growth factor for the hEGF receptor nor did it change its ability to induce a mitogenic response. Insertion of 2 additional Argos residues (E3A4E/B12) or extension of the B-loop by 10 amino acids (E3A4E/B20) resulted, however, in a significant loss of binding affinity. In spite of this, both E3A4E/B12 and E3A4E/B20 appeared to be strong agonists for the hEGF receptor with similar dose-response curves for mitogenic activity and MAPK activation as wild-type hEGF. These data show that several nonconservative substitutions in the hEGF B-loop are tolerated without affecting receptor binding or activation. Furthermore, they show that receptor binding and receptor signaling efficiency can be uncoupled which is a prerequisite for the development of receptor antagonists.
Single Image Super-Resolution Using Local Geometric Duality and Non-Local Similarity.
Ren, Chao; He, Xiaohai; Teng, Qizhi; Wu, Yuanyuan; Nguyen, Truong Q
2016-05-01
Super-resolution (SR) from a single image plays an important role in many computer vision applications. It aims to estimate a high-resolution (HR) image from an input low- resolution (LR) image. To ensure a reliable and robust estimation of the HR image, we propose a novel single image SR method that exploits both the local geometric duality (GD) and the non-local similarity of images. The main principle is to formulate these two typically existing features of images as effective priors to constrain the super-resolved results. In consideration of this principle, the robust soft-decision interpolation method is generalized as an outstanding adaptive GD (AGD)-based local prior. To adaptively design weights for the AGD prior, a local non-smoothness detection method and a directional standard-deviation-based weights selection method are proposed. After that, the AGD prior is combined with a variational-framework-based non-local prior. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is speeded up by a fast GD matrices construction method, which primarily relies on the selective pixel processing. The extensive experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with several state-of-the-art SR algorithms.
Kuan, Jeffrey
2018-03-01
A recent paper (Kuniba in Nucl Phys B 913:248-277, 2016) introduced the stochastic U}_q(A_n^{(1)})} vertex model. The stochastic S-matrix is related to the R-matrix of the quantum group {U_q(A_n^{(1)})} by a gauge transformation. We will show that a certain function {D^+_{m intertwines with the transfer matrix and its space reversal. When interpreting the transfer matrix as the transition matrix of a discrete-time totally asymmetric particle system on the one-dimensional lattice Z , the function {D^+m} becomes a Markov duality function {Dm} which only depends on q and the vertical spin parameters μ_x. By considering degenerations in the spectral parameter, the duality results also hold on a finite lattice with closed boundary conditions, and for a continuous-time degeneration. This duality function had previously appeared in a multi-species ASEP(q, j) process (Kuan in A multi-species ASEP(q, j) and q-TAZRP with stochastic duality, 2017). The proof here uses that the R-matrix intertwines with the co-product, but does not explicitly use the Yang-Baxter equation. It will also be shown that the stochastic U}_q(A_n^{(1)})} is a multi-species version of a stochastic vertex model studied in Borodin and Petrov (Higher spin six vertex model and symmetric rational functions, 2016) and Corwin and Petrov (Commun Math Phys 343:651-700, 2016). This will be done by generalizing the fusion process of Corwin and Petrov (2016) and showing that it matches the fusion of Kulish and yu (Lett Math Phys 5:393-403, 1981) up to the gauge transformation. We also show, by direct computation, that the multi-species q-Hahn Boson process (which arises at a special value of the spectral parameter) also satisfies duality with respect to D_∞, generalizing the single-species result of Corwin (Int Math Res Not 2015:5577-5603, 2015).
Heterotic-type IIA duality and degenerations of K3 surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, A.P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Rd, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Watari, T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)
2016-08-04
We study the duality between four-dimensional N=2 compactifications of heterotic and type IIA string theories. Via adiabatic fibration of the duality in six dimensions, type IIA string theory compactified on a K3-fibred Calabi-Yau threefold has a potential heterotic dual compactification. This adiabatic picture fails whenever the K3 fibre degenerates into multiple components over points in the base of the fibration. Guided by monodromy, we identify such degenerate K3 fibres as solitons generalizing the NS5-brane in heterotic string theory. The theory of degenerations of K3 surfaces can then be used to find which solitons can be present on the heterotic side. Similar to small instanton transitions, these solitons escort singular transitions between different Calabi-Yau threefolds. Starting from well-known examples of heterotic-type IIA duality, such transitions can take us to type IIA compactifications with unknown heterotic duals.
Rapid Thermalization by Baryon Injection in Gauge/Gravity Duality
Hashimoto, Koji; Oka, Takashi
2011-01-01
Using the AdS/CFT correspondence for strongly coupled gauge theories, we calculate thermalization of mesons caused by a time-dependent change of a baryon number chemical potential. On the gravity side, the thermalization corresponds to a horizon formation on the probe flavor brane in the AdS throat. Since heavy ion collisions are locally approximated by a sudden change of the baryon number chemical potential, we discuss implication of our results to RHIC and LHC experiments, to find a rough estimate of rather rapid thermalization time-scale t_{th} < 1 [fm/c]. We also discuss universality of our analysis against varying gauge theories.
Strange metals and quantum phase transitions from gauge/gravity duality
Liu, Hong
2011-03-01
Metallic materials whose thermodynamic and transport properties differ significantly from those predicted by Fermi liquid theory, so-called non-Fermi liquids, include the strange metal phase of cuprate superconductors, and heavy fermion systems near a quantum phase transition. We use gauge/gravity duality to identify a class of non-Fermi liquids. Their low-energy behavior is governed by a nontrivial infrared fixed point which exhibits non-analytic scaling behavior only in the temporal direction. Some representatives of this class have single-particle spectral functions and transport behavior similar to those of the strange metals, with conductivity inversely proportional to the temperature. Such holographic systems may also exhibit novel ``magnetic instabilities'', where the quantum critical behavior near the transition involves a nontrivial interplay between local and bulk physics, with the local physics again described by a similar infrared fixed point. The resulting quantum phase transitions do not obey the standard Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm and resemble those of the heavy fermion quantum critical points.
Resonance families and local duality relations in the meson-baryon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ino, Taketoshi
1989-01-01
The local duality relations proposed previously are applied systematically to the P 8 -B 8 scattering, where P 8 and B 8 denote the 0 - unitary octet and 1/2 + one, respectively. The system of the relations involves the harmonic-oscillator spectrum of SU(6) x O(3) L multiplets, and for a process with one exotic channel (the exotic u-channel), the relation relates the s-channel resonance family N s with the t-channel one N t in terms of residues of the scattering amplitude at s-and t-channel resonances a and b (a is an element of N s , b is an element of N t ) in the narrow-width approximation. The resonance family N s (N t ) is defined to be a set of s-(t-) channel resonances with a fixed total number N s (N t ) of quanta of harmonic-oscillator excitations. The system of the relations is powerful in predicting mass ratios and coupling ratios for resonances. It is found that predictions are consistent with available experiments. Some discussion is made on the present results and previous successes in a work where we obtained a uniquely determined π - π + →π - π + dual Born amplitude, starting with the most general Veneziano-type amplitude and restricting parameters in it by the system of the relations and an asymptotic convergence condition. (author)
Duality and conditional expectations in the Nakajima-Mori-Zwanzig formulation
Dominy, Jason M.; Venturi, Daniele
2017-08-01
We develop a new operator algebraic formulation of the Nakajima-Mori-Zwanzig (NMZ) method of projections. The new theory is built upon rigorous mathematical foundations, and it can be applied to both classical and quantum systems. We show that a duality principle between the NMZ formulation in the space of observables and in the state space can be established, analogous to the Heisenberg and Schrödinger pictures in quantum mechanics. Based on this duality we prove that under natural assumptions, the projection operators appearing in the NMZ equation must be conditional expectations. The proposed formulation is illustrated in various examples.
Some statistical aspects of the spinor field Fermi-Bose duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Simulik
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The structure of 29-dimensional extended real Clifford-Dirac algebra, which has been introduced in our paper Phys. Lett. A, 2011, Vol. 375, 2479, is considered in brief. Using this algebra, the property of Fermi-Bose duality of the Dirac equation with nonzero mass is proved. It means that Dirac equation can describe not only the fermionic but also the bosonic states. The proof of our assertion based on the examples of bosonic symmetries, solutions and conservation laws is given. Some statistical aspects of the spinor field Fermi-Bose duality are discussed.
Splitting spacetime and cloning qubits: linking no-go theorems across the ER=EPR duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, Ning [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pollack, Jason; Remmen, Grant N. [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2015-11-15
We analyze the no-cloning theorem in quantum mechanics through the lens of the proposed ER=EPR (Einstein-Rosen = Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) duality between entanglement and wormholes. In particular, we find that the no-cloning theorem is dual on the gravity side to the no-go theorem for topology change, violating the axioms of which allows for wormhole stabilization and causality violation. Such a duality between important no-go theorems elucidates the proposed connection between spacetime geometry and quantum entanglement. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Color-kinematics duality and dimensional reduction for graviton emission in Regge limit
Johansson, Henrik; Campillo, Eduardo Serna; Vazquez-Mozo, Miguel A
2013-01-01
In this talk we review the work in [1,2,3] where we have studied the applicability of the color-kinematics duality to the scattering of two distinguishable scalar matter particles with one gluon emission in QCD, or one graviton emission in Einstein gravity. We have shown that the duality works well in the Regge limit under two different extensions of the gauge theory: the introduction of a new scalar contact interaction and the relaxation of the distinguishability of the scalars. Both modifications correspond to theories obtained by dimensional reduction from higher-dimensional pure gauge theories.
The connexion of duality and causal properties for generalized free fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garber, W.D.
1975-01-01
It is shown that the time-slice axiom and the diamond property are equivalent for the generalized free field. If, in addition, there is a mass gap, duality is equivalent to either causality requirement. It is further shown that the local rings associated with certain space-time regions are factors in the case of causal generalized free fields with mass gap. Necessary and sufficient conditions for causality and duality and some examples for causal and acausal generalized free fields are also given. (orig.) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.
2016-01-01
One-dimensional multi-component Fermi or Bose systems with strong zero-range interactions can be described in terms of local exchange coefficients and mapping the problem into a spin model is thus possible. For arbitrary external confining potentials the local exchanges are given by highly non...... to the computational complexity of the high-dimensional integrals involved. An approach using the local density approximation would therefore be a most welcome approximation due to its simplicity. Here we assess the accuracy of the local density approximation by going beyond the simple harmonic oscillator that has...... been the focus of previous studies and consider some double-wells of current experimental interest. We find that the local density approximation works quite well as long as the potentials resemble harmonic wells but break down for larger barriers. In order to explore the consequences of applying...
String/flux tube duality on the light cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brower, Richard C.; Tan, C.-I; Thorn, Charles B.
2006-01-01
The equivalence of quantum field theory and string theory as exemplified by the AdS/CFT correspondence is explored from the point of view of light cone quantization. On the string side we discuss the light cone version of the static string connecting a heavy external quark source to a heavy external antiquark source, together with small oscillations about the static string configuration. On the field theory side we analyze the weak/strong coupling transition in a ladder diagram model of the quark-antiquark system, also from the point of view of the light cone. Our results are completely consistent with those obtained by more standard covariant methods in the limit of infinitely massive quarks
On the Classical String Solutions and String/Field Theory Duality
Aleksandrova, D.; Bozhilov, P.
2003-01-01
We classify almost all classical string configurations, considered in the framework of the semi-classical limit of the string/gauge theory duality. Then, we describe a procedure for obtaining the conserved quantities and the exact classical string solutions in general string theory backgrounds, when the string embedding coordinates depend non-linearly on the worldsheet time parameter.
Tension Awareness of Stakeholders in Large Technology Projects : A Duality Perspective
Boonstra, Albert; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; Vos, Janita F.J.
2017-01-01
This article analyzes the tensions evolving from project management dilemmas and how they relate to stakeholders in large technology projects. The study addresses an organization-wide electronic health record implementation in a large hospital. It adopts a duality lens in exploring whether and how
Duality walls and defects in 5dN=1 theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kim, Hee-Cheol
2017-01-01
We propose an explicit description of “duality walls” which encode at low energy the global symmetry enhancement expected in the UV completion of certain five-dimensional gauge theories. The proposal is supported by explicit localization computations and implies that the instanton partition function of these theories satisfies novel and unexpected integral equations.
Color-kinematics duality and double-copy construction for amplitudes from higher-dimension operators
Broedel, Johannes; Dixon, Lance J.
2012-10-01
We investigate color-kinematics duality for gauge-theory amplitudes produced by the pure nonabelian Yang-Mills action deformed by higher-dimension operators. For the operator denoted by F 3, the product of three field strengths, the existence of color-kinematic dual representations follows from string-theory monodromy relations. We provide explicit dual representations, and show how the double-copy construction of gravity amplitudes based on them is consistent with the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations. It leads to the amplitudes produced by Einstein gravity coupled to a dilaton field ϕ, and deformed by operators of the form ϕR 2 and R 3. For operators with higher dimensions than F 3, such as F 4-type operators appearing at the next order in the low-energy expansion of bosonic and superstring theory, the situation is more complex. The color structure of some of the F 4 operators is incompatible with a simple color-kinematics duality based on structure constants f abc, but even the color-compatible F 4 operators do not admit the duality. In contrast, the next term in the α' expansion of the superstring effective action — a particular linear combination of D 2 F 4 and F 5-type operators — does admit the duality, at least for amplitudes with up to six external gluons.
Six-dimensional origin of N=4 SYM with duality defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assel, Benjamin [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Mathematics, King’s College, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, King’s College, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2016-12-14
We study the topologically twisted compactification of the 6d (2,0) M5-brane theory on an elliptically fibered Kähler three-fold preserving two supercharges. We show that upon reducing on the elliptic fiber, the 4d theory is N=4 Super-Yang Mills, with varying complexified coupling τ, in the presence of defects. For abelian gauge group this agrees with the so-called duality twisted theory, and we determine a non-abelian generalization to U(N). When the elliptic fibration is singular, the 4d theory contains 3d walls (along the branch-cuts of τ) and 2d surface defects, around which the 4d theory undergoes SL(2,ℤ) duality transformations. Such duality defects carry chiral fields, which from the 6d point of view arise as modes of the two-form B in the tensor multiplet. Each duality defect has a flavor symmetry associated to it, which is encoded in the structure of the singular elliptic fiber above the defect. Generically 2d surface defects will intersect in points in 4d, where there is an enhanced flavor symmetry. The 6d point of view provides a complete characterization of this 4d-3d-2d-0d ‘Matroshka’-defect configuration.
Six-dimensional origin of N = 4 SYM with duality defects
Assel, Benjamin; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura
2016-12-01
We study the topologically twisted compactification of the 6d (2, 0) M5-brane theory on an elliptically fibered Kähler three-fold preserving two supercharges. We show that upon reducing on the elliptic fiber, the 4d theory is N = 4 Super-Yang Mills, with varying complexified coupling τ , in the presence of defects. For abelian gauge group this agrees with the so-called duality twisted theory, and we determine a non-abelian generalization to U( N). When the elliptic fibration is singular, the 4d theory contains 3d walls (along the branch-cuts of τ ) and 2d surface defects, around which the 4d theory undergoes SL(2,Z) duality transformations. Such duality defects carry chiral fields, which from the 6d point of view arise as modes of the two-form B in the tensor multiplet. Each duality defect has a flavor symmetry associated to it, which is encoded in the structure of the singular elliptic fiber above the defect. Generically 2d surface defects will intersect in points in 4d, where there is an enhanced flavor symmetry. The 6d point of view provides a complete characterization of this 4d-3d-2d-0d `Matroshka'-defect configuration.
How to Teach Hicksian Compensation and Duality Using a Spreadsheet Optimizer
Ghosh, Satyajit; Ghosh, Sarah
2007-01-01
Principle of duality and numerical calculation of income and substitution effects under Hicksian Compensation are often left out of intermediate microeconomics courses because they require a rigorous calculus based analysis. But these topics are critically important for understanding consumer behavior. In this paper we use excel solver--a…
Duality walls and defects in 5dN=1 theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kim, Hee-Cheol [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2017-01-05
We propose an explicit description of “duality walls” which encode at low energy the global symmetry enhancement expected in the UV completion of certain five-dimensional gauge theories. The proposal is supported by explicit localization computations and implies that the instanton partition function of these theories satisfies novel and unexpected integral equations.
Ayene, Mengesha; Kriek, Jeanne; Damtie, Baylie
2011-01-01
Quantum mechanics is often thought to be a difficult subject to understand, not only in the complexity of its mathematics but also in its conceptual foundation. In this paper we emphasize students' depictions of the uncertainty principle and wave-particle duality of quantum events, phenomena that could serve as a foundation in building an…
Symmetry and Degeneracy in Quantum Mechanics. Self-Duality in Finite Spin Systems
Osacar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.
2009-01-01
The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 "Rev. Mod. Phys. 52" 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their…
Las dualidades de la educación The dualities of education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Fernando Sellés
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Este trabajo sostiene que el método de estudio de la educación humana no puede suponer que el hombre sea simple, puesto que está conformado por pluralidad de dualidades. Encuadra la educación dentro de las dualidades radicales humanas. Primero, distingue entre acto de ser y esencia en el hombre. Tras mostrar las dualidades del acto de ser humano (las trascendentales y las de la esencia, se centra en la exposición de las dualidades educación-amor personal, educación-familia, las de varón-mujer, las de educación masculina-educación femenina, las de padres-hijos y la consecuente dualidad educativa paterno-filial, la dualidad hogar-colegio, la de educar-aprender, las de empresa-universidad, y por último, la de educación personal humana-educación personal divina.This paper claims that the study method of human education cannot not assume that man is a single entity, as man is composed by multiple dualities. Education is framed within radical human realities. First, a distinction is made between act of being and essence. After showing the dualities of the act of being human (or transcendental dualities and those of essence, the paper highlights the dualities: education-personal love, education-family, male-female, masculine education-feminine education, parents-children and the consequent dualities: paternal-filial, home-school, educate-learn, enterprise-university and finally human personal education-divine personal education.
Isenberg, James
2017-01-01
The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.
A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2014-01-01
We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Duality of circulation decay statistics and survival probability
2010-09-01
Survival probability and circulation decay history have both been used for setting wake turbulence separation standards. Conceptually a strong correlation should exist between these two characterizations of the vortex behavior, however, the literatur...
Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio
2018-03-01
Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Xumin; Young, Clifford
simple procedures. Methods Tryptic digests of standard phosphoproteins (bovine α,β- casein) and 3 non-phosphoproteins (bovine serum albumin, bovine β-lactoglobulin, and bovine carbonic anhydrase) with different ratios (1:50, 1:200, 1:500, 1:1000) were used for Fe(III)-IMAC (Qiagen Ni-NTA) enrichment....... Results Fe(III)-IMAC using NTA-silica from Qiagen showed a better performance than two other commercially available resins under the testing conditions. Increase of the acetonitrile content to 60% in loading and washing buffer significantly improved the specificity of IMAC enrichment. It was demonstrated...
Vosselman, E.G.J.
2016-01-01
This article challenges the performativity of organizational economics in the construction of “nexus-of-contract” organizations (or market bureaucracies) and inherent frames of instrumental accountability in the public sector. It argues for a duality between instrumental accountability and
Vosselman, E.G.J.
2016-01-01
This article challenges the performativity of organizational economics in the construction of “nexus-of-contract” organizations (or market bureaucracies) and inherent frames of instrumental accountability in the public sector. It argues for a duality between instrumental accountability and
Some recent results on strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diebold, R.
1978-01-01
A preview of a rapporteur talk is given on the three active fields of high energy hadron reactions with high multiplicity, charm searches and related topics, and ultrahigh energy events and exotic phenomena of cosmic radiation. 53 references
Avilés, L.; Canfora, F.; Dimakis, N.; Hidalgo, D.
2017-12-01
We construct the first analytic examples of topologically nontrivial solutions of the (3 +1 )-dimensional U (1 ) gauged Skyrme model within a finite box in (3 +1 )-dimensional flat space-time. There are two types of gauged solitons. The first type corresponds to gauged Skyrmions living within a finite volume. The second corresponds to gauged time crystals (smooth solutions of the U (1 ) gauged Skyrme model whose periodic time dependence is protected by a winding number). The notion of electromagnetic duality can be extended for these two types of configurations in the sense that the electric and one of the magnetic components can be interchanged. These analytic solutions show very explicitly the Callan-Witten mechanism (according to which magnetic monopoles may "swallow" part of the topological charge of the Skyrmion) since the electromagnetic field contributes directly to the conserved topological charge of the gauged Skyrmions. As it happens in superconductors, the magnetic field is suppressed in the core of the gauged Skyrmions. On the other hand, the electric field is strongly suppresed in the core of gauged time crystals.
Duality symmetry of N=4 Yang-Mills theory on T3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacquebord, F.; Verlinde, H.
1997-01-01
We study the spectrum of BPS states in N=4 supersymmetric U(N) Yang-Mills theory. This theory has been proposed to describe M-theory on T 3 in the discrete light-cone formalism. We find that the degeneracy of irreducible BPS bound states in this model exhibits a (partially hidden) SL(5,Z) duality symmetry. Besides the electro-magnetic symmetry, this duality group also contains Nahm-like transformations that interchange the rank N of the gauge group with some of the magnetic or electric fluxes. In the M-theory interpretation, this mapping amounts to a reflection that interchanges the longitudinal direction with one of the transverse directions. (orig.)
Matching conditions and duality in N=1 SUSY gauge theories in the conformal window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogan, I.I.; Shifman, M.; Vainshtein, A.
1996-01-01
We discuss duality in N=1 SUSY gauge theories in Seiberg close-quote s conformal window, 3N c /2 f c . The close-quote t Hooft consistency conditions, the basic tool for establishing the infrared duality, are considered taking into account higher order α corrections. The conserved (anomaly-free) R current is built to all orders in α. Although this current contains all orders in α the close-quote t Hooft consistency conditions for this current are shown to be one loop. This observation thus justifies Seiberg close-quote s matching procedure. We also briefly discuss the inequivalence of the open-quote open-quote electric close-quote close-quote and open-quote open-quote magnetic close-quote close-quote theories at short distances. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
3+1D Massless Weyl Spinors from Bosonic Scalar-Tensor Duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Amoretti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the fermionization of a bosonic-free theory characterized by the 3+1D scalar-tensor duality. This duality can be interpreted as the dimensional reduction, via a planar boundary, of the 4+1D topological BF theory. In this model, adopting the Sommerfield tomographic representation of quantized bosonic fields, we explicitly build a fermionic operator and its associated Klein factor such that it satisfies the correct anticommutation relations. Interestingly, we demonstrate that this operator satisfies the massless Dirac equation and that it can be identified with a 3+1D Weyl spinor. Finally, as an explicit example, we write the integrated charge density in terms of the tomographic transformed bosonic degrees of freedom.
Large N topologically twisted index: necklace quivers, dualities, and Sasaki-Einstein spaces
Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Mekareeya, Noppadol
2016-08-01
In this paper, we calculate the topological free energy for a number of {N} ≥ 2 Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons-matter theories at large N and fixed Chern-Simons levels. The topological free energy is defined as the logarithm of the partition function of the theory on S 2 × S 1 with a topological A-twist along S 2 and can be reduced to a matrix integral by exploiting the localization technique. The theories of our interest are dual to a variety of Calabi-Yau four-fold singularities, including a product of two asymptotically locally Euclidean singularities and the cone over various well-known homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds, N 0,1,0, V 5,2, and Q 1,1,1. We check that the large N topological free energy can be matched for theories which are related by dualities, including mirror symmetry and SL(2,{Z}) duality.
THE DUALITY OF CREATIVITY AND TECHNOLOGY IN IS AND ISD ORGANIZATIONS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Ulrich, Frank
2014-01-01
Information Systems (IS) has become an increasing necessity in most organizations to achieve competitive advantages. In this article, we address the use of IS in creative sensemaking processes by presenting the notion of ergodic connections in the sensemaking process and a framework...... new and novel technology ideas to be either rejected, multiplied, or reach an equilibrium state, where the duality of technology plays a major role in ideas reaching the equilibrium state. Furthermore, we investigated the implications of Creativity Support Systems (CSS) in the context of IS and ISD...... organizations and the sensemaking process. To conduct the research of CSS, we deployed Orlikowski's (1992) duality of technology to demonstrate how CSS can support the creative sensemaking process. In addition, we conducted a survey of 31 IS mangers and business developers in 27 IS and ISD organizations...
On Generalized Self-Duality Equations Towards Supersymmetric Quantum Field Theories Of Forms
Baulieu, L; Baulieu, Laurent; Laroche, Celine
1998-01-01
We classify possible `self-duality' equations for p-form gauge fields in space-time dimension up to D=16, generalizing the pioneering work of Corrigan et al. (1982) on Yang-Mills fields (p=1) for D from 5 to 8. We impose two crucial requirements. First, there should exist a 2(p+1)-form T invariant under a sub-group H of SO(D). Second, the representation for the SO(D) curvature of the gauge field must decompose under H in a relevant way. When these criteria are fulfilled, the `self-duality' equations can be candidates as gauge functions for SO(D)-covariant and H-invariant topological quantum field theories. Intriguing possibilities occur for dimensions greater than 9, for various p-form gauge fields.
Statistical Entropy of Nonextremal Four-Dimensional Black Holes and U-Duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Lowe, D.A.; Maldacena, J.M.
1996-01-01
We identify the states in string theory which are responsible for the entropy of near-extremal rotating four-dimensional black holes in N=8 supergravity. For black holes far from extremality (with no rotation), the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is exactly matched by a mysterious duality invariant extension of the formulas derived for near-extremal black holes states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
On electromagnetic duality in locally supersymmetric N = 2 Yang-Mills theory
Ceresole, Anna; Ferrara, S.; Van Proeyen, Antoine; Ceresole, A; D'Auria, R; Ferrara, S; Van Proeyen, A
1995-01-01
We consider duality transformations in N=2 Yang--Mills theory coupled to N=2 supergravity, in a manifestly symplectic and coordinate covariant setting. We give the essential of the geometrical framework which allows one to discuss stringy classical and quantum monodromies, the form of the spectrum of BPS saturated states and the Picard--Fuchs identities encoded in the special geometry of N=2 supergravity theories.
Duality of thermal regimes is the distinctive characteristic of plate tectonics since the Neoarchean
Brown, Michael
2006-11-01
Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite metamorphism is documented predominantly in the Neoarchean to Cambrian rock record, but UHT granulite metamorphism also may be inferred at depth in Cenozoic orogenic systems. The first occurrence of UHT granulite metamorphism in the record signifies a change in geodynamics that generated transient sites of very high heat flow. Many UHT granulite metamorphic belts may have developed in settings analogous to modern continental backarcs; on a warmer Earth, destruction of oceans floored by thinner lithosphere may have generated hotter backarcs than those associated with the modern Pacific ring of fire. Medium-temperature eclogite high- pressure (EHP) granulite metamorphism is documented in the Neoarchean rock record and at intervals throughout the Proterozoic and Paleozoic record. EHP granulite metamorphic belts are complementary to UHT granulite metamorphic belts in that they are generally inferred to record subduction-to-collision orogenesis. Blueschists become evident in the Neoproterozoic rock record, but lawsonite blueschist eclogite metamorphism (high pressure [HP]) and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHP) characterized by coesite or diamond are predominantly Phanerozoic phenomena. HP-UHP metamorphism registers the low thermal gradients and deep subduction of continental crust during the early stage of subduction-to-collision orogenesis. A duality of metamorphic belts—reflecting a duality of thermal regimes—appears in the record only since the Neoarchean Era. A duality of thermal regimes is the hallmark of modern plate tectonics, and the duality of metamorphic belts is the characteristic imprint of plate tectonics in the rock record. The occurrence of both UHT and EHP granulite metamorphism since the Neoarchean marks the onset of a “Proterozoic plate tectonics” regime, which evolved during a Neoproterozoic transition to the modern plate tectonics regime, characterized by colder subduction as chronicled by HP
Jordan Pairs, E6 and U-Duality in Five Dimensions
Ferrara, Sergio; Zumino, Bruno
2013-01-01
By exploiting the Jordan pair structure of U-duality Lie algebras in D = 3 and the relation to the super-Ehlers symmetry in D = 5, we elucidate the massless multiplet structure of the spectrum of a broad class of D = 5 supergravity theories. Both simple and semi-simple, Euclidean rank-3 Jordan algebras are considered. Theories sharing the same bosonic sector but with different supersymmetrizations are also analyzed.
The duality in using information and communication technology in elder care.
Sävenstedt, Stefan; Sandman, P O; Zingmark, Karin
2006-10-01
The aim of this paper is to report a study illuminating values and perceptions held by professional carers of older people about the use of information and communication technology applications. Various information and communication technology applications have successfully been developed to help solve a variety of problems in elder care. Beside different technical barriers and the assumed negative attitudes among older people, staff values and attitudes have been found to be an important cause of resistance to change and slowness in introduction of information and communication technology in health care of older people. An interview study was conducted in 2004 with 10 healthcare personnel with 3-26 years experience of working in home care and nursing homes in Northern Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify recurring themes in the data. The interpretation of values and perceptions among carers revealed a duality where the carers perceived information and communication technology as a promoter of both inhumane and humane care, a duality that seemed to make them defensive and resistant to change. Within the overall duality, other dualities were embedded that described both perceptions about the care of older people and about being a carer. There was evidence of resistance among professional carers towards an introduction of information and communication technology applications in elder care. Carers considered that the same attributes of information and communication technology that could promote humane care could also lead to dehumanized care. There should be an ethical discussion when introducing information and communication technology applications in elder care. The best caring alternative for all those concerned should be considered. It should promote aspects of wellbeing and dignity for frail older people and fears of inhumane care among carers must be recognized and discussed.
(4,0) supersymmetric sigma-model and t-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lhallabi, T.
1997-08-01
The conserved supercurrents J ++ and J -- are deduced for the (4,0) supersymmetric sigma model on harmonic superspace with arbitrary background gauge connection. These are introduced in the Lagrangian density of the model by their couplings to the analytic gauge superfields Γ -- and Γ ++ . The T-duality transformations are obtained by integrating out the analytic gauge superfields. Finally the (4,0) supersymmetric anomaly is derived. (author). 20 refs
Properties of an associative algebra of tensor fields. Duality and Dirac identities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salingaros, N.; Dresden, M.
1979-01-01
An algebra of forms in Minkowski space has been constructed. A multiplication between forms is defined as an extension of the quaternionic multiplications. The algebra obtained is associative with respect to this multiplication of order 16. Duality is expressed as (new) multiplication by a basis element. Vector identities in the algebra lead to a number of new trace identities. A new derivative operator expresses the four Maxwell equations in an especially transparent form
Duality and the geometric measure of entanglement of general multiqubit W states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamaryan, Sayatnova; Sudbery, Anthony; Tamaryan, Levon
2010-01-01
We find the nearest product states for arbitrary generalized W states of n qubits, and show that the nearest product state is essentially unique if the W state is highly entangled. It is specified by a unit vector in Euclidean n-dimensional space. We use this duality between unit vectors and highly entangled W states to find the geometric measure of entanglement of such states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ionescu, G
1998-12-04
Echographic imaging could potentially play a major role in the field of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS). For doctors and surgeons to make full use of tool in planning and executing surgical operations, they also need user-friendly automatic software based on fast, precise and reliable algorithms. The main goal of this thesis is to take advantage of the segmentation/registration duality to extract the relevant information from echo graphical images. This information will allow the precise and automatic registration both of anatomical structures contained in the pre-operative model and of per-operative data contained in echographic images. The result of registration will be further to guide a computer-assisted tool. In the first part we propose different methods for filtering, segmentation and calibration of echographic images. The development of fast, precise and reliable algorithms is emphasized. The second part concerns the segmentation-registration duality and the corrections of elastic deformations of soft tissues. High-level segmentation algorithms for echographic images were developed. They are based on results of low -level segmentation, a priori anatomical knowledge as well as on information provided by the pre-operative model. The third part deals with detailed descriptions of applications and interpretation of results. The cases studied include: screwing inside the vertebral pedicles, ilio-sacral screwing, prostatic radiotherapy and puncture of pericardial effusion. Future developments for this approach are discussed. (author)
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
Applications of quark-hadron duality in F2 structure function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malace, S P
2009-09-01
Inclusive electron-proton and electron-deuteron inelastic cross sections have been measured at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in the resonance region, at large Bjorken x, up to 0.92, and four-momentum transfer squared Q2 up to 7.5 GeV2 in the experiment E00-116. These measurements are used to extend to larger x and Q2 precision, quantitative, studies of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality. Our analysis confirms, both globally and locally, the apparent violation of quark-hadron duality previously observed at a Q2 of 3.5 GeV2 when resonance data are compared to structure function data created from CTEQ6M and MRST2004 parton distribution functions (PDFs). More importantly, our new data show that this discrepancy saturates by Q2 ~ 4 Gev2, becoming Q2 independent. This suggests only small violations of Q2 evolution by contributions from the higher-twist terms in the resonance region which is confirmed by our comparisons to ALEKHIN and ALLM97.We conclude that the unconstrained strength of the CTEQ6M and MRST2004 PDFs at large x is the major source of the disagreement between data and these parameterizations in the kinematic regime we study and that, in view of quark-hadron duality, properly averaged resonance region data could be used in global QCD fits to reduce PDF uncertainties at large x.
Gauge/gravity duality. From quantum phase transitions towards out-of-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngo Thanh, Hai
2011-05-02
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled field theories. Of special interest are quantum phase transitions, quantum critical points, transport phenomena of charges and the thermalization process of strongly coupled medium. The systems studied in this thesis might be used as models for describing condensed matter physics in a superfluid phase near the quantum critical point and the physics of quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a deconfinement phase of QCD, which has been recently created at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Moreover, we follow the line of considering different gravity setups whose dual field descriptions show interesting phenomena of systems in thermal equilibrium, slightly out-of-equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium. We first focus on systems in equilibrium and construct holographic superfluids at finite baryon and isospin charge densities. For that we use two different approaches, the bottom-up with an U(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with back-reaction and the top-down approach with a D3/D7 brane setup with two coincident D7-brane probes. In both cases we observe phase transitions from a normal to a superfluid phase at finite and also at zero temperature. In our setup, the gravity duals of superfluids are Anti-de Sitter black holes which develop vector-hair. Studying the order of phase transitions at zero temperature, in the D3/D7 brane setup we always find a second order phase transition, while in the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, depending on the strength of the back-reaction, we obtain a continuous or first order transition. We then move to systems which are slightly out-of-equilibrium. Using the D3/D7 brane setup with N{sub c} coincident D3-branes and N{sub f} coincident D7-brane probes, we compute transport coefficients associated with massive N=2 supersymmetric hypermultiplet fields propagating through an N=4 SU(N{sub c}) super Yang-Mills plasma in the limit of N{sub f}<
Training dual tasks together or apart in Parkinson's disease: Results from the DUALITY trial
Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.L.M.; Munks, L.; Keus, S.H.; Zijlmans, J.C.; Vandenberghe, W.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many controversies surround the usefulness of dual-task training in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study (1) compared the efficacy of two different dual-task training programs for improving dual-task gait and (2) assessed the possible fall risk of such training. METHODS:
Plasmons in strong superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chin Sok Fun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Do financial restatements dampen firm performance? One argument about this is that restatements hurt investor confidence in the credibility of a firm’s disclosure, resulting in a decline in demand for the firm’s securities, thereby, leading to a significant drop in asset price. On the other hand, agency theory suggests that family ownership could have potential benefits to a firm’s performance. An increase in family ownership will have a greater concern for reputation to the controlling family in producing high quality accounting information and, thereby, reduce the likelihood of financial restatements. We evaluate these arguments by distinguishing the effects of restatements on firm performance under two corporate governance environments; family-controlled and CEO duality companies. Based on a sample of Malaysian listed companies in 2008 after the post MCCG 2007 initiative, our findings suggest that (1 restatements dampen firm performance, (2 the dampening impacts of restatements are completely mitigated in family-controlled companies, and (3 the dampening effects are more pronounced in non-family controlled companies than family-controlled companies in non-CEO duality companies. Using this evidence, we recommend that Malaysian regulators develop policies that are unique to the Malaysian markets so as to curtail accounting irregularities. They should reconsider the relevance of requiring CEO nonduality as a practice of good corporate governance and encourage more investment in family-controlled companies.
Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ammon, Martin Matthias
2010-07-07
DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further
Integrable deformations of affine Toda theories and duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fateev, V.A.
1996-01-01
We introduce and study five series of one-parameter families of two-dimensional integrable quantum field theories. These theories have a Lagrangian description in terms of the massive Thirring model coupled with non-simply laced affine Toda theories. Perturbative calculations, analysis of the factorized scattering theory and the Bethe ansatz technique are used to show that these field theories possess the dual representation available for the perturbative analysis in the strong coupling limit. The dual theory can be formulated as the non-linear sigma model with Witten's Euclidean black hole metric (complex sinh-Gordon theory) coupled with non-simply laced affine Toda theories. Lie algebras associated with these ''dual'' Toda theories belong to the dual series of affine algebras but have a smaller rank. The exact relation between coupling constants in the dual theories is conjectured. (orig.)
Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
(2 + 1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry, duality and projective phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Pedro D.; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2007-01-01
A particle system with a (2 + 1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry is constructed by the method of nonlinear realization. It has three essentially different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The subcritical and supercritical phases (describing 2D isotropic ordinary and exotic oscillators) are separated by the critical phase (one-mode oscillator), and are related by a duality transformation. In the flat limit, the system transforms into a free Galilean exotic particle on the noncommutative plane. The wave equations carrying projective representations of the exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry are constructed
Duality-Free Decomposition Based Data-Driven Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Tao; Yang, Qingrun; Huang, Can
2018-01-01
To incorporate the superiority of both stochastic and robust approaches, a data-driven stochastic optimization is employed to solve the security-constrained unit commitment model. This approach makes the most use of the historical data to generate a set of possible probability distributions...... for wind power outputs and then it optimizes the unit commitment under the worst-case probability distribution. However, this model suffers from huge computational burden, as a large number of scenarios are considered. To tackle this issue, a duality-free decomposition method is proposed in this paper...
Duality-Based Nonlinear Quadratic Control: Application to Mobile Robot Trajectory-Following
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arnesto, L.; Girbés, V.; Sala, A.; Zima, M.; Šmídl, Václav
2015-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 1494-1504 ISSN 1063-6536 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0437 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0094 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : trajectory planning * duality of estimation and control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.818, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/smidl-0445192.pdf
Duality predictions for the production of heavy quark systems in QCD
Glück, M
1978-01-01
Using partonic semi-local duality ideas combined with QCD the authors derive absolute, parameter-free predictions for the cross sections of heavy quarkonia (J/ psi , psi ', Upsilon , Upsilon ', ...) production in purely hadronic collisions as well as in photoproduction processes. They also discuss 'open' charm (DD) production and show how the CERN SPS beam dump measurements at square root S=27.4 GeV can be naturally reconciled with the predictions of QCD; similarly the recent ISR data are in good agreement with QCD. (23 refs).
Some Pathways in non-Linear Supersymmetry: Special Geometry Born-Infeld's, Cosmology and dualities
Ferrara, S.
2015-01-01
This review is devoted to some aspects of non-linear Supersymmetry in four dimensions that can be efficiently described via nilpotent superfields, in both rigid and curved Superspace. Our focus is mainly on the partial breaking of rigid $N=2$ Supersymmetry and on a class of generalized Born-Infeld systems that originate from Special Geometry and on some prototype cosmological models, starting from the Supergravity embedding of Starobinsky inflation. However, as an aside we also review briefly some interesting two-field extensions of the Born-Infeld Lagrangian whose field equations enjoy extended duality symmetries.
Generalized vector products, duality, and octonionic identities in D = 8 geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duendarer, R.; Guersey, F.; Tze, C.
1984-01-01
In an explicit, unified, and covariant formulation, we study and generalize the exceptional vector products in R 8 of Zvengrowski, Gray, and Kleinfeld. We derive the associated general quadratic, cubic, and quartic G 2 invariant algebraic identities and uncover an octonionic counterpart to the d = 4 quaternionic duality. When restricted to seven dimensions the latter is an algebraic statement of absolute parallelism on S 7 . We further link up with the Ogievetski--Tzeitlin vector product and obtain explicit tensor forms of the SO(7) and G 2 structure constants. SO(8) transformations related by Triality are characterized by means of invariant tensors. Possible physical applications are discussed
Duality on Geodesics of Cartan Distributions and Sub-Riemannian Pseudo-Product Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishikawa Goo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Given a five dimensional space endowed with a Cartan distribution, the abnormal geodesics form another five dimensional space with a cone structure. Then it is shown in (15, that, if the cone structure is regarded as a control system, then the space of abnormal geodesics of the cone structure is naturally identified with the original space. In this paper, we provide an exposition on the duality by abnormal geodesics in a wider framework, namely, in terms of quotients of control systems and sub-Riemannian pseudo-product structures. Also we consider the controllability of cone structures and describe the constrained Hamiltonian equations on normal and abnormal geodesics.
Curvature coupling in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and non-minimal self-duality
Balakin, Alexander B.; Zayats, Alexei E.
2006-01-01
A self-consistent non-minimal non-Abelian Einstein-Yang-Mills model, containing three phenomenological coupling constants, is formulated. The ansatz of a vanishing Yang-Mills induction is considered as a particular case of the self-duality requirement for the gauge field. Such an ansatz is shown to allow obtaining an exact solution of the self-consistent set of equations when the space-time has a constant curvature. An example describing a pure magnetic gauge field in the de Sitter cosmologic...
Poincare polynomials and level rank dualities in the N=2 coset construction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schweigert, C.
1994-01-01
We review the coset construction of conformal field theories; the emphasis is on the construction of the Hilbert spaces for these models, especially if fixed points occur. This is applied to the N = 2 superconformal cosets constructed by Kazama and Suzuki. To calculate heterotic string spectra we reformulate the Gepner construction in terms of simple currents and introduce the so-called extended Poincare polynomial. We finally comment on the various equivalences arising between models of this class, which can be expressed as level rank dualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devchand, C.; Nuyts, J.
1997-01-01
We generalise the notions of supersymmetry and superspace by allowing generators and coordinates transforming according to more general Lorentz representations than the spinorial and vectorial ones of standard lore. This yields novel SO(3,1)-covariant superspaces, which we call hyperspaces, having dimensionality greater than (4 vertical stroke 4) of traditional super-Minkowski space. As an application, we consider gauge fields on complexifications of these superspaces; and extending the concept of self-duality, we obtain classes of completely solvable equations analogous to the four-dimensional self-duality equations. (orig.)
Antonella Del Rosso
2016-01-01
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
Operator Representations of Frames: Boundedness, Duality, and Stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh
2017-01-01
we prove that the only possible operator is (Formula presented.) Finally, we consider stability of the representation (Formula presented.) rather surprisingly, it turns out that the possibility to represent a frame on this form is sensitive towards some of the classical perturbation conditions...... in frame theory. Various ways of avoiding this problem will be discussed. Throughout the paper the results will be connected with the operators and function systems appearing in applied harmonic analysis, as well as with general group representations....
Large $N$ topologically twisted index: necklace quivers, dualities, and Sasaki-Einstein spaces
Hosseini, Seyed Morteza
2016-01-01
In this paper, we calculate the topological free energy for a number of ${\\mathcal N} \\geq 2$ Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons-matter theories at large $N$ and fixed Chern-Simons levels. The topological free energy is defined as the logarithm of the partition function of the theory on $S^2 \\times S^1$ with a topological A-twist along $S^2$ and can be reduced to a matrix integral by exploiting the localization technique. The theories of our interest are dual to a variety of Calabi-Yau four-fold singularities, including a product of two asymptotically locally Euclidean singularities and the cone over various well-known homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds, $N^{0,1,0}$, $V^{5,2}$, and $Q^{1,1,1}$. We check that the large $N$ topological free energy can be matched for theories which are related by dualities, including mirror symmetry and $\\mathrm{SL}(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ duality.
Le Corbusier. The duality “Architecture Mâle” and “Architecture Femelle”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea García González
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In the 50´s, Le Corbusier publishes two books, Le Modulor (1950 and Le Poème de l´Angle Droit (1955. They are extremely important given that they represent the synthesis of his architectural thought at the height of his career. In both, references can be observed to the duality of male-female, which do not seem to have been previously part of the architect´s consistent theoretical body. One decade later, duality imbues the architectural critics, who interpret it as the opposition between two residential projects from early 1920´s, the Maisons Monol and the Maisons Citrohan. Both projects are proclaimed as a germ of two genealogical lines which come to an end with the Villas Sarabhai and Shodhan in the 50´s. They are related respectively with two concepts "architecture femelle" and "architecture mâle", cited by Le Corbusier in Le Modulor. However, the exhaustive analysis of the paradigm of both architectures through different periods, a complete reading of both texts and its relationship with Le Corbusier´s pictorial production, brings to light the importance of ambiguity and polysemy in the architect's work, which is difficult to divide in hermetic categories.
Non-Abelian electric-magnetic duality with supersymmetry in 4D and 10D
Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash
2015-10-01
We present electric-magnetic (Hodge) duality formulation for non-Abelian gauge groups with N =1 supersymmetry in 3 +1 (4D) dimensions. Our system consists of three multiplets: (i) A super-Yang-Mills vector multiplet (YMVM) (Aμ I,λI) , (ii) a dual vector multiplet (DVM) (Bμ I,χI) , and (iii) an unphysical tensor multiplet (TM) (Cμν I,ρI,φI) , with the index I for adjoint representation. The multiplets YMVM and DVM are dual to each other like: Gμν I=(1 /2 )ɛμν ρ σFρσ I . The TM is unphysical, but still plays an important role for establishing the total consistency of the system, based on recently developed tensor-hierarchy formulation. We also apply this technique to non-Abelian electric-magnetic duality in 9 +1 (10D) dimensions. The extra bosonic auxiliary field Kμ1⋯μ6 in 10D is shown to play an important role for the closure of supersymmetry on fields.
Naming a structured world: a cultural route to duality of patterning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Tria
Full Text Available The lexicons of human languages organize their units at two distinct levels. At a first combinatorial level, meaningless forms (typically referred to as phonemes are combined into meaningful units (typically referred to as morphemes. Thanks to this, many morphemes can be obtained by relatively simple combinations of a small number of phonemes. At a second compositional level of the lexicon, morphemes are composed into larger lexical units, the meaning of which is related to the individual meanings of the composing morphemes. This duality of patterning is not a necessity for lexicons and the question remains wide open regarding how a population of individuals is able to bootstrap such a structure and the evolutionary advantages of its emergence. Here we address this question in the framework of a multi-agents model, where a population of individuals plays simple naming games in a conceptual environment modeled as a graph. We demonstrate that errors in communication as well as a blending repair strategy, which crucially exploits a shared conceptual representation of the environment, are sufficient conditions for the emergence of duality of patterning, that can thus be explained in a pure cultural way. Compositional lexicons turn out to be faster to lead to successful communication than purely combinatorial lexicons, suggesting that meaning played a crucial role in the evolution of language.
Semiotic systems with duality of patterning and the issue of cultural replicators.
Schaden, Gerhard; Patin, Cédric
2017-11-14
Two major works in recent evolutionary biology have in different ways touched upon the issue of cultural replicators in language, namely Dawkins' Selfish Gene and Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's Major Transitions in Evolution. In the latter, the emergence of language is referred to as the last major transition in evolution (for the time being), a claim we argue to be derived from a crucial property of language, called Duality of Patterning. Prima facie, this property makes natural language look like a structural equivalent to DNA, and its peer in terms of expressive power. We will argue that, if one takes seriously Maynard Smith and Szathmáry's outlook and examines what has been proposed as linguistic replicators, amongst others phonemes and words, the analogy meme-gene becomes problematic. A key issue is the fact that genes and memes are assumed to carry and transmit information, while what has been described as the best candidate for replicatorhood in language, i.e. the phoneme, does by definition not carry meaning. We will argue that semiotic systems with Duality of Pattering (like natural languages) force us to reconsider either the analogy between replicators in the biological and the cultural domain, or what it is to be a replicator in linguistics.
Discrete symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory duality and mirror symmetry
Cvetič, Mirjam; Grassi, Antonella; Poretschkin, Maximilian
2017-06-01
We study aspects of Heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory compactifications on genus-one fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds with n-sections, associated with the Tate-Shafarevich group Z_n. Such models are obtained by studying first a specific toric set-up whose associated Heterotic vector bundle has structure group Z_n. By employing a conjectured Heterotic/F-theory mirror symmetry we construct dual geometries of these original toric models, where in the stable degeneration limit we obtain a discrete gauge symmetry of order two and three, for compactifications to six dimensions. We provide explicit constructions of mirror-pairs for symmetric examples with Z_2 and Z_3, in six dimensions. The Heterotic models with symmetric discrete symmetries are related in field theory to a Higgsing of Heterotic models with two symmetric abelian U(1) gauge factors, where due to the Stückelberg mechanism only a diagonal U(1) factor remains massless, and thus after Higgsing only a diagonal discrete symmetry of order n is present in the Heterotic models and detected via Heterotic/F-theory duality. These constructions also provide further evidence for the conjectured mirror symmetry in Heterotic/F-theory at the level of fibrations with torsional sections and those with multi-sections.
Structure of reversible computation determines the self-duality of quantum theory.
Müller, Markus P; Ududec, Cozmin
2012-03-30
Predictions for measurement outcomes in physical theories are usually computed by combining two distinct notions: a state, describing the physical system, and an observable, describing the measurement which is performed. In quantum theory, however, both notions are in some sense identical: outcome probabilities are given by the overlap between two state vectors--quantum theory is self-dual. In this Letter, we show that this notion of self-duality can be understood from a dynamical point of view. We prove that self-duality follows from a computational primitive called bit symmetry: every logical bit can be mapped to any other logical bit by a reversible transformation. Specifically, we consider probabilistic theories more general than quantum theory, and prove that every bit-symmetric theory must necessarily be self-dual. We also show that bit symmetry yields stronger restrictions on the set of allowed bipartite states than the no-signalling principle alone, suggesting reversible time evolution as a possible reason for limitations of nonlocality.
Replica analysis for the duality of the portfolio optimization problem
Shinzato, Takashi
2016-11-01
In the present paper, the primal-dual problem consisting of the investment risk minimization problem and the expected return maximization problem in the mean-variance model is discussed using replica analysis. As a natural extension of the investment risk minimization problem under only a budget constraint that we analyzed in a previous study, we herein consider a primal-dual problem in which the investment risk minimization problem with budget and expected return constraints is regarded as the primal problem, and the expected return maximization problem with budget and investment risk constraints is regarded as the dual problem. With respect to these optimal problems, we analyze a quenched disordered system involving both of these optimization problems using the approach developed in statistical mechanical informatics and confirm that both optimal portfolios can possess the primal-dual structure. Finally, the results of numerical simulations are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Notes on integral identities for 3d supersymmetric dualities
Aghaei, Nezhla; Amariti, Antonio; Sekiguchi, Yuta
2018-04-01
Four dimensional N=2 Argyres-Douglas theories have been recently conjectured to be described by N=1 Lagrangian theories. Such models, once reduced to 3d, should be mirror dual to Lagrangian N=4 theories. This has been numerically checked through the matching of the partition functions on the three sphere. In this article, we provide an analytic derivation for this result in the A 2 n-1 case via hyperbolic hypergeometric integrals. We study the D 4 case as well, commenting on some open questions and possible resolutions. In the second part of the paper we discuss other integral identities leading to the matching of the partition functions in 3d dual pairs involving higher monopole superpotentials.
T-duality diagram for a weakly curved background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovic, Ljubica; Nikolic, Bojan; Sazdovic, Branislav
2015-01-01
In one of our previous papers we generalized the Buscher T-dualization procedure. Here we will investigate the application of this procedure to the theory of a bosonic string moving in the weakly curved background. We obtain the complete T-dualization diagram, connecting the theories which are the result of the T-dualizations over all possible choices of the coordinates. We distinguish three forms of the T-dual theories: the initial theory, the theory obtained T-dualizing some of the coordinates of the initial theory and the theory obtained T-dualizing all of the initial coordinates. While the initial theory is geometric, all the other theories are non-geometric and additionally non-local. We find the T-dual coordinate transformation laws connecting these theories and show that the set of all T-dualizations forms an Abelian group. (orig.)
Duality between resource reservation and proportional share resource allocation
Stoica, Ion; Abdel-Wahab, Hussein; Jeffay, Kevin
1997-01-01
We describe anew framework for resource allocation that unifies the well-known proportional share and resource reservation policies. Each client is characterized by two parameters: a weight that represents the rate at which the client 'pays' for the resource, and a share that represents the fraction of the resource that the client should receive. A fixed rate corresponds to a proportional share allocation, while a fixed share corresponds to a reservation. Furthermore, rates and shares are duals of each other. Once one parameters is fixed the other becomes fixed as well. If a client asks for a fixed share then the level of competition for the resource determines the rate at which it has to pay, while if the rate is fixed, level of competition determines the service time the clients should receive. To implement this framework we use a new proportional share algorithm, called earliest eligible virtual deadline first, that achieves optical accuracy in the rates at which process execute. This makes it possible to provide support for highly predictable, real-time services. As a proof of concept we have implemented a prototype of a CPU scheduler under the FreeBSD operating system. The experimental results show that our scheduler achieves the goal of providing integrated support for batch and real-time applications.
Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results
Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel
1998-01-01
A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...
<strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben
2009-01-01
dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...
Higher-Order Generalized Invexity in Control Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Padhan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a higher-order duality (Mangasarian type and Mond-Weir type for the control problem. Under the higher-order generalized invexity assumptions on the functions that compose the primal problems, higher-order duality results (weak duality, strong duality, and converse duality are derived for these pair of problems. Also, we establish few examples in support of our investigation.
Poisson-Lie T-duality of string effective actions: A new approach to the dilaton puzzle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jurčo, B.; Vysoký, Jan
2018-01-01
Roč. 130, August (2018), s. 1-26 ISSN 0393-0440 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Poisson-Lie T-duality * string effective actions * dilaton field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0393044018301748?via%3Dihub
Poisson-Lie T-duality of string effective actions: A new approach to the dilaton puzzle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jurčo, B.; Vysoký, Jan
2018-01-01
Roč. 130, August (2018), s. 1-26 ISSN 0393-0440 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Poisson-Lie T-duality * string effective actions * dilaton field Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2016 https://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0393044018301748?via%3Dihub
<strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben
2009-01-01
activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines [i] This part...
Booth, Shirley
2012-01-01
In this article, the author comments on two highly cited articles and how they link to wider trends in higher education research. The two papers in question, Angela Brew's article from 2003, "Teaching and research: New relationships and their implications for inquiry-based teaching and learning in higher education" and Gerlese Akerlind's…
<strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben
2009-01-01
- a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...... some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation across settings combines savings on health care costs with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life...... is met by a meso-strategy aiming the formation of an international, multidisciplinary network which might organize regional workshops for representatives for all involved parties in order to prepare local implementation projects. Regarding de-stressing by medical meditation a relatively fast...
Titanium: light, strong, and white
Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George
2013-01-01
Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.
Gupta, Neeraj; Hanley, Michael J; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Bessudo, Alberto; Rasco, Drew W; Sharma, Sunil; O'Neil, Bert H; Wang, Bingxia; Liu, Guohui; Ke, Alice; Patel, Chirag; Rowland Yeo, Karen; Xia, Cindy; Zhang, Xiaoquan; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Nemunaitis, John
2018-02-01
At clinically relevant ixazomib concentrations, in vitro studies demonstrated that no specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme predominantly contributes to ixazomib metabolism. However, at higher than clinical concentrations, ixazomib was metabolized by multiple CYP isoforms, with the estimated relative contribution being highest for CYP3A at 42%. This multiarm phase 1 study (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01454076) investigated the effect of the strong CYP3A inhibitors ketoconazole and clarithromycin and the strong CYP3A inducer rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled across the 3 drug-drug interaction studies; the ixazomib toxicity profile was consistent with previous studies. Ketoconazole and clarithromycin had no clinically meaningful effects on the pharmacokinetics of ixazomib. The geometric least-squares mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 264 hours postdose ratio (90%CI) with vs without ketoconazole coadministration was 1.09 (0.91-1.31) and was 1.11 (0.86-1.43) with vs without clarithromycin coadministration. Reduced plasma exposures of ixazomib were observed following coadministration with rifampin. Ixazomib area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration was reduced by 74% (geometric least-squares mean ratio of 0.26 [90%CI 0.18-0.37]), and maximum observed plasma concentration was reduced by 54% (geometric least-squares mean ratio of 0.46 [90%CI 0.29-0.73]) in the presence of rifampin. The clinical drug-drug interaction study results were reconciled well by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that incorporated a minor contribution of CYP3A to overall ixazomib clearance and quantitatively considered the strength of induction of CYP3A and intestinal P-glycoprotein by rifampin. On the basis of these study results, the ixazomib prescribing information recommends that patients should avoid concomitant administration of
Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators
2016-02-03
Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or
Taking an electron-magnon duality shortcut from electron to magnon transport
Mook, Alexander; Göbel, Börge; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2018-04-01
The quasiparticles in insulating magnets are the charge-neutral magnons, whose magnetic moments couple to electromagnetic fields. For collinear easy-axis magnets, this coupling can be mapped elegantly onto the scenario of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. From this mapping we obtain equations of motion for magnon wave packets equal to those of electron wave packets in metals. Thus, well-established electronic transport phenomena can be carried over to magnons: this duality shortcut facilitates the discussion of magnon transport. We identify the magnon versions of normal and anomalous Hall, Nernst, Ettingshausen, and Righi-Leduc effects. They are discussed for selected types of easy-axis magnets: ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, and ferrimagnets. Besides a magnon Wiedemann-Franz law and the magnon counterpart of the negative magnetoresistance of electrons in Weyl semimetals, we predict that certain low-symmetry ferrimagnets exhibit a nonlinear version of the anomalous magnon Hall-effect family.
Gauge/gravity duality for interactions of spherical membranes in 11-dimensional pp-wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hok Kong; McLoughlin, Tristan; Wu Xinkai
2005-01-01
We investigate the gauge/gravity duality in the interaction between two spherical membranes in the 11-dimensional pp-wave background. On the supergravity side, we find the solution to the field equations at locations close to a spherical source membrane, and use it to obtain the light-cone Lagrangian of a spherical probe membrane very close to the source, i.e., with their separation much smaller than their radii. On the gauge theory side, using the BMN matrix model, we compute the one-loop effective potential between two membrane fuzzy spheres. Perfect agreement is found between the two sides. Moreover, the one-loop effective potential we obtain on the gauge theory side is valid beyond the small-separation approximation, giving the full interpolation between interactions of membrane-like objects and that of graviton-like objects
Evidence for Quark-Hadron Duality in the Proton Spin Asymmetry A1
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Avakian, H.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bouhali, O.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brauksiepe, S.; Brüll, A.; Brunn, I.; Bulten, H. J.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Court, G. R.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; de Witt Huberts, P. K.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Filippone, B. W.; Fischer, H.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gärber, Y.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garutti, E.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Green, P. W.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Gute, A.; Haeberli, W.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hofman, G.; Holler, Y.; Holt, R. J.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Jung, P.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kitching, P.; Königsmann, K.; Kolster, H.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kotik, E.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Kyle, G.; Lagamba, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Lorenzon, W.; Maas, A.; Makins, N. C.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Menden, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaeva, K.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Orlandi, G.; Podiatchev, S.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Rappoport, V.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Rith, K.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sakemi, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Sato, F.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, F.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seibert, J.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Suetsugu, K.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Tessarin, S.; Thomas, E.; Tipton, B.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; van den Brand, J. F.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van de Vyver, R.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Visser, J.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Wise, T.; Yen, S.; Yoneyama, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.
2003-03-01
Spin-dependent lepton-nucleon scattering data have been used to investigate the validity of the concept of quark-hadron duality for the spin asymmetry A1. Longitudinally polarized positrons were scattered off a longitudinally polarized hydrogen target for values of Q2 between 1.2 and 12 GeV2 and values of W2 between 1 and 4 GeV2. The average double-spin asymmetry in the nucleon resonance region is found to agree with that measured in deep-inelastic scattering at the same values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. This finding implies that the description of A1 in terms of quark degrees of freedom is valid also in the nucleon resonance region for values of Q2 above 1.6 GeV2.
Duality in Power-Law Localization in Disordered One-Dimensional Systems
Deng, X.; Kravtsov, V. E.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.; Santos, L.
2018-03-01
The transport of excitations between pinned particles in many physical systems may be mapped to single-particle models with power-law hopping, 1 /ra . For randomly spaced particles, these models present an effective peculiar disorder that leads to surprising localization properties. We show that in one-dimensional systems almost all eigenstates (except for a few states close to the ground state) are power-law localized for any value of a >0 . Moreover, we show that our model is an example of a new universality class of models with power-law hopping, characterized by a duality between systems with long-range hops (a 1 ), in which the wave function amplitude falls off algebraically with the same power γ from the localization center.
Path algebras, wave-particle duality, and quantization of phase space
Gerstenhaber, Murray
2016-11-01
Semigroup algebras admit certain `coherent' deformations which, in the special case of a path algebra, may associate a periodic function to an evolving path; for a particle moving freely on a straight line after an initial impulse, the wave length is that hypothesized by de Broglie's wave-particle duality. This theory leads to a model of "physical" phase space of which mathematical phase space, the cotangent bundle of configuration space, is a projection. This space is singular, quantized at the Planck level, its structure implies the existence of spin, and the spread of a packet can be described as a random walk. The wavelength associated to a particle moving in this space need not be constant and its phase can change discontinuously.
Color-Kinematics Duality in Multi-Regge Kinematics and Dimensional Reduction
Johansson, Henrik; Campillo, Eduardo Serna; Vazquez-Mozo, Miguel A
2013-01-01
In this note we study the applicability of the color-kinematics duality to the scattering of two distinguishable scalar matter particles with gluon emission in QCD, or graviton emission in Einstein gravity. Previous analysis suggested that direct use of the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson double-copy prescription to matter amplitudes does not reproduce the gravitational amplitude in multi-Regge kinematics. This situation, however, can be avoided by extensions to the gauge theory, while maintaning the same Regge limit. Here we present two examples of these extensions: the introduction of a scalar contact interaction and the relaxation of the distinguishability of the scalars. In both cases new diagrams allow for a full reconstruction of the correct Regge limit on the gravitational side. Both modifications correspond to theories obtained by dimensional reduction from higher-dimensional gauge theories.
Color-kinematics duality in multi-Regge kinematics and dimensional reduction
Johansson, Henrik; Vera, Agustín Sabio; Campillo, Eduardo Serna; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.
2013-10-01
In this note we study the applicability of the color-kinematics duality to the scattering of two distinguishable scalar matter particles with gluon emission in QCD, or graviton emission in Einstein gravity. Previous analysis suggested that direct use of the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson double-copy prescription to matter amplitudes does not reproduce the gravitational amplitude in multi-Regge kinematics. This situation, however, can be avoided by extensions to the gauge theory, while maintaning the same Regge limit. Here we present two examples of these extensions: the introduction of a scalar contact interaction and the relaxation of the distinguishability of the scalars. In both cases new diagrams allow for a full reconstruction of the correct Regge limit on the gravitational side. Both modifications correspond to theories obtained by dimensional reduction from higher-dimensional gauge theories.
Duality-Free Decomposition Based Data-Driven Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Tao; Yang, Qingrun; Liu, Xiyuan
2018-01-01
for wind power outputs and then it optimizes the unit commitment under the worst-case probability distribution. However, this model suffers from huge computational burden, as a large number of scenarios are considered. To tackle this issue, a duality-free decomposition method is proposed in this paper......To incorporate the superiority of both stochastic and robust approaches, a data-driven stochastic optimization is employed to solve the security-constrained unit commitment model. This approach makes the most use of the historical data to generate a set of possible probability distributions...... be decomposed into independent sub-problems to be solved in parallel, which further improves the computational efficiency. A numerical study on an IEEE 118-bus system with practical data of a wind power system has demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposal....
Null hypersurface quantization, electromagnetic duality and asympotic symmetries of Maxwell theory
Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Hung, Ling-Yan; Jiang, Yikun
2018-03-01
In this paper we consider introducing careful regularization at the quantization of Maxwell theory in the asymptotic null infinity. This allows systematic discussions of the commutators in various boundary conditions, and application of Dirac brackets accordingly in a controlled manner. This method is most useful when we consider asymptotic charges that are not localized at the boundary u → ±∞ like large gauge transformations. We show that our method reproduces the operator algebra in known cases, and it can be applied to other space-time symmetry charges such as the BMS transformations. We also obtain the asymptotic form of the U(1) charge following from the electromagnetic duality in an explicitly EM symmetric Schwarz-Sen type action. Using our regularization method, we demonstrate that the charge generates the expected transformation of a helicity operator. Our method promises applications in more generic theories.
Dr Brasilia and Mr. Nacala: the apparent duality behind the Brazilian state-capital nexus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TOMASO FERRANDO
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In August 2010 Brazil decided to limit foreign direct investments (FDIs in land, and attracted the attention of politicians as much as the fears of businessmen. However, few months before, in September 2009, it had concluded a trilateral agreement with Japan and Mozambique to implement agribusiness and contract farming on an area of ten million hectares in the Mozambican region of Nacala. In light of that, the paper analyses the apparent duality of the Brazilian politics, and concludes that, exactly like in the case of the novel by Robert Louis Stevenson, it is not a matter of pathology, but a voluntarily induced double personality which is strategic in positioning Brazil at the core of the global capitalist system.
Evidence for quark-hadron duality in the proton spin asymmetry A1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Rostomyan, A.; Taroian, S.; Zohrabian, H.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V.V.; Gapienko, V.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Boettcher, H.; Ehrenfried, M.; Ellinghaus, F.; Jung, P.
2003-01-01
Spin-dependent lepton-nucleon scattering data have been used to investigate the validity of the concept of quark-hadron duality for the spin asymmetry A 1 . Longitudinally polarized positrons were scattered off a longitudinally polarized hydrogen target for values of Q 2 between 1.2 and 12 GeV 2 and values of W 2 between 1 and 4 GeV 2 . The average double-spin asymmetry in the nucleon resonance region is found to agree with that measured in deep-inelastic scattering at the same values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. This finding implies that the description of A 1 in terms of quark degrees of freedom is valid also in the nucleon resonance region for values of Q 2 above 1.6 GeV 2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai V. Putz
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor √1-n2, in terms of magnitude n ε [0,1] of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function.
Dynamical duality of type- and token-computation as an abstract brain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tatsuji; Kamiura, Moto
2006-01-01
In brain science, there are few researches focusing on the theoretical relation between cognition (top-down processing) and perception (bottom-up processing). Philosophically they were regarded as the alternative leading to the dualism of mind and body, while it is an adequate problem for the endo-physics. Qualia are conjectured as the hard problem under those situations. To overcome such an impasse, we propose an abstract brain model featuring the dynamical duality of two parts of computations in a brain, in a term of endo-physics and internal measurement. Two parts of computations are expressed as binary relations, and the relationship between them is expressed as a pair of maps, called an infomorphism [Barwise J, Seligman J. Information flow, the logic of distributed systems. Cambridge University Press 1997]. Dynamical duality is implemented by the interaction between a binary relation and an infomorphism, and that leads to a dynamical change of a pair of binary relations. When a binary relation is expressed as a partial ordered set, one can check whether a part of computation is closed with respect to logical operations (i.e., a lattice) or not. By estimating a binary relation in terms of properties of lattice, we show that dynamical infomorphism robustly develops to a pair of logical computations corresponding to type cognition and non-logical one corresponding to qualia perception. It implies origin of differentiation and robust co-existence of type-cognition and qualia-perception. It is easy to see that dynamical infomorphism can also develop to a pair of singleton sets corresponding to savants' special cognitive style
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, G.
1981-01-01
The duality between electric current and magnetic flux tubes is outlined for the magnetosphere. Magnetic flux tubes are regarded as fluid elements subjected to various stresses. Current closure then becomes the dual of stress balance, and Poynting vector energy flow a dual of J x E dissipation. The stresses acting on a flux tube are magnetic stresses, which correspond to currents at a distance, and plasma stresses, which correspond to local currents. The duality between current and stress is traced for ionospheric ion drag forces, solar wind stresses at the magnetopause, inertial effects, and the effects of energetic plasma on flux tubes. The stress balance and dual current systems are outlined for idealized magnetospheres of increasing complexity. For a simple magnetosphere with no convective flow, the balance stresses are solar wind pressure and neutral sheet plasma pressure. The corresponding current systems are the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents and the magetotail current system. The introduction of convective flow introduces further stresses: ionospheric ion drag. Alfven layer shielding, and an imbalance in day-night magnetic stresses due to transport of flux tubes to the nightside by the solar wind. These stresses balance, and hence the corresponding additional currents (the ionospheric Pedersen current and the electrojets, the partial ring current, and two other current systems from the magnetopause and tail) must form a closed current system and do so by the region I and II field-aligned currents of Iijima and Potemra. The energy flow in the above models is described in terms of both Poynting vectors and the above current systems. Temporal variations examined are (1) an increase in dayside merging and/or nightside reconnection, (2) an increase in the energy density of plasma in the plasma sheet, (3) an increase in ionospheric conductivity, and (4) an increase in solar wind pressure
Dynamical duality of type- and token-computation as an abstract brain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gunji, Yukio-Pegio [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan)] e-mail: yukio@kobe-u.ac.jp; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki [Department of Computer Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University (Japan); Takahashi, Tatsuji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Kamiura, Moto [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan)
2006-03-01
In brain science, there are few researches focusing on the theoretical relation between cognition (top-down processing) and perception (bottom-up processing). Philosophically they were regarded as the alternative leading to the dualism of mind and body, while it is an adequate problem for the endo-physics. Qualia are conjectured as the hard problem under those situations. To overcome such an impasse, we propose an abstract brain model featuring the dynamical duality of two parts of computations in a brain, in a term of endo-physics and internal measurement. Two parts of computations are expressed as binary relations, and the relationship between them is expressed as a pair of maps, called an infomorphism [Barwise J, Seligman J. Information flow, the logic of distributed systems. Cambridge University Press 1997]. Dynamical duality is implemented by the interaction between a binary relation and an infomorphism, and that leads to a dynamical change of a pair of binary relations. When a binary relation is expressed as a partial ordered set, one can check whether a part of computation is closed with respect to logical operations (i.e., a lattice) or not. By estimating a binary relation in terms of properties of lattice, we show that dynamical infomorphism robustly develops to a pair of logical computations corresponding to type cognition and non-logical one corresponding to qualia perception. It implies origin of differentiation and robust co-existence of type-cognition and qualia-perception. It is easy to see that dynamical infomorphism can also develop to a pair of singleton sets corresponding to savants' special cognitive style.
Noncommutative duality of Gelfand-Naimark and applications in gauge theory and spinc structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
RATSIMBARISON, H.M.
2004-01-01
We use the GN (Gelfand-Naimark) duality and its generalizations in order to describe some physical constructions, our main tool is the categorical formalism. We start with the first GN theorem, a duality between a category of commutative unital C*-algebras and a category of compact Hausdorff spaces, which we interpret as equivalence between classical observables and classical states. Then, we give the GNS construction providing the 'Fock space' in Quantum Field Theory, and which is the constructive proof of the second GN theorem. A particular formulation of this latter, the Serre-Swan theorem introduces vector bundle structure, a new kind of classical states space. And this lead to K-theory, which we show compatible with a noncommutative concept : the Morita equivalence. From these ideas of Noncommutative geometry, we meet two important applications in QFT : Gauge theory and Spin c structure.The first application begin with the origin of gauge theory: it permit to obtain the interaction lagrangian term from the gauge non invariance of the free lagrangian of matter. Thanks to theories of principal bundles, the gauge potential and the gauge transformation are represented by connection and bundle G-automorphism on the identity of a principal bundle over the spacetime manifold. Finally, the Serre-Swan theorem gives the step of Connes's generalization to noncommutative case. In the second application, we show that the construction of Dirac operator lead to the definitions of Clifford algebra and spinor space. A categorical equivalent definition, similar to those of the Grothendieck group, is done. At the end, we make use of the structure of Clifford algebra and the Morita equivalence to reconstruct Plymen's definition of the spin c structure [fr
<strong>PRAYER INDUCED ANALGESIAstrong>
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt
moderators (personality, absorption and coping) and mediators (expectations, desire for pain relief and anxiety) were included in the study design in order to explore the influence of psychological mechanisms involved in the potential analgesic effect of prayer as a coping strategy. RESULTS: TBA (it...
Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana
2012-01-01
A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....
Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri
2017-01-01
This thesis explores management controls and the consequences of dysfunctions in the operation of management controls in liberalised State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in Sri Lanka. The thesis argues that there is a duality of traditional (feudal–patrimonial) and modern (rational–neoliberal) control elements, and that this duality can better explain management control issues of developing countries such as Sri Lanka. In the process, it aims to extend management control theory relating to SOEs in ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirchbach, M. [UASLP, Instituto de Fisica, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Compean, C.B. [Instituto Tecnologico de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
2016-07-15
The real parts of the complex squared energies defined by the resonance poles of the transfer matrix of the Poeschl-Teller barrier, are shown to equal the squared energies of the levels bound within the trigonometric Scarf well potential. By transforming these potentials into parts of the Laplacians describing free quantum motions on the mutually orthogonal open-time-like hyperbolic-, and closed-space-like spherical geodesics on the conformally invariant de Sitter space-time, dS{sub 4}, the conformal symmetries of these interactions are revealed. On dS{sub 4} the potentials under consideration naturally relate to interactions within colorless two-body systems and to cusped Wilson loops. In effect, with the aid of the dS{sub 4} space-time as unifying geometry, a conformal symmetry based bijective correspondence (duality) between bound and resonant meson spectra is established at the quantum mechanics level and related to confinement understood as color charge neutrality. The correspondence allows to link the interpretation of mesons as resonance poles of a scattering matrix with their complementary description as states bound by an instantaneous quark interaction and to introduce a conformal symmetry based classification scheme of mesons. As examples representative of such a duality we organize in good agreement with data 71 of the reported light flavor mesons with masses below ∝ 2350 MeV into four conformal families of particles placed on linear f{sub 0}, π, η, and a{sub 0} resonance trajectories, plotted on the l/M plane. Upon extending the sec{sup 2} χ by a properly constructed conformal color dipole potential, shaped after a tangent function, we predict the masses of 12 ''missing'' mesons. We furthermore notice that the f{sub 0} and π trajectories can be viewed as chiral partners, same as the η and a{sub 0} trajectories, an indication that chiral symmetry for mesons is likely to be realized in terms of parity doubled conformal
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jusak Sali Kosasih
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A special condition of Scherk-Schwarz and S^1/Z2 orbifold breaking brings about both a weakly-coupled SU(6 baby Higgs and a strongly-coupled will-be simplest little Higgs scalar in the near-brane of SU(3 x SU(3x U(1. The latter produces SU(3 VEVs and simplest little-like Higgs after triplet-triplet splitting and, under quadratic-based and non-quadratic-based Coleman-Weinberg potential, the simplest little-like Higgs yields exotic Higgses, scalar-pair and 3-scalar Higgses in the so-called one-by-one and collective breakings. A generalized non-quadratic-based Coleman-Weinberg potential utilizing a NGB-like scalar produces NGB-dual Higgses with a squared mass relevant to the components of a 3-scalar Higgs that further create a duality of 3-scalar Higgs and NGB-dual Higgses. This is due to a double-vacua property such that each vacuum responds equally to the shifts happening at either non-zero or zero-VEV vacuum.
Deymier, Pierre
2017-01-01
This book offers an essential introduction to the notions of sound wave topology, duality, coherence and wave-mixing, which constitute the emerging new science of sound. It includes general principles and specific examples that illuminate new non-conventional forms of sound (sound topology), unconventional quantum-like behavior of phonons (duality), radical linear and nonlinear phenomena associated with loss and its control (coherence), and exquisite effects that emerge from the interaction of sound with other physical and biological waves (wave mixing). The book provides the reader with the foundations needed to master these complex notions through simple yet meaningful examples. General principles for unraveling and describing the topology of acoustic wave functions in the space of their Eigen values are presented. These principles are then applied to uncover intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to achieving non-conventional topologies by breaking the time revers al symmetry of acoustic waves. Symmetry brea...
Chung, C; Bozkurt, O; Sparrow, P R
2012-01-01
This research aims to extend our understanding of the duality between global integration and local responsiveness in multinational corporations (MNCs) by exploring the perceptions of corporate HR actors regarding the intra-organisational factors that alter the balance between these pressures. It examines the perceptions and actions of key actors in the context of two Korean MNCs. The study shows the importance attributed to a range of socio-procedural factors by corporate actors and which, th...
Boddy, Kimberly K.
2017-03-28
Many models currently exist which attempt to interpret the excess of gamma rays emanating from the Galactic Center in terms of annihilating or decaying dark matter. These models typically exhibit a variety of complicated cascade mechanisms for photon production, leading to a non-trivial kinematics which obscures the physics of the underlying dark sector. In this paper, by contrast, we observe that the spectrum of the gamma-ray excess may actually exhibit an intriguing "energy-duality" invariance under $E_\\gamma \\rightarrow E_\\ast^2/E_\\gamma$ for some $E_\\ast$. As we shall discuss, such an energy duality points back to a remarkably simple alternative kinematics which in turn is realized naturally within the Dynamical Dark Matter framework. Observation of this energy duality could therefore provide considerable information about the properties of the dark sector from which the Galactic-Center gamma-ray excess might arise, and highlights the importance of acquiring more complete data for the Galactic-Center exce...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebata, T.
1981-01-01
With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
N=2 type II - heterotic duality and higher derivative F-terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.
1995-07-01
We test the recently conjectured duality between N-2 supersymmetric type II and heterotic string models by analyzing a class of higher dimensional interactions in the respective low-energy Lagrangians. These are F-terms of the form F g W 2g where W is the gravitational superfield. On the type II side these terms are generated at the g-loop level and in fact are given by topological partition functions of the twisted Calabi-Yan sigma model. We show that on the heterotic side these terms arise at the one-loop level. We study in detail a rank 3 example and show that the corresponding couplings, F g satisfy the same holomorphic anomaly equations as in the type II case. Moreover we study the leading singularities of F g 's on the heterotic side, near the enhanced symmetry point and show that they are universal poles of order 2g - 2 with coefficients that are given by the Euler number of the moduli space of genus-g Riemann surfaces. This confirms a recent conjecture that the physics near the conifold singularity is governed by c=1 string theory at the self-dual point. (author). 24 refs
A study in derived algebraic geometry volume I : correspondences and duality
Gaitsgory, Dennis
2017-01-01
Derived algebraic geometry is a far-reaching generalization of algebraic geometry. It has found numerous applications in various parts of mathematics, most prominently in representation theory. This volume develops the theory of ind-coherent sheaves in the context of derived algebraic geometry. Ind-coherent sheaves are a "renormalization" of quasi-coherent sheaves and provide a natural setting for Grothendieck-Serre duality as well as geometric incarnations of numerous categories of interest in representation theory. This volume consists of three parts and an appendix. The first part is a survey of homotopical algebra in the setting of \\infty-categories and the basics of derived algebraic geometry. The second part builds the theory of ind-coherent sheaves as a functor out of the category of correspondences and studies the relationship between ind-coherent and quasi-coherent sheaves. The third part sets up the general machinery of the \\mathrm{(}\\infty, 2\\mathrm{)}-category of correspondences needed for the sec...
Phases of N=4 SYM, S-duality and nilpotent cones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balasubramanian, Aswin [DESY Theory, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics
2016-10-15
In this note, I describe the space of vacua V of four dimensional N=4 SYM on R{sup 4} with gauge group a compact simple Lie Group G as a stratified space. On each stratum, the low energy effective field theory is different. This language allows one to make precise the idea of moving in the space of vacua V. A particular subset of the strata of N=4 SYM can be efficiently described using the theory of sheets in a Lie algebra. For these strata, I study the conjectural action of S-duality. I also indicate some benefits of using such a language for the study of the available space of vacua V on the boundary of GL twisted N=4 SYM on a half-space R{sup 3} x R{sup +}. As an application of boundary symmetry breaking, I indicate how a) the Local Nilpotent Cone arises as part of the available symmetry breaking choices on the boundary of the four dimensional theory and b) the Global Nilpotent Cone arises in the theory reduced down to two dimensions on a Riemann Surface C. These geometries play a critical role in the Local and Global Geometric Langlands Program(s).
Timelike duality, M'-theory and an exotic form of the Englert solution
Henneaux, Marc; Ranjbar, Arash
2017-08-01
Through timelike dualities, one can generate exotic versions of M-theory with different spacetime signatures. These are the M *-theory with signature (9 , 2 , -), the M'-theory, with signature (6 , 5 , +) and the theories with reversed signatures (1 , 10 , -), (2 , 9 , +) and (5 , 6 , -). In ( s, t, ±), s is the number of space directions, t the number of time directions, and ± refers to the sign of the kinetic term of the 3 form. The only irreducible pseudo-riemannian manifolds admitting absolute parallelism are, besides Lie groups, the seven-sphere S 7 ≡ SO(8) /SO(7) and its pseudo-riemannian version S 3,4 ≡ SO(4 , 4) /SO(3 , 4). [There is also the complexification SO(8,C)/SO(7,C) , but it is of dimension too high for our considerations.] The seven-sphere S 7 ≡ S 7,0 has been found to play an important role in 11-dimensional supergravity, both through the Freund-Rubin solution and the Englert solution that uses its remarkable parallelizability to turn on non trivial internal fluxes. The spacetime manifold is in both cases AdS 4 × S 7. We show that S 3,4 enjoys a similar role in M '-theory and construct the exotic form AdS 4 × S 3,4 of the Englert solution, with non zero internal fluxes turned on. There is no analogous solution in M ∗-theory.
Quantum physics of entangled systems: wave-particle duality and atom-photon molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rempe, G.
2000-01-01
One of the cornerstones of quantum physics is the wave nature of matter. It explains experimentally observed effects like interference and diffraction, occurring when an object moves from one place to another along several indistinguishable ways simultaneously. The wave nature disappears when the individual ways are distinguishable. In this case, the particle nature of the object becomes visible. To determine the particle nature quantitatively, the way of the object has to be measured. Here, large progress has been made recently with new techniques, enabling one to investigate single moving atoms in a controlled manner. Two examples are discussed in the following two sections. The first experiment describes an atom interferometer, where the way of the atom is entangled with its internal state. This allows one to explore the origin of wave-particle duality and perform a quantitative test of this fundamental principle. The second experiment reports on the observation of an atom-photon molecule, a bound state between an atom and a single photon. A fascinating aspect of this system is that it makes possible to monitor the motion of a single neutral atom in real time. (orig.)
Adult Fear and Control: Ambivalence and Duality in Clive Barker’s The Thief of Always
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabrielle Kristjanson
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between the text and accompanying illustrations in Clive Barker’s children’s novel The Thief of Always: A Fable. This tale of abduction was published in the social background of fear around the child predator of the early 1990s and incorporates ideas of monstrous villainy, loss of childhood innocence, and insatiable desires. As a fable, Thief is a cautionary tale that not only teaches that childhood years are precious and are not to be wished away or squandered in idle leisure, but also of the dangers that some adults pose to children. Problematically, an honest and frank discussion of adult sexual desires toward children would despoil the very innocence that is trying to be protected; thus, a lesson such as this must be sublimated within the story. Yet, it is the illustrations, and more specifically the way in which the illustrations corroborate and contradict the plot of this story that reveals an underlying ambivalence toward the figure of the child and an echoing duality present in both the child and the child predator.
Equivariant Verlinde Algebra from Superconformal Index and Argyres-Seiberg Duality
Gukov, Sergei; Pei, Du; Yan, Wenbin; Ye, Ke
2018-02-01
In this paper, we show the equivalence between two seemingly distinct 2d TQFTs: one comes from the "Coulomb branch index" of the class S theory {T[Σ,G]} on {L(k,1) × S^1}, the other is the {^L G} "equivariant Verlinde formula", or equivalently partition function of {^L G_C} complex Chern-Simons theory on {Σ× S^1}. We first derive this equivalence using the M-theory geometry and show that the gauge groups appearing on the two sides are naturally G and its Langlands dual {^L G}. When G is not simply-connected, we provide a recipe of computing the index of {T[Σ,G]} as summation over the indices of T[Σ,\\tilde{G}] with non-trivial background 't Hooft fluxes, where \\tilde{G} is the universal cover of G. Then we check explicitly this relation between the Coulomb index and the equivariant Verlinde formula for {G=SU(2)} or SO(3). In the end, as an application of this newly found relation, we consider the more general case where G is SU( N) or PSU( N) and show that equivariant Verlinde algebra can be derived using field theory via (generalized) Argyres-Seiberg duality. We also attach a Mathematica notebook that can be used to compute the SU(3) equivariant Verlinde coefficients.
Origin of Abelian Gauge Symmetries in Heterotic/F-theory Duality
Cvetic, Mirjam; Klevers, Denis; Poretschkin, Maximilian; Song, Peng
2016-01-01
We study aspects of heterotic/F-theory duality for compactifications with Abelian gauge symmetries. We consider F-theory on general Calabi-Yau manifolds with a rank one Mordell-Weil group of rational sections. By rigorously performing the stable degeneration limit in a class of toric models, we derive both the Calabi-Yau geometry as well as the spectral cover describing the vector bundle in the heterotic dual theory. We carefully investigate the spectral cover employing the group law on the elliptic curve in the heterotic theory. We find in explicit examples that there are three different classes of heterotic duals that have U(1) factors in their low energy effective theories: split spectral covers describing bundles with S(U(m) x U(1)) structure group, spectral covers containing torsional sections that seem to give rise to bundles with SU(m) x Z_k structure group and bundles with purely non-Abelian structure groups having a centralizer in E_8 containing a U(1) factor. In the former two cases, it is required ...
Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak
2017-11-01
In this work, by using strong gravitational lensing (SGL) observations along with Type Ia Supernovae (Union2.1) and gamma-ray burst data (GRBs), we propose a new method to study a possible redshift evolution of γ(z), the mass density power-law index of strong gravitational lensing systems. In this analysis, we assume the validity of cosmic distance duality relation and the flat universe. In order to explore the γ(z) behaviour, three different parametrizations are considered, namely: (P1) γ(zl) = γ0 + γ1zl; (P2) γ(zl) = γ0 + γ1zl/(1 + zl); and (P3) γ(zl) = γ0 + γ1ln (1 + zl), where zl corresponds to lens redshift. If γ0 = 2 and γ1 = 0, the singular isothermal sphere model is recovered. Our method is performed on SGL sub-samples defined by different lens redshifts and velocity dispersions. For the former case, the results are in full agreement with each other, while a 1σ tension between the sub-samples with low (≤250 km s-1) and high (>250 km s-1) velocity dispersions was obtained on the (γ0-γ1) plane. By considering the complete SGL sample, we obtain γ0 ≈ 2 and γ1 ≈ 0 within 1σ c.l. for all γ(z) parametrizations. However, we find the following best-fitting values of γ1: -0.085; -0.16; and -0.12 for P1, P2 and P3 parametrizations, respectively, suggesting a mild evolution for γ(z). By repeating the analysis with Type Ia Supernovae from Joint Light Analysis compilation, GRBs and SGL systems this mild evolution is reinforced.
Wickens, F
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
Strong-interaction nonuniversality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.
1989-01-01
The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
Thermal spectral functions of strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Kovtun, Pavel; Starinets, Andrei
2006-04-07
We use the gauge-gravity duality conjecture to compute spectral functions of the stress-energy tensor in finite-temperature N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the limit of large N(c) and large 't Hooft coupling. The spectral functions exhibit peaks characteristic of hydrodynamic modes at small frequency, and oscillations at intermediate frequency. The nonperturbative spectral functions differ qualitatively from those obtained in perturbation theory. The results may prove useful for lattice studies of transport processes in thermal gauge theories.
THE DUALITY OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS. SUSTAINABLE GROWTH FOR COMPANIES AND COUNTRIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LIVIU NEAMŢU
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Current civilization increasingly relies more and more on economic interdependence. In this context, the organizations, be they companies or states, are forced to grow by integrating these interdependencies into their development process. In this process of interdependent integration each participant identifies advantages wishing to exploit their own development process, pursuing a sustainable kind of development by avoiding any risks and identify as many opportunities. Direct investments in various world economies represent the spearhead for this process of identifying opportunities and reduce risk in a global development process. This process ensures both the safety on medium and long-term development and rapid application for their development plans of both companies and the economies of various countries of the world. Through this study we identified the main opportunities sought by world states in this process of internationalization of business and globalization of markets. But we also highlighted the limitations of this process and regulation needs of investing processes in order to ensure the sustainability of the process. The second advantaged component in this process of international expansion and increase of economic interconnection is represented by multinationals enjoying benefits far superior to those of states in the medium-term development. However the limits of investing process force the companies to require certain advantages or guarantees during the progress of investment processes. Thus, we highlight a duality of foreign direct investment opposing on the one hand the companies interested to secure their international operations and liberalization of markets and states requiring a relatively regulated investment process to avoid dependence on foreign capital.
Wilson-'t Hooft operators in four-dimensional gauge theories and S-duality
Kapustin, Anton
2006-07-01
We study operators in four-dimensional gauge theories which are localized on a straight line, create electric and magnetic flux, and in the UV limit break the conformal invariance in the minimal possible way. We call them Wilson-’t Hooft operators, since in the purely electric case they reduce to the well-known Wilson loops, while in general they may carry ’t Hooft magnetic flux. We show that to any such operator one can associate a maximally symmetric boundary condition for gauge fields on AdSE2×S2. We show that Wilson-’t Hooft operators are classified by a pair of weights (electric and magnetic) for the gauge group and its magnetic dual, modulo the action of the Weyl group. If the magnetic weight does not belong to the coroot lattice of the gauge group, the corresponding operator is topologically nontrivial (carries nonvanishing ’t Hooft magnetic flux). We explain how the spectrum of Wilson-’t Hooft operators transforms under the shift of the θ-angle by 2π. We show that, depending on the gauge group, either SL(2,Z) or one of its congruence subgroups acts in a natural way on the set of Wilson-’t Hooft operators. This can be regarded as evidence for the S-duality of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the one-point function of the stress-energy tensor in the presence of a Wilson-’t Hooft operator at weak coupling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morenas, V.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pene, O.; Raynal, J.C.; Melikhov, D.
2000-01-01
Quark-hadron duality in the inclusive semileptonic decay B → X c lν in the Shifman-Voloshin limit Λ b - m c b ,m c is studied within a nonrelativistic potential model. The integrated semileptonic decay rate is calculated in two ways: first, by constructing the Operator Product Expansion, and second by a direct summation of the exclusive channels. Sum rules (Bjorken, Voloshin, etc) for the potential model are derived, providing a possibility to compare the two representations for Γ(B → X c lν). An explicit difference between them referred to as duality-violation effect is found. The origin of this effect is related to higher charm resonances which are kinematically forbidden in the decay process but are nevertheless picked up by the OPE. Within the considered 1/m c 2 order the OPE and the sum over exclusive channels match each other, up to the contributions of higher resonances, by virtue of the sum rules. In particular this is true for the terms of order δm 2 /m 2 c and Λδm/m c 2 which are present in each of the decay channels and cancel in the sum of these channels due to the Bjorken and Voloshin sum rules, respectively. The size of the duality violation effects is estimated to be of the order O(Λ 2+b /m 2 c δm b ) with b > 0 depending on the details of the potential. Constraints for a better accuracy are discussed. (authors)
Minic, Djordje; Pleimling, Michel
2008-12-01
We point out that the recent discussion of nonrelativistic anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory correspondence has a direct application in nonequilibrium statistical physics, a fact which has not been emphasized in the recent literature on the subject. In particular, we propose a duality between aging in systems far from equilibrium characterized by the dynamical exponent z=2 and gravity in a specific background. The key ingredient in our proposal is the recent geometric realization of the Schrödinger group. We also discuss the relevance of the proposed correspondence for the more general aging phenomena in systems where the value of the dynamical exponent is different from 2.
Theory of B -> K(*)l+l- decays at high q^2: OPE and quark-hadron duality
Beylich, M; Feldmann, Th
2011-01-01
We develop a systematic framework for exclusive rare B decays of the type B -> K(*)l+l- at large dilepton invariant mass q^2. It is based on an operator product expansion (OPE) for the required matrix elements of the nonleptonic weak Hamiltonian in this kinematic regime. Our treatment differs from previous work by a simplified operator basis, the explicit calculation of matrix elements of subleading operators, and by a quantitative estimate of duality violation. The latter point is discussed in detail, including the connection with the existence of an OPE and an illustration within a simple toy model.
SL(2,Z) duality of Born-Infeld theory from non-linear self-dual electrodynamics in 6 dimensions
Berman, David
1997-01-01
We reformulate the Born-Infeld action, coupled to an axion and a dilaton in a duality manifest way. This action is the generalization of the Schwarz-Sen action for non-linear electrodynamics. We show that this action may be obtained by dimensional reduction on a torus of a self-dual theory in 6 dimensions. The dilaton-axion being identified with the complex structure of the torus. Applications to M-theory and the self-dual IIB three brane are investigated.
Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1984-01-01
It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)
Rydberg atoms in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.
1985-01-01
Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented
Lohaus, Fabian; Linge, Annett; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Gkika, Eleni; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Avlar, Melanie; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Bayer, Christine; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; von Neubeck, Cläre; Baretton, Gustavo B; Löck, Steffen; Thames, Howard D; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael
2014-12-01
To investigate the impact of HPV status in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received surgery and cisplatin-based postoperative radiochemotherapy. For 221 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, oropharynx or oral cavity treated at the 8 partner sites of the German Cancer Consortium, the impact of HPV DNA, p16 overexpression and p53 expression on outcome were retrospectively analysed. The primary endpoint was loco-regional tumour control; secondary endpoints were distant metastases and overall survival. In the total patient population, univariate analyses revealed a significant impact of HPV16 DNA positivity, p16 overexpression, p53 positivity and tumour site on loco-regional tumour control. Multivariate analysis stratified for tumour site showed that positive HPV 16 DNA status correlated with loco-regional tumour control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (p=0.02) but not in the oral cavity carcinoma group. Multivariate evaluation of the secondary endpoints in the total population revealed a significant association of HPV16 DNA positivity with overall survival (p<0.01) but not with distant metastases. HPV16 DNA status appears to be a strong prognosticator of loco-regional tumour control after postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma and is now being explored in a prospective validation trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
<strong>Relative Biological Effect of Antiprotonsstrong>> strong>
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael
purpose/objective The AD-4/ACE collaboration has recently performed experiments to directly measure the RBE of antiprotons. Antiprotons have very similar stopping power compared to protons, but when they come to rest, antiprotons will annihilate on a target nucleus and thereby release almost 2 Ge......V of energy. About 30 MeV of this energy is deposited in the vicinity of the Bragg-peak, thereby significantly enhancing it. It is furthermore expected that this additional energy is deposited by radiation which carries a high-LET component. This will have a significant influence on the radiobiological...... nuclear research facility CERN. A beam of 126 MeV antiprotons, corresponding to about 12 cm range in water, was spread out to a SOBP with a width of 1 cm. Dosimetry experiments were carried out with ionization chambers, alanine pellets and radiochromic film, and the results were used for benchmarking...