WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong density waves

  1. Straw Formation and Enhanced Damping of Strong Density Waves in Saturn’s Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2017-06-01

    High resolution Cassini images of strong density waves in Saturn’s rings often show kilometer-scale structures in the wave troughs that are sometimes described as straw-like structures. These structures are likely formed by transient gravitational instabilities within the density wave and have the potential to greatly enhance the local viscous angular momentum transport and thereby limit the maximum amplitude of the density wave. A Hamiltonian theory for density waves has been developed that can describe the rate of local gravitational instabilities in the wave train. The Hamiltonian for single particle motion in the vicinity of an inner Lindblad resonance with a Saturnian satellite can be formulated such that the angle variable conjugate to the radial action is the resonant argument for the resonance. The density wave can then be derived using Hamiltonian perturbation methods to remove the satellite perturbation such that the transformed radial action and conjugate angles include the usual solution for self-gravitating density waves. Local gravitational instabilities in the density wave can now be formulated using a linearized collisionless Boltzmann equation that is expressed in terms of the transformed action-angle variables that contain the density wave solution. The gravitational potential of the linearized perturbation is found to be enhanced by a factor of ten or more in strong density waves, which likely explains the observation of kilometer-scale structures in these waves. The Hamiltonian formalism can also be used to derive an enhanced effective viscosity that results from these straw-like structures.

  2. Energy density and energy flow of surface waves in a strongly magnetized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2018-01-01

    General expressions for the energy density and energy flow of plasmonic waves in a two-dimensional massless electron gas (as a simple model of graphene) are obtained by means of the linearized magneto-hydrodynamic model and classical electromagnetic theory when a strong external magnetic field perpendicular to the system is present. Also, analytical expressions for the energy velocity, wave polarization, wave impedance, transverse and longitudinal field strength functions, and attenuation length of surface magneto-plasmon-polariton waves are derived, and numerical results are prepared.

  3. Galactic Dynamos and Density Wave Theory - Part Two - an Alternative Treatment for Strong Non-Axisymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, K.; Mestel, L.

    1993-12-01

    A steady density wave in a disc-like galaxy could lead to a spiral form for the crucial α-effect term in standard dynamo theory. We had earlier studied this problem under the thin-disc approximation and by effecting an approximate separation of variables between the z-dependence and the r, φ-dependences of the magnetic field. We return to this problem by making an alternative approximation of our equations, which allows a better treatment of the case of strong departures from axisymmetry, albeit with a cruder treatment of the z-dependence. The numerical solution of the equations reveals, as in our earlier work, the existence of rapidly growing, global, bisymmetric magnetic modes, corotating with the density wave. The modes extend several kiloparsecs around the radius r_c_ where the wave corotates with the gas. The magnetic spiral is closely aligned with the density wave in regions where it has maximum strength; leading within r_c_ and trailing outside. These results are remarkably similar to that obtained in our earlier work, under a very different approximation scheme, encouraging belief in the robustness of the results obtained in both papers.

  4. Density-waves instability and a skyrmion lattice on the surface of strong topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Yuval; Stern, Ady

    2012-11-01

    In this work we analyze the instability conditions for spin-density-wave (SDW) formation on the surface of strong topological insulators. We find that for a certain range of Fermi energies and strength of interactions the SDW state is favored compared to the unmagnetized and the uniform-magnetization states. We also find that the SDWs are of spiral nature and, for a certain range of parameters, a Skyrmion lattice may form on the surface. We show that this phase may have a nontrivial Chern number even in the absence of an external magnetic field.

  5. Strong electron-lattice coupling as the mechanism behind charge density wave transformations in transition-metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P.

    2012-04-01

    We consider a single band of conduction electrons interacting with displacements of the transitional ions. In the classical regime strong enough coupling transforms the harmonic elastic energy for an ion to the one of the well with two deep minima, so that the system is described in terms of Ising spins. Intersite interactions order spins at lower temperatures. Extension to the quantum regime is discussed. Below the charge density wave (CDW) transition the energy spectrum of electrons remains metallic because the structural vector Q and the Fermi surface sizes are not related. Large values of the CDW gap seen in the tunneling experiments correspond to the energy of the minima in the electron-ion two-well complex. The gap is defined through the density of states inside the electronic bands below the CDW transition. We focus mainly on electronic properties of transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  6. Isochoric heating and strong blast wave formation driven by fast electrons in solid-density targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. J.; Vauzour, B.; Touati, M.; Gremillet, L.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Ceccotti, T.; Bouillaud, R.; Deneuville, F.; Floquet, V.; Fourment, C.; Hadj-Bachir, M.; Hulin, S.; Morace, A.; Nicolaï, Ph; d'Oliveira, P.; Reau, F.; Samaké, A.; Tcherbakoff, O.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Veltcheva, M.; Batani, D.

    2017-10-01

    We experimentally investigate the fast (metallic foils and subsequent high-pressure hydrodynamics induced by energetic electrons driven by high-intensity, high-contrast laser pulses. The early-time temperature profile inside the target is measured from the streaked optical pyrometry of the target rear side. This is further characterized from benchmarked simulations of the laser-target interaction and the fast electron transport. Despite a modest laser energy (laser-based platform dedicated to high-energy-density physics studies.

  7. Propagation of a strong spherical shock wave in a gravitating or non-gravitating dusty gas with exponentially varying density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    The propagation of a strong spherical shock wave in a dusty gas with or without self-gravitational effects is investigated in the case of isothermal and adiabatic flows. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of small solid particles and perfect gas. The equilibrium flow conditions are assumed to be maintained, and the density of the mixture is assumed to be varying and obeying an exponential law. Non-similarity solutions are obtained and the effects of variations of the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the presence of self-gravitational field on the flow variables are investigated at given times. Our analysis reveals that after inclusion of gravitational field effects surprisingly the shock strength increases and remarkable differences are found in the distribution of flow variables. An increase in time also, increases the shock strength. Further, it is investigated that the consideration of isothermal flow increases the shock strength, and removes the singularity in the density distribution. Also, the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the inner contact surface and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in self-gravitating dusty gas can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, star formation and shocks in stellar explosion, nuclear explosion, in industry, rupture of a pressurized vessel and explosion in the ionosphere. Other potential applications of this study include analysis of data from exploding wire experiments and cylindrically symmetric hypersonic flow problems associated with meteors or re-entry of vehicles etc. A comparison is made between the solutions in the cases of the gravitating and the non-gravitating media. The obtained solutions are applicable for

  8. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  9. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  10. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  11. Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.

  12. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  13. Strong winds and waves offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report is on the ......This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report...... is on the meteorologi al and o eani onditions related to storm winds and waves over the North Sea. With regard to the o shore wind energy appli ation, the parameters addressed here in lude: extreme wind and extreme waves, storm wind and waves and turbulen e issues for o shore onditions....

  14. Charge density waves in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor'kov, LP

    2012-01-01

    The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an

  15. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...

  16. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. II. Wave packet collapse and structure of wave packets during strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-07-01

    Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed νe/c increases and as the temperature ratio Ti/Te of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on νe/c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of Ti/Te. The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of νe/c. For νe/c ≲0.17, strong turbulence is approximately electrostatic and wave packets have very similar structure to purely electrostatic wave packets. For νe/c ≳0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all νe/c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as νe/c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.

  17. Flashing coupled density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie

    1997-07-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The phenomenon and mechanism of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and flashing coupled density wave instability are described. The especially interpreted flashing coupled density wave instability has never been studied well, it is analyzed by using a one-dimensional non-thermo equilibrium two-phase flow drift model computer code. Calculations are in good agreement with the experiment results. (5 refs.,5 figs., 1 tab.)

  18. Strong wave/mean-flow coupling in baroclinic acoustic streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Greg; Michel, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    Recently, Chini et al. demonstrated the potential for large-amplitude acoustic streaming in compressible channel flows subjected to strong background cross-channel density variations. In contrast with classic Rayleigh streaming, standing acoustic waves of O (ɛ) amplitude acquire vorticity owing to baroclinic torques acting throughout the domain rather than via viscous torques acting in Stokes boundary layers. More significantly, these baroclinically-driven streaming flows have a magnitude that also is O (ɛ) , i.e. comparable to that of the sound waves. In the present study, the consequent potential for fully two-way coupling between the waves and streaming flows is investigated using a novel WKBJ analysis. The analysis confirms that the wave-driven streaming flows are sufficiently strong to modify the background density gradient, thereby modifying the leading-order acoustic wave structure. Simulations of the wave/mean-flow system enabled by the WKBJ analysis are performed to illustrate the nature of the two-way coupling, which contrasts sharply with classic Rayleigh streaming, for which the waves can first be determined and the streaming flows subsequently computed.

  19. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N c arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma

  20. Fast wave current drive above the slow wave density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.; Sheehan, D.P.; Wolf, N.S.; Edrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Fast wave and slow wave current drive near the mean gyrofrequency were compared in the Irvine Torus using distinct phased array antennae of similar principal wavelengths, frequencies, and input powers. The slow wave current drive density limit was measured for 50ω ci ≤ω≤500ω ci and found to agree with trends in tokamaks. Fast wave current drive was observed at densities up to the operating limit of the torus, demonstrably above the slow wave density limit

  1. On Density Waves in Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    The spiral structure of five ordinary spiral galaxies was studied using deep BVIK' surface photometry maps obtained at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope. The detailed shape of the arms was analyzed in terms of the spiral density wave theory. Grand design spirals were found on the K' maps in all five galaxies although at least two would be classified as flocculent on the blue images. In several of the galaxies, bulges with weak oval distortion (~10%) were observed. Dust spirals also continue, in some cases, inside the ILR where the stellar arms terminate. This emphasizes the strong bias of morphological classifications of spiral galaxies based on blue image due to dust and young stars. The 2--armed spirals were systematically found to be wound tighter on I than on K' maps suggesting the existence of a density wave. Locations of the ILR and the 4/1 resonance were estimated based on the arm morphology and the amplitude ratio between the m = 2,4 Fourier components. The wavenumber of the stellar 2--armed pattern is increasing towards the ILR which could suggest that the density wave is associated to the long waved branch of the dispersion relation. A possible scenario is discussed.

  2. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  3. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  4. Sound waves and shock waves in high-density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of compressing the cryogenic hollow pellet of inertial confinement nuclear fusion with multiple adiabatic shock waves is discussed, on the basis of the estimation of the properties of a high-density deuterium plasma (10 24 -10 27 cm -3 , 10 -1 -10 4 eV), such as the velocity and the attenuation constant of the adiabatic sound wave, the width of the shock wave, and the surface tension. It is found that in the course of compression the wavelength of the adiabatic sound wave and the width of the weak shock wave sometimes become comparable to or exceed the fuel shell width of the pellet, and that the surface tension is negative. These results show that it is rather difficult to compress stably the hollow pellet with successive weak shock waves. (author)

  5. Strongly driven ion acoustic waves in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldis, H.A.; Labaune, C.; Renard, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper present an experimental study of ion acoustic waves with wavenumbers corresponding to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Time resolved Thomson scattering in frequency and wavenumber space, has permitted to observe the dispersion relation of the waves as a function of the laser intensity. Apart from observing ion acoustic waves associated with a strong second component is observed at laser intensities above 10 13 Wcm -2

  6. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  7. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mal vortex-like ion distribution and strongly correlated grains in a liquid-like state and discussed about the properties of shock ... shock waves in coupled dusty plasma with Boltzmann distribution of ions. Ghosh et al have studied the effect of ... ues of parameters where the nonlinear term is zero. Also new kind of shock wave.

  8. Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method

  9. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  10. The impact of crustal density variations on seismic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct.We propose to develop a seismic tomography technique that directly inverts for density, using complete seismograms rather than arrival times of certain waves only. The first task in this challenge is to systematically study the imprints of density on synthetic seismograms.To compute the full seismic wavefield in a 3D heterogeneous medium without making significant approximations, we usenumerical wave propagation based on a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation. We consider a 2000 by 1000 km wide and 500 km deep spherical section, with the 1D Earth model PREM (with 40 km crust thickness) as a background. Onto this (in the uppermost 40 km) we superimpose 3D randomly generated velocity and density heterogeneities of various magnitudes and correlation lenghts. We use different random realizations of heterogeneity distribution.We compare the synthetic seismograms for 3D velocity and density structure with 3D velocity structure and with the 1D background, calculating relative amplitude differences and timeshifts as functions of time and frequency.Our analyses indicate that reasonably sized density variations within the crust can leave a strong imprint on both traveltimes and amplitudes. This suggests (1) that crustal tomography can be significantly biased when density heterogeneities are not properly accounted for, and (2) that the solution of the seismic inverse problem for density may become feasible.

  11. Strongly interacting matter at high densities with a soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Webster

    1998-12-01

    One of the major goals of modern nuclear physics is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. The study of these 'extreme' conditions is the primary motivation for the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory which will accelerate nuclei to a center of mass (c.m.) energy of about 200 GeV/nucleon. From a theoretical perspective, a test of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) requires the expansion of the conditions examined from one phase point to the entire phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter. In the present work we focus attention on what happens when the density is increased, at low excitation energies. Experimental results from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) indicate that this regime may be tested in the 'full stopping' (maximum energy deposition) scenario achieved at the AGS having a c.m. collision energy of about 2.5 GeV/nucleon for two equal- mass heavy nuclei. Since the solution of QCD on nuclear length-scales is computationally prohibitive even on today's most powerful computers, progress in the theoretical description of high densities has come through the application of models incorporating some of the essential features of the full theory. The simplest such model is the MIT bag model. We use a significantly more sophisticated model, a nonlocal confining soliton model developed in part at Kent. This model has proven its value in the calculation of the properties of individual mesons and nucleons. In the present application, the many-soliton problem is addressed with the same model. We describe nuclear matter as a lattice of solitons and apply the Wigner-Seitz approximation to the lattice. This means that we consider spherical cells with one soliton centered in each, corresponding to the average properties of the lattice. The average density is then varied by changing the size of the Wigner-Seitz cell. To arrive at a solution, we need to solve a coupled set of

  12. Selective Coherent Excitation of Charged Density Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A.A.; Sagar, D.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Marel, D. van der

    2003-01-01

    Real time femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study collective and single particle excitations in the charge density wave state of the quasi-1D metal, blue bronze. Along with the previously observed collective amplitudon excitation, the spectra show several additional coherent features.

  13. Wave Tank Studies of Strong Modulation of Wind Ripples Due To Long Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Modulation of wind capillary-gravity ripples due to long waves has been studied in wave tank experiment at low wind speeds using Ka-band radar. The experiments were carried out both for clean water and the water surface covered with surfactant films. It is obtained that the modulation of radar signals is quite strong and can increase with surfactant concentration and fetch. It is shown that the hydrodynamic Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) calculated for free wind ripples and taking into account the kinematic (straining) effect, variations of the wind stress and variations of surfactant concentration strongly underestimates experimental MTF-values. The effect of strong modulation is assumed to be connected with nonlinear harmonics of longer dm-cm- scale waves - bound waves ("parasitic ripples"). The intensity of bound waves depends strongly on the amplitude of decimetre-scale waves, therefore even weak modulation of the dm-scale waves due to long waves results to strong ("cascade") modulation of bound waves. Modulation of the system of "free/bound waves" is estimated using results of wave tank studies of bound waves generation and is shown to be in quali- tative agreement with experiment. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  14. Strongly nonlinear waves in a chain of Teflon beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Herbold, E. B.; Jin, S.

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional “sonic vacuum” type phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE,Teflon) spheres with different diameters in a Teflon holder. It was demonstrated that this polymer-based sonic vacuum, with exceptionally low elastic modulus of particles, supports propagation of strongly nonlinear solitary waves with a very low speed. These solitary waves can be described using the classical nonlinear Hertz law despite the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and ...

  15. Driven transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    The linear dispersion properties of transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma are experimentally studied in a DC discharge device by exciting them in a controlled manner with a variable frequency external source. The dusty plasma is maintained in the strongly coupled fluid regime with (1 c ) where Γ is the Coulomb coupling parameter and Γ c is the crystallization limit. A dispersion relation for the transverse waves is experimentally obtained over a frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz and found to show good agreement with viscoelastic theoretical results

  16. Brave new world of unconventional density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, K.; Dora, B.; Korin-Hamzic, B.; Basletic, M.; Virosztek, A.; Kartsovnik, M.V.

    2003-10-01

    Recently many people have discussed unconventional density wave (i.e. UCDW and USDW). Unlike in conventional density waves, the quasiparticle excitations in these systems are gapless. The appearance of these systems suggests paradigm shift from quasi 1D system to quasi 2D and 3D systems. Here we limit ourselves to the angular dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR) observed in the low temperature phase (LTP) of α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg(SCN) 4 . Here we show that UCDW describes successfully many features of ADMR as manifestation of the Landau quantization of the quasiparticle spectrum in magnetic field. Indeed ADMR will provide a unique window to access UDW like the AF phase in URu 2 Si 2 , the pseudogap phase in high T c cuprates and the glassy phase in organic superconductor k-(ET) 2 salts. (author)

  17. Strong coupling QCD at finite baryon-number density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, F.; Muetter, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    We present a new representation of the partition function for strong-coupling QCD which is suitable also for finite baryon-number-density simulations. This enables us to study the phase structure in the canonical formulation (with fixed baryon number B) as well as the grand canonical one (with fixed chemical potential μ). We find a clear signal for a first-order chiral phase transition at μ c a=0.63. The critical baryon-number density n c a 3 =0.045 is only slightly higher than the density of nuclear matter. (orig.)

  18. Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes

  19. Modeling a nonperturbative spinor vacuum interacting with a strong gravitational wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Folomeev, Vladimir [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science, NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-07-15

    We consider the propagation of strong gravitational waves interacting with a nonperturbative vacuum of spinor fields. To described the latter, we suggest an approximate model. The corresponding Einstein equation has the form of the Schroedinger equation. Its gravitational-wave solution is analogous to the solution of the Schroedinger equation for an electron moving in a periodic potential. The general solution for the periodic gravitational waves is found. The analog of the Kronig-Penney model for gravitational waves is considered. It is shown that the suggested gravitational-wave model permits the existence of weak electric charge and current densities concomitant with the gravitational wave. Based on this observation, a possible experimental verification of the model is suggested. (orig.)

  20. Gravitational waves from a very strong electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (UNMdP-CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Deán Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider extensions of the Standard Model which can give very strongly first-order phase transitions, such that the transition fronts either propagate as detonations or run away. To compute the bubble wall velocity, we estimate the friction with the plasma and take into account the hydrodynamics. We track the development of the phase transition up to the percolation time, and we calculate the gravitational wave spectrum generated by bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves. For the kinds of models we consider, we find parameter regions for which the gravitational waves are potentially observable at the planned space-based interferometer eLISA. In such cases, the signal from sound waves is generally dominant, while that from bubble collisions is the least significant of them. Since the sound waves and turbulence mechanisms are diminished for runaway walls, the models with the best prospects of detection at eLISA are those which do not have such solutions. In particular, we find that heavy extra bosons provide stronger gravitational wave signals than tree-level terms.

  1. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  2. Strongly nonlinear wave dynamics in a chain of polymer coated beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    Strongly nonlinear phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of Parylene-C coated steel spheres in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) holder. This system exhibits strongly nonlinear properties and extends the range of materials supporting "sonic vacuum" type behavior. The combination of a high density core and a soft (low elastic modulus) coating ensures a relatively low velocity of wave propagation. The beads contact interaction caused by the deformation of the Parylene coating can be desc...

  3. Charge density wave states in tantalum dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Duxbury, Phillip M.

    2018-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we explore a range of charge density wave states (CDWs) in tantalum-based transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers. The high-symmetry states of the 1 H phases of Ta X2 (X = S, Se, Te) are lower in total energy compared to the 1 T variants, while the 1 T phases exhibit a much stronger tendency for CDW formation. The stability of several CDWs is found to be stronger as the chalcogenide is changed in the sequence (S, Se, Te), with the tellurium-based systems exhibiting several CDWs with binding energy per formula unit in the range of 100 meV . These 1 T CDW phases are lower in energy than the corresponding 1 H CDW phases. The diversity of CDWs exhibited by these materials suggests that many "hidden" states may occur on ultrafast excitation or photodoping. Changes in electronic structure across the Ta X2 series are also elucidated.

  4. ULF Wave Associated Density Irregularities and Scintillation at the Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents independent multi-instrument observations that addresses the physical mechanisms of how ULF wave associated electric fields initiate ionospheric density fluctuations and scintillation at the equator. Since the magnetic field at the equator is entirely embedded in a relatively high collision and high conductivity medium, the condition may not be possible for the geomagnetic field to fluctuate due to the damped/penetrated ULF wave. This implies the fluctuating electric field at the equator may not be produced through equatorial dynamo action due to fluctuating magnetic fields. Instead the oscillating field penetrates from high-latitudes through the TM0 (zero order transverse magnetic) mode and produce fluctuating induced magnetic field, and thus modulate the vertical drift to oscillate. We estimated the ULF associated electric field at high-latitudes and equatorial region, and demonstrated that only 15% of the fluctuating electric field from the auroral region can make to the equatorial region. We also calculated the corresponding vertical drift that oscillate with nearly identical periodicity (6-9 min) as the ULF waves in the Pc5 band. Because of its large amplitude and long periods compared to other ULF wave frequency bands, the Pc5 wave associated electric field can easily penetrate to the lower latitude region. The oscillating vertical drift at the equator has an amplitude of 2.5 - 7.0 m/s, which is 25 -50% of the typical quiet time dayside maximum value of the vertical drift at the equator, which is strong enough fluctuation to easily produce significant ionospheric density fluctuations and trigger scintillation at the equatorial region. In this paper, we present multi-instrument observations that clearly confirm the role of ULF wave penetration for the formation of density irregularities and scintillation at the equator.

  5. Far-Infrared Study of the Charge Density Wave in Tetrathiofulvalene Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, D. B.; Cummings, K. D.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    1981-01-01

    Detailed far-infrared measurements at temperatures from 25 to 300 K provide strong support for a charge-density-wave mechanism for the dc conductivity and microwave dielectric constant of tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ). At low temperatures the charge-density wave is pinned...... at 40 cm-1 while at higher temperatures it appears at zero frequency. Values are obtained for the effective mass (20m*) and lifetime (1.6×10-12 sec at 60 K) of the charge-density wave.......Detailed far-infrared measurements at temperatures from 25 to 300 K provide strong support for a charge-density-wave mechanism for the dc conductivity and microwave dielectric constant of tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ). At low temperatures the charge-density wave is pinned...

  6. Investigation of microalgae with photon density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankovitch, Christine; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2007-09-01

    Phototropic microalgae have a large potential for producing valuable substances for the feed, food, cosmetics, pigment, bioremediation, and pharmacy industries as well as for biotechnological processes. Today it is estimated that the microalgal aquaculture worldwide production is 5000 tons of dry matter per year (not taking into account processed products) making it an approximately $1.25 billion U.S. per year industry. For effective observation of the photosynthetic growth processes, fast on-line sensor systems that analyze the relevant biological and technical process parameters are preferred. The optical properties of the microalgae culture influence the transport of light in the photobioreactor and can be used to extract relevant information for efficient cultivation practices. Microalgae cultivation media show a combination of light absorption and scattering, which are influenced by the concentrations and the physical and chemical properties of the different absorbing and scattering species (e.g. pigments, cell components, etc.). Investigations with frequency domain photon density waves (PDW) allow for the examination of absorption and scattering properties of turbid media, namely the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The reduced scattering coefficient can be used to characterize physical and morphological properties of the medium, including the cell concentration, whereas the absorption coefficient correlates with the pigment content. Nannochloropsis oculata, a single-cell species of microalgae, were examined in a nutrient solution with photon density waves. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were experimentally determined throughout the cultivation process, and applied to gain information about the cell concentration and average cell radius.

  7. Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    A genetic algorithm has been developed to optimize the phases of the strongest reflections in SIR/SAD data. This is shown to facilitate density modification and model building in several test cases. Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005 ▶), Acta Cryst. D61, 899–902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number of strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. A computer program, SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography

  8. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory: A New Way To Treat Strongly Correlated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G; Li Manni, Giovanni; Carlson, Rebecca K; Hoyer, Chad E; Bao, Junwei Lucas

    2017-01-17

    The electronic energy of a system provides the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy for internuclear motion and thus determines molecular structure and spectra, bond energies, conformational energies, reaction barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. The development of more efficient and more accurate ways to calculate the electronic energy of systems with inherently multiconfigurational electronic structure is essential for many applications, including transition metal and actinide chemistry, systems with partially broken bonds, many transition states, and most electronically excited states. Inherently multiconfigurational systems are called strongly correlated systems or multireference systems, where the latter name refers to the need for using more than one ("multiple") configuration state function to provide a good zero-order reference wave function. This Account describes multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which was developed as a way to combine the advantages of wave function theory (WFT) and density functional theory (DFT) to provide a better treatment of strongly correlated systems. First we review background material: the widely used Kohn-Sham DFT (which uses only a single Slater determinant as reference wave function), multiconfiguration WFT methods that treat inherently multiconfigurational systems based on an active space, and previous attempts to combine multiconfiguration WFT with DFT. Then we review the formulation of MC-PDFT. It is a generalization of Kohn-Sham DFT in that the electron kinetic energy and classical electrostatic energy are calculated from a reference wave function, while the rest of the energy is obtained from a density functional. However, there are two main differences with respent to Kohn-Sham DFT: (i) The reference wave function is multiconfigurational rather than being a single Slater determinant. (ii) The density functional is a function of the total density and the on-top pair density rather than

  9. Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C

    2010-12-17

    We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ≲ 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ≳ 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (≲ 60%) or heavy (≲ 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (≲ 2 per year).

  10. Electron with orbital angular momentum in a strong laser wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovets, Dmitry V.

    2012-12-01

    Electrons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have recently been discovered theoretically and obtained experimentally, which opens up possibilities for using them in high-energy physics. We consider such a twisted electron moving in the external field of a plane electromagnetic wave and study how this field influences the electron's OAM. Being motivated by the development of high-power lasers, we focus our attention on a classically strong-field regime for which -e2A2¯/(me2c4)≳1. It is shown that, along with the well-known “plane-wave” Volkov solution, the Dirac equation also has the “non-plane-wave” solutions, which possess OAM and spin-orbit coupling and generalize the free-electron's Bessel states. Motion of an electron with OAM in a circularly polarized laser wave reveals a twofold character: the wave-packet center moves along a classical helical trajectory with some quantum transverse broadening (due to OAM) existing even for a free electron. Using the twisted states, we calculate the electron's total angular momentum and predict its shift in the strong-field regime, which is analogous to the well-known shifts of the electron's momentum and mass (and to a less-known shift of its spin) in intense fields. Since the electron's effective angular momentum is conserved in a plane wave, as well as in some more general field configurations, we discuss several possibilities for accelerating nonrelativistic twisted electrons by using focused and combined electromagnetic fields.

  11. Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.

  12. Quantitative study of two- and three-dimensional strong localization of matter waves by atomic scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antezza, Mauro; Castin, Yvan; Hutchinson, David A. W.

    2010-01-01

    We study the strong localization of atomic matter waves in a disordered potential created by atoms pinned at the nodes of a lattice, for both three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) systems. The localization length of the matter wave, the density of localized states, and the occurrence of energy mobility edges (for the 3D system), are numerically investigated as a function of the effective scattering length between the atomic matter wave and the pinned atoms. Both positive and negative matter wave energies are explored. Interesting features of the density of states are discovered at negative energies, where maxima in the density of bound states for the system can be interpreted in terms of bound states of a matter wave atom with a few pinned atomic scatterers. In 3D we found evidence of up to three mobility edges, one at positive energies, and two at negative energies, the latter corresponding to transitions between extended and localized bound states. In 2D, no mobility edge is found, and a rapid exponential-like increase of the localization length is observed at high energy.

  13. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2012-12-13

    In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.

  14. Strongly coupled dusty plasmas: crystals, liquids, clusters and waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeng-Mei Liu; Wen-Tau Juan; Ju-Wang Hsu; Zen-Hong Huang; Lin I

    1999-01-01

    The dusty plasma is a system that consists of many strongly-charged fine dust particles suspended in a plasma background. The slow dynamics and strong coupling due to the large mass and charges lead to the formation of highly-ordered dust crystal structures suspended in the plasma background, which can be directly observed. The dusty plasma forms a link to the area of condensed matter physics for the study of many interesting microscopic phenomena from order to disorder. In this paper, we introduce the special properties of this system from the viewpoint of conventional plasma physics, then we briefly review past works on the structure and dynamical behaviour from the highly-ordered state, through the melting and liquid states with associated vortex-type excitation and anomalous diffusion, to the state with self-organized macroscopic dust waves after losing microscopic order. The first observation of strongly-coupled dust Coulomb clusters with small numbers of particles from a few to a few hundred, which resemble classical atoms, is also demonstrated. (author)

  15. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  16. Energy density of relic gravity waves from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, V.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate both the spectral energy density and the total energy density for relic gravity waves produced during the transition from an early inflationary phase to a matter-dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-type expansion: a∼t c (c μν =8πG left-angle T μν right-angle. In the case of power-law and quasiexponential inflation we find that the ratio of the energy density of gravity waves to the background matter density increases with time, as gravity waves with longer wavelengths and larger amplitudes enter the horizon at successively later epochs. This could lead to the energy density of gravity waves becoming comparable to the energy density of matter at late times, if inflation commenced at Planckian energies

  17. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    between nonlinear and dispersion effects can result in the formation of symmetrical solitary waves. Also shock ... et al have studied the effect of nonadiabatic dust charge variation on the nonlinear dust acoustic wave with ..... Figure 5 presents the border between oscillatory- and monotonic-type shock waves as functions of ...

  18. Nonuniform Internal Structure of Fibrin Fibers: Protein Density and Bond Density Strongly Decrease with Increasing Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.

  19. Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Frans

    We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string

  20. An investigation on density wave oscillations in helical coiled tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-long, Z.; Tin-Kuan, C.; Xue-jun, C.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1990-01-01

    Density wave instability in helical coiled tubes has been systematically observed using high pressure ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 Mpa, mass velocity from 400 to 1200 kg/sm 2 , inlet subcooling from 10 to 120 degrees C and heat flux up to 450 kw/m 2 . In the experimental research the effects of system pressure, mass velocity, heat flux, inlet subcooling, inlet resistence and exit resistence have been studied. The experimental results show that the density wave oscillation occurred at positive slope part to mass velocity versus total pressure drop curve, the phase difference of the density wave oscillation between the inlet and exit flow rate is approximately 180 degrees. Increasing heat flux, the periods of density wave oscillation decreased. The periods are about 1-2 times the residence time of fluid in the heater, about 3-14s. System presure, inlet subcooling, mass velocity, inlet resistance and exit resistence affected the threshold of density wave oscillation. Increasing the system pressure, mass velocity and inlet resistence, the limit heat flux of density wave oscillation increased. Increasing exit resistence, the limit heat flux decreased. The stability boundary diagrams of the system have been found. In this paper the empirical correlations for predicting the threshold of density wave oscillations are presented

  1. On the evolution of the density probability density function in strongly self-gravitating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girichidis, Philipp; Konstandin, Lukas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the mass density is formulated and solved for systems in free-fall using a simple approximate function for the collapse of a sphere. We demonstrate that a pressure-free collapse results in a power-law tail on the high-density side of the PDF. The slope quickly asymptotes to the functional form P V (ρ)∝ρ –1.54 for the (volume-weighted) PDF and P M (ρ)∝ρ –0.54 for the corresponding mass-weighted distribution. From the simple approximation of the PDF we derive analytic descriptions for mass accretion, finding that dynamically quiet systems with narrow density PDFs lead to retarded star formation and low star formation rates (SFRs). Conversely, strong turbulent motions that broaden the PDF accelerate the collapse causing a bursting mode of star formation. Finally, we compare our theoretical work with observations. The measured SFRs are consistent with our model during the early phases of the collapse. Comparison of observed column density PDFs with those derived from our model suggests that observed star-forming cores are roughly in free-fall.

  2. Continuous Dependence on the Density for Stratified Steady Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robin Ming; Walsh, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    There are two distinct regimes commonly used to model traveling waves in stratified water: continuous stratification, where the density is smooth throughout the fluid, and layer-wise continuous stratification, where the fluid consists of multiple immiscible strata. The former is the more physically accurate description, but the latter is frequently more amenable to analysis and computation. By the conservation of mass, the density is constant along the streamlines of the flow; the stratification can therefore be specified by prescribing the value of the density on each streamline. We call this the streamline density function. Our main result states that, for every smoothly stratified periodic traveling wave in a certain small-amplitude regime, there is an L ∞ neighborhood of its streamline density function such that, for any piecewise smooth streamline density function in that neighborhood, there is a corresponding traveling wave solution. Moreover, the mapping from streamline density function to wave is Lipschitz continuous in a certain function space framework. As this neighborhood includes piecewise smooth densities with arbitrarily many jump discontinues, this theorem provides a rigorous justification for the ubiquitous practice of approximating a smoothly stratified wave by a layered one. We also discuss some applications of this result to the study of the qualitative features of such waves.

  3. Experimental Evidence for Static Charge Density Waves in Iron Oxypnictides

    KAUST Repository

    Martinelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter we report high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscope analysis of Mn-substituted LaFeAsO samples, demonstrating that a static incommensurate modulated structure develops across the low-temperature orthorhombic phase, whose modulation wave vector depends on the Mn content. The incommensurate structural distortion is likely originating from a charge-density-wave instability, a periodic modulation of the density of conduction electrons associated with a modulation of the atomic positions. Our results add a new component in the physics of Fe-based superconductors, indicating that the density wave ordering is charge driven.

  4. Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist

  5. Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.

    2018-01-01

    For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be

  6. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.

    2001-01-01

    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such 'supersonic' Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Dust acoustic shock wave at high dust density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Avinash, K.; Gupta, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Dust acoustic (DA) shock wave at high dust density, i.e., the dust electroacoustic (DEA) or dust Coulomb (DC) shock wave has been investigated incorporating the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The nonlinear DEA (DC) shock wave is seen to be governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation, in which the Burger term is proportional to the nonadiabaticity generated dissipation. It is seen that the shock strength decreases but after reaching minimum, it increases as the dust space charge density |q d n d | increases and the shock strength of DA wave is greater than that of DEA (DC) wave. Moreover the DEA (DC) shock width increases appreciably with increase mass m i of the ion component of the dusty plasma but for DA shock wave the effect is weak

  8. GyPSuM: A Detailed Tomographic Model of Mantle Density and Seismic Wave Speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, N A; Forte, A M; Boschi, L; Grand, S P

    2010-03-30

    GyPSuM is a tomographic model fo mantle seismic shear wave (S) speeds, compressional wave (P) speeds and detailed density anomalies that drive mantle flow. the model is developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times (P and S) and geodynamic observations while considering realistic mineral physics parameters linking the relative behavior of mantle properties (wave speeds and density). Geodynamic observations include the (up to degree 16) global free-air gravity field, divergence of the tectonic plates, dynamic topography of the free surface, and the flow-induced excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. GyPSuM is built with the philosophy that heterogeneity that most closely resembles thermal variations is the simplest possible solution. Models of the density field from Earth's free oscillations have provided great insight into the density configuration of the mantle; but are limited to very long-wavelength solutions. Alternatively, simply scaling higher resolution seismic images to density anomalies generates density fields that do not satisfy geodynamic observations. The current study provides detailed density structures in the mantle while directly satisfying geodynamic observations through a joint seismic-geodynamic inversion process. Notable density field observations include high-density piles at the base of the superplume structures, supporting the fundamental results of past normal mode studies. However, these features are more localized and lower amplitude than past studies would suggest. When we consider all seismic anomalies in GyPSuM, we find that P and S-wave speeds are strongly correlated throughout the mantle. However, correlations between the high-velocity S zones in the deep mantle ({approx} 2000 km depth) and corresponding P-wave anomalies are very low suggesting a systematic divergence from simplified thermal effects in ancient subducted slab anomalies. Nevertheless, they argue that temperature variations are

  9. Enhancement of electric and magnetic wave fields at density gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reiniusson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We use Freja satellite data to investigate irregular small-scale density variations. The observations are made in the auroral region at about 1000-1700 km. The density variations are a few percent, and the structures are found to be spatial down to a scale length of a few ion gyroradii. Irregular density variations are often found in an environment of whistler mode/lower hybrid waves and we show that at the density gradients both the electric and magnetic wave fields are enhanced.

  10. Response of a thin airfoil encountering strong density discontinuity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, F.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Karman Lab. of Fluid Mechanics

    1993-12-01

    Airfoil theory for unsteady motion has been developed extensively assuming the undisturbed medium to be of uniform density, a restriction accurate for motion in the atmosphere. In some instances, notably for airfoil comprising fan, compressor and turbine blade rows, the undisturbed medium may carry density variations or ``spots``, resulting from non-uniformities in temperature or composition, of a size comparable to the blade chord. This condition exists for turbine blades, immediately downstream of the main burner of a gas turbine engine where the density fluctuations of the order of 50 percent may occur. Disturbances of a somewhat smaller magnitude arise from the ingestion of hot boundary layers into fans, and exhaust into hovercraft. Because these regions of non-uniform density convect with the moving medium, the airfoil experiences a time varying load and moment which the authors calculate.

  11. Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzin, E; Cardoso, V; Raposo, G; Pani, P

    2017-01-01

    The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects. (paper)

  12. Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin, E.; Cardoso, V.; Pani, P.; Raposo, G.

    2017-05-01

    The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects.

  13. Conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and fast magnetosonic waves at a plasma density cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.O.

    2004-01-01

    Analytic expressions are presented for conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and magnetosonic waves by scattering off a small scale density cavity. The governing equations are solved in slab geometry with wave vectors perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the density gradient associated with density cavity using a scale length separation method. The theory predicts strong excitation of localized lower hybrid oscillations for a set of frequencies between the lower hybrid frequency of the ambient plasma and the minimum lower hybrid frequency inside the cavity. The theory is relevant for the lower hybrid solitary structures observed in space plasmas

  14. Wave Breaking Phenomenon for DGH Equation with Strong Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is mainly concerned with the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm (DGH equation with strong dissipative term. We establish some sufficient conditions to guarantee finite time blow-up of strong solutions.

  15. On the propagation of sound waves in a stellar wind traversed by periodic strong shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pijpers, F. P.

    1994-01-01

    It has been claimed that in stellar winds traversed by strong shocks the mechanism for driving the wind by sound wave pressure cannot operate because sound waves cannot propagate past the shocks. It is shown here that sound waves can propagate through shocks in one direction and that this is a sufficient condition for the sound wave pressure mechanism to work. A strong shock amplifies a sound wave passing through it and can drag the sound wave away from the star. It is immaterial for the soun...

  16. Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Delampady, Mohan; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A productive way forward in studies of animal populations is to efficiently make use of all the information available, either as raw data or as published sources, on critical parameters of interest. In this study, we demonstrate two approaches to the use of multiple sources of information on a parameter of fundamental interest to ecologists: animal density. The first approach produces estimates simultaneously from two different sources of data. The second approach was developed for situations in which initial data collection and analysis are followed up by subsequent data collection and prior knowledge is updated with new data using a stepwise process. Both approaches are used to estimate density of a rare and elusive predator, the tiger, by combining photographic and fecal DNA spatial capture–recapture data. The model, which combined information, provided the most precise estimate of density (8.5 ± 1.95 tigers/100 km2 [posterior mean ± SD]) relative to a model that utilized only one data source (photographic, 12.02 ± 3.02 tigers/100 km2 and fecal DNA, 6.65 ± 2.37 tigers/100 km2). Our study demonstrates that, by accounting for multiple sources of available information, estimates of animal density can be significantly improved.

  17. Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-03-03

    We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4}  s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.

  18. Imperfect nesting and scattering effect in spin density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaozhou; Maki, Kazumi

    1992-01-01

    We study the impurity scattering in spin and charge density wave (SDW/CDW) with imperfect nesting. The impurity scattering suppresses both the SDW (or CDW) order parameter and the transition temperature like the pair-breaking effect in superconductor. Here we analyze the order parameter and the density of states of SDW (or CDW)

  19. Scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.L.; Perkins, F.W.

    1981-07-01

    The investigation of the scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations in tokamaks is distinguished by the presence in the wave equation of a large, random, derivative-coupling term. Assuming the fluctuations to be of long wavelength compared to the incident wave the similarity of the wave equation to the Schroedinger equation for a particle in a random magnetic field is used to derive a two-way diffusion equation for the wave energy density. The diffusion constant found disagrees with earlier findings and the source of the discrepancy is pointed out. When the correct boundary conditions are imposed this equation can be solved by separation of variables. However most of the important features of the solution are apparent without detailed algebra

  20. Strong density of a class of simple operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, S.; Mohammad, N.

    1991-08-01

    An algebra of simple operators has been shown to be strongly dense in the algebra of all bounded linear operators on function spaces of a compact (not necessarily abelian) group. Further, it is proved that the same result is also true for L 2 (G) if G is a locally compact (not necessarily compact) abelian group. (author). 6 refs

  1. Stability of strong electromagnetic waves in overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiras, F.J. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)

    1982-04-01

    The stability against small perturbations of a class of exact wave solutions of the equations that describe an unmagnetized relativistic cold electron plasma is considered. The main feature of these nonlinear waves is a transverse circularly polarized electric field with periodic amplitude modulation in the longitudinal direction. Floquet's theory of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients is used to solve the perturbation equations and obtain the instability growth rates. Both an approximate solution for small modulation depth and a numerical treatment for arbitrary depth are presented. It is shown that the well-known small-wavenumber instability of the purely transverse circularly polarized waves of constant amplitude is reduced as the modulation depth increases from zero to its maximum allowed value.

  2. Strong Optical Shock excitation in the mismatched regime of bubble plasma-wave based LWFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Aakash

    2017-10-01

    We present investigations into the excitation of a strong optical shock through slicing of a high intensity laser pulse driving a bubble plasma wave in a regime of mis-match between the incident laser waist-size and the bubble size ( = 2√{a0} c /ωpe). In the matched regime, it is well-known that over long timescales, the laser continuously undergoes differential frequency-shifts in different bubble phases, forming an optical shock. In the mis-matched regime, rapid laser waist and resulting bubble oscillations change the location of the peak laser ponderomotive force. This changes the location and the magnitude of the peak electron density interacting with the laser pulse. A sudden increase in the electron density during a laser radial squeeze event, slices the laser envelope longitudinally near its peak amplitude, exciting a strong optical shock state. This is shown to occur much earlier in laser evolution only over a narrow range of plasma densities where the imbalance between the longitudinal & radial ponderomotive forces excites elongated bubbles, injects ultra-low emittance electron beams and sustains ultra-high peak plasma fields. We acknowledge STFC Grants ST/J002062/1 and ST/P000835/1 for the John Adams Institute of Accelerator Science.

  3. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo

    2006-01-01

    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic shock wave formation: Effect of area and density variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujith, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear steepening of finite amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field is investigated. The nonlinear evolution of a planar fast magnetosonic wave in a homentropic flow field is understood well through simple waves. However, in situations where the wave is moving through a variable area duct or when the flow field is nonhomentropic, the concept of simple waves cannot be used. In the present paper, the quasi-one-dimensional MHD equations that include the effect of area variation and density gradients are solved using the wave front expansion technique. The analysis is performed for a perfectly conducting fluid and also for a weakly conducting fluid. Closed form solutions are obtained for the nonlinear evolution of the slope of the wave front in the limits of infinitely large and small conductivity. A general criterion for a compression wave to steepen into a shock is obtained. An analytical expression for the location of shock formation is derived. The effect of area variation and density gradient on shock formation is studied and examples highlighting the same are presented

  5. Resonantly driven nonlinear density waves in protostellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chi; Cassen, Pat

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations of binary, pre-main-sequence, solar-type stars provide evidence that such systems may coexist with circumstellar disks. The binary disk systems, besides being of general interest for the study of star formation, potentially provide useful tests of companion-disk interaction theories prominent in current hypotheses of planet formation. In this paper, we apply an asymptotic analysis of the nonlinear, resonant interaction of a stellar companion with a disk to understand the dependence of such interactions on the properties of the system: the binary mass ratio, the physical properties of the disk, and the effective dissipation (treated herein as viscosity). The method is based on a WKBJ approximation and exploits the conditions that the disk is thin and much less massive than the primary, but does not require that the companion-induced disturbance be small. Both isothermal and adiabatic responses are treated. Only circular orbit resonances are considered in this paper. It is demonstrated that the temperature of the disk as well as the relative mass of the companion affects the degree of nonlinearity, and that nonlinearity promotes high wave compression ratios, long wavelengths, and increased propagation distances. Nevertheless, the total torque exerted between the companion and the disk is well represented by linear theory. The amplitudes of density disturbances are reduced by viscosity and nonisothermality. Because resonant interactions are generally strong and capable of driving rapid evolution, one might expect observations of systems undergoing strong, resonant-driven evolution to be rare. In this connection, it is pointed out that the m = 1 resonance is distinguished by being anomalously weaker than the others and is therefore of observational interest. It is speculated that, in conditions of intrinsically small dissipation, the propagation of resonant-driven density waves is limited by the tendency of their wavelength to diminish with distance

  6. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  7. Strong convective and shock wave behaviour in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.; Davis, J.; Boris, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A model has been developed to study the gasdynamics of a flare region heated by a stream of energetic electrons. It is shown that the energy deposition can introduce strong chromospheric dynamical effects. As a result of fluid motion into rarified regions, there is considerable redistribution of mass causing a profound influence on the emitted line radiation. (author)

  8. Strong SH-to-Love wave scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet, deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of ~10 s but at an apparent velocity of ~3.6 km/s as compared to the ~11 km/s for the SH wave. Back-projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  9. Strong SH-to-Love Wave Scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2017-10-01

    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of 10 s but at an apparent velocity of 3.6 km/s as compared to the 11 km/s for the SH wave. Back projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  10. Nonlinear waves from a localized vortex source in strongly correlated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin

    2017-11-01

    Highly charged quasi two-dimensional grain medium (complex plasma) is a remarkable test-bed to study wave like phenomena. Understanding of such wave propagation has many important applications in geophysics, petroleum engineering, and mining, earthquakes, and seismology. In the present study, for the first time, the propagation of nonlinear wave which originates from localized coherent vortex source has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation taking Yukawa liquids as a prototype for strongly correlated fluid. In this work, the coupling of transverse and longitudinal mode, effect of azimuthal speed of vortex source on the linear and nonlinear properties of generated wave will be presented as a function of strong correlation.

  11. Pressure induced Superconductivity in the Charge Density Wave Compound Tritelluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlin, J.J.; Zocco, D.A.; Sayles, T.A.; Maple, M.B.; /UC, Davis; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    A series of high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of TbTe{sub 3} reveal a complex phase diagram involving the interplay of superconducting, antiferromagnetic and charge density wave order. The onset of superconductivity reaches a maximum of almost 4 K (onset) near {approx} 12.4 GPa.

  12. Gate effect in charge-density wave nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, E.; Holst, M.A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated transport characteristics of charge-density wave nanowires with a few hundred parallel chains. At temperatures below50K, these samples show power-law behavior in temperature and voltage, characteristic for one-dimensional transport. In this regime, gate dependent transport has

  13. On Internal Waves in a Density-Stratified Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article some field observations, made in recent years, of internal wave motions in a density-stratified estuary are presented, In order to facilitate the appreciation of the results, and to make some quantitative comparisons, the relevant theory is also summarized. Furthermore, the origins

  14. Charge density wave dynamics from ultrafast XUV ARPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frassetto F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast angle–resolved XUV photoemission reveals the time- and momentum-dependent electronic structure of 1T–TaS2, a hybrid Mott and charge-density-wave insulator. Both electronic orderings melt well before the lattice responds, suggesting that electronic correlations play a role not just in the Mott localization but in the CDW ordering as well.

  15. Inhomogeneities in a strongly correlated d-wave superconductors in the limit of strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The complex interplay of the strong correlations and impurities in a high temperature superconductor is analyzed within a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, augmented with Gutzwiller approximation for taking care of the strong electronic repulsion. The inclusion of such correlations is found to play a crucial role in reducing inhomogeneities in both qualitative and quantitative manner. This difference is comprehended by investigating the underlying one-particle ``normal states'' that includes the order parameters in the Hartree and Fock channels in the absence of superconductivity. This amounts to the renormalization of disorder both on the lattice sites and also on links. These two components of disorder turn out to be spatially anti-correlated through self-consistency. Interestingly, a simple pairing theory in terms of these normal states is found to describe the complex behaviors of dirty cuprates with reasonable accuracy. However, this framework needs modifications in the limit where disorder strengths are comparable to the band width. We will discuss appropriate updates in the formalism to describe physics of inhomogeneities with strong disorder.

  16. Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Biouele, C. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Boudouridis, A.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.; Hartinger, M.

    2013-10-01

    We report on Pc5 wave related electric field and vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers for an extended period on 9 August 2008. We show that the magnetometer-estimated equatorial E×B drift oscillates with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activity. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using ground-based magnetometer data from the African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Upstream solar wind conditions are provided by the ACE spacecraft. We find that the wave power observed on the ground also occurs in the upstream solar wind and in the magnetosphere. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. While no direct drift measurements from equatorial radars exist for the 9 August 2008 event, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities observed on 2 May 2010 and found similar fluctuations with the period of 5-8 min, as a means of an independent confirmation of our magnetometer derived drift dynamics.

  17. Sharp-front wave of strong magnetic field diffusion in solid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Bo; Gu, Zhuo-wei; Kan, Ming-xian; Wang, Gang-hua; Zhao, Jian-heng [Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-105, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-08-15

    When a strong magnetic field diffuses into a solid metal, if the metal's resistance possesses an abrupt rise at some critical temperature and the magnetic field strength is above some critical value, the magnetic field will diffuse into the metal in the form of a sharp-front wave. Formulas for the critical conditions under which a sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave emerges and a formula for the wave-front velocity are derived in this work.

  18. Spontaneous K-Complex Density in Slow-Wave Sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Dilshad Manzar

    Full Text Available To study spontaneous K-complex (KC densities during slow-wave sleep. The secondary objective was to estimate intra-non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep differences in KC density.It is a retrospective study using EEG data included in polysomnographic records from the archive at the sleep research laboratory of the Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, India. The EEG records of 4459 minutes were used. The study presents a manual identification investigation of KCs in 17 healthy young adult male volunteers (age = 23.82±3.40 years and BMI = 23.42±4.18 kg/m2.N3 had a higher KC density than N2 (Z = -2.485, p = 0.013 for all of the probes taken together. Four EEG probes had a higher probe-specific KC density during N3. The inter-probe KC density differed significantly during N2 (χ2 = 67.91, p < .001, N3 (χ2 = 70.62, p < .001 and NREM (χ2 = 68.50, p < .001. The percent distribution of KC decreased uniformly with sleep cycles.The inter-probe differences during N3 establish the fronto-central dominance of the KC density regardless of sleep stage. This finding supports one local theory of KC generation. The significantly higher KC density during N3 may imply that the neuro-anatomical origin of slow-wave activity and KC is the same. This temporal alignment with slow-wave activity supports the sleep-promoting function of the KC.

  19. Spontaneous K-Complex Density in Slow-Wave Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Md Dilshad; Rajput, Mohammad Muntafa; Zannat, Wassilatul; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; BaHammam, Ahmed S; Hussain, M Ejaz

    2016-01-01

    To study spontaneous K-complex (KC) densities during slow-wave sleep. The secondary objective was to estimate intra-non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep differences in KC density. It is a retrospective study using EEG data included in polysomnographic records from the archive at the sleep research laboratory of the Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, India. The EEG records of 4459 minutes were used. The study presents a manual identification investigation of KCs in 17 healthy young adult male volunteers (age = 23.82±3.40 years and BMI = 23.42±4.18 kg/m2). N3 had a higher KC density than N2 (Z = -2.485, p = 0.013) for all of the probes taken together. Four EEG probes had a higher probe-specific KC density during N3. The inter-probe KC density differed significantly during N2 (χ2 = 67.91, p < .001), N3 (χ2 = 70.62, p < .001) and NREM (χ2 = 68.50, p < .001). The percent distribution of KC decreased uniformly with sleep cycles. The inter-probe differences during N3 establish the fronto-central dominance of the KC density regardless of sleep stage. This finding supports one local theory of KC generation. The significantly higher KC density during N3 may imply that the neuro-anatomical origin of slow-wave activity and KC is the same. This temporal alignment with slow-wave activity supports the sleep-promoting function of the KC.

  20. Spin-density wave state in simple hexagonal graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoyan, K. S.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    Simple hexagonal graphite, also known as AA graphite, is a metastable configuration of graphite. Using tight-binding approximation, it is easy to show that AA graphite is a metal with well-defined Fermi surface. The Fermi surface consists of two sheets, each shaped like a rugby ball. One sheet corresponds to electron states, another corresponds to hole states. The Fermi surface demonstrates good nesting: a suitable translation in the reciprocal space superposes one sheet onto another. In the presence of the electron-electron repulsion, a nested Fermi surface is unstable with respect to spin-density-wave ordering. This instability is studied using the mean-field theory at zero temperature, and the spin-density-wave order parameter is evaluated.

  1. Observations of height-dependent pressure-perturbation structure of a strong mesoscale gravity wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David O'C.; Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Weng, Chi Y.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar system provide the first measurements of the height-dependent pressure-perturbation field associated with a strong mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a strong shear layer.

  2. Internal density waves of shock type induced by chemoconvection in miscible reacting liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsun, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    A theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of spontaneous emergence of density waves experimentally observed recently in bilayered systems of miscible liquids placed in a narrow vertical gap of the Hele-Shaw cell in the gravitational field is provided. Upper and lower layers represent aqueous solutions of acids and bases, respectively, whose contact leads to the beginning of a neutralization reaction. The process is accompanied by a strong dependence of the reagent's diffusion coefficients on their concentrations, giving rise to the generation of local density pockets, in which convection develops. The cavities collapse under certain conditions, causing a density jump, which moves faster than typical perturbations in a medium and takes the form of a shock wave. A mathematical model of the phenomenon is proposed, which can be formally reduced to equations of motion of a compressible gas under certain assumptions. Numerical calculations are given and compared with the experimental data.

  3. Observation of dust acoustic shock wave in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sumita K.; Boruah, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H.

    2016-01-01

    Dust acoustic shock wave is observed in a strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasma. A supersonic flow of charged microparticles is allowed to perturb a stationary dust fluid to excite dust acoustic shock wave. The evolution process beginning with steepening of initial wave front and then formation of a stable shock structure is similar to the numerical results of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. The measured Mach number of the observed shock wave agrees with the theoretical results. Reduction of shock amplitude at large distances is also observed due to the dust neutral collision and viscosity effects. The dispersion relation and the spatial damping of a linear dust acoustic wave are also measured and compared with the relevant theory.

  4. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001......) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene....

  5. Feasibility study of the plasma electron density measurement by electromagnetic radiation from the laser-driven plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S

    2012-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.

  6. Linear and nonlinear analysis of density wave instability phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Walter

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the mechanism of density-wave oscillations in a boiling channel with uniform and constant heat flux is analysed by linear and nonlinear analytical tools. A model developed on the basis of a semi-implicit numerical discretization of governing partial differential equations is used to provide information on the transient distribution of relevant variables along the channel during instabilities. Furthermore, a lumped parameter model and a distributed parameter model developed in previous activities are also adopted for independent confirmation of the observed trends. The obtained results are finally put in relation with the picture of the phenomenon proposed in classical descriptions. (author)

  7. Charge density wave in hydrogen at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdău, Ioan B.; Ackland, Graeme J.

    2017-10-01

    We present extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations investigating numerous candidate crystal structures for hydrogen in conditions around the present experimental frontier (400 GPa). Spontaneous phase transitions in the simulations reveal a new structure candidate comprising twofold coordinated chains of hydrogen atoms. We explain the electronic structure of this phase in terms of a charge density wave and calculate its experimental signature. In detailed tests of the accuracy of our calculation, we find that k-point sampling is far more important in MD than in static calculations, because of the freedom it give the atoms to rearrange themselves optimally for the given sampling.

  8. Incommensurate spin density wave in metallic V2-yO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, W.; Broholm, C.; Carter, S.A.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Aeppli, G.; Trevino, S.F.; Metcalf, P.; Honig, J.M.; Spalek, J.

    1993-01-01

    We show by neutron diffraction that metallic V 2-7 O 3 develops a spin density wave below T N ∼9 K with incommensurate wave vector q∼1.7c * and an ordered moment of 0.15μ B . The weak ordering phenomenon is accompanied by strong, nonresonant spin fluctuations with a velocity c=67(4) meV A. The spin correlations of the metal are very different from those of the insulator and place V 2-y O 3 in a distinct class of Motte-Hubbard systems where the wave vector for magnetic order in the metal is far from a high symmetry commensurate reciprocal lattice point

  9. Generalized-active-space pair-density functional theory: an efficient method to study large, strongly correlated, conjugated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Predicting ground- and excited-state properties of open-shell organic molecules by electronic structure theory can be challenging because an accurate treatment has to correctly describe both static and dynamic electron correlation. Strongly correlated systems, i.e. , systems with near-degeneracy correlation effects, are particularly troublesome. Multiconfigurational wave function methods based on an active space are adequate in principle, but it is impractical to capture most of the dynamic correlation in these methods for systems characterized by many active electrons. We recently developed a new method called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), that combines the advantages of wave function theory and density functional theory to provide a more practical treatment of strongly correlated systems. Here we present calculations of the singlet-triplet gaps in oligoacenes ranging from naphthalene to dodecacene. Calculations were performed for unprecedently large orbitally optimized active spaces of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals, and we test a range of active spaces and active space partitions, including four kinds of frontier orbital partitions. We show that MC-PDFT can predict the singlet-triplet splittings for oligoacenes consistent with the best available and much more expensive methods, and indeed MC-PDFT may constitute the benchmark against which those other models should be compared, given the absence of experimental data.

  10. Investigation of density-wave oscillation in parallel boiling channels under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Xiao; Xuejun Chen; Mingyuan Zhang

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on density-wave instability in parallel boiling channels. Experiments have been done in a high pressure steam-water loop. Different types of two-phase flow instabilities have been observed, including density-wave oscillation, pressure-drop type oscillation, thermal oscillation and secondary density-wave oscillation. The secondary density-wave oscillation appears at very low exit steam quality (less than 0.1) and at the positive portion of Δ P-G curves with both channels' flow rate oscillating in phase. Density-wave oscillation can appear at pressure up to 192 bar and disappear over 207 bar. (6 figures) (Author)

  11. Internal wave energy flux from density perturbations in nonlinear stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-11-01

    Tidal flow over the topography at the bottom of the ocean, whose density varies with depth, generates internal gravity waves that have a significant impact on the energy budget of the ocean. Thus, understanding the energy flux (J = p v) is important, but it is difficult to measure simultaneously the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, p and v . In a previous work, a Green's-function-based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous p, v , and thus J , given a density perturbation field for a constant buoyancy frequency N. Here we extend the previous analytic Green's function work to include nonuniform N profiles, namely the tanh-shaped and linear cases, because background density stratifications that occur in the ocean and some experiments are nonlinear. In addition, we present a finite-difference method for the general case where N has an arbitrary profile. Each method is validated against numerical simulations. The methods we present can be applied to measured density perturbation data by using our MATLAB graphical user interface EnergyFlux. PJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088. HLS and MRA were supported by ONR Grant No. N000141110701.

  12. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  13. Beyond Kohn-Sham Approximation: Hybrid Multistate Wave Function and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiali; Grofe, Adam; Ren, Haisheng; Bao, Peng

    2016-12-15

    A multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) is presented in which the energies and densities for the ground and excited states are treated on the same footing using multiconfigurational approaches. The method can be applied to systems with strong correlation and to correctly describe the dimensionality of the conical intersections between strongly coupled dissociative potential energy surfaces. A dynamic-then-static framework for treating electron correlation is developed to first incorporate dynamic correlation into contracted state functions through block-localized Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT), followed by diagonalization of the effective Hamiltonian to include static correlation. MSDFT can be regarded as a hybrid of wave function and density functional theory. The method is built on and makes use of the current approximate density functional developed in KSDFT, yet it retains its computational efficiency to treat strongly correlated systems that are problematic for KSDFT but too large for accurate WFT. The results presented in this work show that MSDFT can be applied to photochemical processes involving conical intersections.

  14. Strong consistency of nonparametric Bayes density estimation on compact metric spaces with applications to specific manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Dunson, David B

    2012-08-01

    This article considers a broad class of kernel mixture density models on compact metric spaces and manifolds. Following a Bayesian approach with a nonparametric prior on the location mixing distribution, sufficient conditions are obtained on the kernel, prior and the underlying space for strong posterior consistency at any continuous density. The prior is also allowed to depend on the sample size n and sufficient conditions are obtained for weak and strong consistency. These conditions are verified on compact Euclidean spaces using multivariate Gaussian kernels, on the hypersphere using a von Mises-Fisher kernel and on the planar shape space using complex Watson kernels.

  15. Blow-Up of Solutions for a Class of Sixth Order Nonlinear Strongly Damped Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafei Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the blow-up phenomenon of sixth order nonlinear strongly damped wave equation. By using the concavity method, we prove a finite time blow-up result under assumptions on the nonlinear term and the initial data.

  16. Does Strong Tropospheric Forcing Cause Large-Amplitude Mesospheric Gravity Waves? A DEEPWAVE Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Bossert, Katrina; Ehard, Benedikt; Fritts, David C.; Kaifler, Bernd; Mallaun, Christian; Orr, Andrew; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Rapp, Markus; Taylor, Michael J.; Vosper, Simon; Williams, Bifford P.; Witschas, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong low-level horizontal winds of up to 35 m s-1 over the Southern Alps, New Zealand, caused the excitation of gravity waves having the largest vertical energy fluxes of the whole campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large-amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located at Lauder (45.0°S, 169.7°E), New Zealand. The coincidence of these two events leads to the question of whether the mesospheric gravity waves were generated by the strong tropospheric forcing. To answer this, an extensive data set is analyzed, comprising TELMA, in situ aircraft measurements, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard the DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper measurements aboard the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V. These measurements are further complemented by limited area simulations using a numerical weather prediction model. This unique data set confirms that strong tropospheric forcing can cause large-amplitude gravity waves in the mesosphere, and that three essential ingredients are required to achieve this: first, nearly linear propagation across the tropopause; second, leakage through the stratospheric wind minimum; and third, amplification in the polar night jet. Stationary gravity waves were detected in all atmospheric layers up to the mesosphere with horizontal wavelengths between 20 and 100 km. The complete coverage of our data set from troposphere to mesosphere proved to be valuable to identify the processes involved in deep gravity wave propagation.

  17. Gravity Wave Relations in Density Coordinates and Application to Constant Density Balloon Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Gelinas, L.; Mechoso, C. R.; Schubert, G.

    2008-12-01

    Super pressure balloons that are constrained to float on constant density surfaces have been used in a number of campaigns for gathering data for studies of stratospheric dynamics. The natural coordinate system for analyzing data from balloons that float at constant density is one where density, rather than geometrical height or pressure is the vertical coordinate. We show the equations of motion derived for constant density coordinates and show the gravity wave relations derived from them. Using these relations, we analyze data from the CNES VORCORE campaign, in which a total of 27 balloons circulated in the Antarctic polar stratospheric vortex during the late summer and spring of 2005. For this campaign, horizontal wind and pressure data were suitable for gravity wave analysis and we give relations for deducing the quantities (e.g., temperature and vertical wind fluctuations) required to calculate the momentum, heat and energy fluxes. We apply these relations to VORCORE data and show the results of flux calculations for balloon trajectories in various regions of the vortex.

  18. Nonlinear dispersion of resonance extraordinary wave in a plasma with strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency of electron acceleration by a short, powerful laser pulse propagating across an external magnetic field is investigated. Conditions for the decay of a laser pulse with frequency close to the upper hybrid resonance frequency are analyzed. It is also shown that a laser pulse propagating as an extraordinary wave in cold, magnetized, low-density plasma takes the form of a nonlinear wave with the modulated amplitude (envelope soliton). Finally, simulation results on the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse with a semi-infinite plasma, obtained with the help of an electromagnetic relativistic PIC code, are discussed and a comparison with the obtained theoretical results is presented

  19. Strongly turbulent ionizing shock wave as the mechanism for the first neutron emission in the dense plasma focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, T.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that high temperature thermo-nuclear plasma of several keV is very difficult to exist in the dense and small radius plasma column. So, at any time the high neutron yield from the dense plasma focus has had the tendency to be explained by the beam target mechanism based on the observation of the high energy beam emissions. However the manner of neutron emission is very complex and different among the devices and from shot to shot. Especially it is difficult to explain the first neutron emission by the beam target mechanism which is coincide with the formation of very dense plasma column. There is the ionizing shock wave in front of the plasma sheet and the gas is fully ionized after the shock wave because the Mach-number against the filling gas is very large, M--100. The thickness of the shock wave is very thin, 1≤0.5 mm for the discharge condition that the speed of the plasma sheet V/sub sh/ is 1--2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec and the discharge gas pressure is several Torr. The intensity of the magnetic field penetrated into the shock wave from the back side of the plasma sheet at the last converging phase will be the order of 1 kG. The plasma density in the shock wave will be n=4--9.10/sup 17//cm/sup 3/ because the density jump in the very strong shock limit is 6 times of the base gas density. Then the Alfven speed b=B/sub θ//(4πrho)/sup 1/2/ calculated from these density and magnetic field is 2.4--1.6 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Similarly the sonic speed a= (γkT/m)/sup 1/2/ in the plasma is also the same order, i.e. a=2--4x10/sup 6/ cm/sec, for the temperature of 10--50 eV expected from the shock wave heating

  20. Shear-wave velocity compilation for Northridge strong-motion recording sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Fumal, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole and other geotechnical information collected at the strong-motion recording sites of the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994 provide an important new basis for the characterization of local site conditions. These geotechnical data, when combined with analysis of strong-motion recordings, provide an empirical basis to evaluate site coefficients used in current versions of US building codes. Shear-wave-velocity estimates to a depth of 30 meters are derived for 176 strong-motion recording sites. The estimates are based on borehole shear-velocity logs, physical property logs, correlations with physical properties and digital geologic maps. Surface-wave velocity measurements and standard penetration data are compiled as additional constraints. These data as compiled from a variety of databases are presented via GIS maps and corresponding tables to facilitate use by other investigators.

  1. Density functional theory for strongly-interacting electrons: Perspectives for Physics and Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori Giorgi, P.; Seidl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Improving the accuracy and thus broadening the applicability of electronic density functional theory (DFT) is crucial to many research areas, from material science, to theoretical chemistry, biophysics and biochemistry. In the last three years, the mathematical structure of the strong-interaction

  2. Observation of strong oscillations of areal mass in an unsupported shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A L; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Kessler, T J; Schmitt, A J; Obenschain, S P; Metzler, N; Oh, J

    2012-08-24

    An experimental study of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution in a strong unsupported shock wave, which is immediately followed by an expansion wave, is reported. A planar solid plastic target rippled on the front side is irradiated with a 350-450 ps long laser pulse. The perturbation evolution in the target is observed using face-on monochromatic x-ray radiography during and for up to 4 ns after the laser pulse. The theoretically predicted large oscillations of the areal mass in the target are observed for the first time. Multiple phase reversals of the areal mass modulation are detected.

  3. Attosecond counter-rotating-wave effect in xenon driven by strong fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M.; Pabst, Stefan; Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, Dong Eon

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the subfemtosecond dynamics of a highly excited xenon atom coherently driven by a strong control field at which the Rabi frequency of the system is comparable to the frequency of a driving laser. The widely used rotating-wave approximation breaks down at such fields, resulting in features such as the counter-rotating-wave (CRW) effect. We present a time-resolved observation of the CRW effect in the highly excited 4 d-1n p xenon using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Time-dependent many-body theory confirms the observation and explains the various features of the absorption spectrum seen in experiment.

  4. Global periodic attractor for strongly damped wave equations with time-periodic driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Zhou Shengfan; Yin Fuqi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence of a global periodic attractor for a strongly damped nonlinear wave equation with time-periodic driving force under homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. It is proved that in certain parameter region, for arbitrary time-periodic driving force, the system has a unique periodic solution attracting any bounded set exponentially. This implies that the system behaves exactly as a one-dimensional system. We mention, in particular, that the obtained result can be used to prove the existence of global periodic attractor of the usual damped and driven wave equations

  5. Vison Condensation and Bond Density Wave Order in the Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aavishkar; Allais, Andrea; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Sachdev, Subir

    We consider Z2 spin liquids on the square lattice. These can undergo a confinement transition to a valence bond solid (VBS) phase via the condensation of vortex excitations carrying Z2 magnetic flux (visons). The resulting condensed phase is described by a fully frustrated Ising model (FFIM) on the dual square lattice, with additional couplings allowed by symmetries. We argue that such a model can also apply to confinement transitions out of the fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) states of doped antiferromagnets. We study the low energy states of such a model and discuss their implications for the incommensurate d-form factor bond density wave order observed in several recent experiments on the cuprate superconductors.

  6. Shock wave velocity and shock pressure for low density powders : A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, D.K.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  7. SHOCK-WAVE VELOCITY AND SHOCK PRESSURE FOR LOW-DENSITY POWDERS - A NOVEL-APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKEN, DK; DEHOSSON, JTM

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  8. Does strong tropospheric forcing cause large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves? A Deepwave Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Ehard, Benedikt; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Rahm, Stephan; Witschas, Benjamin; Rapp, Markus; Vosper, Simon; Orr, Andrew; Williams, Bifford P.; Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Taylor, Michael J.; Mallaun, Christian

    2017-04-01

    On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong horizontal winds up to 35 ms-1 caused the excitation of gravity waves containing the largest energy fluxes of the complete campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located in Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E). This combination lead to the question whether the observed mesospheric gravity waves are generated by the tropospheric forcing. For our study we use an extensive data set which comprises TELMA data, in situ measurements of the two aircraft, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper (AMTM) measurements aboard the NSF/NCAR GV. To complement the measurements, studies with limited area simulations of the Unified Model are taken into account. This unique data set allows for the observation of the evolution of the gravity waves from the troposphere to the mesosphere. Our investigations revealed a complicated situation where the propagation of mountain waves is influenced by partial reflection at the tropopause, a valve layer in the lower stratosphere filtering a part of the wave spectrum and possibly partial reflection at the polar night jet. Nevertheless stationary waves are found in the AMTM measurements with horizontal wavelengths between 30 and 130 km. Although the measurements comprised all altitudes from the troposphere to the mesosphere, still numerical studies proved to be a valuable asset in order to answer the question raised.

  9. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...... that the electron scattering time decreases from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density changes from 1015 to 1019 cm−3....

  10. Role of density modulation in the spatially resolved dynamics of strongly confined liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Shibu; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-08-07

    Confinement by walls usually produces a strong modulation in the density of dense liquids near the walls. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the effects of the density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics of a liquid confined between two parallel walls, using a resolution of a fraction of the interparticle distance in the liquid. The local dynamics is quantified by the relaxation time associated with the temporal autocorrelation function of the local density. We find that this local relaxation time varies in phase with the density modulation. The amplitude of the spatial modulation of the relaxation time can be quite large, depending on the characteristics of the wall and thermodynamic parameters of the liquid. To disentangle the effects of confinement and density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics, we compare the dynamics of a confined liquid with that of an unconfined one in which a similar density modulation is induced by an external potential. We find several differences indicating that density modulation alone cannot account for all the features seen in the spatially resolved dynamics of confined liquids. We also examine how the dynamics near a wall depends on the separation between the two walls and show that the features seen in our simulations persist in the limit of large wall separation.

  11. Pressure and intracorporal acceleration measurements in pigs exposed to strong shock waves in a free field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassout, P.; Franke, R.; Parmentier, G.; Evrard, G.; Dancer, A.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs

  12. Effects of a strong magnetic field on internal gravity waves: trapping, phase mixing, reflection and dynamical chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2018-04-01

    The spectrum of oscillation modes of a star provides information not only about its material properties (e.g. mean density), but also its symmetries. Spherical symmetry can be broken by rotation and/or magnetic fields. It has been postulated that strong magnetic fields in the cores of some red giants are responsible for their anomalously weak dipole mode amplitudes (the "dipole dichotomy" problem), but a detailed understanding of how gravity waves interact with strong fields is thus far lacking. In this work, we attack the problem through a variety of analytical and numerical techniques, applied to a localised region centred on a null line of a confined axisymmetric magnetic field which is approximated as being cylindrically symmetric. We uncover a rich variety of phenomena that manifest when the field strength exceeds a critical value, beyond which the symmetry is drastically broken by the Lorentz force. When this threshold is reached, the spatial structure of the g-modes becomes heavily altered. The dynamics of wave packet propagation transitions from regular to chaotic, which is expected to fundamentally change the organisation of the mode spectrum. In addition, depending on their frequency and the orientation of field lines with respect to the stratification, waves impinging on different parts of the magnetised region are found to undergo either reflection or trapping. Trapping regions provide an avenue for energy loss through Alfvén wave phase mixing. Our results may find application in various astrophysical contexts, including the dipole dichotomy problem, the solar interior, and compact star oscillations.

  13. Testing the Speed of Gravitational Waves over Cosmological Distances with Strong Gravitational Lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E; Bacon, David

    2017-03-03

    Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys.10 (2014) 080JCAPBP1475-751610.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/080] forecast that 50-100 strongly lensed GW events will be observed each year with the Einstein Telescope. A single strongly lensed GW event would produce robust constraints on c_{GW}/c_{γ} at the 10^{-7} level, if a high-energy EM counterpart is observed within the field of view of an observing γ-ray burst monitor.

  14. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact......In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor...... phase appears in the wide range of the quark chemical potential. In both the interactions, the quark mass in zero and small chemical potential regions increases which indicates that the chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced, namely the magnetic catalysis occurs....

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo studies of a metallic spin-density wave transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Max Henner

    2017-01-20

    Plenty experimental evidence indicates that quantum critical phenomena give rise to much of the rich physics observed in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems such as the high temperature superconductors. A quantum critical point of particular interest is found at the zero-temperature onset of spin-density wave order in two-dimensional metals. The appropriate low-energy theory poses an exceptionally hard problem to analytic theory, therefore the unbiased and controlled numerical approach pursued in this thesis provides important contributions on the road to comprehensive understanding. After discussing the phenomenology of quantum criticality, a sign-problem-free determinantal quantum Monte Carlo approach is introduced and an extensive toolbox of numerical methods is described in a self-contained way. By the means of large-scale computer simulations we have solved a lattice realization of the universal effective theory of interest. The finite-temperature phase diagram, showing both a quasi-long-range spin-density wave ordered phase and a d-wave superconducting dome, is discussed in its entirety. Close to the quantum phase transition we find evidence for unusual scaling of the order parameter correlations and for non-Fermi liquid behavior at isolated hot spots on the Fermi surface.

  16. Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi, M; Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Kabalan, K Y

    2015-01-01

    The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker–Planck calculations. (paper)

  17. Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in rocks with strong permeability fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Müller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data.

  18. Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).

  19. Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajkovskij, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers

  20. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo

    2014-08-01

    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  1. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1 comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2 comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3 SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  2. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zzeng@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  3. Interference effects in the nonlinear charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, D.; Batistic, I.; Bjelis, A.

    1987-12-01

    The main features of the nonlinear charge density wave transport in the external dc-ac field are shown to be the natural consequences of resonant phase slip diffusion. This process is treated numerically within the time dependent Landau-Ginzburg model, developed by Gor'kov. The resonances in the ac field are manifested as Shapiro steps in I-V characteristics, present at all rational ratios of internal frequency of current oscillations and external ac frequency. The origin of Shapiro steps, as well as their forms and heights, are cosidered in detail. In particular, it is shown that close to resonances the phase slip voltage acquires a highly nonsinusoidal modulation which leads to the appearance of low frequency and satellite peaks in the Fourier spectrum. Taking into account the interference of adjacent phase slips and the segment or domain structure of physical samples, we interpret the finite width of steps, side wings, synchronization, incomplete and complete mode locking and some other effects observed in numerous experiments on NbSe 3 and other CDW materials. (author). 36 refs, 12 figs

  4. Charging-delay effect on longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the charging-delay effect, the nonlinear propagation characteristics of longitudinal dust acoustic wave in strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma described by generalized hydrodynamic model have been investigated. In the 'hydrodynamic limit', a Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation with a damping term arising due to dust-neutral collision is derived in which the Burger term is proportional to the dissipation due to dust viscosity through dust-dust correlation and charging-delay-induced anomalous dissipation. On the other hand, in the 'kinetic limit', a KdVB equation with a damping term and a nonlocal nonlinear forcing term arising due to memory-dependent strong correlation effect of dust fluid is derived in which the Burger term depends only on the charging-delay-induced dissipation. Numerical solution of integrodifferential equations reveals that (i) dissipation due to dust viscosity and principally due to charging delay causes excitation of the longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma and (ii) dust-neutral collision does not appear to play any direct role in shock formation. The condition for the generation of shock is also discussed briefly

  5. Internal wave patterns in enclosed density-stratified and rotating fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, A.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Stratified fluids support internal waves, which propagate obliquely through the fluid. The angle with respectto the stratification direction is contrained: it is purely determined by the wave frequency and the strength of the density stratification (internal gravity waves) or the rotation rate

  6. Suppression of parasitic noise by strong Langmuir wave damping in quasitransient regimes of backward Raman amplification of intense laser pulses in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Vladimir; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2009-11-01

    Currently built powerful soft x-ray sources may be able to access intensities needed for backward Raman amplification (BRA) of x-ray pulses in plasmas. However, high plasma densities, needed to provide enough coupling between the pump and seed x-ray pulsed, cause strong damping of the Langmuir wave that mediates energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. Such damping could reduce the coupling, thus making efficient BRA impossible. This work shows that efficient BRA can survive despite the Langmuir wave damping significantly exceeding the linear BRA growth rate. Moreover, the strong Langmuir wave damping can suppress deleterious instabilities of BRA seeded by the thermal noise. This shows that it may be feasible to observe x-ray BRA for the first time soon.

  7. <strong>Self-consistent many-body perturbation theory in range-separated density-functional theorystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, density-functional theory (DFT) with current standard approximate functionals offers a relatively accurate and computationally cheap description of the short-range dynamic electron correlation effects. However, in general, standard DFT does not treat the dispersion interaction......-consistency problem" and provide computable orbital-based expressions for any order of perturbation, a general one-electron reduced-density-matrix-based formalism is proposed. Two applications of our general formalism are presented: The derivation of a hybrid second-order Møller-Plesset-DFT model and the formulation...

  8. Bogolubov–Hartree–Fock Theory for Strongly Interacting Fermions in the Low Density Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bräunlich, Gerhard [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute for Mathematics (Germany); Hainzl, Christian [University of Tübingen, Mathematical Institute (Germany); Seiringer, Robert, E-mail: robert.seiringer@ist.ac.at [Institute of Science and Technology Austria (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the Bogolubov–Hartree–Fock functional for a fermionic many-body system with two-body interactions. For suitable interaction potentials that have a strong enough attractive tail in order to allow for two-body bound states, but are otherwise sufficiently repulsive to guarantee stability of the system, we show that in the low-density limit the ground state of this model consists of a Bose–Einstein condensate of fermion pairs. The latter can be described by means of the Gross–Pitaevskii energy functional.

  9. Fermionic Statistics in the Strongly Correlated Limit of Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Exact pieces of information on the adiabatic connection integrand, Wλ[ρ], which allows evaluation of the exchange-correlation energy of Kohn–Sham density functional theory, can be extracted from the leading terms in the strong coupling limit (λ → ∞, where λ is the strength of the electron–electron interaction). In this work, we first compare the theoretical prediction for the two leading terms in the strong coupling limit with data obtained via numerical implementation of the exact Levy functional in the simple case of two electrons confined in one dimension, confirming the asymptotic exactness of these two terms. We then carry out a first study on the incorporation of the Fermionic statistics at large coupling λ, both numerical and theoretical, confirming that spin effects enter at orders ∼e–√λ. PMID:29111724

  10. Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed

  11. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  12. Comparative studies of density-functional approximations for light atoms in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Zhang, Liang; Trickey, S. B.

    2014-08-01

    For a wide range of magnetic fields, 0≤B≤2000 a.u., we present a systematic comparative study of the performance of different types of density-functional approximations in light atoms (2≤Z≤6). Local, generalized-gradient approximation (GGA; semilocal), and meta-GGA ground-state exchange-correlation (xc) functionals are compared on an equal footing with exact-exchange, Hartree-Fock (HF), and current-density-functional-theory (CDFT) approximations. Comparison also is made with published quantum Monte Carlo data. Though all approximations give qualitatively reasonable results, the exchange energies from local and GGA functionals are too negative for large B. Results from the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof ground-state GGA and Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) ground-state meta-GGA functionals are very close. Because of confinement, self-interaction error in such functionals is more severe at large B than at B =0, hence self-interaction correction is crucial. Exact exchange combined with the TPSS correlation functional results in a self-interaction-free (xc) functional, from which we obtain atomic energies of comparable accuracy to those from correlated wave-function methods. Specifically for the B and C atoms, we provide beyond-HF energies in a wide range of B fields. Fully self-consistent CDFT calculations were done with the Vignale-Rasolt-Geldart (VRG) functional in conjunction with the PW92 xc functional. Current effects turn out to be small, and the vorticity variable in the VRG functional diverges in some low-density regions. This part of the study suggests that nonlocal, self-interaction-free functionals may be better than local approximations as a starting point for CDFT functional construction and that some basic variable other than the vorticity could be helpful in making CDFT calculations practical.

  13. Strongly lensed gravitational waves and electromagnetic signals as powerful cosmic rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using strongly lensed gravitational waves (GWs) and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts as powerful cosmic rulers. In the EM domain, it has been suggested that joint observations of the time delay (Δτ) between lensed quasar images and the velocity dispersion (σ) of the lensing galaxy (i.e. the combination Δτ/σ2) are able to constrain the cosmological parameters more strongly than Δτ or σ2 separately. Here, for the first time, we propose that this Δτ/σ2 method can be applied to the strongly lensed systems observed in both GW and EM windows. Combining the redshifts, images and σ observed in the EM domain with the very precise Δτ derived from lensed GW signals, we expect that accurate multimessenger cosmology can be achieved in the era of third-generation GW detectors. Comparing with the constraints from the Δτ method, we prove that using Δτ/σ2 can improve the discrimination between cosmological models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that with ∼50 strongly lensed GW-EM systems, we can reach a constraint on the dark energy equation of state w comparable to the 580 Union2.1 Type Ia supernovae data. Much more stringent constraints on w can be obtained when combining the Δτ and Δτ/σ2 methods.

  14. Wave-vector-dependent electron-phonon coupling and the charge-density-wave transition in TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschek, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Heid, R.; Said, A. H.; Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Fisher, I. R.; Weber, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the soft phonon mode in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system TbT e3 . We analyze our data based on lattice dynamical calculations using density-functional-perturbation theory and find clear evidence that strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling defines the periodicity of the CDW superstructure: Our experiment reveals strong phonon softening and increased phonon linewidths over a large part in reciprocal space adjacent to the CDW ordering vector qCDW=(0 ,0 ,0.3 ) . Further, qCDW is clearly offset from the wave vector of (weak) Fermi surface nesting qFS=(0 ,0 ,0.25 ) , and our detailed analysis indicates that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for this shift. Hence, we can add TbT e3 , which was previously considered as a canonical CDW compound following the Peierls scenario, to the list of distinct charge-density-wave materials characterized by momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling.

  15. Control and dynamics of attosecond electron wave packets in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, P.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M.B.; Schafer, K.J.; Mairess, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Boutu, W.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Trains of attosecond pulses, emerging from the phase-locking of high-order harmonics generated in a strong laser field are now being routinely produced and characterized in a few laser laboratories. Attosecond pulse trains (APTs) are flexible attosecond sources, since the amplitude and relative phase of the spectral components (the harmonics) can be tailored, allowing us to vary both the duration and the carrier frequency of the pulses. Attosecond pulses interacting with a gas of atoms generate electron wave packets (EWPs), which are temporally localized with approximately the same duration as the attosecond pulses. In contrast to the tunneling electron wave packets giving rise to processes such as high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold-ionization (ATI), the properties of these EWPs are inherited from the attosecond pulses through the single-photon ionization step. Thus the energy and temporal characteristics of the EWPs can be varied independently of the process under investigation, by controlling the properties of the attosecond pulses. This talk will describe two recent experiments done in Lund. First we report on the generation, compression and delivery on target of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses using external amplitude and phase control. The APT is synthesized from the 13 th to 35 th harmonics of a 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser. The harmonics are generated by focusing the laser beam into a window-less gas cell, filled with argon. To achieve the required on-target attosecond pulses, the harmonics are filtered spatially, using a fixed aperture, and spectrally using aluminum filters. The aluminum filters also serve the purpose of compressing the attosecond pulses, using the negative group-delay dispersion of aluminum to compensate for the intrinsic positive chirp of the attosecond pulses. This experiment demonstrates a practical method for the synthesis and control of attosecond waveforms, and in this case the production of pulses

  16. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  17. 3D High Density mmWave Interconnects, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrataTM process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily...

  18. 3D High Density mmWave Interconnects Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrataTM process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily...

  19. 3D High Density Wave Interconnects, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuvotronics has developed and optimized the PolyStrataTM process for the fabrication of intricate microwave and millimeter-wave devices. These devices have primarily...

  20. What if LIGO's gravitational wave detections are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham P.; Jauzac, Mathilde; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the preponderance of so-called `heavy black holes' in the binary black hole (BBH) gravitational wave (GW) detections to date, and the role that gravitational lensing continues to play in discovering new galaxy populations, we explore the possibility that the GWs are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters. For example, if one of the GW sources were actually located at z = 1, then the rest-frame mass of the associated BHs would be reduced by a factor of ˜2. Based on the known populations of BBH GW sources and strong-lensing clusters, we estimate a conservative lower limit on the number of BBH mergers detected per detector year at LIGO/Virgo's current sensitivity that are multiply-imaged, of Rdetect ≃ 10-5 yr-1. This is equivalent to rejecting the hypothesis that one of the BBH GWs detected to date was multiply-imaged at ≲4σ. It is therefore unlikely, but not impossible, that one of the GWs is multiply-imaged. We identify three spectroscopically confirmed strong-lensing clusters with well-constrained mass models within the 90 per cent credible sky localizations of the BBH GWs from LIGO's first observing run. In the event that one of these clusters multiply-imaged one of the BBH GWs, we predict that 20-60 per cent of the putative next appearances of the GWs would be detectable by LIGO, and that they would arrive at Earth within 3yr of first detection.

  1. Breakdown of the Fermi arcs in underdoped cuprates by incommensurate charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between the coherent excitations on disconnected arcs along a "bare" Fermi surface (the socalled Fermi arcs FAs) seen by angle-resolved photo emission spectroscopy (ARPES) in several underdoped (UD) cuprates and incommensurate charge density wave (IC CDW) ordering at lowering of the temperature have been studied. The carriers on FAs scatter strongly on the short-wavelength potential of CDW. The large momentum transfer relates FAs with the electronic states lying deeply under the chemical potential thus involving into consideration the Fermi liquid interactions. At low temperatures IC CDW may fully destroy low lying excitations on the Fermi arcs, leaving electrons on the pocket at the Γ point as the only charged elementary excitations in the CDW phase in UD cuprates. The results infer competition between superconducting and CDW order parameters.

  2. Monte Carlo studies of diamagnetism and charge density wave order in the cuprate pseudogap regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward Sierens, Lauren; Achkar, Andrew; Hawthorn, David; Melko, Roger; Sachdev, Subir

    2015-03-01

    The pseudogap regime of the hole-doped cuprate superconductors is often characterized experimentally in terms of a substantial diamagnetic response and, from another point of view, in terms of strong charge density wave (CDW) order. We introduce a dimensionless ratio, R, that incorporates both diamagnetic susceptibility and the correlation length of CDW order, and therefore reconciles these two fundamental characteristics of the pseudogap. We perform Monte Carlo simulations on a classical model that considers angular fluctuations of a six-dimensional order parameter, and compare our Monte Carlo results for R with existing data from torque magnetometry and x-ray scattering experiments on YBa2Cu3O6+x. We achieve qualitative agreement, and also propose future experiments to further investigate the behaviour of this dimensionless ratio.

  3. Origin of Superconductivity and Latent Charge Density Wave in NbS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Christoph; Poncé, Samuel; Lambert, Henry; Schlipf, Martin; Margine, Elena R.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2017-08-01

    We elucidate the origin of the phonon-mediated superconductivity in 2 H -NbS2 using the ab initio anisotropic Migdal-Eliashberg theory including Coulomb interactions. We demonstrate that superconductivity is associated with Fermi surface hot spots exhibiting an unusually strong electron-phonon interaction. The electron-lattice coupling is dominated by low-energy anharmonic phonons, which place the system on the verge of a charge density wave instability. We also provide definitive evidence for two-gap superconductivity in 2 H -NbS2 , and show that the low- and high-energy peaks observed in tunneling spectra correspond to the Γ - and K -centered Fermi surface pockets, respectively. The present findings call for further efforts to determine whether our proposed mechanism underpins superconductivity in the whole family of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides.

  4. KRONOSEISMOLOGY: USING DENSITY WAVES IN SATURN'S C RING TO PROBE THE PLANET'S INTERIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, M. M.; Nicholson, P. D., E-mail: mmhedman@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Saturn's C ring contains multiple spiral patterns that appear to be density waves driven by periodic gravitational perturbations. In other parts of Saturn's rings, such waves are generated by Lindblad resonances with Saturn's various moons, but most of the wave-like C-ring features are not situated near any strong resonance with any known moon. Using stellar occultation data obtained by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft, we investigate the origin of six unidentified C-ring waves located between 80,900 and 87,200 km from Saturn's center. By measuring differences in the waves' phases among the different occultations, we are able to determine both the number of arms in each spiral pattern and the speeds at which these patterns rotate around the planet. We find that all six of these waves have between two and four arms and pattern speeds between 1660 Degree-Sign day{sup -1} and 1861 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}. These speeds are too large to be attributed to any satellite resonance. Instead, they are comparable to the predicted pattern speeds of waves generated by low-order normal-mode oscillations within the planet. The precise pattern speeds associated with these waves should therefore provide strong constraints on Saturn's internal structure. Furthermore, we identify multiple waves with the same number of arms and very similar pattern speeds, indicating that multiple m = 3 and m = 2 sectoral (l = m) modes may exist within the planet.

  5. A comparative study of surface waves inversion techniques at strong motion recording sites in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis C. Pelekis,; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kayen, Robert E.; Vlachakis, Vasileios S.; Athanasopoulos, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave method was used for the estimation of Vs vs depth profile at 10 strong motion stations in Greece. The dispersion data were obtained by SASW method, utilizing a pair of electromechanical harmonic-wave source (shakers) or a random source (drop weight). In this study, three inversion techniques were used a) a recently proposed Simplified Inversion Method (SIM), b) an inversion technique based on a neighborhood algorithm (NA) which allows the incorporation of a priori information regarding the subsurface structure parameters, and c) Occam's inversion algorithm. For each site constant value of Poisson's ratio was assumed (ν=0.4) since the objective of the current study is the comparison of the three inversion schemes regardless the uncertainties resulting due to the lack of geotechnical data. A penalty function was introduced to quantify the deviations of the derived Vs profiles. The Vs models are compared as of Vs(z), Vs30 and EC8 soil category, in order to show the insignificance of the existing variations. The comparison results showed that the average variation of SIM profiles is 9% and 4.9% comparing with NA and Occam's profiles respectively whilst the average difference of Vs30 values obtained from SIM is 7.4% and 5.0% compared with NA and Occam's.

  6. Mass density slope of elliptical galaxies from strong lensing and resolved stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, N.; Churazov, E.; Naab, T.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss constraints on the mass density distribution (parametrized as ρ ∝ r-γ) in early-type galaxies provided by strong lensing and stellar kinematics data. The constraints come from mass measurements at two `pinch' radii. One `pinch' radius r1 = 2.2REinst is defined such that the Einstein (i.e. aperture) mass can be converted into the spherical mass almost independently of the mass-model. Another `pinch' radius r2 = Ropt is chosen so that the dynamical mass, derived from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, is least sensitive to the anisotropy of stellar orbits. We verified the performance of this approach on a sample of simulated elliptical galaxies and on a sample of 15 SLACS lens galaxies at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, which have already been analysed in Barnabè et al. by the self-consistent joint lensing and kinematic code. For massive simulated galaxies, the density slope γ is recovered with an accuracy of ˜13 per cent, unless r1 and r2 happen to be close to each other. For SLACS galaxies, we found good overall agreement with the results of Barnabè et al. with a sample-averaged slope γ = 2.1 ± 0.05. Although the two-pinch-radii approach has larger statistical uncertainties, it is much simpler and uses only few arithmetic operations with directly observable quantities.

  7. Interaction of the electromagnetic precursor from a relativistic shock with the upstream flow - I. Synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    This paper is the first in the series of papers aiming to study interaction of the electromagnetic precursor waves generated at the front of a relativistic shock with the upstream flow. It is motivated by a simple consideration showing that the absorption of such an electromagnetic precursor could yield an efficient transformation of the kinetic energy of the upstream flow to the energy of accelerated particles. Taking into account that the precursor is a strong wave, in which electrons oscillate with relativistic velocities, the standard plasma-radiation interaction processes should be reconsidered. In this paper, I calculate the synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves.

  8. Interstellar electron density fluctuations due to cosmic-ray acceleration at supernova remnant shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.; Zachary, A.; Arons, J.

    1988-01-01

    We have performed computer simulations to investigate whether sizeable electron density fluctuations might be produced in the process of cosmic-ray acceleration at supernova remnant shock waves. The hypothesis is the following: Cosmic-ray acceleration via a Fermi I mechanism leads to large-amplitude Alfven waves upstream of a supernova remnant shock wave. If the Alfven waves reach a large enough amplitude, they can drive sound waves in the interstellar medium. The fluctuations in the electron density due to these sound waves will then contribute to the observed interstellar scintillation. Our simulations suggest that this mechanism may be a plausible one. Issues remaining to be addressed include the resulting filling factor, and the integrated strength C 2 /sub n/ to be expected for the turbulence

  9. VG1 J PLASMA WAVE SPECTROMETER DENSITY 1S V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electron plasma density data set for Jupiter's outer magnetosphere derived from high-resolution wideband measurements of low-frequency radio and plasma waves...

  10. VG2 J PLASMA WAVE SPECTROMETER DENSITY 1S V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electron plasma density data set for Jupiter's outer magnetosphere derived from high-resolution wideband measurements of low-frequency radio and plasma waves...

  11. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  12. The effect of regional variation of seismic wave attenuation on the strong ground motion from earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    Attenuation is caused by geometric spreading and absorption. Geometric spreading is almost independent of crustal geology and physiographic region, but absorption depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than about 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States is similar to that in the western United States. Beyond the near field, differences in ground motion can best be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The stress drop of eastern earthquakes may be higher than for western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. But we believe this factor is of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. The characteristics of strong ground motion in the conterminous United States are discussed in light of these considerations, and estimates are made of the epicentral ground motions in the central and eastern United States. (author)

  13. Damping-Growth Transition for Ion-Acoustic Waves in a Density Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    A damping-growth transition for ion-acoustic waves propagating in a nonuniform plasma (e-folding length for the density ln) is observed at a wavelength λ∼2πln. This result supports calculations performed in connection with the problem of heating of the solar corona by ion-acoustic waves generated...... in the solar photosphere....

  14. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. A way to model strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backes, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non

  15. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. A way to model strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backes, Steffen

    2017-04-15

    The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non

  16. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of packets of spiral density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a numerical experiment, the behavior of nonlinear packets of spiral density waves in a gas disk has been investigated for different initial wave amplitudes. If the amplitude of the density perturbations is small (<5%), the wave packet is drawn toward the center or toward the periphery of the disk in accordance with the linear theory. The behavior of linear packets of waves with wavelength comparable to the disk radius (R/sub d//lambda = 4) exhibits good agreement with the conclusions of the linear theory of tightly wound spiral waves. The dynamics of wave packets with initial density amplitudes 16, 30, 50% demonstrates the nonlinear nature of the behavior. THe behavior is governed by whether or not the nonlinear effects of higher than third order in the wave amplitude play a part. If the wave packet dynamics is determined by the cubic nonlinearity, the results of the numerical experiment are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the nonlinear theory of short waves, although the characteristic scale of the packet and the wavelength are of the order of the disk radius. In the cases when the nonlinear effects of higher orders in the amplitude play an important part, the behavior of a packet does not differ qualitatively from the behavior predicted by the theory of cubic nonlinearity, but the nonlinear spreading of the packet takes place more rapidly

  17. Charge density waves and local states in quasi-one-dimensional mixed valence inorganic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradson, S.D.; Stroud, M.A.; Zietlow, M.H.; Swanson, B.I.; Baeriswyl, D.; Bishop, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The ground state structures and local states associated with chemical defects in quasi-one-dimensional halogen (X) bridged transition metal (M) mixed valence solids of MX and MMX type have been studied. An adiabatic Hartree-Fock theoretical framework is presented and representative members are classified. The MX materials provide a class whose strong electron-phonon coupling usually favors a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state. However, the coupling strength can be chemically tuned (e.g., by extension to MMX systems) or altered by pressure, driving the ground state structures towards, e.g., a bond-order-wave (BOW) phase. Electron-phonon driven self-trapped states are expected in both the CDW or BOW regimes. Resonance Raman spectra of the MMX solid K 4 (Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 Cl)·H 2 O show, in addition to the homogeneous ground state modes, sharp new features with excitation profiles shifted to the red of the intervalence-charge-transfer (IVCT) band. We attribute these new bands to a local polaron state formed by oxidation of the Pt 2 Cl chain by a chemical defect. The observed spectral characteristics of this local state are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2014-08-06

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  19. Shear Wave Splitting analysis of borehole microseismic reveals weak azimuthal anisotropy hidden behind strong VTI fabric of Lower Paleozoic shales in northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Wojciech; Verdon, James; Malinowski, Michał; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2017-04-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy plays a key-role in hydraulic fracturing experiments, since it provides information on stress orientation and pre-existing fracture system presence. The Lower Paleozoic shale plays in northern Poland are characterized by a strong (15-18%) Vertical Transverse Isotropy (VTI) fabric which dominates weak azimuthal anisotropy being of order of 1-2%. A shear wave travelling in the subsurface after entering an anisotropic medium splits into two orthogonally polarized waves travelling with different velocities. Splitting parameters which can be assessed using a microseismic array are polarization of the fast shear wave and time delay between two modes. Polarization of the fast wave characterizes the anisotropic system on the wave path while the time delay is proportional to the magnitude of anisotropy. We employ Shear Wave Splitting (SWS) technique using a borehole microseismic dataset collected during a hydraulic stimulation treatment located in northern Poland, to image fracture strike masked by a strong VTI signature. During the inversion part, the VTI background parameters were kept constant using information from 3D seismic (VTI model used for pre-stack depth migration). Obtained fracture azimuths averaged over fracturing stages are consistent with the available XRMI imager logs from the nearby vertical well, however they are different from the large-scale maximum stress direction (by 40-45 degrees). Inverted Hudson's crack density (ca. 2%) are compatible with the low shear-wave anisotropy observed in the cross-dipole sonic logs (1-2%). This work has been funded by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development within the Blue Gas project (No BG2/SHALEMECH/14). Data were provided by the PGNiG SA. Collaboration with University of Bristol was supported within TIDES COST Action ES1401.

  20. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierno, S. P., E-mail: sp.tierno@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L. [Department of Applied Physics, E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  1. Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.

  2. Holographic RG flow of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2012-10-01

    We study holographic RG flow of the shear viscosity tensor of anisotropic, strongly coupled {N}=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma by using its type IIB supergravity dual in anisotropic bulk spacetime. We find that the shear viscosity tensor has three independent components in the anisotropic bulk spacetime away from the boundary, and one of the components has a non-trivial RG flow while the other two have a trivial one. For the component of the shear viscosity tensor with non-trivial RG flow, we derive its RG flow equation, and solve the equation analytically to second order in the anisotropy parameter a. We derive the RG equation using the equation of motion, holographic Wilsonian RG method, and Kubo's formula. All methods give the same result. Solving the equation, we find that the ratio of the component of the shear viscosity tensor to entropy density η /s flows from above 1/{4π } the horizon (IR) to below 1/{4π } the boundary (UV) where it violates the holographic shear viscosity (Kovtun-Son-Starinets) bound and where it agrees with the other longitudinal component.

  3. High density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.; Hofmann, J.; Scheid, W.; Greiner, W.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of high density nuclear Mach shock waves in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and related phenomena, as density isomers, highly isobaric and hot nuclear matter, pionization and granulation of dense matter, compressibility and soundwaves in nuclear matter, are discussed

  4. A qubit strongly coupled to a resonant cavity: asymmetry of the spontaneous emission spectrum beyond the rotating wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); You, J Q; Nori, F [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Zheng, H, E-mail: xfcao@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) spectrum of a qubit in a lossy resonant cavity. We use neither the rotating-wave approximation nor the Markov approximation. For the weak-coupling case, the SE spectrum of the qubit is a single peak, with its location depending on the spectral density of the qubit environment. Then, the asymmetry (of the location and heights of the two peaks) of the two SE peaks (which are related to the vacuum Rabi splitting) changes as the qubit-cavity coupling increases. Explicitly, for a qubit in a low-frequency intrinsic bath, the height asymmetry of the splitting peaks is enhanced as the qubit-cavity coupling strength increases. However, for a qubit in an Ohmic bath, the height asymmetry of the spectral peaks is inverted compared to the low-frequency bath case. With further increasing the qubit-cavity coupling to the ultra-strong regime, the height asymmetry of the left and right peaks is slightly inverted, which is consistent with the corresponding case of a low-frequency bath. This inversion of the asymmetry arises from the competition between the Ohmic bath and the cavity bath. Therefore, after considering the anti-rotating terms, our results explicitly show how the height asymmetry in the SE spectrum peaks depends on the qubit-cavity coupling and the type of intrinsic noise experienced by the qubit.

  5. Nonradial oscillations of neutron stars and emitted gravitational waves: Computing strongly damped normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroyannis, V. S.; Tzelati, E. E.; Karageorgopoulos, V. G.

    In this paper, we compute eigenfrequencies of strongly damped normal modes arising from the coupling of the nonradial oscillations of a neutron star to the oscillations of the space-time metric, so-called “w-modes”, by integrating all involved differential equations in the complex plane. Regarding the interior of the star, we use the so-called “complex-plane strategy”. Specifically, we integrate the differential equations of the nonradial fluid oscillations of a general-relativistic polytropic model, simulating the star, along a straight-line contour placed parallel to the real axis and at small imaginary distance from it, thus avoiding a singularity at the stellar center. Regarding the exterior of the star, we use a method proposed by Andersson, Kokkotas and Schutz, following a slightly different terminating procedure. Specifically, (i) we integrate the equations along a straight-line contour lying parallel to the so-called “anti-Stokes lines”, on which the exponential divergence of the solution is drastically suppressed, so that the outgoing and ingoing waves become comparable; and (ii) we carry out one final integration up to a “common reference point”, thus comparing all results at this point. We verify the reliability and accuracy of the method by comparing our numerical results to corresponding ones appearing in the bibliography.

  6. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  7. On the energy-momentum density of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T; Tucker, R W

    2004-01-01

    By embedding Einstein's original formulation of general relativity into a broader context, we show that a dynamic covariant description of gravitational stress-energy emerges naturally from a variational principle. A tensor T G is constructed from a contraction of the Bel tensor with a symmetric covariant second degree tensor field Φ and has a form analogous to the stress-energy tensor of the Maxwell field in an arbitrary spacetime. For plane-fronted gravitational waves helicity-2 polarized (graviton) states can be identified carrying non-zero energy and momentum

  8. Energy density and velocity of electromagnetic waves in lossy chiral medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyev, O B

    2014-01-01

    The average energy density of the macroscopic quasimonochromatic electromagnetic field U ts (t,r) in a linear passive chiral lossy medium described by the constitutive E–H relations is determined using a microscopic model. According to the model, U ts (t,r) is equal to the sum of the average energy densities of the electromagnetic field in free space U t0 (t,r) and electromagnetic oscillations in structural elements U s (t,r) induced by the electromagnetic wave. Making use of the Poynting theorem, the energy density U ts (t,r)≥U t0 (t,r) and power density of losses are derived as functions of the Poynting vector, polarization of the electromagnetic waves, phase shift between the field vectors and refractive index of a chiral medium. The exact energy velocity of the quasimonochromatic electromagnetic waves satisfying relativistic causality is determined using U ts (t,r). The approximate energy velocities of the quasimonochromatic electromagnetic wave are determined using energy density components approximating U ts (t,r) (e.g., the sum of the positive energy densities of the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields as well as the energy density of magnetoelectric cross-coupling). Comparison of the exact and approximate energy velocities with the group velocity in the case of a chiral lossy medium with a single-resonant frequency clarifies the concept of the electromagnetic energy and demonstrates the fundamental significance of the exact energy velocity. (paper)

  9. Suspended liquid particle disturbance on laser-induced blast wave and low density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Takahiro; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    The impurity effect of suspended liquid particles on the laser-induced gas breakdown was experimentally investigated in quiescent gas. The focus of this study is the investigation of the influence of the impurities on the shock wave structure as well as the low density distribution. A 532 nm Nd:YAG laser beam with an 188 mJ/pulse was focused on the chamber filled with suspended liquid particles 0.9 ± 0.63 μm in diameter. Several shock waves are generated by multiple gas breakdowns along the beam path in the breakdown with particles. Four types of shock wave structures can be observed: (1) the dual blast waves with a similar shock radius, (2) the dual blast waves with a large shock radius at the lower breakdown, (3) the dual blast waves with a large shock radius at the upper breakdown, and (4) the triple blast waves. The independent blast waves interact with each other and enhance the shock strength behind the shock front in the lateral direction. The triple blast waves lead to the strongest shock wave in all cases. The shock wave front that propagates toward the opposite laser focal spot impinges on one another, and thereafter a transmitted shock wave (TSW) appears. The TSW interacts with the low density core called a kernel; the kernel then longitudinally expands quickly due to a Richtmyer-Meshkov-like instability. The laser-particle interaction causes an increase in the kernel volume which is approximately five times as large as that in the gas breakdown without particles. In addition, the laser-particle interaction can improve the laser energy efficiency.

  10. Structured mass density slab as a waveguide of fast magnetoacoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.

    Coronal loops are waveguides for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. These loops are expected to be structured. Therefore, in the present paper, we numerically studied the propagation of the fast MHD waves in the structured density slab (composed from a broad density slab with one axisymmetric narrow sub-slab superposed), and analysed the wave signals. Then, this structured slab was divided into its components, i.e., to simple broad and narrow slabs and the same analysis was made. We compared results of both these cases. For the calculations we adopted a two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, in which we solved a full set of ideal time-dependent MHD equations using the FLASH code, applying the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method. To initiate the fast sausage magnetoacoustic waves, we used axisymmetric Gaussian velocity perturbation. Wave signals were detected in different locations along the slab and as a diagnostic tool of these waves, the wavelet analysis method has been used. We found that for the structured density slab with sufficiently sharp boundaries, i.e., for good quality waveguides (without an energy leakage), the guided waves in the structured slab behave similarly as in its separated (simple slab) components.

  11. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-09

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).

  12. Internal Wave Exposure in Eastern Tropical Pacific Panamá and Costa Rica is Coincident with Strong Vertical Gradients in Shallow Water Benthic Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichter, J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-year time series and hydrographic observations at near shore sites in Eastern Tropical Pacific Panamá and Costa Rica show regionally coherent internal wave exposure that is strongly modulated across seasons. Sites were sampled to the west of the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica and near Isla Coiba in Panamá with spatial separation of approximately 250 km. From approximately January through April each year, internal wave activity inferred from high frequency temperature variability is pronounced, associated with well developed and shallow density stratification. The occurrence of highly variable temperatures is correlated with shallow density stratification and oxygen concentrations as low as 1 to 1.5 µg L-1 measured at the base of the thermocline at 50 to 60 m depth in the offshore water column during winter and spring conditions. The physical variability in the near shore corresponds to and appears to drive strong vertical gradients in the benthic community assemblages on rocky substrata. With increasing depth the benthic communities are dominated by scleractinian corals (predominantly in the genera Pocillopora, Pavona, and Porites) from near the surface to approximately 8 m depth, followed by of a range of sessile suspension feeders including sea fans and gorgonians at approximately 10 to 20 m depth, and predominantly rocky bare space with sporadic algal and isolated invertebrate communities to 30 m depth which was the limit of the current sampling. This vertical patterning of the benthic community appears to reflect the strong vertical gradients in hydrographic forcing. From May through December hydrographic conditions at the benthic study sites is significantly less variable, associated with deeper offshore stratification and a decrease in temperature variation driven by internal wave activity impinging on the shallow water ecosystems. The highly variable physical environment in these tropical settings sets a context for strong patterning of benthic

  13. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institute für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schinnerer, Eva [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kepley, Amanda [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz and Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  14. The influence of the edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beam propagation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelli, N.; Balakin, A.A.; Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation...... are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi......-optical calculations are shown by using edge density fluctuations as calculated by two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations and validated with the experimental data [O. E. Garcia et al, Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 667]...

  15. Revisiting internal gravity waves analysis using GPS RO density profiles: comparison with temperature profiles and application for wave field stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoft, Petr; Sacha, Petr; Miksovsky, Jiri; Huszar, Peter; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Foelsche, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    We revise selected findings regarding the utilization of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO) density profiles for the analysis of internal gravity waves (IGW), introduced by Sacha et al. (2014). Using various GPS RO datasets, we show that the differences in the IGW spectra between the dry-temperature and dry-density profiles that were described in the previous study as a general issue are in fact present in one specific data version only. The differences between perturbations in the temperature and density GPS RO profiles do not have any physical origin, and there is not the information loss of IGW activity that was suggested in Sacha et al. (2014). We investigate the previously discussed question of the temperature perturbations character when utilizing GPS RO dry-temperature profiles, derived by integration of the hydrostatic balance. Using radiosonde profiles as a proxy for GPS RO, we provide strong evidence that the differences in IGW perturbations between the real and retrieved temperature profiles (which are based on the assumption of hydrostatic balance) include a significant nonhydrostatic component that is present sporadically and might be either positive or negative. The detected differences in related spectra of IGW temperature perturbations are found to be mostly about ±10 %. The paper also presents a detailed study on the utilization of GPS RO density profiles for the characterization of the wave field stability. We have analyzed selected stability parameters derived from the density profiles together with a study of the vertical rotation of the wind direction. Regarding the Northern Hemisphere the results point to the western border of the Aleutian high, where potential IGW breaking is detected. These findings are also supported by an analysis of temperature and wind velocity profiles. Our results confirm advantages of the utilization of the density profiles for IGW analysis.

  16. Revisiting internal gravity waves analysis using GPS RO density profiles: comparison with temperature profiles and application for wave field stability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We revise selected findings regarding the utilization of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO density profiles for the analysis of internal gravity waves (IGW, introduced by Sacha et al. (2014. Using various GPS RO datasets, we show that the differences in the IGW spectra between the dry-temperature and dry-density profiles that were described in the previous study as a general issue are in fact present in one specific data version only. The differences between perturbations in the temperature and density GPS RO profiles do not have any physical origin, and there is not the information loss of IGW activity that was suggested in Sacha et al. (2014. We investigate the previously discussed question of the temperature perturbations character when utilizing GPS RO dry-temperature profiles, derived by integration of the hydrostatic balance. Using radiosonde profiles as a proxy for GPS RO, we provide strong evidence that the differences in IGW perturbations between the real and retrieved temperature profiles (which are based on the assumption of hydrostatic balance include a significant nonhydrostatic component that is present sporadically and might be either positive or negative. The detected differences in related spectra of IGW temperature perturbations are found to be mostly about ±10 %. The paper also presents a detailed study on the utilization of GPS RO density profiles for the characterization of the wave field stability. We have analyzed selected stability parameters derived from the density profiles together with a study of the vertical rotation of the wind direction. Regarding the Northern Hemisphere the results point to the western border of the Aleutian high, where potential IGW breaking is detected. These findings are also supported by an analysis of temperature and wind velocity profiles. Our results confirm advantages of the utilization of the density profiles for IGW analysis.

  17. Parallel-beam correlation technique for measuring density fluctuations in plasmas with strong magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1981-04-01

    A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed

  18. Glass transition in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.; Nad, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static'......'' glass transition around 2 K. The jump in the specific heat in different controlled kinetic conditions shows all the characteristics of freezing in supercooled liquids. Both effects give direct evidence of a glass transition in the spin-density wave ground state.......We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static...

  19. Chiral anomaly, charge density waves, and axion strings from Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    We study dynamical instability and chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional Weyl semimetals, which turns Weyl semimetals into “axion insulators.” Charge density waves (CDWs) are found to be the natural consequence of chiral symmetry breaking. The phase mode of this charge density wave state is identified as the axion, which couples to an electromagnetic field in the topological θE·B term. One of our main results is that “axion strings” can be realized as the (screw or edge) dislocations in the charge density wave, which provides a simple physical picture for the elusive axion strings. These axion strings carry gapless chiral modes, therefore they have important implications for dissipationless transport properties of Weyl semimetals with broken symmetry.

  20. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  1. Exchange correlation effects on plasmons and on charge-density wave instability in narrow-band quasi-one-dimensional metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Tosatti, E.

    1979-05-01

    The coexistence of tight-binding and exchange-correlation effects inside each chain of a model quasi-one-dimensional metal, on both plasmon and charge density wave properties have been studied. The results, while in qualitative agreement with other treatments of the problem at long wavelengths, indicate a strong tendency for plasmons to turn into excitons at larger momenta, and to exhibit an ''excitonic'' charge-density wave instability at k approximately 2ksub(F). The nature of the plasmon branches and of the excitonic charge distortion is examined. Relevance to existing quasi-one-dimensional materials is also discussed. (author)

  2. On local strong solutions to the three-dimensional nonhomogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with density-dependent viscosity and vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sisi

    2018-04-01

    This paper concerns the three-dimensional nonhomogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with density-dependent viscosity and vacuum on Ω \\subset R^3. The domain Ω \\subset R^3 is a general connected smooth one, either bounded or unbounded. In particular, the initial density can have compact support when Ω is unbounded. First, we obtain the local existence and uniqueness of strong solution to the three-dimensional nonhomogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations without any compatibility condition assumed on the initial data. Then, we also prove the continuous dependence of strong solution on the initial data under an additional compatibility condition.

  3. Path-integral calculation of the density of states in heavily doped strongly compensated semiconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koinov, Z.G.; Yanchev, I.Y.

    1981-09-01

    The density of states in heavily doped strongly compansated semiconductors in a strong magnetic field is calculated by using the path-integral method. The case is considered when correlation exists in the impurity positions owing to the Coulomb interactions between the charged donors and acceptors during the high-temperature preparation of the samples. The semiclassical formula is rederived and corrections to it due to the long-range character of the potential and its short-range fluctuations are obtained. The density of states in the tail is studied and analytical results are given in the classical and quantum cases. (author)

  4. Density waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio and optical occultation - Observational tests of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Thomas G.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A parallel examination is conducted of Voyager radio and photopolarimeter occultation observations of the Saturn A ring's density waves. The radio instrument waves exhibit an average -90 deg offset from the dynamical phase. A warping height of about 100-m amplitude can qualtitatively reproduce this phase shift, while preserving the overall model wave shape. These results may be profoundly relevant for satellite-ring torque calculations in Saturn's rings, given the deposition of all of the net torque of the standard model in the first wavelength.

  5. Lagrangian analysis of two-phase hydrodynamic and nuclear-coupled density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1974-01-01

    The mathematical technique known as the ''method of characteristics'' has been used to construct an exact, analytical solution to predict the onset of density-wave oscillations in diabatic two-phase systems, such as Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors (BWR's). Specifically, heater wall dynamics, boiling boundary dynamics and nuclear kinetics have been accounted for in this analysis. Emphasis is placed on giving the reader a clear physical understanding of the phenomena of two-phase density-wave oscillations. Explanations are presented in terms of block diagram logic, and phasor representations of the various pressure drop perturbations are given. (U.S.)

  6. Flow behind an exponential shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric perfect gas with magnetic field and variable density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G; Sahu, P K

    2016-01-01

    A self-similar model for one-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flows behind a strong exponential shock wave driven out by a cylindrical piston moving with time according to an exponential law in an ideal gas in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and variable density is discussed in a rotating atmosphere. The ambient medium is assumed to possess radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The initial density, the fluid velocities and magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying with time according to an exponential law. The gas is taken to be non-viscous having infinite electrical conductivity. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector. The effects of the variation of the initial density index, adiabatic exponent of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field behind the shock wave are investigated. It is found that the presence of the magnetic field have decaying effects on the shock wave. Also, it is observed that the effect of an increase in the magnetic field strength is more impressive in the case of adiabatic flow than in the case of isothermal flow. The assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, non-dimensional azimuthal and axial components of vorticity vector distributions in comparison to those in the case of adiabatic flow. A comparison is made between isothermal and adiabatic flows. It is obtained that an increase in the initial density variation index, adiabatic exponent and strength of the magnetic field decrease the shock strength.

  7. The sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave of a strong magnetic field diffusing into a solid metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Kan, Ming-Xian; Wang, Gang-Hua; Zhao, Jian-Heng; Computational Physics Team

    2016-10-01

    When a mega-gauss magnetic field diffuses into a solid metal, the Joule heat would rise rapidly the temperature of the metal, and the rise of temperature leads to an increase of the metal's resistance, which in turn accelerates the magnetic field diffusion. Those positive feedbacks acting iteratively would lead to an interesting sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave. By assuming that the metal's resistance has an abrupt change from a small value ηS to larger value ηL at some critical temperature Tc, the sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave can be solved analytically. The conditions for the emerging of the sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave are B0 >Bc , ηL /ηS >> 1 , and ηL/ηSB0/-Bc Bc >> 1 , where Bc =√{ 2μ0Jc } , B0 is the vacuum magnetic field strength, and Jc is the critical Joule heat density. The wave-front velocity of the diffusion wave is Vc =ηL/μ0B0/-Bc Bc1/xc , where xc is the depth the wave have propagated in the metal. In this presentation we would like to discuss the derivation of the formulas and its impact to magnetically driven experiments. The work is supported by the Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2015B0201023).

  8. Current-density functional theory study of the H2 molecule evolving under a strong ultrashort magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Hash(0xb7f6e60)

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen molecule in a strong ultrashort magnetic field is investigated through a current-density functional theory (CDFT) and quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based approach employing current-density dependent vector exchange-correlation potential and energy density functional derived with a vorticity variable. The numerical computations through the CDFT based approach are performed for the H2 molecule, starting initially from its field-free ground state, in a parallel internuclear axis and magnetic field-axis configuration with the internuclear separation R ranging from 0.1 a.u. to 14.0 a.u., and the strength of the time-dependent (TD) magnetic field varying between 0-1011 G over a few femtoseconds. The numerical results are compared with that obtained using an approach based on the current-density independent approximation under similar computational constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on the electronic charge-density alone. The current-density based approach yields exchange- and correlation energy as well as electronic charge-density of the H2 molecule drastically different from that obtained using current-independent approach, in particular, at TD magnetic field-strengths >109 G during a typical time-period of the field when the magnetic-field had attained maximum applied field-strength and is switched to a decreasing ramp function. This nonadiabatic behavior of the TD electronic charge-density is traced to the TD vorticity-dependent vector exchange-correlation potential of the CDFT based approach. The interesting electron dynamics of the H2 molecule in strong TD magnetic field is further elucidated by treating electronic charge-density as an `electron-fluid'. The present work also reveals interesting real-time dynamics on the attosecond time-scale in the electronic charge-density distribution of the hydrogen molecule.

  9. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, M., E-mail: Mikko.Saarela@oulu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  10. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials with Charge Density Waves: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongur Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two-dimensional (2D charge density wave (CDW materials have attracted extensive interest due to potential applications as high performance functional nanomaterials. As other 2D materials, 2D CDW materials are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into layers of single unit cell thickness. Although bulk CDW materials have been studied for decades, recent developments in nanoscale characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities allowing applications such as oscillators, electrodes in supercapacitors, energy storage and conversion, sensors and spinelectronic devices. In this review, we first outline the synthesis techniques of 2D CDW materials including mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, chemical vapor transport (CVT, chemical vapor deposition (CVD, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and electrochemical exfoliation. Then, the characterization procedure of the 2D CDW materials such as temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are reviewed. Finally, applications of 2D CDW materials are reviewed.

  11. Coexistence of superconductivity and density waves in quasi-two-dimensional metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismer, Jan-Peter

    2011-06-03

    This dissertation deals with the high-temperature superconductivity in the hole- and electron-doped copper superconductors. In the first part, superconducting phases are investigated on a background of different types of density waves. Singlet superconductivity is studied with s- and d-wave symmetry on a background of spin, charge or D-density waves with respect to stability as well as phase structure and impulse dependence of the gap function. In the second part, the dynamic spin susceptibility for different phases is calculated and compared with experimental data extracted from results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The observed phases are d-wave superconductivity, D-density wave, and coexistence of the two. For d-wave superconductivity, the influence of a magnetic field parallel to the copper oxide layer and the temperature development of the susceptibility when for T >> T{sub c} a spin density wave phase is present are investigated. [German] Diese Dissertation beschaeftigt sich mit der Hochtemperatursupraleitung in den loch- und elektron-dotierten Kuprat-Supraleitern. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit werden supraleitende Phasen auf einem Hintergrund verschiedener Typen von Dichtewellen untersucht. Es wird Singlett-Supraleitung mit s- und d-Wellen-Symmetrie auf einem Hintergrund von Spin-, Ladungs- oder D-Dichtewelle hinsichtlich Stabilitaet sowie Phasenstruktur und Impulsabhaengigkeit der Gapfunktion untersucht. Im zweiten Teil wird die dynamische Spinsuszeptibilitaet fuer verschiedene Phasen berechnet und mit experimentellen Daten verglichen, die aus Ergebnissen von Inelastischen Neutronenstreuungsexperimenten extrahiert wurden. Die betrachteten Phasen sind d-Wellen-Supraleitung, D-Dichtewelle und Koexistenz der beiden. Fuer d-Wellen-Supraleitung werden der Einfluss eines Magnetfelds parallel zur Kupferoxidschicht und die Temperaturentwicklung der Suszeptibilitaet, wenn fuer T >> T{sub c} eine Spin-Dichtewelle-Phase vorliegt, untersucht.

  12. Spatially localized particle energization by Landau damping in current sheets produced by strong Alfvén wave collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Gregory G.; McCubbin, Andrew J.; Klein, Kristopher G.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the removal of energy from turbulent fluctuations in a magnetized plasma and the consequent energization of the constituent plasma particles is a major goal of heliophysics and astrophysics. Previous work has shown that nonlinear interactions among counterpropagating Alfvén waves - or Alfvén wave collisions - are the fundamental building block of astrophysical plasma turbulence and naturally generate current sheets in the strongly nonlinear limit. A nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of a strong Alfvén wave collision is used to examine the damping of the electromagnetic fluctuations and the associated energization of particles that occurs in self-consistently generated current sheets. A simple model explains the flow of energy due to the collisionless damping and the associated particle energization, as well as the subsequent thermalization of the particle energy by collisions. The net particle energization by the parallel electric field is shown to be spatially localized, and the nonlinear evolution is essential in enabling spatial non-uniformity. Using the recently developed field-particle correlation technique, we show that particles resonant with the Alfvén waves in the simulation dominate the energy transfer, demonstrating conclusively that Landau damping plays a key role in the spatially localized damping of the electromagnetic fluctuations and consequent energization of the particles in this strongly nonlinear simulation.

  13. DENSITY PERTURBATION BY ALFVÉN WAVES IN MAGNETO-PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Moon, Y.-J. [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sharma, R. P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2016-12-20

    In this article, we attempt to investigate the density perturbations along magnetic field by ponderomotive effects due to inertial Alfvén waves (AWs) in auroral ionosphere. For this study, we take high-frequency inertial AWs (pump) and their nonlinear interactions with low-frequency slow modes of AWs in that region. The dynamical equations representing these wave modes are known as the Zakharov like equation, and are solved numerically. From the results presented here, we notice the density perturbations in the direction of background magnetic fields. We also find that the deepest density cavity is associated with the strongest magnetic fields. The main reason for these nonlinear structures could be the ponderomotive effects due to the pump waves. The amplitude of these density structures varies with time until the modulation instability saturates. From our results, we estimate the amplitude of most intense cavity as ∼15% of the unperturbed plasma number density n {sub 0}, which is consistent with the observations. These density structures could be the locations for particle energizations in this region.

  14. The dynamics of magnetic Rossby waves in spherical dynamo simulations: A signature of strong-field dynamos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, K.; Teed, R. J.; Jones, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate slow magnetic Rossby waves in convection-driven dynamos in rotating spherical shells. Quasi-geostrophic waves riding on a mean zonal flow may account for some of the geomagnetic westward drifts and have the potential to allow the toroidal field strength within the planetary fluid core to be estimated. We extend the work of Hori et al. (2015) to include a wider range of models, and perform a detailed analysis of the results. We find that a predicted dispersion relation matches well with the longitudinal drifts observed in our strong-field dynamos. We discuss the validity of our linear theory, since we also find that the nonlinear Lorentz terms influence the observed waveforms. These wave motions are excited by convective instability, which determines the preferred azimuthal wavenumbers. Studies of linear rotating magnetoconvection have suggested that slow magnetic Rossby modes emerge in the magnetostrophic regime, in which the Lorentz and Coriolis forces are in balance in the vorticity equation. We confirm this to be predominant balance for the slow waves we have detected in nonlinear dynamo systems. We also show that a completely different wave regime emerges if the magnetic field is not present. Finally we report the corresponding radial magnetic field variations observed at the surface of the shell in our simulations and discuss the detectability of these waves in the geomagnetic secular variation.

  15. Unidirectional spin density wave state in metallic (Sr1−xLax)2IrO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang; Schmehr, Julian L.; Islam, Zahirul; Porter, Zach; Zoghlin, Eli; Finkelstein, Kenneth; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2018-01-09

    Materials that exhibit both strong spin–orbit coupling and electron correlation effects are predicted to host numerous new electronic states. One prominent example is the Jeff = 1/2 Mott state in Sr2IrO4, where introducing carriers is predicted to manifest high temperature superconductivity analogous to the S=1/2 Mott state of La2CuO4. While bulk super- conductivity currently remains elusive, anomalous quasiparticle behaviors paralleling those in the cuprates such as pseudogap formation and the formation of a d-wave gap are observed upon electron-doping Sr2IrO4. Here we establish a magnetic parallel between electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 by unveiling a spin density wave state in electron-doped Sr2IrO4. Our magnetic resonant X-ray scattering data reveal the presence of an incom- mensurate magnetic state reminiscent of the diagonal spin density wave state observed in the monolayer cuprate (La1−xSrx)2CuO4. This link supports the conjecture that the quenched Mott phases in electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 support common competing electronic phases.

  16. Strong ion accelerating by collisionless magnetosonic shock wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)

  17. He 2++ molecular ion in a strong time-dependent magnetic field: a current-density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas

    2011-08-01

    The He 2++ molecular ion exposed to a strong ultrashort time-dependent (TD) magnetic field of the order of 10(9) G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) and current-density functional theory (CDFT) based approach using vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential and energy density functional that depend not only on the electronic charge-density but also on the current density. The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed in a parallel internuclear-axis and magnetic field-axis configuration at the field-free equilibrium internuclear separation R = 1.3 au with the field-strength varying between 0 and 10(11) G. The TD behavior of the exchange- and correlation energy of the He 2++ is analyzed and compared with that obtained using a [B-TD-QFD-density functional theory (DFT)] approach based on the conventional TD-DFT under similar computational constraints but using only scalar XC potential and energy density functional dependent on the electronic charge-density alone. The CDFT based approach yields TD exchange- and correlation energy and TD electronic charge-density significantly different from that obtained using the conventional TD-DFT based approach, particularly, at typical magnetic field strengths and during a typical time period of the TD field. This peculiar behavior of the CDFT-based approach is traced to the TD current-density dependent vector XC potential, which can induce nonadiabatic effects causing retardation of the oscillating electronic charge density. Such dissipative electron dynamics of the He 2++ molecular ion is elucidated by treating electronic charge density as an electron-"fluid" in the terminology of QFD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Universal formula for quasi-static density perturbation by a magnetoplasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.; Cary, J.R.; Pereira, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The general expression for the ponderomotive Hamiltonian is used to obtain the quasi-static quasi-neutral density change caused by the ponderomotive force of a cold magnetoplasma wave of arbitrary frequency and polarization: deltan (x) =-[vertical-barE(x) vertical-bar 2 -vertical-barB(x) vertical-bar 2 ] /4π

  19. Density wave instabilities of tilted fermionic dipoles in a multilayer geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Jens; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We consider the density wave instability of fermionic dipoles aligned by an external field and moving in equidistant layers at zero temperature. Using a conserving Hartree–Fock approximation, we show that correlations between dipoles in different layers significantly decrease the critical coupling...

  20. Electrical transport through constrictions in the charge-density wave conductor NbSe3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O´Neill, K.; Slot, E.; Thorne, R.; Van der Zant, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the electrical transport properties of insulating and metallic constrictions of dimensions 100nm-10_m in the charge-density wave (CDW) conductor NbSe3. The constrictions are made in a variety of ways: focused ion beam, reactive ion etching through a resist mask, and in a

  1. Probability density of wave function of excited photoelectron: understanding XANES features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 232-234 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : XANES * PED - probability density of wave function Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  2. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  3. Ferroelectricity Induced by Acentric Spin-Density Waves in YMn2O5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Blake, G.R.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2006-01-01

    The commensurate and incommensurate magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric system YMn2O5, as determined from neutron diffraction, were found to be spin-density waves lacking a global center of symmetry. We propose a model, based on a simple magnetoelastic coupling to the lattice, which enables

  4. Coexistence of density wave and superfluid order in a dipolar Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhigang; Block, Jens Kusk; Bruun, Georg M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the coexistence of superfluid and density wave (stripe) order in a quasi-two-dimensional gas of dipolar fermions aligned by an external field. Remarkably, the anisotropic nature of the dipolar interaction allows for such a coexistence in a large region of the zero temperature phase...

  5. Interplay between pair density waves and random field disorders in the pseudogap regime of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheung

    To capture various experimental results in the pseudogap regime, we propose a four-component pair density wave (PDW) state in which all components compete with each other. Without random field disorders (RFD), globally the PDW components are phase separated and only one of the component survives locally. If the RFD is included, this state becomes a phase separated state with short range PDW stripes, and induces charge density waves (CDW) and loop current order as secondary composite orders. We call this phase-separated pair nematic (PSPN) state. This state could capture a number of important experimental features in the pseudogap, in particular, the predominantly d-wave CDW with spatial dependent charge smecticity, the unusual ARPES quasiparticle spectrum, and the time reversal symmetry breaking order in polarized neutron diffraction and polar Kerr rotation. We also discuss how the various temperature scales arisen in the pseudogap can be understood in terms of the interplay with the RFD and fluctuating orders.

  6. Wave failure at strong coupling in intracellular C a2 + signaling system with clustered channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wu, Yuning; Gao, Xuejuan; Cai, Meichun; Shuai, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    As an important intracellular signal, C a2 + ions control diverse cellular functions. In this paper, we discuss the C a2 + signaling with a two-dimensional model in which the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (I P3 ) receptor channels are distributed in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The wave failure at large C a2 + diffusion coupling is discussed in detail in the model. We show that with varying model parameters the wave failure is a robust behavior with either deterministic or stochastic channel dynamics. We suggest that the wave failure should be a general behavior in inhomogeneous diffusing systems with clustered excitable regions and may occur in biological C a2 + signaling systems.

  7. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  8. Strongly Dipolar Polythiourea and Polyurea Dielectrics with High Electrical Breakdown, Low Loss, and High Electrical Energy Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Burlingame, Quinn; Cheng, Zhao-Xi; Lin, Minren; Zhang, Q. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dielectric materials with high electric energy density and low loss are of great importance for applications in modern electronics and electrical systems. Strongly dipolar materials have the potential to reach relatively higher dielectric constants than the widely used non-polar or weakly dipolar polymers, as well as a much lower loss than that of nonlinear high K polymer dielectrics or polymer-ceramic composites. To realize the high energy density while maintaining the low dielectric loss, aromatic polythioureas and polyureas with high dipole moments, high dipole densities, tunable molecular structures and dielectric properties were investigated. High energy density (>24 J/cm3), high breakdown strength (>800 MV/m), and high charge-discharge efficiency (>90%) can be achieved in the new polymers. The molecular structure and film surface morphology were also studied; it is of great importance to optimize the fabrication process to make high-quality thin films.

  9. Strongly interacting bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice at incommensurate densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarides, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315556668; Tieleman, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386456; de Morais Smith, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836346

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quantum phase transitions occurring in a system of strongly interacting ultracold bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice. After discussing the commensurate-incommensurate transition, we focus on the phases appearing at an incommensurate filling. We find a rich phase diagram, with

  10. Extension of SMAC scheme for variable density flows under strong temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S. F.; Khan, H. Naushad; Sanghi, S.; Ahmad, A.; Yahya, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    An extension of SMAC scheme is proposed for variable density flows under low Mach number approximation. The algorithm is based on a predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equation. A constant-coefficient Poisson equation is solved for the pressure following both the predictor and corrector steps to satisfy the continuity equation at each time step. Spatial discretization is performed on a collocated grid system that offers computational simplicity and straight forward extension to curvilinear coordinate systems. To avoid the pressure odd-even decoupling that is typically encountered in such grids, a flux interpolation technique is introduced for the equations governing variable density flows. An important characteristic of the proposed algorithm is that it can be applied to flows in both open and closed domains. Its robustness and accuracy are illustrated with a non-isothermal, turbulent channel flow at temperature ratio of 1.01 and 2.

  11. Strong anomaly, spectral-density sum rules, and broken (U(3) x U(3) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, S.; Bagchi, B.

    1983-05-01

    We obtain by making use of the anomaly term in the divergence of the flavor-singlet-axial-vector-current new spectral-function sum rules for the pseudoscalar density in a chiral SU()3) x SU(3) x U/sub 3/(1) framework. The positivity conditions on the spectral representations of the pseudoscalar densities lead to a new bound on the quark-condensate term <0Vertical Barq-barqVertical Bar0>< or =-(279 MeV)/sup 3/ (q = u, d, and s) corresponding bare-current-quark values of m/sub u/ = m/sub d/roughly-equal5 MeV and m/sub s/roughly-equal150 MeV.

  12. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, G. T. Road, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)

    2014-07-15

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.

  13. Strong self-focusing of a cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisionless magneto-plasma under plasma density ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect

  14. An analytical solution for stationary distribution of photon density in traveling-wave and reflective SOAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totović, A R; Crnjanski, J V; Krstić, M M; Gvozdić, D M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze two semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structures, traveling-wave and reflective, with the active region made of the bulk material. The model is based on the stationary traveling-wave equations for forward and backward propagating photon densities of the signal and the amplified spontaneous emission, along with the stationary carrier rate equation. We start by introducing linear approximation of the carrier density spatial distribution, which enables us to find solutions for the photon densities in a closed analytical form. An analytical approach ensures a low computational resource occupation and an easy analysis of the parameters influencing the SOA’s response. The comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows high agreement for a wide range of the input optical powers and bias currents. (paper)

  15. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. M.; Bagchi, P.; Das, A.; Layek, B.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss physics of exotic high baryon density QCD phases which are believed to exist in the core of a neutron star. This can provide a laboratory for exploring exotic physics such as axion emission, KK graviton production etc. Much of the physics of these high-density phases is model-dependent and not very well understood, especially the densities expected to occur inside neutron stars. We follow a different approach and use primarily universal aspects of the physics of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effects of density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing quadrupole moment of the star due to these fluctuations.

  16. Evidence for selection maintaining MHC diversity in a rodent species despite strong density fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C; Herde, Antje; Mazzoni, Camila J; Eccard, Jana A; Sommer, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variation in population size often leads to reduced genetic diversity limiting the adaptive potential of individual populations. Key genes of adaptive variation are encoded by the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) playing an essential role in parasite resistance. How MHC variation persists in rodent populations that regularly experience population bottlenecks remains an important topic in evolutionary genetics. We analysed the consequences of strong population fluctuations on MHC class II DRB exon 2 diversity in two distant common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in three consecutive years using a high-throughput sequencing approach. In 143 individuals, we detected 25 nucleotide alleles translating into 14 unique amino acid MHC alleles belonging to at least three loci. Thus, the overall allelic diversity and amino acid distance among the remaining MHC alleles, used as a surrogate for the range of pathogenic antigens that can be presented to T-cells, are still remarkably high. Both study populations did not show significant population differentiation between years, but significant differences were found between sites. We concluded that selection processes seem to be strong enough to maintain moderate levels of MHC diversity in our study populations outcompeting genetic drift, as the same MHC alleles were conserved between years. Differences in allele frequencies between populations might be the outcome of different local parasite pressures and/or genetic drift. Further understanding of how pathogens vary across space and time will be crucial to further elucidate the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in cyclic populations.

  17. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Holmes, John; Studer, Joseph

    2015-06-29

    There have been reviews on the association between density of alcohol outlets and harm including studies published up to December 2008. Since then the number of publications has increased dramatically. The study reviews the more recent studies with regard to their utility to inform policy. A systematic review found more than 160 relevant studies (published between January 2009 and October 2014). The review focused on: (i) outlet density and assaultive or intimate partner violence; (ii) studies including individual level data; or (iii) 'natural experiments'. Despite overall evidence for an association between density and harm, there is little evidence on causal direction (i.e. whether demand leads to more supply or increased availability increases alcohol use and harm). When outlet types (e.g. bars, supermarkets) are analysed separately, studies are too methodologically diverse and partly contradictory to permit firm conclusions besides those pertaining to high outlet densities in areas such as entertainment districts. Outlet density commonly had little effect on individual-level alcohol use, and the few 'natural experiments' on restricting densities showed little or no effects. Although outlet densities are likely to be positively related to alcohol use and harm, few policy recommendations can be given as effects vary across study areas, outlet types and outlet cluster size. Future studies should examine in detail outlet types, compare different outcomes associated with different strengths of association with alcohol, analyse non-linear effects and compare different methodologies. Purely aggregate-level studies examining total outlet density only should be abandoned. [Gmel G, Holmes J, Studer J. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Mapping the energy density of shaped waves in scattering media onto a complete set of diffusion modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi Stephen; Mosk, Allard; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Lagendijk, Aart; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the energy density of shaped waves inside a quasi-1D disordered waveguide. We find that the spatial energy density of optimally shaped waves, when expanded in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation, is well described by considering only a few of the lowest

  19. Effects of Strong Diffraction on the Focusing and Scattering of Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Hayek , A. D. Stuart, A. B. Coppens and J. Sanders for a careful review of the manuscript. -viii- Chapter I INTRODUCTION In many wave propagation...hyperbolic differential equation, the Courant- Friedrichs -Lewy (Courant, et al., 1956) condition (CFL condition) sets an upper limit of one on q. (This...bound states," Am. J. Phys. 49, 76, 1981. Courant, R., K. Friedrichs and H. Lewy, "On the partial difference equations of mathematical physics

  20. On the starting process of strongly nonlinear vortex/Rayleigh-wave interactions

    OpenAIRE

    BROWN, P. G.; BROWN, S. N.; SMITH, F. T.; TIMOSHIN, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    An oncoming two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that develops an unstable inflection point and becomes three-dimensional is described by the Hall-Smith (1991) vortex/wave interaction equations. These equations are now examined in the neighbourhood of the position where the critical surface starts to form. A consistent structure is established in which an inviscid core flow is matched to a viscous buffer-layer solution where the appropriate jump condition on the transverse shear stress is s...

  1. Strong quantum violation of the gravitational weak equivalence principle by a non-Gaussian wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P; Majumdar, A S; Sinha, S; Home, D; Mousavi, S V; Mozaffari, M R

    2012-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle of gravity is examined at the quantum level in two ways. First, the position detection probabilities of particles described by a non-Gaussian wave packet projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection are calculated. These probabilities exhibit mass dependence at both these points, thereby reflecting the quantum violation of the weak equivalence principle. Second, the mean arrival time of freely falling particles is calculated using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. Such a mass dependence is shown to be enhanced by increasing the non-Gaussianity parameter of the wave packet, thus signifying a stronger violation of the weak equivalence principle through a greater departure from Gaussianity of the initial wave packet. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanishes in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter. A selection of Bohm trajectories is exhibited to illustrate these features in the free fall case. (paper)

  2. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

  3. Classification of normal screening mammograms is strongly influenced by perceived mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Zoey Zy; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A; Heard, Rob; Brennan, Patrick C; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate how breast screen readers classify normal screening cases using descriptors of normal mammographic features and to assess test cases for suitability for a single reading strategy. Fifteen breast screen readers interpreted a test set of 29 normal screening cases and classified them by firstly rating their perceived difficulty to reach a 'normal' decision, secondly identifying the cases' salient normal mammographic features and thirdly assessing the cases' suitability for a single reading strategy. The relationship between the perceived difficulty in making 'normal' decisions and the normal mammographic features was investigated. Regular ductal pattern (T b  = -0.439, P = 0.001), uniform density (T b  = -0.527, P normal' decisions. Cases with regular ductal pattern (T b  = 0.447, P = 0.002), uniform density (T b  = 0.550, P normal and hence their suitability for single reading. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2018-04-01

    It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T 2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast and robust approach for clinical SSFSE imaging. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 6 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:954-966. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. The Inhomogeneous Energy-Density Driven Instability: New Milestones for Ion-Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, M. E.

    1997-11-01

    The Inhomogeneous Energy-Density Driven (IEDD) instability has been investigated in detail, theoretically and experimentally. From this basic work, important aspects of the instability mechanism have been documented and specific applications in space plasmas have been recognized. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves due to the IEDD instability arise when the y-direction flow of ions and electrons is structured in the x-direction, perpendicular to the magnetic field in the z-direction, thus resulting in an inhomogeneous wave energy density. This instability is distinct from the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Current-Driven Electrostatic Ion-Cyclotron (CDEIC) instabilities. We have observed in the laboratory the following remarkable properties of IEDD waves: mode frequency as low as 30% of the ion gyrofrequency, (2) Doppler upshifts and downshifts in a wide range from 30% to 160% of the ion gyrofrequency, (3) multiple, simultaneous eigenmodes of the plasma-flow inhomogeneity that are unrelated to the radial, azimuthal, or axial extent of the plasma column, (4) broadband, large-amplitude spectra extending above and below the ion gyrofrequency and having widths that exceed 50% of the center frequency, and (5) axial propagation along and against the magnetic-field-aligned electron drift, which means current is absolutely unnecessary to drive this mode. These results are obtained in a cylidrically symmetric, sodium Q-machine plasma, far below the excitation threshold for CDEIC and ion-acoustic waves. The adjustable radial electric field profile responsible for the inhomogeneous E x B flow profile is controlled by a segmented disk electrode at the plasma-column end. The experimental results are reinforced with numerical results from a nonlocal, linear model. This model predicts that this instability mechanism can destabilize ion-acoustic waves and drift waves as well. These results establish an expanded understanding regarding the generation and propagation of

  6. Incommensurate Phonon Anomaly and the Nature of Charge Density Waves in Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, H.; Ishikawa, D.; Heid, R.; Le Tacon, M.; Fabbris, G.; Meyers, D.; Gu, G. D.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Dean, M. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    While charge density wave (CDW) instabilities are ubiquitous to superconducting cuprates, the different ordering wave vectors in various cuprate families have hampered a unified description of the CDW formation mechanism. Here, we investigate the temperature dependence of the low-energy phonons in the canonical CDW-ordered cuprate La1.875 Ba0.125 CuO4 . We discover that the phonon softening wave vector associated with CDW correlations becomes temperature dependent in the high-temperature precursor phase and changes from a wave vector of 0.238 reciprocal lattice units (r.l.u.) below the ordering transition temperature to 0.3 r.l.u. at 300 K. This high-temperature behavior shows that "214"-type cuprates can host CDW correlations at a similar wave vector to previously reported CDW correlations in non-214-type cuprates such as YBa2 Cu3 O6 +δ . This indicates that cuprate CDWs may arise from the same underlying instability despite their apparently different low-temperature ordering wave vectors.

  7. About angular dependence of intensity of absent-minded radiation in approach of the strong dissipation of colliding ionic-sound waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solikhov, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to angular dependence of intensity of absent-minded radiation in approach of the strong dissipation of colliding ionic-sound waves. The operation angular dependence of dimensionless of intensity of absent-minded radiation in two-dimensional field of localisation of a wave of a rating in approach of the strong dissipation of passers is ionic-sound waves is viewed. (author)

  8. Diffuser Design for Marine Outfalls in Areas with Strong Currents, High waves and Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The design of marine outfalls is often based on environmental criteria for a minimum initial dilution. Accordingly advanced diffuser arrangement are designed to fulfil these requirements. A large number of examples of malfunction and blocking in sea outfalls have occurred around the world...... as a result of this uncompromising consent to environmental demands. Two examples of unconventional design are given in this paper. Both cases involved risk of blockage of the diffuser section because of wave and current induced sediment transport The paper also discusses how acceptable far field dilution...

  9. A free-surface hydrodynamic model for density-stratified flow in the weakly to strongly non-hydrostatic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Colin Y.; Evans, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    A non-hydrostatic density-stratified hydrodynamic model with a free surface has been developed from the vorticity equations rather than the usual momentum equations. This approach has enabled the model to be obtained in two different forms, weakly non-hydrostatic and fully non-hydrostatic, with the computationally efficient weakly non-hydrostatic form applicable to motions having horizontal scales greater than the local water depth. The hydrodynamic model in both its weakly and fully non-hydrostatic forms is validated numerically using exact nonlinear non-hydrostatic solutions given by the Dubriel-Jacotin-Long equation for periodic internal gravity waves, internal solitary waves, and flow over a ridge. The numerical code is developed based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme and higher order finite-difference spatial differentiation and interpolation. To demonstrate the applicability of the model to coastal ocean situations, the problem of tidal generation of internal solitary waves at a shelf-break is considered. Simulations carried out with the model obtain the evolution of solitary wave generation and propagation consistent with past results. Moreover, the weakly non-hydrostatic simulation is shown to compare favorably with the fully non-hydrostatic simulation. The capability of the present model to simulate efficiently relatively large scale non-hydrostatic motions suggests that the weakly non-hydrostatic form of the model may be suitable for application in a large-area domain while the computationally intensive fully non-hydrostatic form of the model may be used in an embedded sub-domain where higher resolution is needed

  10. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...

  11. Computational studies on scattering of radio frequency waves by density filaments in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Zisis C.; Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Tigelis, Ioannis G.

    2017-10-01

    In modern magnetic fusion devices, such as tokamaks and stellarators, radio frequency (RF) waves are commonly used for plasma heating and current profile control, as well as for certain diagnostics. The frequencies of the RF waves range from ion cyclotron frequency to the electron cyclotron frequency. The RF waves are launched from structures, like waveguides and current straps, placed near the wall in a very low density, tenuous plasma region of a fusion device. The RF electromagnetic fields have to propagate through this scrape-off layer before coupling power to the core of the plasma. The scrape-off layer is characterized by turbulent plasmas fluctuations and by blobs and filaments. The variations in the edge density due to these fluctuations and filaments can affect the propagation characteristics of the RF waves—changes in density leading to regions with differing plasma permittivity. Analytical full-wave theories have shown that scattering by blobs and filaments can alter the RF power flow into the core of the plasma in a variety of ways, such as through reflection, refraction, diffraction, and shadowing [see, for example, Ram and Hizanidis, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022504 (2016), and references therein]. There are changes in the wave vectors and the distribution of power-scattering leading to coupling of the incident RF wave to other plasma waves, side-scattering, surface waves, and fragmentation of the Poynting flux in the direction towards the core. However, these theoretical models are somewhat idealized. In particular, it is assumed that there is step-function discontinuity in the density between the plasma inside the filament and the background plasma. In this paper, results from numerical simulations of RF scattering by filaments using a commercial full-wave code are described. The filaments are taken to be cylindrical with the axis of the cylinder aligned along the direction of the ambient magnetic field. The plasma inside and outside the filament is

  12. Charge density wave formation in R2Te5 (R=Nd, Sm, and Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, K. Y.; Laverock, J.; Wu, Y. Q.; Condron, C.; Toney, M.; Dugdale, S.; Kramer, M.; Fisher, I.

    2008-04-01

    The rare earth (R) tellurides R{sub 2}Te{sub 5} have a crystal structure intermediate between that of RTe{sub 2} and RTe{sub 3}, consisting of alternating single and double Te planes sandwiched between RTe block layers. We have successfully grown single crystals of Nd{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Sm{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, and Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 5} from a self-flux and we describe here evidence for charge density wave formation in these materials. The superlattice patterns for all three compounds are relatively complex, consisting at room temperature of at least two independent wave vectors. Consideration of the electronic structure indicates that, to a large extent, these wave vectors are separately associated with sheets of the Fermi surface which are principally derived from the single and double Te layers.

  13. Charge Density Wave Formation in R(2)Te(5) (R=Nd, Sm, And Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, K.Y.; Laverock, J.; Wu, Y.Q.; Condron, C.L.; Toney, M.F.; Dugdale, S.B.; Kramer, M.J.; Fisher, I.R.

    2009-05-27

    The rare earth (R) tellurides R{sub 2}Te{sub 5} have a crystal structure intermediate between that of RTe{sub 2} and RTe{sub 3}, consisting of alternating single and double Te planes sandwiched between RTe block layers. We have successfully grown single crystals of Nd{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Sm{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, and Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 5} from a self-flux and we describe here evidence for charge density wave formation in these materials. The superlattice patterns for all three compounds are relatively complex, consisting at room temperature of at least two independent wave vectors. Consideration of the electronic structure indicates that, to a large extent, these wave vectors are separately associated with sheets of the Fermi surface which are principally derived from the single and double Te layers.

  14. The "JK-only" approximation in density matrix functional and wave function theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmar, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Various energy functionals applying the "JK-only" approximation which leads to two-index two-electron integrals instead of four-index two-electron integrals in the electron-electron interaction term of the electronic energy are presented. Numerical results of multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations for the best possible "JK-only" wave function are compared to those obtained from the pair excitation multiconfiguration self-consistent (PEMCSCF) method and two versions of density matrix functional theory. One of these is derived making explicit use of some necessary conditions for N representability of the second-order density matrix. It is shown that this method models the energy functional based on the best possible "JK-only" wave function with good accuracy. The calculations also indicate that only a minor fraction of the total correlation energy is incorporated by "JK-only" approaches for larger molecules. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  15. Negative Longitudinal Magnetoresistance in the Density Wave Phase of Y_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Abhishek; Agarwal, Amit; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik

    2018-03-02

    The ground state of nanowires of single-crystalline pyrochlore Y_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} is a density wave. The application of a transverse magnetic field increases the threshold electric field for the collective depinning of the density wave state at a low temperature, leading to colossal magnetoresistance for voltages around the depinning threshold. This is in striking contrast to the case where even a vanishingly small longitudinal magnetic field sharply reduces the depinning threshold voltage, resulting in negative magnetoresistance. Ruling out several other possibilities, we argue that this phenomenon is likely to be a consequence of the chiral anomaly in the gapped out Weyl semimetal phase in Y_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7}.

  16. Negative Longitudinal Magnetoresistance in the Density Wave Phase of Y2Ir2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Abhishek; Agarwal, Amit; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik

    2018-03-01

    The ground state of nanowires of single-crystalline pyrochlore Y2Ir2O7 is a density wave. The application of a transverse magnetic field increases the threshold electric field for the collective depinning of the density wave state at a low temperature, leading to colossal magnetoresistance for voltages around the depinning threshold. This is in striking contrast to the case where even a vanishingly small longitudinal magnetic field sharply reduces the depinning threshold voltage, resulting in negative magnetoresistance. Ruling out several other possibilities, we argue that this phenomenon is likely to be a consequence of the chiral anomaly in the gapped out Weyl semimetal phase in Y2Ir2O7 .

  17. Quantum time crystal by decoherence: Proposal with an incommensurate charge density wave ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsugawa, K.; Fujii, T.; Tanda, S.

    2017-09-01

    We show that time translation symmetry of a ring system with a macroscopic quantum ground state is broken by decoherence. In particular, we consider a ring-shaped incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW ring) threaded by a fluctuating magnetic flux: the Caldeira-Leggett model is used to model the fluctuating flux as a bath of harmonic oscillators. We show that the charge density expectation value of a quantized ICDW ring coupled to its environment oscillates periodically. The Hamiltonians considered in this model are time independent unlike "Floquet time crystals" considered recently. Our model forms a metastable quantum time crystal with a finite length in space and in time.

  18. Theoretical analysis of the density wave in a new continuum model and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2014-05-01

    Considered the effect of traffic anticipation in the real world, a new anticipation driving car following model (AD-CF) was proposed by Zheng et al. Based on AD-CF model, adopted an asymptotic approximation between the headway and density, a new continuum model is presented in this paper. The neutral stability condition is obtained by applying the linear stability theory. Additionally, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived via nonlinear analysis to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line. The numerical simulation and the analytical results show that the new continuum model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena.

  19. Parity violation effects in the hydrogen atom in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labzovsky, L.N.; Mitrushchenkov, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    The parity violation effects in the hydrogen atom in a strong electromagnetic laser field are considered. It is shown that there is the possibility of hyperrate measurements of different constants of the weak interaction in the hydrogen magnetic resonance experiments. (orig.)

  20. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  1. Novel charge density wave transition in crystals of R 5 Ir 4 Si 10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review the observation of novel charge density wave (CDW) transitions in ternary R5Ir4Si10 compounds. A high quality single crystal of Lu5Ir4Si10 shows the formation of a commensurate CDW along -axis below 80 K in the (ℎ, 0, ) plane that coexists with BCS type superconductivity below 3.9 K. However, in a single ...

  2. Convective cell excitation by inertial Alfven waves in a low density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, O.A.; Onishchenko, O.G.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Srenflo, L.; Balikhin, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The parametric interaction of inertial Alfven waves with large-scale convective cells in a low-density plasma is investigated. It is shown that, in plasmas where the Alfven velocity is comparable to or exceeds the speed of light, the parametric interaction is substantially suppressed. A compact expression for the optimal scale and instability growth rate of the fastest growing mode is obtained [ru

  3. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs

  4. Photonic sensing in highly concentrated biotechnical processes by photon density wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Roland; Sandmann, Michael; Reich, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is introduced as a new approach for photonic sensing in highly concentrated biotechnical processes. It independently quantifies the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient calibration-free and as a function of time, thus describing the optical properties in the vis/NIR range of the biomaterial during their processing. As examples of industrial relevance, enzymatic milk coagulation, beer mashing, and algae cultivation in photo bioreactors are discussed.

  5. Renormalization-group decimation technique for spectra, wave-functions and density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.

    1983-09-01

    The Renormalization Group decimation technique is very useful for problems described by 1-d nearest neighbour tight-binding model with or without translational invariance. We show how spectra, wave-functions and density of states can be calculated with little numerical work from the renormalized coefficients upon iteration. The results of this new procedure are verified using the model of Soukoulis and Economou. (author)

  6. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. Part. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime is gived. A computer program has been written for a Univac 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is payed to the detached shock waves growth in front of the body. (author)

  7. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjiva Lele

    2012-10-01

    outlined as follows. Section 2 shows an assessment of numerical algorithms that are best suited for the numerical simulation of compressible flows involving turbulence and shock phenomena. Sections 3 and 4 deal with the canonical shock-turbulence interaction problem, from the DNS and LES perspectives, respectively. Section 5 considers the shock-turbulence inter-action in spherical geometry, in particular, the interaction of a converging shock with isotropic turbulence as well as the problem of the blast wave. Section 6 describes the study of shock-accelerated mixing through planar and spherical Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing as well as the shock-curtain interaction problem In section 7 we acknowledge the different interactions between Stanford and other institutions participating in this SciDAC project, as well as several external collaborations made possible through it. Section 8 presents a list of publications and presentations that have been generated during the course of this SciDAC project. Finally, section 9 concludes this report with the list of personnel at Stanford University funded by this SciDAC project.

  8. A model for strong attenuation and dispersion of seismic P-waves in a partially saturated fractured reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajanovski, Miroslav; Müller, Tobias M.; Parra, Jorge O.

    2010-08-01

    In this work we interpret the data showing unusually strong velocity dispersion of P-waves (up to 30%) and attenuation in a relatively narrow frequency range. The cross-hole and VSP data were measured in a reservoir, which is in the porous zone of the Silurian Kankakee Limestone Formation formed by vertical fractures within a porous matrix saturated by oil, and gas patches. Such a medium exhibits significant attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow across the interfaces between different types of inclusions (fractures, fluid patches) and background. Other models of intrinsic attenuation (in particular squirt flow models) cannot explain the amount of observed dispersion when using realistic rock properties. In order to interpret data in a satisfactory way we develop a superposition model for fractured porous rocks accounting also for the patchy saturation effect.

  9. Fast wave experiments in LAPD: RF sheaths, convective cells and density modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, T. A.; van Compernolle, B.; Martin, M.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; van Eester, D.; Crombe, K.; Perkins, R.; Lau, C.; Martin, E.; Caughman, J.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Vincena, S.

    2017-10-01

    An overview is presented of recent work on ICRF physics at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The LAPD has typical plasma parameters ne 1012 -1013 cm-3, Te 1 - 10 eV and B 1000 G. A new high-power ( 150 kW) RF system and fast wave antenna have been developed for LAPD. The source runs at a frequency of 2.4 MHz, corresponding to 1 - 7fci , depending on plasma parameters. Evidence of rectified RF sheaths is seen in large increases ( 10Te) in the plasma potential on field lines connected to the antenna. The rectified potential scales linearly with antenna current. The rectified RF sheaths set up convective cells of local E × B flows, measured indirectly by potential measurements, and measured directly with Mach probes. At high antenna powers substantial modifications of the density profile were observed. The plasma density profile initially exhibits transient low frequency oscillations (10 kHz). The amplitude of the fast wave fields in the core plasma is modulated at the same low frequency, suggesting fast wave coupling is affected by the density rearrangement. Work performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility, supported jointly by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.

  10. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  11. Alfvén wave filamentation and dispersive phase mixing in a high-density channel: Landau fluid and hybrid simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borgogno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of dispersive Alfvén waves in a low-beta collisionless plasma with a high-density channel aligned with the ambient magnetic field, is studied in three space dimensions. A fluid model retaining linear Landau damping and finite Larmor radius corrections is used, together with a hybrid particle-in-cell simulation aimed to validate the predictions of this Landau-fluid model. It is shown that when the density enhancement is moderate (depending on the pump wavelength and the plasma parameters, the wave energy concentrates into a filament whose transverse size is prescribed by the dimension of the channel. In contrast, in the case of a stronger density perturbation, the early formation of a magnetic filament is followed by the onset of thin helical ribbons and the development of strong gradients. This "dispersive phase mixing" provides a mechanism permitting dissipation processes (not included in the present model to act and heat the plasma.

  12. Helicon wave propagation and plasma equilibrium in high-density hydrogen plasma in converging magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneses Marin, Juan Francisco

    In this thesis, we investigate wave propagation and plasma equilibrium in MAGPIE, a helicon based linear plasma device constructed at the Australian National University, to study plasma-material interactions under divertor-relevant plasma conditions. We show that MAGPIE is capable of producing low temperature (1–8 eV) high density hydrogen plasma (2–3x10. 19 m-3) with 20 kW of RF power when the confining magnetic field is converging. The original research herein described comprises: (1) Characterization of hydrogen plasma in MAGPIE, (2) Analysis of the RF compensation of double Langmuir probes, (3) Excitation, propagation and damping of helicon waves in uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields and (4) Steady-state force balance and equilibrium profiles in MAGPIE. We develop an analytical model of the physics of floating probes to describe and quantify the RF compensation of the DLP technique. Experimental validation for the model is provided. We show that (1) whenever finite sheath effects are important, overestimation of the ion density is proportional to the level of RF rectification and suggest that (2) electron temperature measurements are weakly affected. We develop a uniform plasma full wave code to describe wave propagation in MAGPIE. We show that under typical MAGPIE operating conditions, the helical antenna is not optimized to couple waves in the plasma; instead, the antenna’s azimuthal current rings excites helicon waves which propagate approximately along the whistler wave ray direction, constructively interfere on-axis and lead to the formation of an axial interference pattern. We show that helicon wave attenuation can be explained entirely through electron-ion and electron-neutral collisions. Results from a two-dimensional full wave code reveal that RF power deposition is axially non-uniform with both edge and on-axis components associated with the TG and helicon wave respectively. Finally, force balance analysis in MAGPIE using a two-fluid

  13. Measurements of the parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer of a high-density tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. G.; Wallace, G. M.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I.; LaBombard, B. L.; Wukitch, S.; Shinya, T.; Takase, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on tokamaks, the parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves is an important physics parameter that governs the wave propagation and absorption physics. However, this parameter has not been experimentally well-characterized in the present-day high density tokamaks, despite the advances in the wave physics modeling. In this paper, we present the first measurement of the dominant parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak with an array of magnetic loop probes. The electric field strength measured with the probe in typical C-Mod plasmas is about one-fifth of that of the electric field at the mouth of the grill antenna. The amplitude and phase responses of the measured signals on the applied power spectrum are consistent with the expected wave energy propagation. At higher density, the observed k || increases for the fixed launched k || , and the wave amplitude decreases rapidly. This decrease is correlated with the loss of LHCD efficiency at high density, suggesting the presence of loss mechanisms. Evidence of the spectral broadening mechanisms is observed in the frequency spectra. However, no clear modifications in the dominant k || are observed in the spectrally broadened wave components, as compared to the measured k || at the applied frequency. It could be due to (1) the probe being in the SOL and (2) the limited k || resolution of the diagnostic. Future experiments are planned to investigate the roles of the observed spectral broadening mechanisms on the LH density limit problem in the strong single pass damping regime.

  14. Competition Between Radial Loss and EMIC Wave Scattering of MeV Electrons During Strong CME-shock Driven Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M. K.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, Z.; Malaspina, D.; Millan, R. M.; Patel, M.; Qin, M.; Shen, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The two strongest storms of Solar Cycle 24, 17 March and 22 June 2015, provide a contrast between magnetospheric response to CME-shocks at equinox and solstice. The 17 March CME-shock initiated storm produced a stronger ring current response with Dst = - 223 nT, while the 22 June CME-shock initiated storm reached a minimum Dst = - 204 nT. The Van Allen Probes ECT instrument measured a dropout in flux for both events which can be characterized by magnetopause loss at higher L values prior to strong recovery1. However, rapid loss is seen at L 3 for the June storm at high energies with maximum drop in the 5.2 MeV channel of the REPT instrument coincident with the observation of EMIC waves in the H+ band by the EMFISIS wave instrument. The rapid time scale of loss can be determined from the 65 minute delay in passage of the Probe A relative to the Probe B spacecraft. The distinct behavior of lower energy electrons at higher L values has been modeled with MHD-test particle simulations, while the rapid loss of higher energy electrons is examined in terms of the minimum resonant energy criterion for EMIC wave scattering, and compared with the timescale for loss due to EMIC wave scattering which has been modeled for other storm events.2 1Baker, D. N., et al. (2016), Highly relativistic radiation belt electron acceleration, transport, and loss: Large solar storm events of March and June 2015, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 6647-6660, doi:10.1002/2016JA022502. 2Li, Z., et al. (2014), Investigation of EMIC wave scattering as the cause for the BARREL 17 January 2013 relativistic electron precipitation event: A quantitative comparison of simulation with observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8722-8729, doi:10.1002/2014GL062273.

  15. Diagnosis of tropical cyclone activity through gravity wave energy density in the southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, C.; Chane-Ming, F.; Barthe, C.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is diagnosed through convective gravity waves (GWs) observed in the upper troposphere (UT)/lower stratosphere (LS) above Tromelin island (15.53°S, 54.31°E) in the tropical southwest Indian Ocean. Monthly and weekly GW total energy densities derived from daily GPS windsonde data are compared with Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and TC hours in the vicinity of Tromelin. A relationship between GW energy density and TC activity is observed in the LS, for the TC season 2001/2002. Moreover TCs (local convection) produce GWs with total energy density mostly higher (lower) than 12 J kg-1. A 10-season climatology (1997/1998-2006/2007) confirms that large values of GW total energy density in the LS are associated with weak values of OLR during the TC passage. Monthly total, kinetic and potential GW energy densities within 2000 km radius of Tromelin can be estimated using linear relationships with TC hours for a threshold of above 6 TC days per month. A linear relationship also exists between weekly GW total energy density in the LS and the activity of intense TCs above a threshold of 2 TC days per week within 1000 km radius of Tromelin. GW energy density in the LS could be used as a possible index to investigate TC activity in the UT/LS.

  16. A high critical current density MOCVD coated conductor with strong vortex pinning centers suitable for very high field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C; Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2009-01-01

    We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 μm thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted ∼7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J c values of ∼3.1 MA cm -2 at 77 K and ∼43 MA cm -2 at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H irr , which reaches that of Nb 3 Sn (∼28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J c values are ∼15% of the depairing current density J d , much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.

  17. A high critical current density MOCVD coated conductor with strong vortex pinning centers suitable for very high field use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: zhijun@asc.magnet.fsu.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 {mu}m thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted {approx}7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J{sub c} values of {approx}3.1 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and {approx}43 MA cm{sup -2} at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H{sub irr}, which reaches that of Nb{sub 3}Sn ({approx}28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J{sub c} values are {approx}15% of the depairing current density J{sub d}, much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.

  18. Optimization of an overmoded smooth-wall circular waveguide section for carrying strong MM-wave power in ECRH experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, F.; Mania, L.; Viciguerra, G.; Granucci, G.; Simonetto, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the possibility of using sections of overmoded smooth-wall circular waveguide instead of an overall corrugated waveguide transmission line to carry strong mm-wave power in ECRH experiments. To this end they carry out an exact analysis of the transitions from corrugated to smooth-wall waveguide and optimize the length and size of the smooth-wall waveguide to achieve minimum losses. The whole structure is described by a generalized scattering matrix whose elements are obtained using the exact quasi-TE and quasi-TM uncoupled modes in the lossy smooth-wall waveguide

  19. Analysis of the Effect of Electron Density Perturbations Generated by Gravity Waves on HF Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.

  20. Elastic wave propagation and stop-band generation in strongly damaged solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the propagation of elastic waves in elongated solids with an array of equallyspaced deep transverse cracks, focusing in particular on the determination of stop-bands. We consider solids with different types of boundary conditions and different lengths, and we show that the eigenfrequencies associated with non-localized modes lie within the pass-bands of the corresponding infinite periodic system, provided that the solids are long enough. In the stop-bands, instead, eigenfrequencies relative to localized modes may be found. Furthermore, we use an asymptotic reduced model, whereby the cracked solid is approximated by a beam with elastic connections. This model allows to derive the dynamic properties of damaged solids through analytical methods. By comparing the theoretical dispersion curves yielded by the asymptotic reduced model with the numerical outcomes obtained from finite element computations, we observe that the asymptotic reduced model provides a better fit to the numerical data as the slenderness ratio increases. Finally, we illustrate how the limits of the stop-bands vary with the depth of the cracks.

  1. Ultrafast dynamics in CeTe{sub 3} near the pressure-induced charge-density-wave transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauch, Jonas; Obergfell, Manuel [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Schaefer, Hanjo [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Demsar, Jure [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (Germany); Giraldo, Paula; Fisher, Ian R. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University (United States); Pashkin, Alexej [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is an efficient tool for studying ultrafast dynamics in strongly correlated electronic systems, in particular, compounds with a charge-density-wave (CDW) order. Application of external pressure often leads to a suppression of a CDW state due to an impairment of the Fermi surface nesting. We combine time-resolved optical spectroscopy and diamond anvil cell technology to study electron and lattice dynamics in tri-telluride compound CeTe{sub 3}. Around pressures of 4 GPa we observe a gradual vanishing of the relaxation process related to the recombination of the photoexcited quasiparticles. The coherent oscillations of the phonon modes coupled to the CDW order parameter demonstrate even more dramatic suppression with increasing pressure. These observations clearly indicate a transition into the metallic state of CeTe{sub 3} induced by the external pressure.

  2. Coherent tunneling between elementary conducting layers in NbSe sub 3 conductor with wave charge density

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, Y I; Sinchenko, A A; Bulaevskii, L N; Monceau, P

    2002-01-01

    The peculiarities of the cross-sectional transport in the direction of the crystallographic axis alpha * in the conductor with the NbSe sub 3 wave charge density (WCD) are studied. The strong peak of dynamic conductivity is observed on the WCD of the layered structures and the NbSe sub 3 -NbSe sub 3 point contacts at low temperatures by the zero voltage shift. The identified behavior reminds in many respects the interlayer tunnel conductivity in the Bi-2212-type high-temperature layered conductors. The conductivity peak by the zero shift is explained in the model of the almost coherent interlayer tunneling of the carriers, noncondensed in the WCD

  3. Power spectral density analysis of optical substrates for gravitational-wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C J; Leistner, A J; Oreb, B F

    1999-08-01

    The power spectral density of surface-relief variations on polished optical surfaces across microscopic through to macroscopic spatial scales is calculated from measurements on substrates that are being produced for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). These spectra give a guide to the scattering properties of the surface, which in turn critically influence the performance of LIGO. Measurements obtained by use of a full-aperture interferometer and an interference microscope with two different objectives are combined to produce one-dimensional power spectral density representations of the surfaces across spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 8000 cm(-1). These measurements from different instruments are in good agreement with an analytic power spectrum that varies as nu(-1.5), where nu is the spatial frequency. Some anomalies in the power spectral density spectra can be related to aspects of the polishing process.

  4. Probing a dusty magnetized plasma with self-excited dust-density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadsen, Benjamin; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    A cloud of nanodust particles is created in a reactive argon-acetylene plasma. It is then transformed into a dusty magnetized argon plasma. Plasma parameters are obtained with the dust-density wave diagnostic introduced by Tadsen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 113701 (2015), 10.1063/1.4934927]. A change from an open to a cylindrically enclosed nanodust cloud, which was observed earlier, can now be explained by a stronger electric confinement if a vertical magnetic field is present. Using two-dimensional extinction measurements and the inverse Abel transform to determine the dust density, a redistribution of the dust with increasing magnetic induction is found. The dust-density profile changes from being peaked around the central void to being peaked at an outer torus ring resulting in a hollow profile. As the plasma parameters cannot explain this behavior, we propose a rotation of the nanodust cloud in the magnetized plasma as the origin of the modified profile.

  5. Probing Extreme-density Matter with Gravitational-wave Observations of Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radice, David [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computer Sciences, University of Parma, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Pozzo, Walter Del [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Pisa I-56127 (Italy); Roberts, Luke F. [NSCL/FRIB and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 640 S Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several megaparsecs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of megaparsecs with third-generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.

  6. Disordered cellular automaton traffic flow model: phase separated state, density waves and self organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrate, K.; Loulidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a disordered traffic flow model that captures many features of traffic flow. It is an extension of the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) stochastic cellular automata for single line vehicular traffic model. It incorporates random acceleration and deceleration terms that may be greater than one unit. Our model leads under its intrinsic dynamics, for high values of braking probability pr, to a constant flow at intermediate densities without introducing any spatial inhomogeneities. For a system of fast drivers pr→0, the model exhibits a density wave behavior that was observed in car following models with optimal velocity. The gap of the disordered model we present exhibits, for high values of pr and random deceleration, at a critical density, a power law distribution which is a hall mark of a self organized criticality phenomena.

  7. Ducting of the Whistler-Mode Waves by Magnetic Field-Aligned Density Enhancements in the Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Bengtson, M.; English, D.; Miller, M.; Turco, L.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode waves (or whistlers) are the right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves with a frequency in the range above the lower hybrid frequency and below the electron cyclotron frequency. They can efficiently interact with energetic electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere and remediate them from the earth's radiation belt. These interactions are non-linear, they depend on the wave amplitude, and for them to be efficient the wave power needs to be delivered from the transmitter to the interaction region without significant losses. The main physical mechanism which can solve this problem is ducting/guiding of whistlers by magnetic field-aligned density inhomogeneities or ducts. We present results from a modeling of whistler-mode waves observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites inside the ducts formed by density enhancements (also known as, high-density ducts or HDD). Our previous studies suggest that HDD can confine without leakage only waves with some particular parameters (frequency, perpendicular and parallel wavelength) connected with the parameters of the duct (like duct's "width" and "depth"). Our numerical results confirm that 1) the high-density ducts with amplitudes and perpendicular sizes observed by the RBSP satellites can indeed guide whistlers over significant distances along the ambient magnetic field with small leakage, and 2) the quality of the ducting indeed depends on the wave perpendicular and parallel wavelengths and, therefore, the fact that the wave is ducted by HDD can be used to determine parameters of the wave.

  8. Experimental investigation of effect of surface gravity waves and spray on heat and momentum flux at strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily

    2015-04-01

    The most important characteristics that determine the interaction between atmosphere and ocean are fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. For their parameterization the dimensionless exchange coefficients (the surface drag coefficient CD and the heat transfer coefficient or the Stanton number CT) are used. Numerous field and laboratory experiments show that CD increases with increasing wind speed at moderate and strong wind, and as it was shows recently CD decreases at hurricane wind speed. Waves are known to increase the sea surface resistance due to enhanced form drag, the sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the 'drag reduction' at hurricane conditions. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient CD on the wind speed is not so certain and the role of the mechanism associated with the wave disturbances in the mass transfer is not completely understood. Observations and laboratory data show that this dependence is weaker than for the CD, and there are differences in the character of the dependence in different data sets. The purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of surface waves on the turbulent exchange of momentum and heat within the laboratory experiment, when wind and wave parameters are maintained and controlled. The effect of spray on turbulent exchange at strong winds is also estimated. A series of experiments to study the processes of turbulent exchange of momentum and heat in a stably stratified temperature turbulent boundary layer air flow over waved water surface were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS, the peculiarity of this experiment was the option to change the surface wave parameters regardless of the speed of the wind flow in the channel. For this purpose a polyethylene net with the variable depth (0.25 mm thick and a cell of 1.6 mm × 1.6mm) has been stretched along the channel. The waves were absent when the net was located at the level of the undisturbed water surface, and had maximum

  9. Estimation of femoral bone density from trabecular direct wave and cortical guided wave ultrasound velocities measured at the proximal femur in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Dencks, Stefanie; Bremer, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    and of guided waves through cortical bone could be used to estimate BMD. In two centres, Kiel and Odense, we measured time-of-flight (TOF) of waves through the trabecular greater trochanter and cortical intertrochanter as well as a wave through soft tissue only. TOF was adjusted for leg width using ultrasound......Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur is a predictor of hip fracture risk. We developed a Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) scanner for measurements at this site with similar performance (FemUS). In this study we tested if ultrasound velocities of direct waves through trabecular bone...

  10. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbT e3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298-355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW=0.30 ±0.01 c* . However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbT e3 . Finally, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  11. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  12. Density Convection near Radiating ICRF Antennas and its Effect on the Coupling of Lower Hybrid Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Bremond, S.; Kazarian, F.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mailloux, J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Tuccillo, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Combined operation of Lower Hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) waves can result in a degradation of the LH wave coupling, as observed both in the Tore Supra and JET tokamaks. The reflection coefficient on the part of the LH launcher magnetically connected to the powered ICRF antenna increases, suggesting a local decrease in the electron density in the connecting flux tubes. This has been confirmed by Langmuir probe measurements on the LH launchers in the latest Tore Supra experiments. Moreover, recent experiments in JET indicate that the LH coupling degradation depends on the ICRF power and its launched k//-spectrum. The 2D density distribution around the Tore Supra ICRF antennas has been modelled with the CELLS-code, balancing parallel losses with diffusive transport and sheath induced ExB convection, obtained from RF field mapping using the ICANT-code. The calculations are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations, i.e. density depletion is obtained, localised mainly in the antenna shadow, and dependent on ICRF power and antenna spectrum

  13. Density convection near radiating ICRF antennas and its effect on the coupling of lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Bremond, S.; Kazarian, F.; Noterdaeme, J.M.; Tuccillo, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Combined operation of lower hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) waves can result in a degradation of the LH wave coupling, as observed both in the Tore-Supra and Jet tokamaks. The reflection coefficient on the part of the LH launcher magnetically connected to the powered ICRF antenna increases, suggesting a local decrease in the electron density in the connecting flux tubes. This has been confirmed by Langmuir probe measurements on the LH launchers in the latest Tore-Supra experiments. Moreover, recent experiments in Jet indicate that the LH coupling degradation depends on the ICRF power and its launched k / spectrum. The 2D density distribution around the Tore-Supra ICRF antennas has been modelled with the CELLS-code, balancing parallel losses with diffusive transport and sheath induced ExB convection, obtained from RF field mapping using the ICANT-code. The calculations are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations, i.e. density depletion is obtained, localised mainly in the antenna shadow, and dependent on ICRF power and antenna spectrum. (authors)

  14. Dynamical models of hadrons based on string model and behaviour of strongly interacting matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda Ikuo.

    1991-05-01

    We propose dynamical models of hadrons, the nucleation model and the free-decay model, in which results of string model are used to represent interactions. The dynamical properties of hadrons, which are obtained by string model, are examined and their parameters are fitted by experimental data. The equilibrium properties of hadrons at high density are investigated by the nucleation model and we found a singular behaviour at energy density 3 ∼ 5 GeV/fm 3 , where hadrons coalesce to create highly excited states. We argue that this singular behaviour corresponds to the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. The possibility to observe the production of high density strongly interacting matter at collider experiments are discussed using the free-decay model, which produces pion distributions as decay products of resonances. We show that our free-decay model recovers features of hadron distributions obtained in hadron collision experiments. Finally the perspectives and extensions are discussed. (author). 34 refs, 19 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Energy density and energy flow of plasmonic waves in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-07-01

    The propagation of plasmonic waves in bilayer graphene is studied based on the classical electrodynamics. The interactions between conduction electrons confined to move on the surface of each layer are taken into account via the two-dimensional linearized hydrodynamic model. The energy theorem of electrodynamics is cast in a form which yields expressions for energy density and energy flow of p-polarized surface plasmon polariton waves in bilayer graphene. Numerical results show that the presence of two layers causes the appearance of two branches in the dispersion relation that introduce alterations in the physical behavior of the energy, power flow and the energy transport velocity, in comparison with the results of monolayer graphene.

  16. On new traveling wave solutions and conserved densities for the 2D Ricci flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper some travelling wave solutions and conservation laws for the 2D Ricci flow model in conformal gauge are investigated. A guideline able to classify the types of solutions according to the values of some parameters is provided by making use of two versions of the auxiliary equation method. The key feature of these approaches is to take a second order linear ordinary differential equation (ODE), respectively a first order nonlinear ODE with at most an eighth-degree nonlinear term as auxiliary equations. Conserved forms of the travelling wave equation for the Ricci flow are derived through three specific approaches, namely the variational approach, the Ibragimov method for nonlinear self-adjoint differential equations and the one based upon a relationship between conserved forms and their associated symmetries. The former two methods generated similar results, while the latter one has revealed new conserved densities.

  17. Numerical simulation of soliton and kink density waves in traffic flow with periodic boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Dai, S. Q.

    2008-07-01

    The soliton and kink-antikink density waves are simulated with periodic boundaries, by adding perturbation in the initial condition on single-lane road based on a car-following model. They are reproduced in the form of the space-time evolution of headway, both of which propagate backwards. It is found that the solitons appear only near the neutral stability line regardless of the boundary conditions, and they exhibit upward form when the initial headway is smaller than the safety distance, otherwise they exhibit downward form. Comparison is made between the numerical and analytical results about the amplitude of kink-antikink wave, and the underlying mechanism is analyzed. Besides, it is indicated that the maximal current of traffic flow increases with decreasing safety distance. The numerical simulation shows a good agreement with the analytical results.

  18. Study of gravity waves propagation in the thermosphere of Mars based on MAVEN/NGIMS density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vals, M.

    2017-09-01

    We use MAVEN/NGIMS CO2 density measurements to analyse gravity waves in the thermosphere of Mars. In particular the seasonal/latitudinal variability of their amplitude is studied and interpreted. Key background parameters controlling the activity of gravity waves are analysed with the help of the Mars Climate Database (MCD). Gravity waves activity presents a good anti-correlation to the temperature variability retrieved from the MCD. An analysis at pressure levels is ongoing.

  19. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, S. L.; Wang, S.; Zhao, W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert–Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  20. Wave-vector-dependent electron-phonon coupling and the charge-density-wave transition in TbTe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschek, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Heid, R.; Said, A. H.; Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Fisher, I. R.; Weber, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the soft phonon mode in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system TbTe3. We analyze our data based on lattice dynamical calculations using density-functional-perturbation theory and find clear evidence that strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling defines the periodicity of the CDW superstructure: Our experiment reveals strong phonon softening and increased phonon linewidths over a large part in reciprocal space adjacent to the CDW ordering vector q(CDW) = (0,0,0.3). Further, q(CDW) is clearly offset from the wave vector of (weak) Fermi surface nesting q(FS) = (0,0,0.25), and our detailed analysis indicates that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for this shift. Hence, we can add TbTe3, which was previously considered as a canonical CDW compound following the Peierls scenario, to the list of distinct charge-density-wave materials characterized by momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling.

  1. Propagation of sound wave in high density deuterium at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1986-01-01

    The velocity and the attenuation constant of sound wave have been calculated for high density (10 24 ∼ 10 27 /cm 3 ) deuterium at high temperatures (10 -1 ∼ 10 4 eV). This calculation was made to understand the fuel properties in inertial confinement fusion and to obtain the basic data for pellet design. The isentropic sound wave which propagates in deuterium in plasma state at temperature T i = T e , is dealt with. The velocity is derived using the modulus of bulk elasticity of the whole system and the modulus of shear elasticity due to ion-ion interaction. For the calculation of attenuation constant, the bulk and shear viscosity due to ion-ion interaction, the shear viscosity of free electron gas, and the thermal conductivity due to free electrons are considered. The condition of frequency for the existence of such isentropic sound wave is discussed. The possibility of penetration into the fuel pellet in inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. The followings have been found: (1) The sound velocity is determined mainly from the bulk elasticity. The contribution of the shear elasticity is small. The velocity ranges from 2.8 x 10 6 to 1.5 x 10 8 cm/s in the above mentioned temperature and density regions. (2) The coefficient of attenuation constant with respect to ω 2 /2ρu 3 plotted versus temperature with the parameter of density shows a minimum. At temperatures below this minimum, the attenuation comes mainly from the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction and the shear viscosity due to free electron gas. At temperatures above this minimum, the sound is attenuated mainly by the thermal conductivity due to electrons. (3) The condition for the existence of such adiabatic sound wave, is satisfied with the frequency less than 10 10 Hz. But, as for the pellet design, the wave length of sound with frequency less than 10 10 Hz is longer than the diameter of pellet when compressed highly. (author)

  2. Origin of the charge density wave in 1T-TiSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-06-27

    All-electron ab initio calculations are used to study the microscopic origin of the charge density wave (CDW) in 1T-TiSe2. A purely electronic picture is ruled out as a possible scenario, indicating that the CDW transition in the present system is merely a structural phase transition. The CDW instability is the result of a symmetry lowering by electron correlations occurring with electron localization. Suppression of the CDW in pressurized and in Cu-intercalated 1T-TiSe2 is explained by a delocalization of the electrons, which weakens the correlations and counteracts the symmetry lowering.

  3. Density wave oscillations of a boiling natural circulation loop induced by flashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Inada, Fumio; Yasuo, Akira [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Experiments are conducted to investigate two-phase flow instabilities in a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney due to flashing in the chimney at lower pressure. The test facility used in this experiment is designed to have non-dimensional values which are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Stability maps in reference to the heat flux, the inlet subcooling, the system pressure are presented. This instability is suggested to be density wave oscillations due to flashing in the chimney, and the differences from other phenomena such as flow pattern oscillations and geysering phenomena are discussed by investigating the dynamic characteristics, the oscillation period, and the transient flow pattern.

  4. Nonuniversal critical behaviour in a model for charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritala, R.K.; Hertz, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied short range fluctuations around the infinite-range model of charge density wave (CDW) dynamics. We find that the inhomogeneity of the local field, which is neglected in the infinite-range approximation has a dramatic effect on the transition. In the Bethe approximation the critical behaviour is nonuniversal. In particular, the current exponent is ζ = 3/2 log(z-1)/[log(z)]+log(1+f/J)], where z is the number of neighbors, f the pinning strength, and J the elastic coupling. (orig.)

  5. Interchain interaction and fractionally charged solitons in a commensurate charge-density-wave system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the effect of interchain interaction on thermally excited solitons in a charge-density wave for a Peierls system of commensurability 3. In such a system solitons with charges ±2e / 3 are expected. It is shown that the interchain coupling in some cases will generate solitons...... with lower and higher charge than ±2e / 3. The effect of discreteness is taken into account and gives rise to chaotic deformed solitons as the interchain coupling increases. The model may be applied to tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) under 19-kbar pressure....

  6. Density profile in shock wave fronts of partially ionized xenon plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Reinholz, H; Morozov, I; Mintsev, V; Zaparoghets, Y; Fortov, V; Wierling, A

    2003-01-01

    Results for the reflection coefficient of shock-compressed dense xenon plasmas at pressures of 1.6-20 GPa and temperatures around 30 000 K are interpreted. In addition to former experiments using laser beams with lambda = 1.06 mu m, measurements at lambda = 0.694 mu m have been performed recently. Reflectivities typical for metallic systems are found at high densities. Besides free carriers, the theoretical description also takes into account the influence of the neutral component of the plasma on the reflectivity. A consistent description of the measured reflectivities is achieved only if a finite width of the shock wave front is considered.

  7. Metal-charge density wave coexistence in TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddour, W. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502-CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Campus Universitaire, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Auban-Senzier, P.; Raffy, H.; Monteverde, M.; Pouget, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502-CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Pasquier, C.R., E-mail: pasquier@lps.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502-CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Alemany, P. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, E. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valade, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, Route de Narbonne F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-01

    We have established a new pressure–temperature phase diagram of TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2} based on longitudinal and transverse resistivity measurements under pressure up to 30 kbar. We were able to identify three different charge density wave (CDW) states which all coexist with a metallic state in a wide temperature range and superconductivity at the lowest temperatures. At low pressure, two successive CDW transitions have been clearly identified. These two transitions merge into a single one at 12 kbar. A maximum of this unique CDW transition temperature is observed at 19 kbar.

  8. Quantum phase slips in charge-density waves: the system-size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Noriyuki; Shiobara, Masato; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanda, Satoshi

    1998-03-01

    We present a phenomenological model for quantum phase slips of charge-density waves that takes into account the system-size effect. The process of quantum nucleation leading to the phase slip changes from vortex pair to vortex ring creations as the external electric field increases, which is analogous to the evolution of a ripple in a rectanglar water tank. The clossover field is determined by the system size. The present model describes a number of features observed in the nonohmic conductivity in TsS3 at low temperature.

  9. Dimensional crossover of quantum nucleation processes in charge-density-wave phase slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Noriyuki; Shiobara, Masato; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanda, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    A phenomenological model for quantum phase slips of charge-density waves that takes into account the system-size effect is presented. The process of quantum nucleation leading to the phase slip changes from vortex-pair to vortex-ring creations as the external electric field increases, which is analogous to the evolution of a ripple in a rectangular water tank. The crossover field is determined by the system size. The present model describes a number of features observed in the nonohmic conductivity in TaS3 at low temperature.

  10. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures

  11. Dimensional Crossover in a Charge Density Wave Material Probed by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, C. W.; Berthod, C.; Puppin, M.; Berger, H.; Wolf, M.; Hoesch, M.; Monney, C.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reveal evidence of a crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior in the prototypical charge density wave (CDW) material NbSe3 . In the low-temperature 3D regime, gaps in the electronic structure are observed due to two incommensurate CDWs, in agreement with x-ray diffraction and electronic-structure calculations. At higher temperatures we observe a spectral weight depletion that approaches the power-law behavior expected in one dimension. From the warping of the quasi-1D Fermi surface at low temperatures, we extract the energy scale of the dimensional crossover. This is corroborated by a detailed analysis of the density of states, which reveals a change in dimensional behavior dependent on binding energy. Our results offer an important insight into the dimensionality of excitations in quasi-1D materials.

  12. Collective mode contributions to the Meissner effect: Fulde-Ferrell and pair-density wave superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Rufus; Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M.; Levin, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the necessity of including the generally omitted collective-mode contributions in calculations of the Meissner effect for nonuniform superconductors. We consider superconducting pairing with nonzero center-of-mass momentum, as is possibly relevant to high transition temperature cuprates, cold atoms, and color superconductors in quantum chromodynamics. For the concrete example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase we present a quantitative calculation of the superfluid density, showing not only that the collective-mode contributions are appreciable but also that they derive from the amplitude mode of the order parameter. This latter mode is generally viewed as being invisible in conventional superconductors. However, our analysis shows that it is extremely important in pair-density-wave-type superconductors, where it destroys stable superfluidity well before the mean-field order parameter vanishes.

  13. Persistent Charge-Density-Wave Order in Single-Layer TaSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Chen, Yi; Kim, Heejung; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Tang, Shujie; Jiang, Juan; Liou, Franklin; Kahn, Salman; Jia, Caihong; Omrani, Arash A; Shim, Ji Hoon; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Hwang, Choongyu; Crommie, Michael F; Mo, Sung-Kwan

    2018-02-14

    We present the electronic characterization of single-layer 1H-TaSe 2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that 3 × 3 charge-density-wave (CDW) order persists despite distinct changes in the low energy electronic structure highlighted by the reduction in the number of bands crossing the Fermi energy and the corresponding modification of Fermi surface topology. Enhanced spin-orbit coupling and lattice distortion in the single-layer play a crucial role in the formation of CDW order. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the nature of CDW order in the two-dimensional limit.

  14. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diverging probability-density functions for flat-top solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Chung, Yeojin; Dohnal, Tomáš; Nguyen, Quan M.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of flat-top solitary wave parameters in the presence of weak multiplicative dissipative disorder. We consider first propagation of solitary waves of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CQNLSE) in the presence of disorder in the cubic nonlinear gain. We show by a perturbative analytic calculation and by Monte Carlo simulations that the probability-density function (PDF) of the amplitude η exhibits loglognormal divergence near the maximum possible amplitude ηm , a behavior that is similar to the one observed earlier for disorder in the linear gain [A. Peleg , Phys. Rev. E 72, 027203 (2005)]. We relate the loglognormal divergence of the amplitude PDF to the superexponential approach of η to ηm in the corresponding deterministic model with linear/nonlinear gain. Furthermore, for solitary waves of the derivative CQNLSE with weak disorder in the linear gain both the amplitude and the group velocity β become random. We therefore study analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations the PDF of the parameter p , where p=η/(1-ɛsβ/2) and ɛs is the self-steepening coefficient. Our analytic calculations and numerical simulations show that the PDF of p is loglognormally divergent near the maximum p value.

  16. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Kállay, Mihály; Ferenczy, György G.

    2016-01-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  17. Carbon loaded Teflon (CLT): a power density meter for biological experiments using millimeter waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stewart J; Ross, James A

    2007-01-01

    The standard technique for measurement of millimeter wave fields utilizes an open-ended waveguide attached to a HP power meter. The alignment of the waveguide with the propagation (K) vector is critical to making accurate measurements. Using this technique, it is difficult and time consuming to make a detailed map of average incident power density over areas of biological interest and the spatial resolution of this instrument does not allow accurate measurements in non-uniform fields. For biological experiments, it is important to know the center field average incident power density and the distribution over the exposed area. Two 4 ft x 4 ft x 1/32 inch sheets of carbon loaded Teflon (CLT) (one 15% carbon and one 25% carbon) were procured and a series of tests to determine the usefulness of CLT in defining fields in the millimeter wavelength range was initiated. Since the CLT was to be used both in the laboratory, where the environment was well controlled, and in the field, where the environment could not be controlled, tests were made to determine effects of change in environmental conditions on ability to use CLT as a millimeter wave dosimeter. The empirical results of this study indicate CLT to be an effective dosimeter for biological experiments both in the laboratory and in the field.

  18. Far infrared conductivity of charge density wave materials and the oxygen isotope effect in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creager, W.N.

    1991-09-01

    The far infrared reflectance and conductivity of (Ta 1-x Nb x Se 4 ) 2 I and TaS 3 have been measured to determine the origin of a huge infrared resonance that dominates the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics along with the pinned acoustic phason mode in the related materials (TaSe 4 ) 2 I and K 0. 3 MoO 3 . The measurements cover frequencies from 3 to 700cm -1 and the temperature range from 15K to 300K. In the niobium-doped alloys (Ta 1-x Nb x Se 4 ) 2 I, the size and frequency of the giant infrared mode remain nearly constant as the impurity concentration x is increased. For TaS 3 , the pinned acoustic phason near 0.5cm -1 dominates var-epsilon(ω) and an additional small mode lies near 9cm -1 . The latter mode is much smaller than the infrared mode in other CDW materials. These results rule out several models of a ''generic infrared mode'' in CDW excitations. They are compared in detail to the predictions of a recent theory attributing the infrared mode to a bound collective mode localized at impurity sites within the crystal. The transmittance of K 0.3 MoO 3 has been measured at 1.2K with a strong dc electric field applied across the crystal. Under these conditions, the charge density wave depins abruptly and carries large currents with near-zero differential resistance. For some samples, the low-frequency transmittance is enhanced slightly when the CDW depins. The magnitude of the oxygen isotope effect in the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has been determined by substitution of 18 O for 16 O. A series of cross-exchanges was performed on high-quality polycrystalline specimens to eliminate uncertainties due to sample heat treatments and sample inhomogeneities

  19. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  20. Subshell fitting of relativistic atomic core electron densities for use in QTAIM analyses of ECP-based wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Todd A; Frisch, Michael J

    2011-11-17

    Scalar-relativistic, all-electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations were done for free, neutral atoms of all elements of the periodic table using the universal Gaussian basis set. Each core, closed-subshell contribution to a total atomic electron density distribution was separately fitted to a spherical electron density function: a linear combination of s-type Gaussian functions. The resulting core subshell electron densities are useful for systematically and compactly approximating total core electron densities of atoms in molecules, for any atomic core defined in terms of closed subshells. When used to augment the electron density from a wave function based on a calculation using effective core potentials (ECPs) in the Hamiltonian, the atomic core electron densities are sufficient to restore the otherwise-absent electron density maxima at the nuclear positions and eliminate spurious critical points in the neighborhood of the atom, thus enabling quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses to be done in the neighborhoods of atoms for which ECPs were used. Comparison of results from QTAIM analyses with all-electron, relativistic and nonrelativistic molecular wave functions validates the use of the atomic core electron densities for augmenting electron densities from ECP-based wave functions. For an atom in a molecule for which a small-core or medium-core ECPs is used, simply representing the core using a simplistic, tightly localized electron density function is actually sufficient to obtain a correct electron density topology and perform QTAIM analyses to obtain at least semiquantitatively meaningful results, but this is often not true when a large-core ECP is used. Comparison of QTAIM results from augmenting ECP-based molecular wave functions with the realistic atomic core electron densities presented here versus augmenting with the limiting case of tight core densities may be useful for diagnosing the reliability of large-core ECP models in

  1. Constraints on a possible evolution of mass density power-law index in strong gravitational lensing from cosmological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak

    2017-11-01

    In this work, by using strong gravitational lensing (SGL) observations along with Type Ia Supernovae (Union2.1) and gamma-ray burst data (GRBs), we propose a new method to study a possible redshift evolution of γ(z), the mass density power-law index of strong gravitational lensing systems. In this analysis, we assume the validity of cosmic distance duality relation and the flat universe. In order to explore the γ(z) behaviour, three different parametrizations are considered, namely: (P1) γ(zl) = γ0 + γ1zl; (P2) γ(zl) = γ0 + γ1zl/(1 + zl); and (P3) γ(zl) = γ0 + γ1ln (1 + zl), where zl corresponds to lens redshift. If γ0 = 2 and γ1 = 0, the singular isothermal sphere model is recovered. Our method is performed on SGL sub-samples defined by different lens redshifts and velocity dispersions. For the former case, the results are in full agreement with each other, while a 1σ tension between the sub-samples with low (≤250 km s-1) and high (>250 km s-1) velocity dispersions was obtained on the (γ0-γ1) plane. By considering the complete SGL sample, we obtain γ0 ≈ 2 and γ1 ≈ 0 within 1σ c.l. for all γ(z) parametrizations. However, we find the following best-fitting values of γ1: -0.085; -0.16; and -0.12 for P1, P2 and P3 parametrizations, respectively, suggesting a mild evolution for γ(z). By repeating the analysis with Type Ia Supernovae from Joint Light Analysis compilation, GRBs and SGL systems this mild evolution is reinforced.

  2. Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we fo...... surfaces for a set of atoms and molecules with the linear-response method and by calculating nonlinear emission spectra using the time-propagation method....... found perfect agreement in the calculated photoabsorption spectra. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods as well as their convergence properties. We demonstrate different applications of the methods by calculating excitation energies and excited state Born–Oppenheimer potential...

  3. Fermi Surface Evolution Across Multiple Charge Density Wave Transitions in ErTe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.G.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Brouet, V.; /Orsay, LPS; He, R.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Lu, D.H.; /SLAC, SSRL; Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    The Fermi surface (FS) of ErTe{sub 3} is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Low temperature measurements reveal two incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) gaps created by perpendicular FS nesting vectors. A large {Delta}{sub 1} = 175 meV gap arising from a CDW with c* - q{sub CDW1} {approx} 0.70(0)c* is in good agreement with the expected value. A second, smaller {Delta}{sub 2} = 50 meV gap is due to a second CDW with a* - q{sub CDW2} {approx} 0.68(5)a*. The temperature dependence of the FS, the two gaps and possible interaction between the CDWs are examined.

  4. Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Weile; Fu, Jiyun; Cao, Zongyan; Wang, Long; Chi, Xuebin; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2013-01-01

    Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP

  5. Noninvasive assessment of diabetic foot ulcers with diffuse photon density wave methodology: pilot human study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Neidrauer, Michael; Zubkov, Leonid; Weingarten, Michael S.; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2009-11-01

    A pilot human study is conducted to evaluate the potential of using diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (685 to 830 nm) to monitor changes in tissue hemoglobin concentration in diabetic foot ulcers. Hemoglobin concentration is measured by DPDW in 12 human wounds for a period ranging from 10 to 61 weeks. In all wounds that healed completely, gradual decreases in optical absorption coefficient, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and total hemoglobin concentration are observed between the first and last measurements. In nonhealing wounds, the rates of change of these properties are nearly zero or slightly positive, and a statistically significant difference (pdiabetic foot ulcers, and indicate that it may have clinical utility in the evaluation of wound healing potential.

  6. Local Atomic Structure and Discommensurations in the Charge Density Wave of CeTe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Tomic, A.T.; Tessmer, S.H.; Billinge, S.J.L.; Malliakas, C.D.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The local structure of CeTe 3 in the incommensurate charge density wave (IC-CDW) state has been obtained using atomic pair distribution function analysis of x-ray diffraction data. Local atomic distortions in the Te nets due to the CDW are larger than observed crystallographically, resulting in distinct short and long Te-Te bonds. Observation of different distortion amplitudes in the local and average structures is explained by the discommensurated nature of the CDW, since the pair distribution function is sensitive to the local displacements within the commensurate regions, whereas the crystallographic result averages over many discommensurated domains. The result is supported by STM data. This is the first quantitative local structural study within the commensurate domains in an IC-CDW system

  7. Spectroscopic study of the charge density wave order in 2H[ -TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Wijayaratne, K.; Malliakas, C. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Chung, D. Y.; Gu, G.; Chatterjee, U.

    2017-09-01

    We conduct Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation on 2H-TaS2, a prototypical incommensurate Charge Density Wave (CDW) material. A comparative study of the low-energy electronic structures of 2H-TaS2 and two other related compounds, 2H-TaSe2 and 2H-NbSe2, identifies several generic features of their CDW orders. Firstly, Fermi surface (FS) nesting alone doesn't seem to give rise to the CDW instability in these compounds. Secondly, partial gapping of the underlying FS surface in the CDW state is common to each of these materials. Finally, the CDW energy gap, unlike the energy gap in a superconductor, is not symmetric with respect to the chemical potential.

  8. Transmission and reflection of charge-density wave packets in a quantum Hall edge controlled by a metal gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masahiro; Mano, Takaaki; Noda, Takeshi; Shibata, Naokazu; Hotta, Masahiro; Yusa, Go

    2018-02-01

    Quantum energy teleportation (QET) is a proposed protocol related to quantum vacuum. The edge channels in a quantum Hall system are well suited for the experimental verification of QET. For this purpose, we examine a charge-density wave packet excited and detected by capacitively coupled front gate electrodes. We observe the waveform of the charge packet, which is proportional to the time derivative of the applied square voltage wave. Further, we study the transmission and reflection behaviors of the charge-density wave packet by applying a voltage to another front gate electrode to control the path of the edge state. We show that the threshold voltages where the dominant direction is switched in either transmission or reflection for dense and sparse wave packets are different from the threshold voltage where the current stops flowing in an equilibrium state.

  9. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpel, Michael, E-mail: himpel@physik.uni-greifswald.de; Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ole Menzel, Kristoffer [ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research Center, 5405 Dättwil (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  10. Gravimetric and density profiling using the combination of surface acoustic waves and neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolan, Daniel T W; Barker, Robert; Gough, Tim; Topham, Paul D; Howse, Jonathan R; Glidle, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    A new approach is described herein, where neutron reflectivity measurements that probe changes in the density profile of thin films as they absorb material from the gas phase have been combined with a Love wave based gravimetric assay that measures the mass of absorbed material. This combination of techniques not only determines the spatial distribution of absorbed molecules, but also reveals the amount of void space within the thin film (a quantity that can be difficult to assess using neutron reflectivity measurements alone). The uptake of organic solvent vapours into spun cast films of polystyrene has been used as a model system with a view to this method having the potential for extension to the study of other systems. These could include, for example, humidity sensors, hydrogel swelling, biomolecule adsorption or transformations of electroactive and chemically reactive thin films. This is the first ever demonstration of combined neutron reflectivity and Love wave-based gravimetry and the experimental caveats, limitations and scope of the method are explored and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Capillary wave Hamiltonian for the Landau–Ginzburg–Wilson density functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, Enrique; Tarazona, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We study the link between the density functional (DF) formalism and the capillary wave theory (CWT) for liquid surfaces, focused on the Landau–Ginzburg–Wilson (LGW) model, or square gradient DF expansion, with a symmetric double parabola free energy, which has been extensively used in theoretical studies of this problem. We show the equivalence between the non-local DF results of Parry and coworkers and the direct evaluation of the mean square fluctuations of the intrinsic surface, as is done in the intrinsic sampling method for computer simulations. The definition of effective wave-vector dependent surface tensions is reviewed and we obtain new proposals for the LGW model. The surface weight proposed by Blokhuis and the surface mode analysis proposed by Stecki provide consistent and optimal effective definitions for the extended CWT Hamiltonian associated to the DF model. A non-local, or coarse-grained, definition of the intrinsic surface provides the missing element to get the mesoscopic surface Hamiltonian from the molecular DF description, as had been proposed a long time ago by Dietrich and coworkers. (paper)

  12. Analysis of the Nonlinear Density Wave Two-Phase Instability in a Steam Generator of 600MWe Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O

    2011-01-01

    A 600 MWe demonstration reactor being developed at KAERI employs a once-through helically coiled steam generator. The helically coiled steam generator is compact and is efficient for heat transfer, however, it may suffer from the two-phase instability. It is well known that the density wave instability is the main source of instability among various types of instabilities in a helically coiled S/G in a LMR. In the present study a simple method for analysis of the density wave two phase instability in a liquid metal reactor S/G is proposed and the method is applied to the analysis of density wave instability in a S/G of 600MWe liquid metal reactor

  13. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  14. Probing the ionization wave packet and recollision dynamics with an elliptically polarized strong laser field in the nondipole regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Willenberg, B.; Daněk, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Keller, U.

    2018-01-01

    We explore ionization and rescattering in strong mid-infrared laser fields in the nondipole regime over the full range of polarization ellipticity. In three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (3D PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging spectroscopy, we observe the appearance of a sharp ridge structure along the major polarization axis. Within a certain range of ellipticity, the electrons in this ridge are clearly separated from the two lobes that commonly appear in the PMD with elliptically polarized laser fields. In contrast to the well-known lobes of direct electrons, the sharp ridge is created by Coulomb focusing of the softly recolliding electrons. These ridge electrons are directly related to a counterintuitive shift of the PMD peak opposite to the laser beam propagation direction when the dipole approximation breaks down. The ellipticity-dependent 3D PMDs give access to different ionization and recollision dynamics with appropriate filters in the momentum space. For example, we can extract information about the spread of the initial wave packet and the Coulomb momentum transfer of the rescattering electrons.

  15. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly anisotropic quasiparticle interference patterns in the spin-density wave state of the iron pnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impurity-scattering-induced quasiparticle interference in the (π ,0 ) spin-density wave phase of the iron pnictides. We use a five-orbital tight-binding model and our mean-field theory in the clean limit captures key features of the Fermi surface observed in angle-resolved photoemission. We use a t -matrix formalism to incorporate the effect of doping-induced impurities on this state. The impurities lead to a spatial modulation of the local density of states about the impurity site, with a periodicity of ˜8 aFe -Fe along the antiferromagnetic direction. The associated momentum space quasiparticle interference pattern is anisotropic, with major peaks located at ˜(±π /4 ,0 ) , consistent with spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. We trace the origin of this pattern to an elliptical contour of constant energy around momentum (0,0), with major axis oriented along the (0,1) direction, in the mean-field electronic structure.

  17. Effect of plasma density on diffusion rates due to wave particle interactions with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss: extreme event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sicard-Piet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.

  18. Mapping the energy density of shaped waves in scattering media onto a complete set of diffusion modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Mosk, Allard P; Vellekoop, Ivo M; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L

    2016-08-08

    We study the energy density of shaped waves inside a quasi-1D disordered waveguide. We find that the spatial energy density of optimally shaped waves, when expanded in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation, is well described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside the sample is underestimated by only 2%. The spatial distribution of the shaped energy density is very similar to the fundamental eigenfunction, up to a cosine distance of about 0.01. We obtain the energy density of transmission eigenchannels inside the sample by numerical simulation of the scattering matrix. Computing the transmission-averaged energy density over all transmission channels yields the ensemble averaged energy density of shaped waves. From the averaged energy density, we reconstruct its spatial distribution using the eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. The results of our study have exciting applications in controlled biomedical imaging, efficient light harvesting in solar cells, enhanced energy conversion in solid-state lighting, and low threshold random lasers.

  19. Strain Tuning of the Charge Density Wave in Monolayer and Bilayer 1T-TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong

    2015-12-07

    By first-principles calculations, we investigate the strain effects on the charge density wave states of monolayer and bilayer 1T-TaS2. The modified stability of the charge density wave in the monolayer is understood in terms of the strain dependent electron localization, which determines the distortion amplitude. On the other hand, in the bilayer the effect of strain on the interlayer interaction is also crucial. The rich phase diagram under strain opens new venues for applications of 1T-TaS2. We interpret the experimentally observed insulating state of bulk 1T-TaS2 as inherited from the monolayer by effective interlayer decoupling.

  20. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  1. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitouche, F.; Bouarab, S.; Tazibt, S.; Vega, A.; Demangeat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X 2 /Cr 36 (001) and X 1 /Cr 37 (001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe 3 /X 1 /Cr 37 /X 1 (001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  2. Analytical results on the periodically driven damped pendulum. Application to sliding charge-density waves and Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azbel, M.Y.; Bak, P.

    1984-01-01

    The differential equation epsilonphi-dieresis+phi-dot-(1/2)α sin(2phi) = I+summation/sub n/ = -infinity/sup infinity/A/sub n/delta(t-t/sub n/) describing the periodically driven damped pendulum is analyzed in the strong damping limit epsilon<<1, using first-order perturbation theory. The equation may represent the motion of a sliding charge-density wave (CDW) in ac plus dc electric fields, and the resistively shunted Josephson junction driven by dc and microwave currents. When the torque I exceeds a critical value the pendulum rotates with a frequency ω. For infinite damping, or zero mass (epsilon = 0), the equation can be transformed to the Schroedinger equation of the Kronig-Penney model. When A/sub n/ is random the pendulum exhibits chaotic motion. In the regular case A/sub n/ = A the frequency ω is a smooth function of the parameters, so there are no phase-locked subharmonic plateaus in the ω(I) curve, or the I-V characteristics for the CDW or Josephson-junction systems. For small nonzero epsilon the return map expressing the phase phi(t/sub n/+1) as a function of the phase phi(t/sub n/) is a one-dimensional circle map. Applying known analytical results for the circle map one finds narrow subharmonic plateaus at all rational frequencies, in agreement with experiments on CDW systems

  3. Photoemission study of the electronic structure and charge density waves of Na2Ti2Sb2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Y; Jiang, J; Ye, Z R; Niu, X H; Song, Y; Zhang, C L; Dai, P C; Xie, B P; Lai, X C; Feng, D L

    2015-04-30

    The electronic structure of Na2Ti2Sb2O single crystal is studied by photon energy and polarization dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The obtained band structure and Fermi surface agree well with the band structure calculation of Na2Ti2Sb2O in the non-magnetic state, which indicates that there is no magnetic order in Na2Ti2Sb2O and the electronic correlation is weak. Polarization dependent ARPES results suggest the multi-band and multi-orbital nature of Na2Ti2Sb2O. Photon energy dependent ARPES results suggest that the electronic structure of Na2Ti2Sb2O is rather two-dimensional. Moreover, we find a density wave energy gap forms below the transition temperature and reaches 65 meV at 7 K, indicating that Na2Ti2Sb2O is likely a weakly correlated CDW material in the strong electron-phonon interaction regime.

  4. Projector Augmented Wave Method Incorporated into Gauss-Type Atomic Orbital Based Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Gen; Yanai, Takeshi

    2017-07-11

    The Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by Blöchl is well recognized as an efficient, accurate pseudopotential approach in solid-state density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the plane-wave basis. Here we present an approach to incorporate the PAW method into the Gauss-type function (GTF) based DFT implementation, which is widely used for molecular quantum chemistry calculations. The nodal and high-exponent GTF components of valence molecular orbitals (MOs) are removed or pseudized by the ultrasoft PAW treatment, while there is elaborate transparency to construct an accurate and well-controlled pseudopotential from all-electron atomic description and to reconstruct an all-electron form of valence MOs from the pseudo MOs. The smoothness of the pseudo MOs should benefit the efficiency of GTF-based DFT calculations in terms of elimination of high-exponent primitive GTFs and reduction of grid points in the numerical quadrature. The processes of the PAW method are divided into basis-independent and -dependent parts. The former is carried out using the previously developed PAW libraries libpaw and atompaw. The present scheme is implemented by incorporating libpaw into the conventional GTF-based DFT solver. The details of the formulations and implementations of GTF-related PAW procedures are presented. The test calculations are shown for illustrating the performance. With the near-complete GTF basis at the cc-pVQZ level, the total energies obtained using our PAW method with suited frozen core treatments converge to those with the conventional all-electron GTF-based method with a rather small absolute error.

  5. Far infrared conductivity of charge density wave materials and the oxygen isotope effect in high-T sub c superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creager, W.N.

    1991-09-01

    The far infrared reflectance and conductivity of (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I and TaS{sub 3} have been measured to determine the origin of a huge infrared resonance that dominates the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics along with the pinned acoustic phason mode in the related materials (TaSe{sub 4}){sub 2}I and K{sub 0. 3}MoO{sub 3}. The measurements cover frequencies from 3 to 700cm{sup {minus}1} and the temperature range from 15K to 300K. In the niobium-doped alloys (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I, the size and frequency of the giant infrared mode remain nearly constant as the impurity concentration x is increased. For TaS{sub 3}, the pinned acoustic phason near 0.5cm{sup {minus}1} dominates {var epsilon}({omega}) and an additional small mode lies near 9cm{sup {minus}1}. The latter mode is much smaller than the infrared mode in other CDW materials. These results rule out several models of a generic infrared mode'' in CDW excitations. They are compared in detail to the predictions of a recent theory attributing the infrared mode to a bound collective mode localized at impurity sites within the crystal. The transmittance of K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} has been measured at 1.2K with a strong dc electric field applied across the crystal. Under these conditions, the charge density wave depins abruptly and carries large currents with near-zero differential resistance. For some samples, the low-frequency transmittance is enhanced slightly when the CDW depins. The magnitude of the oxygen isotope effect in the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been determined by substitution of {sup 18}O for {sup 16}O. A series of cross-exchanges was performed on high-quality polycrystalline specimens to eliminate uncertainties due to sample heat treatments and sample inhomogeneities.

  6. Seasonal and nightly variations of gravity-wave energy density in the middle atmosphere measured by the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sica

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL is a large power-aperture product monostatic Rayleigh-Raman-Sodium-resonance-fluorescence lidar, which has been in operation at the Delaware Observatory (42.9° N, 81.4° W, 237 m elevation near the campus of The University of Western Ontario since 1992. Kinetic-energy density has been calculated from the Rayleigh-scatter system measurements of density fluctuations at temporal-spatial scales relevant for gravity waves, e.g. soundings at 288 m height resolution and 9 min temporal resolution in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The seasonal averages from 10 years of measurements show in all seasons some loss of gravity-wave energy in the upper stratosphere. During the equinox periods and summer the measurements are consistent with gravity waves growing in height with little saturation, in agreement with the classic picture of the variations in the height at which gravity waves break given by Lindzen (1981. The mean values compare favourably to previous measurements when computed as nightly averages, but the high temporal-spatial resolution measurements show considerable day-to-day variability. The variability over a night is often extremely large, with typical RMS fluctuations of 50 to 100% at all heights and seasons common. These measurements imply that using a daily or nightly-averaged gravity-wave energy density in numerical models may be highly unrealistic.

  7. Calculation of local excitations in large systems by embedding wave-function theory in density-functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, A.S.P.; Jacob, C.R.; Visscher, L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient embedding scheme for the wave-function based calculation of the energies of local excitations in large systems. By introducing an embedding potential obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) it is possible to describe the effect of an environment on local

  8. Low-frequency permittivity of spin-density wave in (TMTSF)2PF6 at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nad, F.; Monceau, P.; Bechgaard, K.

    1995-01-01

    Conductivity and permittivity epsilon of(TMTSF)(2)PF6 have been measured at low frequencies of (10(2)-10(7) Hz) at low temperatures below the spin-density wave (SDW) transition temperature T-p. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows a deviation from thermally activated behavior at T...

  9. Higgs-mode radiance and charge-density-wave order in 2 H -NbSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Romain; Cea, Tommaso; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Cario, Laurent; Benfatto, Lara; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2018-03-01

    Despite being usually considered two competing phenomena, charge-density wave and superconductivity coexist in few systems, the most emblematic one being the transition-metal dichalcogenide 2 H -NbSe2 . This unusual condition is responsible for specific Raman signatures across the two phase transitions in this compound. While the appearance of a soft phonon mode is a well-established fingerprint of the charge-density-wave order, the nature of the sharp subgap mode emerging below the superconducting temperature is still under debate. In this work we use external pressure as a knob to unveil the delicate interplay between the two orders, and consequently the nature of the superconducting mode. Thanks to an advanced extreme-conditions Raman technique, we are able to follow the pressure evolution and the simultaneous collapse of the two intertwined charge-density-wave and superconducting modes. The comparison with microscopic calculations in a model system supports the Higgs-type nature of the superconducting mode and suggests that charge-density wave and superconductivity in 2 H -NbSe2 involve mutual electronic degrees of freedom. These findings fill the knowledge gap on the electronic mechanisms at play in transition-metal dichalcogenides, a crucial step to fully exploit their properties in few-layer systems optimized for device applications.

  10. Charge density wave and superconductivity in 2H-and 4H-NbSe2: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Good-quality hexagonal NbSe2 single crystals were prepared. In 2H-NbSe2, superconducting and charge density wave (CDW) transitions were found at = 7.4 K and = 35 K respectively as reported previously. We have noticed that these two transitions are changed to = 42 K and = 6.5 K, in 4H-NbSe2.

  11. Mapping the energy density of shaped waves in scattering media onto a complete set of diffusion modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojambati, O. S.; Mosk, A. P.; Vellekoop, I. M.; Lagendijk, A.; Vos, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the spatial distribution of the energy density of optimally shaped waves inside a scattering medium can be described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside

  12. Energy density distribution of shaped waves inside scattering media mapped onto a complete set of diffusion modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi Stephen; Mosk, Allard; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Lagendijk, Aart; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the spatial distribution of the energy density of optimally shaped waves inside a scattering medium can be described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside

  13. Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Charge Density Wave Transition in Rare-Earth Tritellurides RTe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, N.; Condron, C.L.; Margulis, G.Y.; Shin, K.Y.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Toney, M.F.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Bristol U.

    2009-04-30

    The charge density wave transition is investigated in the bilayer family of rare-earth tritelluride RTe{sub 3} compounds (R=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) via high-resolution x-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity. The transition temperature increases monotonically with increasing lattice parameter from 244(3) K for TmTe{sub 3} to 416(3) K for SmTe{sub 3}. The heaviest members of the series, R=Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm, are observed to have a second transition at a lower temperature, which marks the onset of an additional charge density wave with wave vector almost equal in magnitude to the first, but oriented in the perpendicular direction.

  14. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Ivashko, O.

    2016-01-01

    The application of magnetic fields to layered cuprates suppresses their high-temperature superconducting behaviour and reveals competing ground states. In widely studied underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO), the microscopic nature of field-induced electronic and structural changes at low temperatures...... at B∼15 T. The CDW signal along the a-direction is also enhanced by field, but does not develop an additional pattern of correlations. Magnetic field modifies the coupling between the CuO2 bilayers in the YBCO structure, and causes the sudden appearance of the 3D CDW order. The mirror symmetry...... remains unclear. Here we report an X-ray study of the high-field charge density wave (CDW) in YBCO. For hole dopings ∼ 0.123, we find that a field (B∼10 T) induces additional CDW correlations along the CuO chain (b-direction) only, leading to a three-dimensional (3D) ordered state along this direction...

  15. Using projector augmented-wave (PAW) formalism inside the density-functional perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    In condensed matter physics, ab-initio simulation allows to get macroscopic quantities (for example equations of state) from microscopic ones, as phonon frequencies which characterize the vibration Eigenmodes of the system. Therefore, one can theoretically predict the behavior of the material at very high pressure conditions, which can be out of reach by experiences. Computations of phonon spectrum are obtained thanks to the linear response theory, where the equations of Density Functional Theory (as the Kohn-Sham model) are perturbed around their fundamental state. The linear response functionality is one of the options included in the ABINIT code, which is an open source package developed in particular by a team of the CEA-DAM (DPTA) and the Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Nevertheless, in spite of using pseudopotentials, computations of phonon spectrum are not tractable for heavy chemical elements, even on massively parallel computers. In order to overcome this difficulty, the linear response theory had to be extended to the PAW (Projector Augmented-Waves) formalism. In this CEA report, we first detail the PAW model, giving to it a more mathematical framework. Then we establish the linear response equations within the PAW formalism, up to the third order derivative of the total energy, for an isolated molecular system and for generic perturbations. Lastly, all these results are specified to the particular case of atom displacements and for perturbations associated to the change of an external potential in which the molecule is set. (author)

  16. Resonant Enhancement of Charge Density Wave Diffraction in the Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Sorini, A.P.; Yi, M.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moritz, B.; Yang, W.L.; Chu, J.-H.; Kuo, H.H.; Gonzalez, A.G.Cruz; Fisher, I.R.; Hussain, Z.; Devereau, T.P.; Shen, Z.X.

    2012-05-15

    We performed resonant soft X-ray diffraction on known charge density wave (CDW) compounds, rare earth tri-tellurides. Near the M{sub 5} (3d - 4f) absorption edge of rare earth ions, an intense diffraction peak is detected at a wavevector identical to that of CDW state hosted on Te{sub 2} planes, indicating a CDW-induced modulation on the rare earth ions. Surprisingly, the temperature dependence of the diffraction peak intensity demonstrates an exponential increase at low temperatures, vastly different than that of the CDW order parameter. Assuming 4f multiplet splitting due to the CDW states, we present a model to calculate X-ray absorption spectrum and resonant profile of the diffraction peak, agreeing well with experimental observations. Our results demonstrate a situation where the temperature dependence of resonant X-ray diffraction peak intensity is not directly related to the intrinsic behavior of the order parameter associated with the electronic order, but is dominated by the thermal occupancy of the valence states.

  17. Analysis of Density Wave Oscillations in Helically Coiled Tube Once-Through Steam Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helically coiled tube Once-Through Steam Generator (H-OTSG is one of the key equipment types for small modular reactors. The flow instability of the secondary side of the H-OTSG is particularly serious, because the working condition is in the range of low and medium pressure. This paper presents research on density wave oscillations (DWO in a typical countercurrent H-OTSG. Based on the steady-state calculation, the mathematical model of single-channel system was established, and the transfer function was derived. Using Nyquist stability criterion of the single variable, the stability cases were studied with an in-house computer program. According to the analyses, the impact law of the geometrical parameters to the system stability was obtained. RELAP5/MOD3.2 code was also used to simulate DWO in H-OTSG. The theoretical analyses of the in-house program were compared to the simulation results of RELAP5. A correction factor was introduced to reduce the error of RELAP5 when modeling helical geometry. The comparison results agreed well which showed that the correction is effective.

  18. Itinerant Double-Q Spin-Density Wave in Iron Arsenide Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Raymond; Allred, Jared; Chmaissem, Omar; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Brown, Dennis; Taddei, Keith; Krogstad, Matthew; Bugaris, Daniel; Chung, Duck-Young; Claus, Helmut; Lapidus, Saul; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Kang, Jian; Fernandes, Rafael; Eremin, Ilya

    The recent observation of a tetragonal magnetic (C4) phase in hole-doped iron arsenide superconductors has provided evidence of a magnetic origin for the electronic nematicity in the C2 phase of these compounds. Now, Mössbauer data shows that the new phase also establishes the itinerant character of the antiferromagnetism of these materials and the primary role played by magnetic over orbital degrees of freedom. Neutron diffraction had shown that the magnetic order in the C4 phase was compatible with a double-Q structure arising from a collinear spin-density wave along both the X and Y directions simultaneously. The coherent superposition of the two modulations produces a non-uniform magnetic structure, in which the spin amplitudes vanish on half of the sites and double on the others, a uniquely itinerant effect that is incompatible with local moment magnetism. Mössbauer spectra in the C4 phase confirm this double-Q structure, with 50% of the spectral weight in a zero-moment peak and 50% with double the magnetic splitting seen in the C2 phase. Supported by the US DOE Office of Science, Materials and Engineering Division.

  19. Commensurate and incommensurate spin-density waves in heavy electron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlottmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron and a hole pocket separated by a nesting vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to itinerant antiferromagnetism. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point (QCP is obtained as the Néel temperature tends to zero. The transfer of pairs of electrons between the pockets can lead to a superconducting dome above the QCP (if Q is commensurate with the lattice, i.e. equal to G/2. If the vector Q is not commensurate with the lattice there are eight possible phases: commensurate and incommensurate spin and charge density waves and four superconductivity phases, two of them with modulated order parameter of the FFLO type. The renormalization group equations are studied and numerically integrated. A re-entrant SDW phase (either commensurate or incommensurate is obtained as a function of the mismatch of the Fermi surfaces and the magnitude of |Q − G/2|.

  20. Determination of Fluid Density and Viscosity by Analyzing Flexural Wave Propagations on the Vibrating Micro-Cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deokman; Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung; Park, Junhong

    2017-10-27

    The determination of fluid density and viscosity using most cantilever-based sensors is based on changes in resonant frequency and peak width. Here, we present a wave propagation analysis using piezoelectrically excited micro-cantilevers under distributed fluid loading. The standing wave shapes of microscale-thickness cantilevers partially immersed in liquids (water, 25% glycerol, and acetone), and nanoscale-thickness microfabricated cantilevers fully immersed in gases (air at three different pressures, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) were investigated to identify the effects of fluid-structure interactions to thus determine the fluid properties. This measurement method was validated by comparing with the known fluid properties, which agreed well with the measurements. The relative differences for the liquids were less than 4.8% for the densities and 3.1% for the viscosities, and those for the gases were less than 6.7% for the densities and 7.3% for the viscosities, showing better agreements in liquids than in gases.

  1. Angular characteristics of the stimulated-Brillouin-scattering spectrum from a laser plasma with strong acoustic-wave damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, P.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic

  2. Effects of wave exposure and depth on biomass, density and fertility of the fucoid seaweed Sargassum polyceratium (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, AH; Aberg, P; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Breeman, AM

    Sargassum polyceratium is widely distributed around the island of Curacao ( Netherlands Antilles) where it inhabits strongly contrasting habitats. Changes in population structure have been followed in three bays with increasing levels of wave exposure at two depths: shallow ( 0 m) and deep ( 18 m).

  3. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Hash(0x125f4490)

    2011-02-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field ( B) of strength up to 1011 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >109 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >109 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs "dynamically" from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints.

  4. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  5. The interaction of laser driven shock waves with a spherical density perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, D.R; Budil, K.S.; Klein, R.I.; Perry, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Strong shock waves produced by illumination of a CH target by laser produced x-rays were driven through a copper sphere. The motion and deformation of the sphere were measured using radiographs generated by backlighting the sphere with a large area backlighter. The sphere became non-spherical after the passage of the shock, having a complicated down-stream structure. This was an instability-induced structure that was predicted by calculations. The experiment is a convenient laboratory model of the complicated interactions occurring in much larger systems such as in astrophysics in the interaction of shocks formed in the interstellar medium with various types of clouds. In particular, the experiment is a useful tool for checking the computational ability of the new generation ASCI computers, as it requires three-dimensional modeling. This experiment has shown that three dimensional calculations seem to be necessary to describe major features observed in the experiment. Any attempt to explain hydrodynamic behavior with similar instabilities must take into account these three dimensional effects

  6. Kinetic Temperature and Electron Density Measurement in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch using Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Julia; Lyons, Wendy; Tong, WIlliam G.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser wave mixing is presented as an effective technique for spatially resolved kinetic temperature measurements in an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma. Measurements are performed in a 1 kW, 27 MHz RF plasma using a continuous-wave, tunable 811.5-nm diode laser to excite the 4s(sup 3)P2 approaches 4p(sup 3)D3 argon transition. Kinetic temperature measurements are made at five radial steps from the center of the torch and at four different torch heights. The kinetic temperature is determined by measuring simultaneously the line shape of the sub-Doppler backward phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing and the Doppler-broadened forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing. The temperature measurements result in a range of 3,500 to 14,000 K+/-150 K. Electron densities measured range from 6.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm to 10.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm. The experimental spectra are analyzed using a perturbative treatment of the backward phase-conjugate and forward-geometry wave-mixing theory. Stark width is determined from the collisional broadening measured in the phase-conjugate geometry. Electron density measurements are made based on the Stark width. The kinetic temperature of the plasma was found to be more than halved by adding deionized water through the nebulizer.

  7. Local Fitting of the Kohn-Sham Density in a Gaussian and Plane Waves Scheme for Large-Scale Density Functional Theory Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golze, Dorothea; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hutter, Jürg

    2017-05-09

    A local resolution-of-the-identity (LRI) approach is introduced in combination with the Gaussian and plane waves (GPW) scheme to enable large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations. In GPW, the computational bottleneck is typically the description of the total charge density on real-space grids. Introducing the LRI approximation, the linear scaling of the GPW approach with respect to system size is retained, while the prefactor for the grid operations is reduced. The density fitting is an O(N) scaling process implemented by approximating the atomic pair densities by an expansion in one-center fit functions. The computational cost for the grid-based operations becomes negligible in LRIGPW. The self-consistent field iteration is up to 30 times faster for periodic systems dependent on the symmetry of the simulation cell and on the density of grid points. However, due to the overhead introduced by the local density fitting, single point calculations and complete molecular dynamics steps, including the calculation of the forces, are effectively accelerated by up to a factor of ∼10. The accuracy of LRIGPW is assessed for different systems and properties, showing that total energies, reaction energies, intramolecular and intermolecular structure parameters are well reproduced. LRIGPW yields also high quality results for extended condensed phase systems such as liquid water, ice XV, and molecular crystals.

  8. Current induced multi-mode propagating spin waves in a spin transfer torque nano-contact with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid

    2018-03-01

    Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.

  9. Augmented potential, energy densities, and virial relations in the weak- and strong-interaction limits of DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Levy, Mel; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2017-12-01

    The augmented potential introduced by Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113002 (2014)] is shifted with respect to the standard exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory by a density-dependent constant that makes the total energy become equal to the sum of the occupied orbital energies. In this work, we analyze several features of this approach, focusing on the limit of infinite coupling strength and studying the shift and the corresponding energy density at different correlation regimes. We present and discuss coordinate scaling properties of the augmented potential, study its connection to the response potential, and use the shift to analyze the classical jellium and uniform gas models. We also study other definitions of the energy densities in relation to the functional construction by local interpolations along the adiabatic connection. Our findings indicate that the energy density that is defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole is particularly well suited for this purpose.

  10. Augmented potential, energy densities, and virial relations in the weak- and strong-interaction limits of DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Levy, Mel; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2017-12-07

    The augmented potential introduced by Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113002 (2014)] is shifted with respect to the standard exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory by a density-dependent constant that makes the total energy become equal to the sum of the occupied orbital energies. In this work, we analyze several features of this approach, focusing on the limit of infinite coupling strength and studying the shift and the corresponding energy density at different correlation regimes. We present and discuss coordinate scaling properties of the augmented potential, study its connection to the response potential, and use the shift to analyze the classical jellium and uniform gas models. We also study other definitions of the energy densities in relation to the functional construction by local interpolations along the adiabatic connection. Our findings indicate that the energy density that is defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole is particularly well suited for this purpose.

  11. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. W., E-mail: li-jiwei@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Kang, W. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smooth the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion.

  12. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J. W.; He, X. T.; Kang, W.; Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10 14  W/cm 2 , is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smooth the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion

  13. Strong excitation of surface and bulk spin waves in yttrium iron garnet placed in a split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in a bilayer consisting of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum (Pt) loaded on a metamaterial split ring resonator (SRR). The system is excited by a microstrip feed line which generates both surface and bulk spin waves in the YIG. The spin waves subsequently undergo spin pumping from the YIG film to an adjacent Pt layer, and is converted into a charge current via the ISHE. It is found that the presence of the SRR causes a significant enhancement of the mangetic field near the resonance frequency of the SRR, resulting in a significant increase in the ISHE signal. Furthermore, the type of spin wave generated in the system can be controlled by changing the external applied magnetic field angle (θH ). When the external applied magnetic field is near parallel to the microstrip line (θH = 0 ), magnetostatic surface spin waves are predominantly excited. On the other hand, when the external applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the microstrip line (θH = π/2 ), backward volume magnetostatic spin waves are predominantly excited. Hence, it can be seen that the SRR structure is a promising method of achieving spin-charge conversion, which has many advantages over a coaxial probe.

  14. On the accuracy of density functional theory and wave function methods for calculating vertical ionization energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Booth, George H. [Theory and Simulation of Condensed Matter, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Cole, Jacqueline M., E-mail: jmc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.

  15. On the accuracy of density functional theory and wave function methods for calculating vertical ionization energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared

  16. Measurements of the plasma density in the FTU tokamak by a pulsed time-of-flight X-wave refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V. G.; Petrov, A. A.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; De Benedetti, M.; Tudisco, O.

    2008-01-01

    On-line control over the plasma density in tokamaks (especially, in long-term discharges) requires reliable measurements of the averaged plasma density. For this purpose, a new method of density measurements-a pulsed time-of-flight plasma refractometry-was developed and tested in the T-11M tokamak. This method allows one to determine the averaged density from the measured time delay of nanosecond microwave pulses propagating through the plasma. For an O-wave, the measured time delay is proportional to the line-averaged density and is independent of the density profile (f>>f p ) τ o ∼ k o 1/f 2 ∫ l N(x)dx. Here, f is the frequency of the probing wave, f p is the plasma frequency, l= 4 a is the path length for two-pass probing in the equatorial plane, a is the plasma minor radius, k O and k X are numerical factors, f c is the electron-cyclotron frequency at the axis of the plasma column, and f p >>f c , f. Measurements of the time delay provide the same information as plasma interferometry, though they do no employ the effect of interference. When the conditions f p >>f c , f are not satisfied, the measured time delay depends on the shape of the density profile. In this case, in order to determine the average density regardless of the density profile, it is necessary to perform simultaneous measurements at several probing frequencies in order to determine the average density. In ITER (Bt ∼ 5T), a spectral window between the lower and upper cutoff frequencies in the range of 50-100 GHz can be used for pulsed time-of-flight X-wave refractometry. This appreciably simplifies the diagnostics and eliminates the problem of the first mirror. In this paper, the first results obtained in the FTU tokamak with a prototype of the ITER pulsed time-of-flight refractometer are presented. The geometry and layout of experiments similar to the planned ITER experiments are described. The density measured by pulsed time-of-flight refractometry is shown to agree well with the

  17. EUROMECH colloquium 377. Stability and control of shear flows with strong temperature or density gradients. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The topics discussed comprise the onset of instability in heated free jets and jets with density gradients, flow past heated/cooled boundaries, atmospheric shear flow, and mathematical modeling of laminar-turbulent transition phenomena. Three contributions have been input to INIS. (P.A.)

  18. Time resolved interferometric study of the plasma plume induced shock wave in confined geometry: Two-dimensional mapping of the ambient and plasma density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Kaushik [IITB Monash Research Academy, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Narayan, Surya; Srivastava, Atul, E-mail: atulsr@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-04-15

    An experimental investigation of the laser produced plasma induced shock wave in the presence of confining walls placed along the axial as well as the lateral direction has been performed. A time resolved Mach Zehnder interferometer is set up to track the primary as well as the reflected shock waves and its effect on the evolving plasma plume has been studied. An attempt has been made to discriminate the electronic and medium density contributions towards the changes in the refractive index of the medium. Two dimensional spatial distributions for both ambient medium density and plasma density (electron density) have been obtained by employing customised inversion technique and algorithm on the recorded interferograms. The observed density pattern of the surrounding medium in the presence of confining walls is correlated with the reflected shock wave propagation in the medium. Further, the shock wave plasma interaction and the subsequent changes in the shape and density of the plasma plume in confined geometry are briefly described.

  19. Nonsimilar Solution for Shock Waves in a Rotational Axisymmetric Perfect Gas with a Magnetic Field and Exponentially Varying Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in an ideal gas in the presence of a constant azimuthal magnetic field with consideration for the axisymmetric rotational effects is investigated. The ambient medium is assumed to have the radial, axial, and azimuthal velocity components. The fluid velocities and density of the ambient medium are assumed to vary according to an exponential law. Nonsimilar solutions are obtained by taking into account the vorticity vector and its components. The dependences of the characteristics of the problem on the Alfven-Mach number and time are obtained. It is shown that the presence of a magnetic field has a decaying effect on the shock wave. The pressure and density are shown to vanish at the inner surface (piston), and hence a vacuum forms at the line of symmetry.

  20. Direct observation of competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity often emerges in the proximity of, or in competition with, symmetry-breaking ground states such as antiferromagnetism or charge density waves (CDW). A number of materials in the cuprate family, which includes the high transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, show spin...... and charge density wave order. Thus a fundamental question is to what extent do these ordered states exist for compositions close to optimal for superconductivity. Here we use high-energy X-ray diffraction to show that a CDW develops at zero field in the normal state of superconducting YBa2Cu3O6.67 (Tc= 67 K......). This sample has a hole doping of 0.12 per copper and a well-ordered oxygen chain superstructure. Below Tc, the application of a magnetic field suppresses superconductivity and enhances the CDW. Hence, the CDW and superconductivity in this typical high-Tc material are competing orders with similar energy...

  1. A comparison model between density functional and wave function theories by means of the Löwdin partitioning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Marc; Moreira, Ibério de P R; Bofill, Josep Maria

    2013-05-07

    A comparison model is proposed based on the Löwdin partitioning technique to analyze the differences in the treatment of electron correlation by the wave function and density functional models. This comparison model provides a tool to understand the inherent structure of both theories and its discrepancies in terms of the subjacent mathematical structure and the necessary conditions for variationality required for the energy functional. Some numerical results on simple molecules are also reported revealing the known phenomenon of "overcorrelation" of density functional theory methods.

  2. An Oceanic Ultra-Violet Catastrophe, Wave-Particle Duality and a Strongly Nonlinear Concept for Geophysical Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt L. Polzin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no theoretical underpinning that successfully explains how turbulent mixing is fed by wave breaking associated with nonlinear wave-wave interactions in the background oceanic internal wavefield. We address this conundrum using one-dimensional ray tracing simulations to investigate interactions between high frequency internal waves and inertial oscillations in the extreme scale separated limit known as “Induced Diffusion”. Here, estimates of phase locking are used to define a resonant process (a resonant well and a non-resonant process that results in stochastic jumps. The small amplitude limit consists of jumps that are small compared to the scale of the resonant well. The ray tracing simulations are used to estimate the first and second moments of a wave packet’s vertical wavenumber as it evolves from an initial condition. These moments are compared with predictions obtained from the diffusive approximation to a self-consistent kinetic equation derived in the ‘Direct Interaction Approximation’. Results indicate that the first and second moments of the two systems evolve in a nearly identical manner when the inertial field has amplitudes an order of magnitude smaller than oceanic values. At realistic (oceanic amplitudes, though, the second moment estimated from the ray tracing simulations is inhibited. The transition is explained by the stochastic jumps obtaining the characteristic size of the resonant well. We interpret this transition as an adiabatic ‘saturation’ process which changes the nominal background wavefield from supporting no mixing to the point where that background wavefield defines the normalization for oceanic mixing models.

  3. On the possible effect of round-the-world surface seismic waves in the dynamics of repeated shocks after strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, O. D.; Zavyalov, A. D.; Guglielmi, A. V.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the observation data for hundreds of the main shocks and thousands of aftershocks, the existence of effect of round-the-world surface seismic waves is demonstrated (let us conditionally refer to them as a round-the-world seismic echo) and the manifestations of this effect in the dynamics of the repeated shocks of strong earthquakes are analyzed. At the same time, we by no means believe this effect has been fully proven. We only present a version of our own understanding of the physical causes of the observed phenomenon and analyze the regularities in its manifestation. The effect is that the surface waves excited in the Earth by the main shock make a full revolution around the Earth and excite a strong aftershock in the epicentral zone of the main shock. In our opinion, the physical nature of this phenomenon consists in the fact that the superposition leads to a concentration of wave energy when the convergent surface waves reach the epicentral zone (cumulative effect). The effect of the first seismic echo is most manifest. Thus, the present work supports our hypothesis of the activation of rock failure under the cumulative impact of an round-the-world seismic echo on the source area which is releasing ("cooling") after the main shock. The spatial regularities in the manifestations of this effect are established, and the independence of the probability of its occurrence on the main shock magnitude is revealed. The effect of a round-the-world seismic echo can be used to improve the reliability of the forecasts of strong aftershocks in determining the scenario for the seismic process developing in the epicentral zone of a strong earthquake that has taken place.

  4. De Haas-van Alphen oscillations in the charge-density wave compound lanthanum tritelluride (LaTe3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, N.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Borzi, R.A.; Rost, A.; Mackenzie, A.P.; /St. Andrews U., Phys. Astron.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; /Bristol U.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    De Haas-van Alphen oscillations were measured in lanthanum tritelluride (LaTe{sub 3}) to probe the partially gapped Fermi surface resulting from charge density wave (CDW) formation. Three distinct frequencies were observed, one of which can be correlated with a FS sheet that is unaltered by CDW formation. The other two frequencies arise from FS sheets that have been reconstructed in the CDW state.

  5. Shear Wave Velocity and Site Amplification Factors for 25 Strong-Motion Instrument Stations Affected by the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.; Zangwill, Aliza; Estevez, Ivan; Lai, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles are presented for 25 strong-motion instrument sites along the Mid-Atlantic eastern seaboard, Piedmont region, and Appalachian region, which surround the epicenter of the M5.8 Mineral, Virginia, Earthquake of August 23, 2011. Testing was performed at sites in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, the District of Columbia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS,30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VS,Z), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The Vs profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. A large trailer-mounted active source was used to shake the ground during the testing and produce the surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  6. Charge density waves in nanocrystalline thin films of blue bronze K0.3MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starešinić, D.; Dominko, D.; Salamon, K.; Biljaković, K.; Tomeljak, A.; Schäfer, H.; Huber, T.; Demsar, J.; Socol, G.; Ristoscu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Siketić, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Thin granular films of charge density wave (CDW) system K 0.3 MoO 3 were prepared by pulsed laser deposition and investigated by various standard characterization methods such as GI-XRD, electric transport, TOF-ERDA, AFM and UV–visible spectroscopy. While all these methods indicate that the thin films consist of nanometer grains of K 0.3 MoO 3 , it is only the non-destructive femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy (fsTRS) that demonstrates the charge density wave nature of the ground state and therefore proves directly the presence of K 0.3 MoO 3 . Furthermore, the comparison of the fsTRS data obtained in thin films and in single crystals shows the reduction of the charge density wave transition temperature and of the photoinduced signal strength in granular thin films with respect to single crystals, which is attributed to the granularity and crystal growth morphology. Our results establish fsTRS technique as the essential tool for the detection and characterization of complex ground states in nano-sized systems.

  7. Nanoscale measurement of Nernst effect in two-dimensional charge density wave material 1T-TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Luican-Mayer, Adina; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2017-11-01

    Advances in nanoscale material characterization on two-dimensional van der Waals layered materials primarily involve their optical and electronic properties. The thermal properties of these materials are harder to access due to the difficulty of thermal measurements at the nanoscale. In this work, we create a nanoscale magnetothermal device platform to access the basic out-of-plane magnetothermal transport properties of ultrathin van der Waals materials. Specifically, the Nernst effect in the charge density wave transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2 is examined on nano-thin flakes in a patterned device structure. It is revealed that near the commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) to nearly commensurate charge density wave (NCCDW) phase transition, the polarity of the Nernst effect changes. Since the Nernst effect is especially sensitive to changes in the Fermi surface, this suggests that large changes are occurring in the out-of-plane electronic structure of 1T-TaS2, which are otherwise unresolved in just in-plane electronic transport measurements. This may signal a coherent evolution of out-of-plane stacking in the CCDW → NCCDW transition.

  8. Electron density and plasma waves in mid-latitude sporadic-E layer observed during the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The SEEK-2 campaign was carried out over Kyushu Island in Japan on 3 August 2002, by using the two sounding rockets of S310-31 and S310-32. This campaign was planned to elucidate generation mechanisms of Quasi-Periodic Echoes (QPEs associated with mid-latitude sporadic-E (Es layers. Electron number densities were successfully measured in the Es layers by using the impedance probe on board two rockets. The plasma waves in the VLF and ELF ranges were also observed on board the S310-32 rocket. Results of electron density measurement showed that there were one or two major peaks in the Es layers along the rockets' trajectories near the altitude of about 10km. There were some smaller peaks associated with the main Es layers in the altitude range from 90 to 120 km. These density peaks were distributed in a very large extent during the SEEK-2 campaign. The Es layer structure is also measured by using the Fixed Bias Probe (FBP, which has a high spatial resolution of several meters (the impedance probe has an altitude resolution of about 400 m. The comparison with the total electron content (TEC measured by the Dual Band Beacon revealed that the Es layer was also modulated in the horizontal direction with the scale size of 30–40 km. It was shown that the QP echoes observed by the ground-based coherent radar come from the major density peak of the Es layer. The plasma wave instrument detected the enhancement of VLF and ELF plasma waves associated with the operation of the TMA release, and also with the passage of the Es layers. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Midlatitude ionosphere; Plasma temeperature and density

  9. Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Meets Molecular Crystals: Thermal Ellipsoids and Intermolecular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deringer, Volker L; George, Janine; Dronskowski, Richard; Englert, Ulli

    2017-05-16

    Molecular compounds, organic and inorganic, crystallize in diverse and complex structures. They continue to inspire synthetic efforts and "crystal engineering", with implications ranging from fundamental questions to pharmaceutical research. The structural complexity of molecular solids is linked with diverse intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonding with all its facets, halogen bonding, and other secondary bonding mechanisms of recent interest (and debate). Today, high-resolution diffraction experiments allow unprecedented insight into the structures of molecular crystals. Despite their usefulness, however, these experiments also face problems: hydrogen atoms are challenging to locate, and thermal effects may complicate matters. Moreover, even if the structure of a crystal is precisely known, this does not yet reveal the nature and strength of the intermolecular forces that hold it together. In this Account, we show that periodic plane-wave-based density functional theory (DFT) can be a useful, and sometimes unexpected, complement to molecular crystallography. Initially developed in the solid-state physics communities to treat inorganic solids, periodic DFT can be applied to molecular crystals just as well: theoretical structural optimizations "help out" by accurately localizing the elusive hydrogen atoms, reaching neutron-diffraction quality with much less expensive measurement equipment. In addition, phonon computations, again developed by physicists, can quantify the thermal motion of atoms and thus predict anisotropic displacement parameters and ORTEP ellipsoids "from scratch". But the synergy between experiment and theory goes much further than that. Once a structure has been accurately determined, computations give new and detailed insights into the aforementioned intermolecular interactions. For example, it has been debated whether short hydrogen bonds in solids have covalent character, and we have added a new twist to this discussion using an orbital

  10. Numerical simulation of the temperature, electron density, and electric field distributions near the ionospheric reflection height after turn-on of a powerful HF wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldrew, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The time variation of the electron temperature profile in the ionosphere following turn-on of a powerful 1-s HF pulse is determined numerically from the energy balance equation. Using this and the equations of motion and continuity for a plasma, the effect of heating and the pondermotive force of a powerful HF wave on the electron density and electric field distributions are determined by numerical simulation. The temperature variation and ponderomotive force modify the density distribution, and this new density distribution, in turn, modifies the electric field distribution of the HF wave. The density deviations grow for a few hundred milliseconds after HF turn-on and then begin to fluctuate in time. At all heights the wave number of the density deviations is approximately twice the wave number of the HF wave. For electric fields near reflection of about 6.0 V/m, the electric field distribution becomes complicated, apparently depending on Bragg scattering of the HF wave from the density deviations. Density impulses propagate away (up and down) from electric field maxima, at the ion thermal velocity, at both turn-on and turn-off of the HF wave

  11. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas [Quantum Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, 160014 Chandigrah (India)

    2011-02-15

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10{sup 11} G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10{sup 9} G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10{sup 9} G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  12. An intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy densities from METOP GPS radio occultation measurements and ECMWF model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Kaifler, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Temperature profiles based on radio occultation (RO) measurements with the operational European METOP satellites are used to derive monthly mean global distributions of stratospheric (20-40 km) gravity wave (GW) potential energy densities (EP) for the period July 2014-December 2016. In order to test whether the sampling and data quality of this data set is sufficient for scientific analysis, we investigate to what degree the METOP observations agree quantitatively with ECMWF operational analysis (IFS data) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. A systematic comparison between corresponding monthly mean temperature fields determined for a latitude-longitude-altitude grid of 5° by 10° by 1 km is carried out. This yields very low systematic differences between RO and model data below 30 km (i.e., median temperature differences is between -0.2 and +0.3 K), which increases with height to yield median differences of +1.0 K at 34 km and +2.2 K at 40 km. Comparing EP values for three selected locations at which also ground-based lidar measurements are available yields excellent agreement between RO and IFS data below 35 km. ERA-Interim underestimates EP under conditions of strong local mountain wave forcing over northern Scandinavia which is apparently not resolved by the model. Above 35 km, RO values are consistently much larger than model values, which is likely caused by the model sponge layer, which damps small-scale fluctuations above ˜ 32 km altitude. Another reason is the well-known significant increase of noise in RO measurements above 35 km. The comparison between RO and lidar data reveals very good qualitative agreement in terms of the seasonal variation of EP, but RO values are consistently smaller than lidar values by about a factor of 2. This discrepancy is likely caused by the very different sampling characteristics of RO and lidar observations. Direct comparison of the global data set of RO and model EP fields shows large correlation coefficients (0

  13. Parametric study of the relaxation zone behind strong normal shock waves in a dusty ionized monatomic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igra, O.; Ben-Dor, G.

    1982-01-01

    The conservation equations appropriate to a steady, one-dimensional flow of dusty ionized argon were solved numerically. The specific effect of each of the physical parameters of the dust upon the flow properties in the relaxation zone is studied. It is found that increasing the dust particle mass causes an increase in both the kinematic and thermal relaxation lengths. In addition to these changes, the flow field inside the relaxation zone is also affected. An increase in the dust mass (caused either by an increase in the dust density or its diameter) causes an increase in the plasma velocity, temperature and electron number density and a decrease in its density and pressure. Similar effects are encountered when the specific heat capacity of the dust is changed. An increase in the emissivity of the dust causes an increase in the plasma density and pressure and a decrease in its velocity, temperature and electron number density. Increasing the emissivity of the dust results in a decrease in the relaxation zone length. (author)

  14. Density fluctuations measured by ISEE 1-2 in the Earth's magnetosheath and the resultant scattering of radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio waves undergo angular scattering when they propagate through a plasma with fluctuating density. We show how the angular scattering coefficient can be calculated as a function of the frequency spectrum of the local density fluctuations. In the Earth's magnetosheath, the ISEE 1-2 propagation experiment measured the spectral power of the density fluctuations for periods in the range 300 to 1 s, which produce most of the scattering. The resultant local angular scattering coefficient can then be calculated for the first time with realistic density fluctuation spectra, which are neither Gaussian nor power laws. We present results on the variation of the local angular scattering coefficient during two crossings of the dayside magnetosheath, from the quasi-perpendicular bow shock to the magnetopause. For a radio wave at twice the local electron plasma frequency, the scattering coefficient in the major part of the magnetosheath is b(2fp ≃ 0.5 – 4 × 10–9 rad2/m. The scattering coefficient is about ten times stronger in a thin sheet (0.1 to1RE just downstream of the shock ramp, and close to the magnetopause.

  15. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitouche, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Bouarab, S., E-mail: bouarab_said@mail.ummto.d [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Tazibt, S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Demangeat, C. [Institut de Physique, 3 rue de l' Universite 67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-03

    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}/Cr{sub 36}(001) and X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}(001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe{sub 3}/X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}/X{sub 1}(001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  16. The nematicity induced d-symmetry charge density wave in electron-doped iron-pnictide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chung-Pin; Chen, Hong-Yi; Ting, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    The interplay among the nematicity, the stripe spin-density-wave (SDW) order and superconductivity in iron-pnictides is studied in a self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. Our calculations have shown that the nematic-order breaks the degeneracy of dxz and dyz orbitals and causes the elliptic Fermi surface near the Γ point in the normal state. In addition, the appearance of the orthorhombic magnetic fluctuations generates two uneven pairs of peaks at ( ± π, 0) and (0, ± π) in its Fourier transformation. All these are comparing favorably with experimental measurements. In the nematic phase, our results indicate that the charge density and its spatial image in the local density of states exhibit a dx2 -y2-like symmetry. Finally, the complete phase diagram is obtained and the nematic phase is found to be in a narrow region close to the SDW transition in the electron-doped iron-pnictide superconductors.

  17. Computation of local exchange coefficients in strongly interacting one-dimensional few-body systems: local density approximation and exact results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional multi-component Fermi or Bose systems with strong zero-range interactions can be described in terms of local exchange coefficients and mapping the problem into a spin model is thus possible. For arbitrary external confining potentials the local exchanges are given by highly non...... to the computational complexity of the high-dimensional integrals involved. An approach using the local density approximation would therefore be a most welcome approximation due to its simplicity. Here we assess the accuracy of the local density approximation by going beyond the simple harmonic oscillator that has...... been the focus of previous studies and consider some double-wells of current experimental interest. We find that the local density approximation works quite well as long as the potentials resemble harmonic wells but break down for larger barriers. In order to explore the consequences of applying...

  18. Realizing the Strongly Correlated d-Wave Mott-Insulator State in a Fermionic Cold-Atom Optical Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Michael R.; Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Sarma, S. Das

    2008-01-01

    We show that a new state of matter, the d-wave Mott-insulator state (d-Mott state) (introduced recently by [H. Yao, W. F. Tsai, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. B 76, 161104 (2007)]), which is characterized by a nonzero expectation value of a local plaquette operator embedded in an insulating state, can be engineered using ultracold atomic fermions in two-dimensional double-well optical lattices. We characterize and analyze the parameter regime where the d-Mott state is stable. We predict the testable signatures of the state in the time-of-flight measurements

  19. Experimental characterization of a strongly coupled solid density plasma generated in a short-pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime

  20. Parametrized tests of the strong-field dynamics of general relativity using gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary black holes: Fast likelihood calculations and sensitivity of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidam, Jeroen; Tsang, Ka Wa; Goldstein, Janna; Agathos, Michalis; Ghosh, Archisman; Haster, Carl-Johan; Raymond, Vivien; Samajdar, Anuradha; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Blackburn, Kent; Del Pozzo, Walter; Field, Scott E.; Li, Tjonnie; Pürrer, Michael; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to the recent discoveries of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole mergers by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo, the genuinely strong-field dynamics of spacetime can now be probed, allowing for stringent tests of general relativity (GR). One set of tests consists of allowing for parametrized deformations away from GR in the template waveform models and then constraining the size of the deviations, as was done for the detected signals in previous work. In this paper, we construct reduced-order quadratures so as to speed up likelihood calculations for parameter estimation on future events. Next, we explicitly demonstrate the robustness of the parametrized tests by showing that they will correctly indicate consistency with GR if the theory is valid. We also check to what extent deviations from GR can be constrained as information from an increasing number of detections is combined. Finally, we evaluate the sensitivity of the method to possible violations of GR.

  1. Seasonal, longitude, local time, and altitude distributions of electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density components of depletions, structures, and waves observed on the C/NOFS satellite in the low latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides simultaneous measurements of electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with plasma depletions. C/NOFS was launched into a 401 km by 857 km orbit with a 13 degree inclination in April, 2008 and gathered near continuous data until November, 2015. We present C/NOFS observations that address a variety of questions regarding the nature of equatorial plasma depletions, irregularities, and Alfven waves in the low latitude ionosphere. The presentation includes distributions of the different components with respect to longitude, latitude, local time, altitude, and season. Among the predominant findings are: (1) the strong tendency for plasma depletions to occur post-midnight in the April-September time frame where they were also observed predominantly in the African sector; (2) the prevalence of nighttime electric field structures to exist without corresponding density depletions or irregularities, particularly during solar minimum conditions; and (3) AC magnetic field observations which we interpret as signatures of small-scale filamentary currents and/or Alfven waves which were most pronounced in the South American sector after sunset. We focus in particular on the magnetic signatures which were strongest towards the end of the mission where solar activity (and hence the ambient plasma density) was moderately elevated and the satellite sampling altitudes were lowest. The AC magnetic field signatures appear in two categories: wave-like strutures, which do not appear to be organized about the magnetic equator and may represent Alfven waves propagating between hemispheres along closed magnetic field lines, and magnetic structures associated with plasma density depletions which, when combined with simultaneous electric field structures, reveal Poynting Flux energy flow in the poleward direction. The

  2. Determination of Fluid Density and Viscosity by Analyzing Flexural Wave Propagations on the Vibrating Micro-Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokman Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of fluid density and viscosity using most cantilever-based sensors is based on changes in resonant frequency and peak width. Here, we present a wave propagation analysis using piezoelectrically excited micro-cantilevers under distributed fluid loading. The standing wave shapes of microscale-thickness cantilevers partially immersed in liquids (water, 25% glycerol, and acetone, and nanoscale-thickness microfabricated cantilevers fully immersed in gases (air at three different pressures, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen were investigated to identify the effects of fluid-structure interactions to thus determine the fluid properties. This measurement method was validated by comparing with the known fluid properties, which agreed well with the measurements. The relative differences for the liquids were less than 4.8% for the densities and 3.1% for the viscosities, and those for the gases were less than 6.7% for the densities and 7.3% for the viscosities, showing better agreements in liquids than in gases.

  3. Charge-density waves studied at the surface and at the atomic scale in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Christophe; Wang, Zhao-Zhong; Monceau, Pierre; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2012-01-01

    We have studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the two charge-density wave (CDW) transitions in NbSe 3 on in situ cleaved (b,c) plane. We could identify the three types of chains existing inside a single unit cell as well as characterize how both CDWs are distributed on these elementary chains. We also followed between 5 and 140 K the temperature dependence of first-order CDW satellite spots, obtained from the Fourier transform of the STM images, to extract the surface critical temperatures (T s ). Whereas the high-temperature CDW appears to have comparable critical temperature to the bulk one, the low-T CDW transition occurs at T 2s =70–75K, more than 15 K above the bulk T 2b =59K while at exactly the same wave number. A reasonable mechanism for such an unusually high surface enhancement is a softening of transverse phonon modes involved in the CDW formation.

  4. Relationships between seismic wave-Speed, density, and electrical conductivity beneath Australia from seismology, mineralogy, and laboratory-based conductivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Koch, S.; Shankland, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present maps of the three-dimensional density (ρ), electrical conductivity (σ), and shear-wave speed (VS) structure of the mantle beneath Australia and surrounding ocean in the depth range of 100–800 km. These maps derived from stochastic inversion of seismic surface-wave dispersion data, ther...

  5. Structured mass density slab as a waveguide of fast magnetoacoustic waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, P.; Karlický, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2015), s. 51-58 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /13./. Hvar, 22.09.2014-26.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamics * flares * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. Novel charge density wave transition in crystals of R5Ir4Si10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rate state below 55 K. The positions of these super lattice reflections can be described by modulation wave vectors q1 =(0, 0, 1/4δ), q2 =(0, 0, 1/4+δ) and q3 ..... [18] H T Stokes and D M Hatch, Isotropy subgroups of the 230 crystallographic space groups (World. Scientific, Singapore, 1988). [19] Very recently dissimilarities ...

  7. Generalized Møller-Plesset Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory Applied to an Open-Shell Antisymmetric Product of Strongly Orthogonal Geminals Reference Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Moto; Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-11-13

    The antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG) method is a wave function theory that can effectively treat the static electron correlation. Recently, we proposed the open-shell APSG method using one-electron orbitals for open-shell parts. In this paper, we have extended the perturbation correction to the open-shell APSG calculations through Møller-Plesset-type multiconfiguration perturbation theory (MP-MCPT). Numerical applications demonstrate that the present open-shell MP-MCPT can reasonably reproduce the dissociation energies or equilibrium distances for open-shell systems.

  8. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  9. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L; Work, Thierry M; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-18

    Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  10. Optical Properties of the Charge-Density-Wave Polychalcogenide Compounds R2Te5 (R=Nd, Sm and Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuner, F.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the rare-earth polychalcogenide R{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (R = Nd, Sm and Gd) charge-density-wave (CDW) compounds by optical methods. From the absorption spectrum we extract the excitation energy of the CDW gap and estimate the fraction of the Fermi surface which is gapped by the formation of the CDW condensate. In analogy to previous findings on the related RTe{sub n} (n = 2 and 3) families, we establish the progressive closing of the CDW gap and the moderate enhancement of the metallic component upon chemically compressing the lattice.

  11. Separation of density and viscosity influence on liquid-loaded surface acoustic wave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.; Hahn, D.; Büttgenbach, S.

    1999-05-01

    Love-mode sensors are reported for separate measurement of liquid density and viscosity. They combine the general merits of Love-mode devices, e.g., ease of sensitivity adjustment and robustness, with a highly effective procedure of separate determination of liquid density and viscosity. A model is proposed to describe the frequency response of the devices to liquid loading. Moreover, design rules are given for further optimization and sensitivity enhancement.

  12. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  13. A Comprehensive Study of Fracture Patterns and Densities in The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter E. Malin; Eylon Shalev; Min Lou; Silas M. Simiyu; Anastasia Stroujkova; Windy McCausland

    2004-02-24

    In this project we developed a method for using seismic S-wave data to map the patterns and densities of sub-surface fractures in the NW Geysers Geothermal Field/ (1) This project adds to both the general methods needed to characterize the geothermal production fractures that supply steam for power generation and to the specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the targeting of high production geothermal wells. (3) The results of the project having been transferred to both US based and international geothermal research and exploration agencies and concerns by several published papers and meeting presentations, and through the distribution of the data handling and other software codes we developed.

  14. A temperature dependent tunneling study of the spin density wave gap in EuFe2As2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Anupam; Hossain, Z; Gupta, Anjan K

    2013-09-18

    We report temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of EuFe2As2 in the 15-292 K temperature range. The in situ cleaved crystals show atomic terraces with homogeneous tunnel spectra that correlate well with the spin density wave (SDW) transition at a temperature, TSDW ≈ 186 K. Above TSDW the local tunnel spectra show a small depression in the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy (EF). The gap becomes more pronounced upon entering the SDW state with a gap value ∼90 meV at 15 K. However, the zero bias conductance remains finite down to 15 K indicating a finite DOS at the EF in the SDW phase. Furthermore, no noticeable change is observed in the DOS at the antiferromagnetic ordering transition of Eu(2+) moments at 19 K.

  15. Strong host-feeding preferences of the vector Triatoma infestans modified by vector density: implications for the epidemiology of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E Gürtler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect the host-feeding preferences of triatomine bugs is crucial for estimating transmission risks and predicting the effects of control tactics targeting domestic animals. We tested whether Triatoma infestans bugs prefer to feed on dogs vs. chickens and on dogs vs. cats and whether vector density modified host choices and other vital rates under natural conditions.Two host choice experiments were conducted in small caged huts with two rooms between which bugs could move freely. Matched pairs of dog-chicken (six and dog-cat (three were assigned randomly to two levels of vector abundance and exposed to starved bugs during three nights. Bloodmeals from 1,160 bugs were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Conditional logistic regression showed that dogs were highly preferred over chickens or cats and that vector density modified host-feeding choices. The relative risk of a bug being blood-engorged increased significantly when it fed only on dog rather than chicken or cat. Bugs achieved higher post-exposure weight at higher vector densities and successive occasions, more so if they fed on a dog rather than on a cat.Our findings strongly refute the hypothesis that T. infestans prefers to blood-feed on chickens rather than dogs. An increase in dog or cat availability or accessibility will increase the rate of bug feeding on them and exert strong non-linear effects on R(0. When combined with between-dog heterogeneities in exposure, infection, and infectiousness, the strong bug preference for dogs can be exploited to target dogs in general, and even the specific individuals that account for most of the risk, with topical lotions or insecticide-impregnated collars to turn them into baited lethal traps or use them as transmission or infestation sentinels based on their immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi or bug salivary antigens.

  16. Contribution to the electron density diagnostics of a plasma by means of three-wave interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Says, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma use can be considered as an acceleration technique but a high precision diagnostic is necessary. This can be provided by refractive index determination. A three wave interferometer gives an accuracy in the range of a few nanometers in optical path measurements. Such an apparatus has been designed, built and tested on a discharge plasma, previously diagnosed by conventional methods. Results are in good agreement and the expected accuracy is achieved [fr

  17. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  18. Implementation of density functional embedding theory within the projector-augmented-wave method and applications to semiconductor defect states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new implementation of the density functional embedding theory (DFET) in the VASP code, using the projector-augmented-wave (PAW) formalism. Newly developed algorithms allow us to efficiently perform optimized effective potential optimizations within PAW. The new algorithm generates robust and physically correct embedding potentials, as we verified using several test systems including a covalently bound molecule, a metal surface, and bulk semiconductors. We show that with the resulting embedding potential, embedded cluster models can reproduce the electronic structure of point defects in bulk semiconductors, thereby demonstrating the validity of DFET in semiconductors for the first time. Compared to our previous version, the new implementation of DFET within VASP affords use of all features of VASP (e.g., a systematic PAW library, a wide selection of functionals, a more flexible choice of U correction formalisms, and faster computational speed) with DFET. Furthermore, our results are fairly robust with respect to both plane-wave and Gaussian type orbital basis sets in the embedded cluster calculations. This suggests that the density functional embedding method is potentially an accurate and efficient way to study properties of isolated defects in semiconductors

  19. Two types of nonlinear wave equations for diffractive beams in bubbly liquids with nonuniform bubble number density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    This paper theoretically treats the weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted sound beams in nonuniform bubbly liquids. The spatial distribution of the number density of the bubbles, initially in a quiescent state, is assumed to be a slowly varying function of the spatial coordinates; the amplitude of variation is assumed to be small compared to the mean number density. A previous derivation method of nonlinear wave equations for plane progressive waves in uniform bubbly liquids [Kanagawa, Yano, Watanabe, and Fujikawa (2010). J. Fluid Sci. Technol. 5(3), 351-369] is extended to handle quasi-plane beams in weakly nonuniform bubbly liquids. The diffraction effect is incorporated by adding a relation that scales the circular sound source diameter to the wavelength into the original set of scaling relations composed of nondimensional physical parameters. A set of basic equations for bubbly flows is composed of the averaged equations of mass and momentum, the Keller equation for bubble wall, and supplementary equations. As a result, two types of evolution equations, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation including dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for high-frequency short-wavelength case, and a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation including dispersion and nonuniform effects for low-frequency long-wavelength case, are derived from the basic set.

  20. Enhanced charge density wave order in La2-xSrxCuO4 at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Wen, Jiajia; Jang, Hoyoung; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Satoshi; Song, Sanghoon; Chollet, Matthieu; Zhu, Diling; Fujita, Masaki; Rotundu, Costel R.; Sheckelton, John P.; Jiang, Mingde; Kao, Chi-Chang; Lee, Jun-Sik; Lee, Young S.

    There has been much recent interest in the charge density wave (CDW) order in the cuprate superconductors. An intriguing form of the density wave occurs in the La2CuO4-based family where both the charge and spin form ``stripes'' near 1/8 doping. Charge order has been reported in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) in zero magnetic field near 1/8 doping that was enhanced in moderate DC fields (up to 10 T). In this talk, I will discuss our recent experiment which combines a pulsed magnet with the x-rays from a free electron laser to characterize the CDW in LSCO with x =0.115 in fields up to 24 Tesla. In contrast to the YBCO family, which shows field-induced 3D CDW order, the field-enhanced CDW order in LSCO remains two-dimensional up to 24 T. Further results regarding the field-dependence and zero-field behavior of the CDW will be discussed. Our study provides important information on the interplay between CDW order and high-Tc superconductivity. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  1. Electronic structure of SnF{sub 3}: An example of valence skipper which forms charge density wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, I., E-mail: i.hase@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Yanagisawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Kawashima, K. [IMRA Material R& D Co., LTD., Kariya, Aichi 448-0032 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We calculated the electronic structure of SnF{sub 3} and BaBiO{sub 3} from first principles. • As for SnF{sub 3}, charge-density-wave (CDW) is found, which agrees with the experiment. • As for BaBiO{sub 3}, CDW is not found, contrary to the experiment. • We conclude that the CDW is hard in SnF{sub 3} and is soft in BaBiO{sub 3}. - Abstract: In the present study we calculated the electronic structure of the valence skipping compound SnF{sub 3} and BaBiO{sub 3} from first-principles. We confirmed that the charge-density-wave (CDW) is formed in SnF{sub 3}, and the Sn atoms in two crystallographic different sites take the valence Sn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+}. Structure optimization study reveals that this CDW is stable, though the atomic position is slightly different from the experimental data. This behavior is in contrast with the case of BaBiO{sub 3}, where the structure optimization leads to the uniform state, which means that two Bi sites are equivalent. The CDW state is hard in SnF{sub 3}, which means that the CDW gap is large enough and it is difficult to melt this CDW order.

  2. Superconductor to spin-density-wave transition in quasi-one-dimensional metals with repulsive anisotropic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism for superconductivity in a quasi-one-dimensional system with repulsive Ising-anisotropic interaction is studied. The Ising anisotropy opens the gap Δ s in the spin sector of the model. This gap allows the triplet superconductivity and the spin-density wave as the only broken symmetry phases. These phases are separated by the first order transition. The transport properties of the system are investigated in different parts of the phase diagram. The calculation of DC conductivity σ(T) in the high-temperature phase shows that the function σ(T) cannot be used as an indicator of a superconducting ground state: even if σ(T) is a decreasing function at high temperature, yet, the ground state may be insulating spin-density wave; the opposite is also true. The calculation of the spin dynamical structure factor S zz (q, ω) demonstrates that it is affected by the superconducting phase transition in a qualitative fashion: below T c the structure factor develops a gap with a coherent excitation inside this gap

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 (R= Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.

    2010-02-15

    We present a detailed ARPES investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven Charge Density Wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi Surface (FS) (up to 0.4eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k-space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple 2D tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure, by comparing our ARPES measurements with Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and, for the first time, of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k-space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(Ef), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  4. ARPES study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 ( R=Y , La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, R.

    2008-01-16

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of the Effects of Slow Wave Sleep Deprivation During the First 3 h of Sleep on Subsequent EEG Power Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge; Bloem, Gerda M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1987-01-01

    The relation between EEG power density during slow wave sleep (SWS) deprivation and power density during subsequent sleep was investigated. Nine young male adults slept in the laboratory for 3 consecutive nights. Spectral analysis of the EEG on the 2nd (baseline) night revealed an exponential

  6. Strain Engineering a 4a×√3aCharge Density Wave Phase in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide 1T-VSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duming; Ha, Jeonghoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Chan, Yang-Hao; Natterer, Fabian D; Myers, Alline F; Schumacher, Joshua D; Cullen, William G; Davydov, Albert V; Kuk, Young; Chou, M Y; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2017-07-01

    We report a rectangular charge density wave (CDW) phase in strained 1T-VSe 2 thin films synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy on c -sapphire substrates. The observed CDW structure exhibits an unconventional rectangular 4 a ×√3 a periodicity, as opposed to the previously reported hexagonal 4 a ×4 a structure in bulk crystals and exfoliated thin layered samples. Tunneling spectroscopy shows a strong modulation of the local density of states of the same 4 a ×√3 a CDW periodicity and an energy gap of 2 Δ CDW = (9.1 ± 0.1) meV. The CDW energy gap evolves into a full gap at temperatures below 500 mK, indicating a transition to an insulating phase at ultra-low temperatures. First-principles calculations confirm the stability of both 4 a ×4 a and 4 a ×√3 a structures arising from soft modes in the phonon dispersion. The unconventional structure becomes preferred in the presence of strain, in agreement with experimental findings.

  7. Strain engineering a 4 a ×√ 3 a charge-density-wave phase in transition-metal dichalcogenide 1 T -VS e2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duming; Ha, Jeonghoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Chan, Yang-Hao; Natterer, Fabian D.; Myers, Alline F.; Schumacher, Joshua D.; Cullen, William G.; Davydov, Albert V.; Kuk, Young; Chou, M. Y.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    2017-07-01

    We report a rectangular charge density wave (CDW) phase in strained 1 T -VS e2 thin films synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy on c -sapphire substrates. The observed CDW structure exhibits an unconventional rectangular 4 a ×√ 3 a periodicity, as opposed to the previously reported hexagonal 4 a ×4 a structure in bulk crystals and exfoliated thin-layered samples. Tunneling spectroscopy shows a strong modulation of the local density of states of the same 4 a ×√ 3 a CDW periodicity and an energy gap of 2 ΔCDW=(9.1 ±0.1 ) meV . The CDW energy gap evolves into a full gap at temperatures below 500 mK, indicating a transition to an insulating phase at ultra-low temperatures. First-principles calculations confirm the stability of both 4 a ×4 a and 4 a ×√ 3 a structures arising from soft modes in the phonon dispersion. The unconventional structure becomes preferred in the presence of strain, in agreement with experimental findings.

  8. Electroencephalogram Power Density and Slow Wave Sleep as a Function of Prior Waking and Circadian Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan; Brunner, Daniel P.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Borbély, Alexander A.

    1990-01-01

    Human sleep electroencephalograms, recorded in four experiments, were subjected to spectral analysis. Waking prior to sleep varied from 12 to 36 h and sleep was initiated at different circadian phases. Power density of delta and theta frequencies in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM)

  9. Quark matter and quark stars in strong magnetic fields at finite temperature within the confined-isospin-density-dependent mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Hong-Yang; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of strange quark matter (SQM) and quark stars (QSs) in strong magnetic fields within the extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass (CIDDM) model including the temperature dependence of the equivalent mass for quarks. The quark symmetry energy, quark symmetry free energy, and the equation of state (EOS) of SQM in constant magnetic fields at finite temperature are investigated, and it is found that including the temperature dependence in CIDDM model and considering strong magnetic fields can both significantly influence the properties of the SQM and the maximum mass of quark stars. Using the density-dependent magnetic field and assuming two extreme cases for the magnetic field orientation in QSs (the radial orientation in which the local magnetic fields are along the radial direction and the transverse orientation in which the local magnetic fields are randomly oriented but perpendicular to the radial orientation), we analyze the mass-radius relations for different stages of the protoquark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution. Our results indicate that the maximum mass of magnetized PQSs may depend on not only the strength distribution and the orientation of the magnetic fields inside the PQSs, but also the heating process and the cooling process in the star evolution.

  10. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Barnat, E. V.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 10 9  cm s −1 , depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  11. [Effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain' s protein component and quality of strong and medium gluten winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cui-ping; Zhang, Yong-qing; Zhang, Ding-yi; Dang, Jian-you

    2008-08-01

    In a field experiment with split-split plot design, the effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain's protein component and quality of strong gluten wheat cultivar Linyou 145 and medium gluten wheat cultivar Linyou 2018 were studied. The results showed that proper sowing date brought the highest protein content and yield in wheat grain. With sowing date postponed, the grain's gliadin and glutenin contents of Linyou 145 increased obviously, while those of Linyou 2018 changed little. The grain quality of Linyou 145 was more affected by sowing date, compared with that of Linyou 2018. When sowing at proper date, the grain's protein and glutenin contents had significant correlations with its wet gluten content, sedimentation value, dough stability time, softness, and evaluation value; while when the sowing date postponed, there existed a positive correlation between the contents of gliadin and wet gluten. The change of the proportions of different protein components in wheat grain induced by the variation of sowing date could be the main reason of the improvement in wheat grain quality. Within the test range (2.25 million - 3.75 million plants x hm(-2)) of planting density, the grain's protein content was less affected, but the grain quality of Linyou 145 was affected to a certain extent. Low planting density (2.25 million plants x hm(-2)) brought the best grain quality of Linyou 2018.

  12. Density of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Adults and Larvae at Three Stages of the Invasion Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Stephen J; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M

    2018-02-08

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave. Condition of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees were recorded in fixed radius plots and linear transects in each site. Ash mortality was highest in Core sites in the southeast, moderate in Crest sites in central southern Michigan, and low in Cusp sites in the southwest. Traps and trap trees in Crest sites accounted for 75 and 60% of all EAB beetles captured in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Populations of EAB were present in all Core sites and traps in these sites captured 13% of all beetles each year. Beetle captures and larval densities at Cusp sites roughly doubled between 2010 and 2011, reflecting the increasing EAB populations. Sticky bands on girdled trees captured the highest density of EAB beetles per m2 of area, while baited double-decker traps had the highest detection rates and captured the most beetles. Larval densities were higher on girdled ash than on similar ungirdled trees and small planted trees. Woodpecker predation and a native larval parasitoid were present in all three invasion regions but had minor effects on ash survival and EAB densities. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Novel charge density wave transition in crystals of R5Ir4Si10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The well-localized Er3 moments are antiferromagnetically ordered below 2.8 K which results in the coexistence of strongly coupled CDW with local moment antiferromagnetism in Er5Ir4Si10. Unlike conventional CDW systems, extremely sharp transition (width ∼ 1.5 K) in all bulk properties along with huge heat capacity ...

  14. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...

  15. Subspace accelerated inexact Newton method for large scale wave functions calculations in Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattebert, J

    2008-07-29

    We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density Functional Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.

  16. Irradiation of layered metallic dichalcogenides: disorder in the charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutka, Hannu.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental study on electron-irradiated metallic layer compounds (VSe 2 , NbSe 2 , TaS 2 , TaSe 2 ). The metal atoms displaced by irradiation remain in the form of stable defects up to 300 K; their concentration (10 - 5 ... 10 - 2 )is known from measurements of displacement threshold energy and magnetic susceptibility. The effect of these defects on the charge densite wave (CDW) phases and on the electronic and superconducting properties forms the major part of this study. In 1T-TaS 2 , a microstructure of CDW domains pinned to defects is observed by electron microscopy. The effects of this kind of disorder are also manifest in the thermodynamic properties of the CDW and in the electronic transport, as well as in the superconducting properties [fr

  17. Irreversible mean-field model of the critical behavior of charge-density waves below the threshold for sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    1993-05-01

    A mean-field (MF) model of the critical behavior of charge-density waves below the threshold for sliding is proposed, which replaces the combined effect of the pinning force and of the forces exerted by the neighbors on a given particle n by an effective force threshold Xn. It allows one to rationalize the numerical results of Middleton and Fisher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 (1991) 92] on the divergence of the polarization and of the largest correlation length and of Pla and Nori [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 (1991) 919] on the distribution D( d) of sliding bursts of size d, measured in narrow intervals of driving fields E at a finite distance below the threshold Ec.

  18. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  19. Calculation of local excitations in large systems by embedding wave-function theory in density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Jacob, Christoph R; Visscher, Lucas

    2008-09-21

    We present a simple and efficient embedding scheme for the wave-function based calculation of the energies of local excitations in large systems. By introducing an embedding potential obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) it is possible to describe the effect of an environment on local excitations of an embedded system in wave-function theory (WFT) calculations of the excitation energies. We outline the implementation of such a WFT-in-DFT embedding procedure employing the ADF, Dalton and DIRAC codes, where the embedded subsystem is treated with coupled cluster methods. We then evaluate this procedure in the calculation of the solvatochromic shift of acetone in water and of the f-f spectrum of NpO22+ embedded in a Cs2UO2Cl4 crystal and find that our scheme does effectively incorporate the environment effect in both cases. A particularly interesting finding is that with our embedding scheme we can model the equatorial Cl- ligands in NpO2Cl42- quite accurately, compared to a fully wavefunction-based calculation, and this opens up the possibility of modeling the interaction of different ligands to actinyl species with relatively high accuracy but at a much reduced computational cost.

  20. Influence of the pulse wave in the stratification of high density particles in a JIG device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Ospina-Alarcón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of particle motion subjected to four different pulsation profiles on a pulsated fluidized bed jig concentrator was carried out. The profiles used in the simulation were – sinusoidal, triangle, sawtooth-backward and sawtooth-forward. Two-dimensional local velocities of the water flow field were calculated from the continuity and momentum equations by CFD techniques implementing SIMPLE algorithm. The particle motion is modeled by a forces balance applying the Newton’s second law of motion. Liquid-solid interactions forces are calculated by the mathematical Euler-Lagrangian model extended to a particle suspension having a wide size and density distribution. To analyze the particle motion in jig, we derived a trajectory equation for the response time of particle that include virtual mass, gravity, pressure gradient, drag and Basset forces. The study demonstrates significant differences in the particle trajectories for various pulsation profiles applied to the boundary condition at the inlet to the jig chamber.

  1. Connections between variation principles at the interface of wave-function and density-functional theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Tom J P; Furness, James W; Ryley, Matthew S; Zemen, Jan; Helgaker, Trygve; Teale, Andrew M

    2017-10-07

    A recently proposed variation principle [N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 83, 040502(R) (2011)] for the determination of Kohn-Sham effective potentials is examined and extended to arbitrary electron-interaction strengths and to mixed states. Comparisons are drawn with Lieb's convex-conjugate functional, which allows for the determination of a potential associated with a given electron density by maximization, yielding the Kohn-Sham potential for a non-interacting system. The mathematical structure of the two functionals is shown to be intrinsically related; the variation principle put forward by Gidopoulos may be expressed in terms of the Lieb functional. The equivalence between the information obtained from the two approaches is illustrated numerically by their implementation in a common framework.

  2. Waveguide propagation of electromagnetic waves in high-density ducts aligned along the geomagnetic field in the near-equatorial magnetospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Waveguide propagation of electromagnetic waves in axial symmetric ducts with increased plasma density aligned along the constant external magnetic field is considered for frequencies, being higher than low-hybrid, in the WKB approximation. In this case tunnel effects leading to captured wave damping are taken into account. Conditions for waveguide propagation and the logarithmic decrement of damping are found. Field construction is performed using the systems of axially symmetric WKB solutions of the Maxwell equations

  3. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  4. Ultrafast broadband frequency modulation of a continuous wave reflectometry system to measure density profiles on ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.; Manso, M.E.; Cupido, L.; Albrecht, M.; Serra, F.; Varela, P.; Santos, J.; Vergamota, S.; Eusebio, F.; Fernandes, J.; Grossmann, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Kurzan, B.; Loureiro, C.; Meneses, L.; Nunes, I.; Silva, F.; Suttrop, W. [Associacao EURATOM/IST-Centro de Fusao Nuclear/Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1996-12-01

    A reflectometry system has been developed for ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma profile from the scrape-off layer until the bulk plasma, simultaneously at the high and low field sides. Unique features of the system are the ultrafast broadband frequency modulation of a continuous wave using solid state stable hyper abrupt tuned oscillators (down to 10 {mu}s), high and low field side channels and fully remote control operation, via optical fiber links. Due to the special design of the transmission line, with decoupled in going and out going lines and one-antenna configuration, the system is optimized for reception and spurious reflections are eliminated. The ultrafast operation guarantees that the effect of plasma turbulence is greatly reduced. Both features determine the high performance of the diagnostic. A dedicated data acquisition system handles the large amounts of data generated by the broadband operation. Recent developments include the operation of new channels and an automatic and accurate frequency calibration circuit. Also, advanced digital signal processing techniques were applied to obtain density profiles with high spatial and temporal (20 {mu}s) resolutions under turbulent plasma regions, e.g., the scrape-off layer. Experimental results are presented showing the great sensitivity of the diagnostic to plasma radial movements and its tolerance to vertical movements of the plasma. Density profiles measured in ELMy regimes illustrate the capabilities of the diagnostic to detect fast profile changes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Efficiency of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter with High-Density Beam for Applications to Aneutronic Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Alfonso

    2012-03-01

    Due to the appeal of aneutronic fusion, a variety of reactor concepts have been proposed in past. In most cases, to achieve a positive net power balance these reactor concepts rely on a significant re-circulation of the energy produced to maintain a non-equilibrium configuration (unlike ignited plasmas). The availability of a direct conversion process with high efficiency is then critical for determining the feasibility of a reactor (particularly when the ``almost true aneutronic'' reaction like p-^11B is considered). A Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) is considered for the energy conversion of a high-density beam formed by the fusion products (MeV-range α-particles). As in [2], a PIC code is utilized for a realistic beam model. The study is focused on the possibility of obtaining high-efficiency coupling between a modulated high-density ``bunched'' beam, accounting also for a neutralizing electron environment, and the TWDEC electrode collector structure.[4pt] [1] Momota et al. (1999) Fus. Tech., 35, 60[0pt] [2] Y.Yasaka et al. (2009), Nucl. Fus., 49, 075009

  6. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehryar, E-mail: sherkhan@fysik.su.se; Odelius, Michael, E-mail: odelius@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kruk, Danuta [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 54, Olsztyn PL-10710 (Poland); Kowalewski, Jozef [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  7. Application of the Mössbauer Spectroscopy to Study Harmonically Modulated Electronic Structures: Case Study of Charge- and Spin-Density Waves in Cr and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Mieczyslaw Dubiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the Mössbauer spectroscopy in the study of harmonically modulated electronic structures i.e. spin-density waves (SDWs and charge-density waves (CDWs is presented and discussed. First, the effect of various parameters pertinent to the SDWs and CDWs is outlined on simulated 119Sn spectra and distributions of the hyperfine field and the isomer shift. Next, various examples of the 119Sn spectra measured on single-crystals and polycrystalline samples of Cr and Cr-V are reviewed.

  8. Valley current characterization of high current density resonant tunnelling diodes for terahertz-wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K. J. P.; Stevens, B. J.; Baba, R.; Wada, O.; Mukai, T.; Hogg, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report valley current characterisation of high current density InGaAs/AlAs/InP resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for THz emission, with a view to investigate the origin of the valley current and optimize device performance. By applying a dual-pass fabrication technique, we are able to measure the RTD I-V characteristic for different perimeter/area ratios, which uniquely allows us to investigate the contribution of leakage current to the valley current and its effect on the PVCR from a single device. Temperature dependent (20 - 300 K) characteristics for a device are critically analysed and the effect of temperature on the maximum extractable power (PMAX) and the negative differential conductance (NDC) of the device is investigated. By performing theoretical modelling, we are able to explore the effect of typical variations in structural composition during the growth process on the tunnelling properties of the device, and hence the device performance.

  9. The First in situ Observation of Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at High-Latitude Magnetopause during Strongly Dawnward Interplanetary Magnetic Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Wang, Y.; Vinas, A. F.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first in situ observation of high-latitude magnetopause (near the northern duskward cusp) Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHW) by Cluster on January 12, 2003, under strongly dawnward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The fluctuations unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) are found to propagate mostly tailward, i.e., along the direction almost 90 deg. to both the magnetosheath and geomagnetic fields, which lowers the threshold of the KHI. The magnetic configuration across the boundary layer near the northern duskward cusp region during dawnward IMF is similar to that in the low-latitude boundary layer under northward IMF, in that (1) both magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields across the local boundary layer constitute the lowest magnetic shear and (2) the tailward propagation of the KHW is perpendicular to both fields. Approximately 3-hour-long periods of the KHW during dawnward IMF are followed by the rapid expansion of the dayside magnetosphere associated with the passage of an IMF discontinuity that characterizes an abrupt change in IMF cone angle, Phi = acos (B(sub x) / absolute value of Beta), from approx. 90 to approx. 10. Cluster, which was on its outbound trajectory, continued observing the boundary waves at the northern evening-side magnetopause during sunward IMF conditions following the passage of the IMF discontinuity. By comparing the signatures of boundary fluctuations before and after the IMF discontinuity, we report that the frequencies of the most unstable KH modes increased after the discontinuity passed. This result demonstrates that differences in IMF orientations (especially in f) are associated with the properties of KHW at the high-latitude magnetopause due to variations in thickness of the boundary layer, and/or width of the KH-unstable band on the surface of the dayside magnetopause.

  10. Hall voltage drives pulsing counter-currents of the sliding charge density wave and of quantized normal carriers at self-filled Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Andrey P.; Sinchenko, Aleksander A.; Monceau, Pierre; Brazovskii, Serguei; Latyshev, Yuri I.

    2017-11-01

    Remnant pockets of carriers left over after formation of a charge density wave (CDW) were brought, by virtue of transverse electric and magnetic fields, to a current-carrying state at quantized Landau Levels. The generated Hall voltage polarizes and puts to sliding the flexible CDW background. The screening from the CDW allows for a so strong redistribution of normal electrons density under the action of the Lorentz force alone, that an integer filling of the lowest Landau level might be reached at one edge at the expense of the full depletion at another edge of the Hall bar. With the Hall field exceeding the sliding threshold, the regime of exactly compensated collective and normal counter-currents develops in the open-circuit direction across the bar. The annihilation of the two currents proceeds via a regular sequence of phase slips which are the space-time vortices of the CDW phase around the enforced amplitude nodes. The resulting spontaneous generation of coherent high ( GHz) frequency signals was detected by observations of multiple Shapiro steps. This picture results from studies of micron-sized Hall bars in crystals of NbSe3 prepared by means of focused ion beams. The interpretation is confirmed and illustrated by a numerical solution of the derived equations. The depinning pulse propagates from edges to the bulk and the sliding sets in, accompanied by the generation of periodic phase slips near the Hall bar edge where the CDW phase is advanced in steps of 2π at expense of the CDW amplitude passing through zero.

  11. Instability of spiral and scroll waves in the presence of a gradient in the fibroblast density: the effects of fibroblast-myocyte coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimik, Soling; Pandit, Rahul

    2016-12-01

    Fibroblast-myocyte coupling can modulate electrical-wave dynamics in cardiac tissue. In diseased hearts, the distribution of fibroblasts is heterogeneous, so there can be gradients in the fibroblast density (henceforth we call this GFD) especially from highly injured regions, like infarcted or ischemic zones, to less-wounded regions of the tissue. Fibrotic hearts are known to be prone to arrhythmias, so it is important to understand the effects of GFD in the formation and sustenance of arrhythmic re-entrant waves, like spiral or scroll waves. Therefore, we investigate the effects of GFD on the stability of spiral and scroll waves of electrical activation in a state-of-the-art mathematical model for cardiac tissue in which we also include fibroblasts. By introducing GFD in controlled ways, we show that spiral and scroll waves can be unstable in the presence of GFDs because of regions with varying spiral- or scroll-wave frequency ω, induced by the GFD. We examine the effects of the resting membrane potential of the fibroblast and the number of fibroblasts attached to the myocytes on the stability of these waves. Finally, we show that the presence of GFDs can lead to the formation of spiral waves at high-frequency pacing.

  12. High-density lipoprotein levels are strongly associated with the recovery rate of insulin sensitivity during the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a study by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Martins, Naiara V; Moura, Filipe A; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osorio L R; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest that in individuals under stable conditions, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may improve IS. To date, the role of HDL in the modulation of IS in acute metabolic stress conditions such as MI remains unknown. To explore the association between plasma HDL-C and the change in IS during the acute phase of MI. Consecutive nondiabetic patients with ST-segment elevation MI (n = 22) underwent direct measurement of IS through the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp on the first morning and on the fifth day after onset of MI. Patients were grouped according to HDL-C levels at admission above and below the median value (35 mg/dL). At admission, there was no significant difference in baseline IS index, clinical, anthropometric, or treatment characteristics between low and high HDL groups. Between admission and fifth day, there was a decrease of 8% in IS index in the low HDL group and an 11% increase in the high HDL group (P = .001 for intragroup and P = .012 for intergroup difference). This difference remained significant after we controlled for the sex, age, waist circumference, triglycerides, baseline IS index, and statin dose during hospitalization. This is the first study to provide evidence that plasma levels of HDL-C are strongly associated with the recovery rate of IS during the acute phase of MI. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Constraining Nonperturbative Strong-Field Effects in Scalar-Tensor Gravity by Combining Pulsar Timing and Laser-Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Shao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here, we combine these tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse (DEF, which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs. First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOSs for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Since the binary-pulsar bounds depend on the NS mass and the EOS, we find that current pulsar-timing observations leave scalarization windows, i.e., regions of parameter space where scalarization can still be prominent. Then, we investigate if these scalarization windows could be closed and if pulsar-timing constraints could be improved by laser-interferometer GW detectors, when spontaneous (or dynamical scalarization sets in during the early (or late stages of a binary NS (BNS evolution. For the early inspiral of a BNS carrying constant scalar charge, we employ a Fisher-matrix analysis to show that Advanced LIGO can improve pulsar-timing constraints for some EOSs, and next-generation detectors, such as the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope, will be able to improve those bounds for all eleven EOSs. Using the late inspiral of a BNS, we estimate that for some of the EOSs under consideration, the onset of dynamical scalarization can happen early enough to improve the constraints on the DEF parameters obtained by combining the five binary pulsars. Thus, in the near future, the complementarity of pulsar timing and direct observations of GWs on the ground will be extremely valuable in probing gravity theories in the strong-field regime.

  14. On the Probability Density Function of the Crest to Trough Heights of Waves and on the Physics of Extreme Waves Including Results from Hurricane Camille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    bridge the gap between nonlinear periodic waves and their properties and the random nonlinear wave found in nature. Mansard and Funke (1982) needed to...14 illustrate attempts by Mansard and Funke C 1982 ) to generate various wave forms at a measurement point 22.8 m from the generator. The left hand...5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 TIME (S) *FIGURE 14 Desired and Measured Transients obtained in a Wave Tank. Redrawn from Mansard and Funke

  15. Surface-enhanced charge-density-wave instability in underdoped Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuO6+delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, J. A.; Comin, R.; Levy, G.; Fournier, D.; Zhu, Z. -H.; Ludbrook, B.; Veenstra, C. N.; Nicolaou, A.; Wong, D.; Dosanjh, P.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Blake, G. R.; White, F.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Sutarto, R.; He, F.; Pereira, A. Frano; Lu, Y.; Keimer, B.; Sawatzky, G.; Petaccia, L.; Damascelli, A.

    Neutron and X-ray scattering experiments have provided mounting evidence for spin and charge ordering phenomena in underdoped cuprates. These range from early work on stripe correlations in Nd-LSCO to the latest discovery of charge-density-waves in YBa2Cu3O6 + x. Both phenomena are characterized by

  16. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forgan, E.M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6...

  17. Scaling of spin-density-wave effects in the quantum critical (Cr{sub 86}Ru{sub 14}){sub 1-x}V{sub x} alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, L; Alberts, H L; Prinsloo, A R E; Strydom, A M, E-mail: hermana@uj.ac.z [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 (South Africa)

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of experimental data on the electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic specific heat coefficient of a quantum critical (Cr{sub 86}Ru{sub 14}){sub 1-x}V{sub x} alloy system, is reported. The results give information on the role of spin-density-wave effects on the zero temperature relationships between these physical properties.

  18. Wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for simultaneous acquisition of several characteristic lines based on strongly and accurately shaped Ge crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Kozo; Nishikata, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Si and Ge are widely used as analyzing crystals for x-rays. Drastic and accurate shaping of Si or Ge gives significant advance in the x-ray field, although covalently bonded Si or Ge crystals have long been believed to be not deformable to various shapes. Recently, we developed a deformation technique for obtaining strongly and accurately shaped Si or Ge wafers of high crystal quality, and the use of the deformed wafer made it possible to produce fine-focused x-rays. In the present study, we prepared a cylindrical Ge wafer with a radius of curvature of 50 mm, and acquired fluorescent x-rays simultaneously from four elements by combining the cylindrical Ge wafer with a position-sensitive detector. The energy resolution of the x-ray fluorescence spectrum was as good as that obtained using a flat single crystal, and its gain was over 100. The demonstration of the simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution x-ray fluorescence spectra indicated various possibilities of x-ray spectrometry, such as one-shot x-ray spectroscopy and highly efficient wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometers

  19. Propagation of a strong x-ray pulse: Pulse compression, stimulated Raman scattering, amplified spontaneous emission, lasing without inversion, and four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuping; Wang Chuankui; Liu Jicai; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2010-01-01

    We study the compression of strong x-ray pulses from x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) propagating through the resonant medium of atomic argon. The simulations are based on the three-level model with the frequency of the incident x-ray pulse tuned in the 2p 3/2 -4s resonance. The pulse propagation is accompanied by the self-seeded stimulated resonant Raman scattering (SRRS). The SRRS starts from two channels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), 4s-2p 3/2 and 3s-2p 3/2 , which form the extensive ringing pattern and widen the power spectrum. The produced seed field triggers the Stokes ASE channel 3s-2p 3/2 . The population inversion is quenched for longer propagation distances where the ASE is followed by the lasing without inversion (LWI), which amplifies the Stokes component. Both ASE and LWI reshape the input pulse: The compressed front part of the pulse (up to 100 as) is followed by the long tail of the ringing and beating between the pump and Stokes frequencies. The pump pulse also generates weaker Stokes and anti-Stokes fields caused by four-wave mixing. These four spectral bands have fine structures caused by the dynamical Stark effect. A slowdown of the XFEL pulse up to 78% of the speed of light in vacuum is found because of a large nonlinear refractive index.

  20. Electronic coupling matrix elements from charge constrained density functional theory calculations using a plane wave basis set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Harald; Blumberger, Jochen

    2010-12-28

    We present a plane wave basis set implementation for the calculation of electronic coupling matrix elements of electron transfer reactions within the framework of constrained density functional theory (CDFT). Following the work of Wu and Van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164105 (2006)], the diabatic wavefunctions are approximated by the Kohn-Sham determinants obtained from CDFT calculations, and the coupling matrix element calculated by an efficient integration scheme. Our results for intermolecular electron transfer in small systems agree very well with high-level ab initio calculations based on generalized Mulliken-Hush theory, and with previous local basis set CDFT calculations. The effect of thermal fluctuations on the coupling matrix element is demonstrated for intramolecular electron transfer in the tetrathiafulvalene-diquinone (Q-TTF-Q(-)) anion. Sampling the electronic coupling along density functional based molecular dynamics trajectories, we find that thermal fluctuations, in particular the slow bending motion of the molecule, can lead to changes in the instantaneous electron transfer rate by more than an order of magnitude. The thermal average, ()(1/2)=6.7 mH, is significantly higher than the value obtained for the minimum energy structure, |H(ab)|=3.8 mH. While CDFT in combination with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals describes the intermolecular electron transfer in the studied systems well, exact exchange is required for Q-TTF-Q(-) in order to obtain coupling matrix elements in agreement with experiment (3.9 mH). The implementation presented opens up the possibility to compute electronic coupling matrix elements for extended systems where donor, acceptor, and the environment are treated at the quantum mechanical (QM) level.

  1. Improved constraint on the primordial gravitational-wave density using recent cosmological data and its impact on cosmic string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrot-Versillé, Sophie; Robinet, Florent; Leroy, Nicolas; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Arnaud, Nicolas; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Cavalier, Fabien; Christensen, Nelson; Couchot, François; Franco, Samuel; Hello, Patrice; Huet, Dominique; Kasprzack, Marie; Perdereau, Olivier; Spinelli, Marta; Tristram, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The production of a primordial stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background by processes occuring in the early Universe is expected in a broad range of models. Observing this background would open a unique window onto the Universe's evolutionary history. Probes like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used to set upper limits on the stochastic GW background energy density Ω GW for frequencies above 10 −15 Hz. We perform a profile likelihood analysis of the Planck CMB temperature anisotropies and gravitational lensing data combined with WMAP low-ℓ polarization, BAO, South Pole Telescope and Atacama Cosmology Telescope data. We find that Ω GW h 0 2 <3.8×10 −6 at a 95% confidence level for adiabatic initial conditions, which improves over the previous limit by a factor 2.3. Assuming that the primordial GW has been produced by a network of cosmic strings, we have derived exclusion limits in the cosmic string parameter space. If the size of the loops is determined by gravitational back-reaction, string tension values greater than ∼4 × 10 −9 are excluded for a reconnection probability of 10 −3 . (paper)

  2. Pressure dependence of the optical properties of the charge-density-wave compound LaTe2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavagnini, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Arcangeletti, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; /Rome U.; Perucchi, A.; /INFM, Trieste; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    We report the pressure dependence of the optical response of LaTe{sub 2}, which is deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. The reflectivity spectrum is collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 7 GPa. We extract the energy scale due to the single particle excitation across the CDW gap and the Drude weight. We establish that the gap decreases upon compressing the lattice, while the Drude weight increases. This signals a reduction in the quality of nesting upon applying pressure, therefore inducing a lesser impact of the CDW condensate on the electronic properties of LaTe{sub 2}. The consequent suppression of the CDW gap leads to a release of additional charge carriers, manifested by the shift of weight from the gap feature into the metallic component of the optical response. On the contrary, the power-law behavior, seen in the optical conductivity at energies above the gap excitation and indicating a weakly interacting limit within the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid scenario, seems to be only moderately dependent on pressure.

  3. Non-iterative determination of the stress-density relation from ramp wave data through a window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Evan; Fratanduono, Dayne; Swift, Damian

    2017-06-01

    In the canonical ramp compression experiment, a smoothly-increasing load is applied the surface of the sample, and the particle velocity history is measured at interfaces two or more different distances into the sample. The velocity histories are used to deduce a stress-density relation by correcting for perturbations caused by reflected release waves, usually via the iterative Lagrangian analysis technique of Rothman and Maw. We previously described a non-iterative (recursive) method of analysis, which was more stable and orders of magnitude faster than iteration, but was subject to the limitation that the free surface velocity had to be sampled at uniform intervals. We have now developed more general recursive algorithms suitable for analyzing ramp data through a finite-impedance window. Free surfaces can be treated seamlessly, and the need for uniform velocity sampling has been removed. These calculations require interpolation of partially-released states using the partially-constructed isentrope, making them slower than the previous free-surface scheme, but they are still much faster than iterative analysis. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Joint Inversion of Geoid Anomaly and Teleseismic P-Wave Delay Times: Modeling Density and Velocity Perturbations Beneath the Parana Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, C. A. M.; Ussami, N.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Parana Magmatic Province (PMP) is one of the largest continental igneous provinces (LIP) on Earth. It is well dated at 133 Ma preceding the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, but the causative geodynamic processes are still poorly understood. Although a low-velocity anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography in the northeast region of the PMP and interpreted as a fossil conduct of a mantle plume that is related to the flood basalt eruptions, geochemical data indicate that such magmatism is caused by the melting of a heterogeneous and enriched lithospheric mantle with no deep plume participation. Models of density perturbations in the upper mantle estimated from joint inversion of geoid anomalies and P-wave delay times will offer important constraints on mantle dynamics. A new generation of accurate global geopotential models derived from satellite-missions (e.g. GRACE, GOCE) allows us to estimate density distribution within the Earth from geoid inversion. In order to obtain the residual geoid anomaly related to the density structure of the mantle, we use the EGM2008 model removing estimated geoid perturbations owing to variations in crustal structure (i.e., topographical masses, Moho depth, thickness of sediments and basalts). Using a spherical-Earth approximation, the density model space is represented by a set of tesseroids and the velocity model is parameterized in nodes of a spherical grid where cubic B-splines are utilized as an interpolation function. To constrain the density inversion, we add more than 10,000 manually picked teleseismic P-wave delay times. During the inversion procedure, density and P-wave velocity are linked through the optimization of a constant linear factor correlating density and velocity perturbation. Such optimization will be performed using a probability density function (PDF) [Tarantola, 2005]. We will present the preliminary results of this joint inversion scheme and hypothesize on the geodynamic processes responsible for

  5. LUR models for particulate matters in the Taipei metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jui-Huna; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Traffic intensity, length of road, and proximity to roads are the most common traffic indicators in the land use regression (LUR) models for particulate matter in ESCAPE study areas in Europe. This study explored what local variables can improve the performance of LUR models in an Asian metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction. By following the ESCAPE procedure, we derived LUR models of PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse (PM₂.₅-₁₀) in Taipei. The overall annual average concentrations of PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse were 26.0 ± 5.6, 48.6 ± 5.9, and 23.3 ± 3.1 μg/m(3), respectively, and the absorption coefficient of PM₂.₅ was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-5)m(-1). Our LUR models yielded R(2) values of 95%, 96%, 87%, and 65% for PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse, respectively. PM₂.₅ levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, construction, and residential land-use variables and decreased by rivers; while PM₂.₅ absorbance levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, and commercial land-use variables in the models. PMcoarse levels were increased by elevated highways. Road area explained more variance than road length by increasing the incremental value of 27% and 6% adjusted R(2) for PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ models, respectively. In the PM₂.₅ absorbance model, road area and transportation facility explain 29% more variance than road length. In the PMcoarse model, industrial and new local variables instead of road length improved the incremental value of adjusted R(2) from 39% to 60%. We concluded that road area can better explain the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ absorbance concentrations than road length. By incorporating road area and other new local variables, the performance of each PM LUR model was improved. The results suggest that road area is a better indicator of traffic intensity rather

  6. Incommensurate charge-density-wave state in α-uranium: A high-resolution x-ray and neutron-scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, G.; Axe, J.D.; Gibbs, D.; Lander, G.H.; Marmeggi, J.C.; Brueckel, T.

    1991-01-01

    The incommensurate charge-density-wave state, which develops in α-uranium below 47 K, was studied in high-resolution x-ray and neutron-scattering experiments. Lock-in transitions of the incommensurate modulation wave vector were observed at 38 K (q x =1/2) and 22 K (q y =1/6,q z = 2) / 11 ) and explained in terms of a Landau theory. The simultaneous lock-in transformation of both the q y and q z components is accompanied by the formation of a phase-discommensuration lattice along the z axis

  7. Sex-related differences in sleep slow wave activity in major depressive disorder: a high-density EEG investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plante David T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance plays an important role in major depressive disorder (MDD. Prior investigations have demonstrated that slow wave activity (SWA during sleep is altered in MDD; however, results have not been consistent across studies, which may be due in part to sex-related differences in SWA and/or limited spatial resolution of spectral analyses. This study sought to characterize SWA in MDD utilizing high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG to examine the topography of SWA across the cortex in MDD, as well as sex-related variation in SWA topography in the disorder. Methods All-night recordings with 256 channel hdEEG were collected in 30 unipolar MDD subjects (19 women and 30 age and sex-matched control subjects. Spectral analyses of SWA were performed to determine group differences. SWA was compared between MDD and controls, including analyses stratified by sex, using statistical non-parametric mapping to correct for multiple comparisons of topographic data. Results As a group, MDD subjects demonstrated significant increases in all-night SWA primarily in bilateral prefrontal channels. When stratified by sex, MDD women demonstrated global increases in SWA relative to age-matched controls that were most consistent in bilateral prefrontal regions; however, MDD men showed no significant differences relative to age-matched controls. Further analyses demonstrated increased SWA in MDD women was most prominent in the first portion of the night. Conclusions Women, but not men with MDD demonstrate significant increases in SWA in multiple cortical areas relative to control subjects. Further research is warranted to investigate the role of SWA in MDD, and to clarify how increased SWA in women with MDD is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy of atoms and charge density waves in 1T-TaS2, 1T-TaSe2 and 1T-VSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slough, G.; Giambattista, B.; Johnson, A.; McNairy, W.W.; Coleman, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    The layer structure dichalcogenide materials TaS 2 and TaSe 2 grow in several different phases depending on the coordination between the Ta and chalcogenide atoms and the number of three layer sandwiches per unit cell. The 1T phase has octahedral coordination between the Ta and chalcogenide atoms and has one three layer sandwich per unit cell. The high temperature Fermi surfaces (FSs) of the 1T phase Ta based materials exhibit a favorable nesting condition and undergo a charge-density-wave (CDW) transition at temperatures well above room temperature. At low temperatures the CDWs form a √13 /ovr string/a /times/ √13 a commensurate superlattice. STM scans on the 1T phases confirm the presence of an extremely strong CDW modulation inducing z-deflections in the constant current mode of anomalously large values. 1T-VSe 2 is also a member of the VB layer structure dichalcogenide group and band structure calculations show the high temperatures FS to be similar to that of 1T-TaSe 2 . However, sufficient differences exist such that the CDW formation is quite different. The CDW superlattice is observed to form only below room temperature and locks into a 4/ovr string/a /times/ 4/ovr string/a superlattice below /approximately/80K rather than the √13 /ovr string/a /times/ √13 /ovr string/a one observed in 1T-TaSe 2 . Based on electron and neutron diffraction results on stoichiometric 1T-VSe 2 two phase transitions are detected, a second order transition at 110K and a first order transition at /approximately/80K. 20 figs

  9. Excited state nuclear forces from the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to time-dependent density functional theory within the plane wave basis set framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Jürg

    2003-03-01

    An efficient formulation of time-dependent linear response density functional theory for the use within the plane wave basis set framework is presented. The method avoids the transformation of the Kohn-Sham matrix into the canonical basis and references virtual orbitals only through a projection operator. Using a Lagrangian formulation nuclear derivatives of excited state energies within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation are derived. The algorithms were implemented into a pseudo potential/plane wave code and applied to the calculation of adiabatic excitation energies, optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies of three low lying states of formaldehyde. An overall good agreement with other time-dependent density functional calculations, multireference configuration interaction calculations and experimental data was found.

  10. STM sub-gap structure in cuprates is a consequence of density waves, according to Mean-Field Theory and CDMFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verret, Simon; Roy, Jyotirmoy; Sénéchal, David; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Much work has been done to find how the pseudogap is related to charge density waves in cuprates. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements, the superconducting gap and pseudogap of cuprates are sometimes accompanied by a small sub-gap structure at very low energy. This was documented early in vortex cores studies, and has now been reported at zero field for YBCO.(1) Here, we show that this can be caused by density waves, first through a standard mean-field approach, and then with Cellular Dynamical Mean-Field Theory for the Hubbard model using an exact diagonalization solver. We comment on the implication of these results for the relation between pseudogap and charge order. (1) Jens Bruér et al. arXiv:1507.06775 Supported by NSERC, CIFAR and the Tier I Canada Research Chair Program.

  11. Magnetic properties of the charge density wave compounds RTe3, R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er & Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    The antiferromagnetic transition is investigated in the rare-earth (R) tritelluride RTe{sub 3} family of charge density wave (CDW) compounds via specific heat, magnetization and resistivity measurements. Observation of the opening of a superzone gap in the resistivity of DyTe{sub 3} indicates that additional nesting of the reconstructed Fermi surface in the CDW state plays an important role in determining the magnetic structure.

  12. Certain relativistic effects due to strong electromagnetic fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, N.L.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the propagation of a strong electromagnetic wave in an electron plasma can lead to a generation of a constant electron current along the direction of propagation and to a large increase in the average electron density. (Auth.)

  13. Nanoscale measurement of Nernst effect in two-dimensional charge density wave material 1T-TaS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA; Luican-Mayer, Adina [Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada; Bhattacharya, Anand [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2017-11-27

    Advances in nanoscale material characterization on two-dimensional van der Waals layered materials primarily involve their optical and electronic properties. The thermal properties of these materials are harder to access due to the difficulty of thermal measurements at the nanoscale. In this work, we create a nanoscale magnetothermal device platform to access the basic out-of-plane magnetothermal transport properties of ultrathin van der Waals materials. Specifically, the Nernst effect in the charge density wave transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2 is examined on nano-thin flakes in a patterned device structure. It is revealed that near the commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) to nearly commensurate charge density wave (NCCDW) phase transition, the polarity of the Nernst effect changes. Since the Nernst effect is especially sensitive to changes in the Fermi surface, this suggests that large changes are occurring in the out-of-plane electronic structure of 1T-TaS2, which are otherwise unresolved in just in-plane electronic transport measurements. This may signal a coherent evolution of out-of-plane stacking in the CCDW! NCCDW transition.

  14. Charge density waves in nanocrystalline thin films of blue bronze K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staresinic, D., E-mail: damirs@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Dominko, D., E-mail: ddominko@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Salamon, K., E-mail: ksalamon@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Biljakovic, K., E-mail: katica@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 304, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Tomeljak, A., E-mail: atomeljak@gmail.com [J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Physics and Center for Applied Optics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Schaefer, H., E-mail: hanjo.schaefer@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Optics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Huber, T., E-mail: tim.huber@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Optics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Demsar, J., E-mail: jure.demsar@uni-konstanz.de [J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Physics and Center for Applied Optics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Socol, G., E-mail: gabriel.socol@inflpr.ro [Laser-Surface-Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-54, Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Ristoscu, C., E-mail: carmen.ristoscu@inflpr.ro [Laser-Surface-Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-54, Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [Laser-Surface-Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-54, Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Siketic, Z., E-mail: zsiketic@irb.hr [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-01

    Thin granular films of charge density wave (CDW) system K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} were prepared by pulsed laser deposition and investigated by various standard characterization methods such as GI-XRD, electric transport, TOF-ERDA, AFM and UV-visible spectroscopy. While all these methods indicate that the thin films consist of nanometer grains of K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, it is only the non-destructive femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy (fsTRS) that demonstrates the charge density wave nature of the ground state and therefore proves directly the presence of K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}. Furthermore, the comparison of the fsTRS data obtained in thin films and in single crystals shows the reduction of the charge density wave transition temperature and of the photoinduced signal strength in granular thin films with respect to single crystals, which is attributed to the granularity and crystal growth morphology. Our results establish fsTRS technique as the essential tool for the detection and characterization of complex ground states in nano-sized systems.

  15. Density-based global sensitivity analysis of sheet-flow travel time: Kinematic wave-based formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2018-04-01

    Despite advancements in developing physics-based formulations to estimate the sheet-flow travel time (tSHF), the quantification of the relative impacts of influential parameters on tSHF has not previously been considered. In this study, a brief review of the physics-based formulations to estimate tSHF including kinematic wave (K-W) theory in combination with Manning's roughness (K-M) and with Darcy-Weisbach friction formula (K-D) over single and multiple planes is provided. Then, the relative significance of input parameters to the developed approaches is quantified by a density-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The performance of K-M considering zero-upstream and uniform flow depth (so-called K-M1 and K-M2), and K-D formulae to estimate the tSHF over single plane surface were assessed using several sets of experimental data collected from the previous studies. The compatibility of the developed models to estimate tSHF over multiple planes considering temporal rainfall distributions of Natural Resources Conservation Service, NRCS (I, Ia, II, and III) are scrutinized by several real-world examples. The results obtained demonstrated that the main controlling parameters of tSHF through K-D and K-M formulae are the length of surface plane (mean sensitivity index T̂i = 0.72) and flow resistance (mean T̂i = 0.52), respectively. Conversely, the flow temperature and initial abstraction ratio of rainfall have the lowest influence on tSHF (mean T̂i is 0.11 and 0.12, respectively). The significant role of the flow regime on the estimation of tSHF over a single and a cascade of planes are also demonstrated. Results reveal that the K-D formulation provides more precise tSHF over the single plane surface with an average percentage of error, APE equal to 9.23% (the APE for K-M1 and K-M2 formulae were 13.8%, and 36.33%, respectively). The superiority of Manning-jointed formulae in estimation of tSHF is due to the incorporation of effects from different flow regimes as

  16. Analysis of electron-correlation effects in strongly correlated systems (N2 and N2+ ) by applying the density-matrix renormalization-group method and quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmle, Christian; Paulus, Beate; Legeza, Örs

    2018-02-01

    The dissociation of N2 and N2 + has been studied by using the ab initio density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) method. Accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been obtained for the electronic ground states of N2 (X1 Σg+ ) and N2+ (X2 Σg+ ) as well as for the N2+ excited state B2 Σu+ . Inherent to the DMRG approach, the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix (ρ ) and their correlation functions are at hand. Thus we can apply quantum information theory directly and investigate how the wave function changes along the PES and depict differences between the different states. Moreover, by characterizing quantum entanglement between different pairs of orbitals and analyzing the reduced density matrix, we achieved a better understanding of the multireference character featured by these systems.

  17. Spin density wave in (Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x})S{sub 4} and the coexistence of normal and condensate states: A Moessbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embaid, B.P., E-mail: pembaid@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez-Jimenez, F. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Iron-vanadium sulfides of the monoclinic system Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4} (1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy in the temperature range 30-300 K. Incommensurate spin density waves (SDW) have been found in this system. An alternative treatment of the spectra allows a direct measurement of the temperature evolution of condensate density of the SDW state which follows the Maki-Virosztek formula. For composition (x=1.0) the SDW condensate is unpinned while for compositions (x>1.0) the SDW condensate is pinned. Possible causes of the pinning-unpinning SDW will be discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4}(1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) system was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) has been found in this system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the temperature evolution of the condensate density of SDW state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composition (x=1.0) the SDW is unpinned while for (x>1.0) is pinned.

  18. High-density native-range species affects the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata more strongly than species from its invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong

    2017-11-22

    Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.

  19. Stabilization and Structure Calculations for Noncovalent Interactions in Extended Molecular Systems Based on Wave Function and Density Functional Theories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riley, K. E.; Pitoňák, Michal; Jurečka, P.; Hobza, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 9 (2010), s. 5023-5063 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : non covalent interactions * wave function theories * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 33.033, year: 2010

  20. An implementation of core level spectroscopies in a real space Projector Augmented Wave density functional theory code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, M.P.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of K-shell core level spectroscopies (X-ray absorption (XAS), X-ray emission (XES), and X-ray photoemission (XPS)) in the real-space-grid-based Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) GPAW code. The implementation for XAS is based on the Haydock recursion method avoiding...

  1. Chiral Spin-Density Wave, Spin-Charge-Chern Liquid, and d+id Superconductivity in 1/4-Doped Correlated Electronic Systems on the Honeycomb Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two interesting candidate quantum phases—the chiral spin-density wave state featuring anomalous quantum Hall effect and the d+id superconductor—were proposed for the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. Using a combination of exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, the variational Monte Carlo method, and quantum field theories, we study the quantum phase diagrams of both the Hubbard model and the t-J model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. The main advantage of our approach is the use of symmetry quantum numbers of ground-state wave functions on finite-size systems (up to 32 sites to sharply distinguish different quantum phases. Our results show that for 1≲U/t<40 in the Hubbard model and for 0.1density wave state or a spin-charge-Chern liquid, but not a d+id superconductor. However, in the t-J model, upon increasing J, the system goes through a first-order phase transition at J/t=0.80(2 into the d+id superconductor. Here, the spin-charge-Chern liquid state is a new type of topologically ordered quantum phase with Abelian anyons and fractionalized excitations. Experimental signatures of these quantum phases, such as tunneling conductance, are calculated. These results are discussed in the context of 1/4-doped graphene systems and other correlated electronic materials on the honeycomb lattice.

  2. iPEPS studies of emergent supersymmetry at the pair density wave transitions of Dirac fermions in 2+1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifan; Pei, Jiquan; Jian, Shaokai; Yao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition between the Dirac semimetal and pairing density wave (PDW) phase of the spinless honeycomb model with nearest neighbor attractions by doing fermionic projected entangled pairing state (PEPS) algorithm for infinite lattices. It was recently shown by renormalization group (RG) analysis that space-time supersymmetry (SUSY) emerges in Dirac fermions at their PDW transition. The connection of our present PEPS studies with the emergent space-time SUSY at the PDW transition shown by RG will be discussed.

  3. Influence of the electron density on the characteristics of terahertz waves generated under laser–cluster interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A. A., E-mail: frolov@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A theory of generation of terahertz radiation under laser–cluster interaction, developed earlier for an overdense cluster plasma [A. A. Frolov, Plasma Phys. Rep. 42. 637 (2016)], is generalized for the case of arbitrary electron density. The spectral composition of radiation is shown to substantially depend on the density of free electrons in the cluster. For an underdense cluster plasma, there is a sharp peak in the terahertz spectrum at the frequency of the quadrupole mode of a plasma sphere. As the electron density increases to supercritical values, this spectral line vanishes and a broad maximum at the frequency comparable with the reciprocal of the laser pulse duration appears in the spectrum. The dependence of the total energy of terahertz radiation on the density of free electrons is analyzed. The radiation yield is shown to increase significantly under resonance conditions, when the laser frequency is close to the eigenfrequency of the dipole or quadrupole mode of a plasma sphere.

  4. Critical Role of the Exchange Interaction for the Electronic Structure and Charge-Density-Wave Formation in TiSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Maria; Baima, Jacopo; Bianco, Raffaello; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco; Wirtz, Ludger

    2017-10-01

    We show that the inclusion of screened exchange via hybrid functionals provides a unified description of the electronic and vibrational properties of TiSe2 . In contrast to local approximations in density functional theory, the explicit inclusion of exact, nonlocal exchange captures the effects of the electron-electron interaction needed to both separate the Ti -d states from the Se -p states and stabilize the charge-density-wave (CDW) (or low-T ) phase through the formation of a p -d hybridized state. We further show that this leads to an enhanced electron-phonon coupling that can drive the transition even if a small gap opens in the high-T phase. Finally, we demonstrate that the hybrid functionals can generate a CDW phase where the electronic bands, the geometry, and the phonon frequencies are in agreement with experiments.

  5. Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C2H2 plasma: From C2H2 injection to the formation of an organized structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Poucques, Ludovic de; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal; Lacroix, David

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

  6. Effect of molecular weight and density of ambient gas on shock wave in laser-induced surface nanostructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liying; Wang Xinwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of molecular dynamics studies about the shock wave during laser-induced surface nanostructuring. A quasi-three dimensional model is constructed to study systems consisting of over 2 million atoms. Detailed studies are carried out about the shock wave front and Mach number, evolution of plume and ambient gas interaction zone, and energy exchange between the ambient gas and plume. Under an ambience of lower pressure or lighter molecular mass, the plume affects a larger area while the strength of the shock wave front is weaker. With the same ambient pressure, the ablated material features the same kinetic energy at the late stage regardless of the molecular weight of the ambient gas. The same conclusion holds for the energy increase of the ambient gas as well. When the ambient pressure is reduced, more kinetic energy is carried out by the ablated material while less energy is transferred to the ambient gas. It is observed that heavier ambient gas could bounce back the ablated material to the target surface.

  7. Geotechnical and Surface Wave Investigation of Liquefaction and Strong Motion Instrumentation sites of the Denali Fault, Mw 7.9, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Collins, B.; Moss, R.; Sitar, N.; Carver, G.

    2003-12-01

    fault crossing, liquefaction features are abundant. To characterize soil properties, we used a portable continuous sine wave-spectral analysis of surface waves (CSS-SASW) apparatus to profile the shear wave velocity of the ground, and an auger to profile the corresponding texture of the river deposits. We occupied 25 liquefaction evaluation test sites along with the three Alyeska seismometer sites. On the Nabesna, Delta and other rivers, we only find liquefaction features in soil deposits where normalized shear wave velocities fall below 225 m/s. Severity of fissures and lateral spreads dramatically increase in soils as the velocities fall, especially below 170 m/s. In some cases, the most pronounced ground failures are far from the fault zone (60-100 km) in extremely loose, low velocity fine sands. Geotechnical testing performed on field samples revealed that liquefied soils ranged from well graded sandy gravels in close proximity to the fault (plasticity silts at greater distances. At the Alyeska pump station seismometer sites, we are able to invert profiles of shear wave velocity to depths of 140-200 meters. The averaged NEHRP (30 meter) velocities for pump stations 9, 10, and 11 are 376 m/s, 316 m/s, and 362 m/s, respectively.

  8. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  9. Extreme enhancement of blocking temperature by strong magnetic dipoles interaction of α-Fe nanoparticle-based high-density agglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, H; Takahashi, M; Ogawa, T

    2011-01-01

    High-volume fraction α-Fe nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates were prepared using chemically synthesized NPs. In the agglomerate, NPs are separated by surfactant and NP superlattice with a hexagonal close-packed structure is locally realized. Volume fractions of NPs at 20% and 42% were obtained in agglomerates consisting of 2.9 nm and 8.2 nm diameter NPs, respectively. The high saturation magnetization of α-Fe NPs and high volume fraction of NPs in the agglomerate provide strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The interaction energy of the agglomerate became much larger than the anisotropic energy of individual NPs. As a result, the blocking temperature of the 8.2 nm NP agglomerate was significantly enhanced from 52.2 K to around 500 K. (fast track communication)

  10. EISCAT observations of large scale electron temperture and electron density perturbations caused by high power HF radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, A. J.; Honary, F.; Robinson, T. R.; Jones, T. B.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H.

    In this paper EISCAT observations of the effect of artificial modification on the F-region electron temperature and electron density during several heating experiments at Tromsø are reported. During O-mode heating at full power ( ERP = 240 MW) the electron temperature is increased by up to 55% of its ambient value at altitudes close to the heater interaction height. Measurements of the electron density have revealed both enhancements and depletions in the vicinity of the heater reflection height. These differences are indicative of variations in the balance between the transport and chemical effects. These results are compared with a time dependent numerical model developed from the perturbation equations of VAS'KOV and GUREVICH [(1975) Geomagn. Aeron.15, 51]. The results of numerical modelling of the electron temperature are in good agreement with the EISCAT observations, whereas there is less good agreement with regard to electron density.

  11. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study of the Evolution of Band Structure And Charge Density Wave Properties in Rte (3) (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, And Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouet, V.; Yang, W.L.; Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z.; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.

    2009-05-12

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe{sub 3} family, which sets this system as an ideal 'textbook' example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDW instabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe{sub 3} is that the band structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tin orbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDW interaction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n(E{sub F}), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  12. Spin-density-wave effects in the (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchono, B.; Prinsloo, A.R.E.; Sheppard, C.J., E-mail: cjsheppard@uj.ac.za; Alberts, H.L.; Strydom, A.M.

    2014-03-15

    The possibility of quantum critical behaviour in a spin-density-wave antiferromagnetic (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system is investigated through electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and specific heat measurements. Magnetic resistivity anomalies associated with the Néel transition temperature are highly enhanced in the thermoelectric measurements, allowing for complementary methods in obtaining the Néel temperatures of these alloys. The results indicate a suppression of the Néel temperatures to below 2 K for alloy concentrations y≳4.5. This aspect is strongly reflected in the y-dependence of the residual resistivity and Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient. Both parameters depict rather sharp changes, related to spin-density-wave energy gap influences, on entering the antiferromagnetic phase when y is decreased at 2 K through y{sub c}≈4.5 on the concentration-temperature magnetic phase diagram. The behaviour of the concentration dependence of the Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient is suggestive of quantum critical behaviour in this alloy system, with a quantum critical point at y≈y{sub c}. - Highlights: • The magnetic phase diagram is obtained for the (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system. • It indicates a putative quantum critical point at y{sub c}=4.5. • Specific heat measurements support this conjecture. • Novel triple point behaviour is indicated for the Cr{sub 1−z}Al{sub z} alloy system.

  13. Development of a heterodyne micro-wave reflectometer with ultra-fast sweeping. The study of the plasma turbulence influence on the measurements of electron density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    The density profile of the fusion plasmas can be investigated by the reflectometry diagnostics. The measurement principle is based on the radar techniques which calculate the phase shift of a millimeter wave propagating into the plasma and reflected at a cut-off layer. However, this propagation is perturbed by the plasma turbulence. These phenomena affect the phase delay measurement by not well understood a process. In this work we have tried to find the mechanisms and origin of the turbulence which is responsible for the phase disturbance. We point out the role of collisionality and plasma radiation in controlling the instability and also, demonstrate that the phase delay of the probing wave is very sensitive to the plasma MHD phenomena and is less affected by the micro-turbulence. The second part of this work is the development and the use of a new heterodyne reflectometer. The principal characteristics are given. Its heterodyne detection allows the separation of phase and amplitude information from the detected signal and then to study their contribution to the mechanism of signal perturbation. The use of this reflectometer allows us to point out the following points: - a high dynamic availability, required by the large amplitude drops, often greater than 30 db; - fast sweep operation requirement to 'freeze' the plasma turbulence; - multiple reflection effects which modulate the amplitude and phase of the probing wave if they are not suppressed by filtering the detected signal; - very good localisation of the measurement (of the order of millimeter). The heterodyne reflectometer developed during this work offers several advantages of different distinct reflectometry techniques (fast sweep, absolute and differential phase measurements, heterodyne detection). It could be developed to work over higher frequency range so as to measure density profile over larger radial extension with very high performances. (author)

  14. Electron densities in Jupiter’s outer magnetosphere determined from Voyager 1 and 2 plasma wave spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barnhart, B. L.; Kurth, W. S.; Groene, J. B.; Faden, J. B.; Santolík, Ondřej; Gurnett, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2009), A05218/1-A05218/14 ISSN 0148-0227 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNG05GG98G Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Electron densities * Jupiter * magnetosphere * Voyager Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  15. Density fitting for derivatives of Coulomb integrals in ab initio calculations using mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čársky, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 620 (2009), s. 1237-1242 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0070; GA ČR GA202/08/0631; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Derivatives of Coulomb integrals * mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis sets * electron scattering * computer time saving Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.315, year: 2009

  16. Detection of the wave-like structures in the F-region electron density: two station measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Abry, P.; Altadil, D.; Boška, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 131-146 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P077; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/01/1071; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042102; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300420504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : HIRAC campaign * ionospheric variability * gravity waves * Solar Terminator * TID Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  17. Chemotactic waves of bacteria at the mesoscale

    OpenAIRE

    Calvez, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The existence of travelling waves for a model of concentration waves of bacteria is investigated. The model consists in a kinetic equation for the biased motion of cells following a run-and-tumble process, coupled with two reaction-diffusion equations for the chemical signals. Strong mathematical difficulties arise in comparison with the diffusive regime which was studied in a previous work. The cornerstone of the proof consists in establishing monotonicity properties of the spatial density o...

  18. The choice of the optimum terms for semi-empirical description of s-wave neutron resonance level densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarczyk, Maria; Lason, Lech [Division of Nuclear Physics, University of Lodz, ul Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a function describing the dependence of the neutron resonance level density {rho} on the neutron number N in the target nucleus. The function describes quite well, with an accuracy of one order, the experimental data for 284 nuclides. Moreover, it adequately describes the general tendency and shell model effects for magic nuclei and for nuclei close to magic ones. The achieved agreement between the values obtained from the proposed description and the experimental data {rho}{sub exp} can be improved if the {rho}{sub exp} values are normalized energetically and reduced to a narrow range of angular momentum J.

  19. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  20. Correlator bank detection of gravitational wave chirps--False-alarm probability, template density, and thresholds: Behind and beyond the minimal-match issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, R.P.; Demma, Th.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.M.; Longo, M.; Marano, S.; Matta, V.

    2004-01-01

    The general problem of computing the false-alarm probability vs the detection-threshold relationship for a bank of correlators is addressed, in the context of maximum-likelihood detection of gravitational waves in additive stationary Gaussian noise. Specific reference is made to chirps from coalescing binary systems. Accurate (lower-bound) approximants for the cumulative distribution of the whole-bank supremum are deduced from a class of Bonferroni-type inequalities. The asymptotic properties of the cumulative distribution are obtained, in the limit where the number of correlators goes to infinity. The validity of numerical simulations made on small-size banks is extended to banks of any size, via a Gaussian-correlation inequality. The result is used to readdress the problem of relating the template density to the fraction of potentially observable sources which could be dismissed as an effect of template space discreteness