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Sample records for strong cue-induced craving

  1. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

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    Mahler, Stephen V; de Wit, Harriet

    2010-11-10

    Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers). Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  2. Does acute tobacco smoking prevent cue-induced craving?

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    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation aids appear to be limited in their ability to prevent craving triggered by exposure to smoking-associated stimuli; however, the extent to which cue-induced cravings persist following denicotinized or nicotine-containing tobacco smoking is not known. Thirty (17 male) ⩾12-hour abstinent dependent smokers completed two sessions during which they smoked a nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarette. Instructions regarding the nicotine content of the cigarette varied across sessions, and all participants were exposed to a neutral cue followed by a smoking cue after cigarette consumption. Craving was assessed before and after cigarette consumption and cue exposure. Reduced intentions to smoke were associated with both nicotine expectancy (pSmoking-associated stimuli increased craving regardless of nicotine expectancy or administration (p-valuessmoking, neither smoking-related nicotine administration nor expectation prevents increases in craving following exposure to smoking-associated stimuli. These findings suggest that cue-induced craving may be resistant to various pharmacological and psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Gender and Impulsivity: Effects on Cue-Induced Alcohol Craving.

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    Yarmush, Devorah E; Manchery, Linda; Luehring-Jones, Peter; Erblich, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that trait impulsivity is linked to increased risk of developing alcohol-use disorders and other substance abuse. Impulsivity has also been shown in some studies to potentiate cue-induced drug cravings. Despite considerable evidence of gender differences in impulsivity and drug craving among individuals suffering from alcohol dependence and other drug use, little research has focused on these processes in healthy young men and women who may be at risk for developing alcohol-use disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and cue-induced craving, as well as possible gender differences in these effects among healthy young adults. To that end, female (n = 22) and male (n = 14) social drinkers aged 18 to 25, recruited from an urban university campus, completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and reported their alcohol cravings immediately before and after laboratory exposure to alcohol cues. Findings indicated that exposure to cues elicited increased alcohol cravings, but these effects did not differ by gender. Interestingly, a significant interaction of impulsivity and gender revealed that impulsivity predicted significantly higher cue-induced cravings in women, but not men. Findings underscore the importance of better understanding the interaction of situational factors (e.g., exposure to alcohol cues) and dispositional factors (e.g., impulsivity) as potential contributors to drinking motivation. Future prospective research is needed to identify gender-specific risk factors for the development of problem drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

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    Stephen V Mahler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? METHODS: We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers. Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. RESULTS: Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. CONCLUSIONS: In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  5. Impulsivity moderates the relationship between previous quit failure and cue-induced craving.

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    Erblich, Joel; Michalowski, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Poor inhibitory control has been shown to be an important predictor of relapse to a number of drugs, including nicotine. Indeed, smokers who exhibit higher levels of impulsivity are thought to have impaired regulation of urges to smoke, and previous research has suggested that impulsivity may moderate cue-induced cigarette cravings. To that end, we conducted a study to evaluate the interplay between failed smoking cessation, cue-induced craving, and impulsivity. Current smokers (n=151) rated their cigarette cravings before and after laboratory to exposure to smoking cues, and completed questionnaires assessing impulsivity and previous failed quit attempts. Findings indicated that shorter duration of previous failed quit attempts was related to higher cue-induced cigarette craving, especially among smokers with higher levels of impulsivity. Results underscore the importance of considering trait impulsivity as a factor in better understanding the management of cue-induced cravings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of Cue-Induced Craving in Human Methamphetamine- Dependent Subjects New Methodological Hopes for Reliable Assessment of Treatment Efficacy

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    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug with crucial impacts on individuals on various levels. Exposure to methamphetamine-associated cues in laboratory can elicit measureable craving and autonomic reactivity in most individuals with methamphetamine dependence and the cue reactivity can model how craving would result in continued drug seeking behaviors and relapse in real environments but study on this notion is still limited. In this brief article, the authors review studies on cue-induced craving in human methamphetamine- dependent subjects in a laboratory-based approach. Craving for methamphetamine is elicited by a variety of methods in laboratory such as paraphernalia, verbal and visual cues and imaginary scripts. In this article, we review the studies applying different cues as main methods of craving incubation in laboratory settings. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that craving for methamphetamine in laboratory conditions is significantly evoked by different cues. Cue-induced craving has important treatment and clinical implications for psychotherapists and clinicians when we consider the role of induced craving in evoking intense desire or urge to use methamphetamine after or during a period of successful craving prevention program. Elicited craving for methamphetamine in laboratory conditions is significantly influenced by methamphetamine-associated cues and results in rapid craving response toward methamphetamine use. This notion can be used as a main core for laboratory-based assessment of treatment efficacy for methamphetamine-dependent patients. In addition, the laboratory settings for studying craving can bridge the gap between somehow-non-reliable preclinical animal model studies and budget demanding randomized clinical trials.

  7. Acupuncture inhibits cue-induced heroin craving and brain activation.

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    Cai, Xinghui; Song, Xiaoge; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Chunsheng; Li, Xiliang; Lu, Qi

    2012-11-25

    Previous research using functional MRI has shown that specific brain regions associated with drug dependence and cue-elicited heroin craving are activated by environmental cues. Craving is an important trigger of heroin relapse, and acupuncture may inhibit craving. In this study, we performed functional MRI in heroin addicts and control subjects. We compared differences in brain activation between the two groups during heroin cue exposure, heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point (ST36) without twirling of the needle, and heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle. Heroin cue exposure elicited significant activation in craving-related brain regions mainly in the frontal lobes and callosal gyri. Acupuncture without twirling did not significantly affect the range of brain activation induced by heroin cue exposure, but significantly changed the extent of the activation in the heroin addicts group. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point with twirling of the needle significantly decreased both the range and extent of activation induced by heroin cue exposure compared with heroin cue exposure plus acupuncture without twirling of the needle. These experimental findings indicate that presentation of heroin cues can induce activation in craving-related brain regions, which are involved in reward, learning and memory, cognition and emotion. Acupuncture at the Zusanli point can rapidly suppress the activation of specific brain regions related to craving, supporting its potential as an intervention for drug craving.

  8. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence

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    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could

  9. Repeated restraint stress exposure during early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving.

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    Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Cue-induced craving among inhalant users: Development and preliminary validation of a visual cue paradigm.

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    Jain, Shobhit; Dhawan, Anju; Kumaran, S Senthil; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Jain, Raka

    2017-12-01

    Cue-induced craving is known to be associated with a higher risk of relapse, wherein drug-specific cues become conditioned stimuli, eliciting conditioned responses. Cue-reactivity paradigm are important tools to study psychological responses and functional neuroimaging changes. However, till date, there has been no specific study or a validated paradigm for inhalant cue-induced craving research. The study aimed to develop and validate visual cue stimulus for inhalant cue-associated craving. The first step (picture selection) involved screening and careful selection of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures based on their relevance for naturalistic settings. In the second step (time optimization), a random selection of ten cue-pictures each was presented for 4s, 6s, and 8s to seven adolescent male inhalant users, and pre-post craving response was compared using a Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) for each of the picture and time. In the third step (validation), craving response for each of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures were analysed among 20 adolescent inhalant users. Findings revealed a significant difference in before and after craving response for the cue-pictures, but not neutral-pictures. Using ROC-curve, pictures were arranged in order of craving intensity. Finally, 20 best cue- and 20 neutral-pictures were used for the development of a 480s visual cue paradigm. This is the first study to systematically develop an inhalant cue picture paradigm which can be used as a tool to examine cue induced craving in neurobiological studies. Further research, including its further validation in larger study and diverse samples, is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of craving behavioral intervention on neural substrates of cue-induced craving in Internet gaming disorder.

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    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Potenza, Marc N; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Ma, Shan-Shan; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula. Furthermore, twenty-three IGD subjects (CBI + group) participated in a craving behavioral intervention (CBI) group therapy, whereas the remaining 17 IGD subjects (CBI - group) did not receive any intervention, and all IGD subjects were scanned during similar time intervals. The CBI + group showed decreased IGD severity and cue-induced craving, enhanced activation in the anterior insula and decreased insular connectivity with the lingual gyrus and precuneus after receiving CBI. These findings suggest that CBI is effective in reducing craving and severity in IGD, and it may exert its effects by altering insula activation and its connectivity with regions involved in visual processing and attention bias.

  12. Effects of craving behavioral intervention on neural substrates of cue-induced craving in Internet gaming disorder

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    Jin-Tao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula. Furthermore, twenty-three IGD subjects (CBI+ group participated in a craving behavioral intervention (CBI group therapy, whereas the remaining 17 IGD subjects (CBI− group did not receive any intervention, and all IGD subjects were scanned during similar time intervals. The CBI+ group showed decreased IGD severity and cue-induced craving, enhanced activation in the anterior insula and decreased insular connectivity with the lingual gyrus and precuneus after receiving CBI. These findings suggest that CBI is effective in reducing craving and severity in IGD, and it may exert its effects by altering insula activation and its connectivity with regions involved in visual processing and attention bias.

  13. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate pathway: New evidence for cue-induced craving of smokers.

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    Yuan, Kai; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Wang, Ruonan; Li, Min; Zhang, Yajuan; Dong, Minghao; Zhai, Jinquan; Li, Yangding; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Although the activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum had been found in smoking cue induced craving task, whether and how the functional interactions and white matter integrity between these brain regions contribute to craving processing during smoking cue exposure remains unknown. Twenty-five young male smokers and 26 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in the smoking cue-reactivity task. Craving related brain activation was extracted and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis was used to specify the PFC-efferent pathways contributed to smoking cue-induced craving. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography was used to explore whether the fiber connectivity strength facilitated functional coupling of the circuit with the smoking cue-induced craving. The PPI analysis revealed the negative functional coupling of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the caudate during smoking cue induced craving task, which positively correlated with the craving score. Neither significant activation nor functional connectivity in smoking cue exposure task was detected in nonsmokers. DTI analyses revealed that fiber tract integrity negatively correlated with functional coupling in the DLPFC-caudate pathway and activation of the caudate induced by smoking cue in smokers. Moreover, the relationship between the fiber connectivity integrity of the left DLPFC-caudate and smoking cue induced caudate activation can be fully mediated by functional coupling strength of this circuit in smokers. The present study highlighted the left DLPFC-caudate pathway in smoking cue-induced craving in smokers, which may reflect top-down prefrontal modulation of striatal reward processing in smoking cue induced craving processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4644-4656, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

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    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  15. Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.

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    Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cue-induced craving in patients with cocaine use disorder predicts cognitive control deficits toward cocaine cues.

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    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Smelson, David; Guevremont, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Cue-induced craving is a clinically important aspect of cocaine addiction influencing ongoing use and sobriety. However, little is known about the relationship between cue-induced craving and cognitive control toward cocaine cues. While studies suggest that cocaine users have an attentional bias toward cocaine cues, the present study extends this research by testing if cocaine use disorder patients (CDPs) can control their eye movements toward cocaine cues and whether their response varied by cue-induced craving intensity. Thirty CDPs underwent a cue exposure procedure to dichotomize them into high and low craving groups followed by a modified antisaccade task in which subjects were asked to control their eye movements toward either a cocaine or neutral drug cue by looking away from the suddenly presented cue. The relationship between breakdowns in cognitive control (as measured by eye errors) and cue-induced craving (changes in self-reported craving following cocaine cue exposure) was investigated. CDPs overall made significantly more errors toward cocaine cues compared to neutral cues, with higher cravers making significantly more errors than lower cravers even though they did not differ significantly in addiction severity, impulsivity, anxiety, or depression levels. Cue-induced craving was the only specific and significant predictor of subsequent errors toward cocaine cues. Cue-induced craving directly and specifically relates to breakdowns of cognitive control toward cocaine cues in CDPs, with higher cravers being more susceptible. Hence, it may be useful identifying high cravers and target treatment toward curbing craving to decrease the likelihood of a subsequent breakdown in control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Counterconditioning reduces cue-induced craving and actual cue-elicited consumption.

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    Van Gucht, Dinska; Baeyens, Frank; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk; Beckers, Tom

    2010-10-01

    Cue-induced craving is not easily reduced by an extinction or exposure procedure and may constitute an important route toward relapse in addictive behavior after treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of counterconditioning as an alternative procedure to reduce cue-induced craving, in a nonclinical population. We found that a cue, initially paired with chocolate consumption, did not cease to elicit craving for chocolate after extinction (repeated presentation of the cue without chocolate consumption), but did so after counterconditioning (repeated pairing of the cue with consumption of a highly disliked liquid, Polysorbate 20). This effect persisted after 1 week. Counterconditioning moreover was more effective than extinction in disrupting reported expectancy to get to eat chocolate, and also appeared to be more effective in reducing actual cue-elicited chocolate consumption. These results suggest that counterconditioning may be more promising than cue exposure for the prevention of relapse in addictive behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Incubation of Cue-Induced Craving in Adults Addicted to Cocaine Measured by Electroencephalography.

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    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-11-01

    A common trigger for relapse in drug addiction is the experience of craving via exposure to cues previously associated with drug use. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking during the initial phase of abstinence, followed by a decline over time. In humans, the incubation effect has been shown for alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine addictions, but not for heroin or cocaine addiction. Understanding the trajectory of cue-induced craving during abstinence in humans is of importance for addiction medicine. To assess cue-induced craving for cocaine in humans using both subjective and objective indices of cue-elicited responses. Seventy-six individuals addicted to cocaine with varying durations of abstinence (ie, 2 days, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year) participated in this laboratory-based cross-sectional study from June 19, 2007, to November 26, 2012. The late positive potential component of electroencephalography, a recognized marker of incentive salience, was used to track motivated attention to drug cues across these self-selected groups. Participants also completed subjective ratings of craving for cocaine before presentation of a cue, and ratings of cocaine "liking" (hedonic feelings toward cocaine) and "wanting" (craving for cocaine) after presentation of cocaine-related pictures. Data analysis was conducted from June 5, 2015, to March 30, 2016. The late positive potential amplitudes and ratings of liking and wanting cocaine in response to cocaine-related pictures were quantified and compared across groups. Among the 76 individuals addicted to cocaine, 19 (25%) were abstinent for 2 days, 20 (26%) were abstinent for 1 week, 15 (20%) were abstinent for 1 month, 12 (16%) were abstinent for 6 months, and 10 (13%) were abstinent for 1 year. In response to drug cues, the mean (SD) late positive potential amplitudes showed a parabolic trajectory that was higher at 1 (1.26 [1.36] µV) and 6 (1.17 [1.19] µ

  19. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results

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    Charboneau, Evonne J.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Martin, Peter R.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  20. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence.

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    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could be a useful way to boost the diagnosis of cocaine dependence. A cross-sectional study of 221 cocaine users from several outpatient addiction treatment services in France, addressing the most severe period of cocaine use. DSM-IV cocaine dependence was determined with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Physical symptoms before using cocaine were retrospectively assessed with a single item rated on a 0-5 scale. The prevalence of DSM-IV cocaine dependence was 84.6%. The mean score on the physical symptoms item was 1.3 (SD 1.3). A cut-off score of ≥ 1 on this item alone resulted in a sensitivity of 62%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 96.6% and a negative predictive value of 29.7% to detect DSM IV cocaine dependence in this sample. Adding this item to a model with the frequency of cocaine use significantly increased the predictive power: Nagelkerke's R(2) increased from .149 to .326 (p physical signs of cocaine craving is associated with a clinical diagnosis of lifetime cocaine dependence and could be a simple way to improve its detection in clinical settings. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Designing and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Visual Cue-Induced Craving Assessment Task for Methamphetamine Smokers

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    Hamed Ekhtiari

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C TIntroduction: Craving to methamphetamine is a significant health concern and exposure to methamphetamine cues in laboratory can induce craving. In this study, a task designing procedure for evaluating methamphetamine cue-induced craving in laboratory conditions is examined. Methods: First a series of visual cues which could induce craving was identified by 5 discussion sessions between expert clinicians and 10 methamphetamine smokers. Cues were categorized in 4 main clusters and photos were taken for each cue in studio, then 60 most evocative photos were selected and 10 neutral photos were added. In this phase, 50 subjects with methamphetamine dependence, had exposure to cues and rated craving intensity induced by the 72 cues (60 active evocative photos + 10 neutral photos on self report Visual Analogue Scale (ranging from 0-100. In this way, 50 photos with high levels of evocative potency (CICT 50 and 10 photos with the most evocative potency (CICT 10 were obtained and subsequently, the task was designed. Results: The task reliability (internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha which was 91% for (CICT 50 and 71% for (CICT 10. The most craving induced was reported for category Drug use procedure (66.27±30.32 and least report for category Cues associated with drug use (31.38±32.96. Difference in cue-induced craving in (CICT 50 and (CICT 10 were not associated with age, education, income, marital status, employment and sexual activity in the past 30 days prior to study entry. Family living condition was marginally correlated with higher scores in (CICT 50. Age of onset for (opioids, cocaine and methamphetamine was negatively correlated with (CICT 50 and (CICT 10 and age of first opiate use was negatively correlated with (CICT 50. Discussion: Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured by tasks designed in laboratory and designed assessment tasks can be used in cue reactivity paradigm, and

  2. Drug-related cue induced craving and the correlation between the activation in nucleus accumbens and drug craving: a fMRI study on heroin addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yarong; Yang Lanying; Li Qiang; Yang Weichuan; Du Pang; Wang Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the neural mechanism underlying the craving of heroin addicts induced by picture-cue and the correlation between the brain activation degree in nucleus accumbens (NAc)/ the ventral striatum and the scores of patients self-report craving. Methods: Twelve active heroin addicts and 12 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI scan while viewing drug-related pictures and neutral pictures presented in a block design paradigm after anatomical scanning in GE 3.0 T scanner. The fMRI data were analyzed with SPM 5. The change of craving scores was tested by Wilcoxon signed rank test. The Pearson correlation between the activation of NAc/the ventral striatum and the heroin craving score was tested by SPSS 13.0. Results: The craving scores of heroin addicts ranged from 0 to 3.70 (median 0.15) before exposed to drug cue and 0 to 5.10 (median 3.25) after viewing drug-related pictures and showed statistical significance (Z=-2.666, P<0.05). There were 16 activated brain areas when heroin dependent patients exposed to visual drug-related cue vs. neutral visual stimuli. The activation brain regions belonged to two parts, one was limbic system (amygdale, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate), another was brain cortex (middle frontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, precentral gyrus, middle temporal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus, precuneus and middle occipital gyrus). The MR signal activation magnitude of heroin addicts ranged from 0.19 to 3.50. The result displayed a significant positive correlation between the cue-induced fMRI activation in NAc/the ventral striatum and heroin craving severity (r=0.829, P<0.05). Conclusion: Heroin shared the same neural circuitry in part with other drugs of abuse for cue-induced craving, including brain reward circuitry, visualspatial attention circuit and working memory region. In addition, the dysfunction of NAc/the ventral striatum may attribute to heroin-related cue induced craving

  3. Effects of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and transporter (SLC6A3) polymorphisms on smoking cue-induced cigarette craving among African-American smokers.

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    Erblich, J; Lerman, C; Self, D W; Diaz, G A; Bovbjerg, D H

    2005-04-01

    Cue-induced craving for addictive substances has long been known to contribute to the problem of persistent addiction in humans. Research in animals over the past decade has solidly established the central role of dopamine in cue-induced craving for addictive substances, including nicotine. Analogous studies in humans, however, are lacking, especially among African-American smokers, who have lower quit rates than Caucasian smokers. Based on the animal literature, the study's objective was to test the hypothesis that smokers carrying specific variants in dopamine-related genes previously associated with risk for addictive behaviors would exhibit heightened levels of cigarette craving following laboratory exposure to cues. To this end, cigarette craving was induced in healthy African-American smokers (n=88) through laboratory exposure to smoking cues. Smokers carrying either the DRD2 (D2 dopamine receptor gene) TaqI A1 RFLP or the SLC6A3 (dopamine transporter gene) 9-repeat VNTR polymorphisms had stronger cue-induced cravings than noncarriers (Ps cue-induced craving in humans, and suggest a possible genetic risk factor for persistent smoking behavior in African-American smokers.

  4. Magnitude and duration of cue-induced craving for marijuana in volunteers with cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2016-09-01

    Evaluate magnitude and duration of subjective and physiologic responses to neutral and marijuana (MJ)-related cues in cannabis dependent volunteers. 33 volunteers (17 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for Cannabis Abuse or Dependence were exposed to neutral (first) then MJ-related visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues. Mood, drug craving and physiology were assessed at baseline, post-neutral, post-MJ and 15-min post MJ cue exposure to determine magnitude of cue- responses. For a subset of participants (n=15; 9 male), measures of craving and physiology were collected also at 30-, 90-, and 150-min post-MJ cue to examine duration of cue-effects. In cue-response magnitude analyses, visual analog scale (VAS) items craving for, urge to use, and desire to smoke MJ, Total and Compulsivity subscale scores of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire, anxiety ratings, and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly elevated following MJ vs. neutral cue exposure. In cue-response duration analyses, desire and urge to use MJ remained significantly elevated at 30-, 90- and 150-min post MJ-cue exposure, relative to baseline and neutral cues. Presentation of polysensory MJ cues increased MJ craving, anxiety and diastolic BP relative to baseline and neutral cues. MJ craving remained elevated up to 150-min after MJ cue presentation. This finding confirms that carry-over effects from drug cue presentation must be considered in cue reactivity studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnitude and duration of cue-induced craving for marijuana in volunteers with cannabis use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H.; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Evaluate magnitude and duration of subjective and physiologic responses to neutral and marijuana (MJ)–related cues in cannabis dependent volunteers. Methods 33 volunteers (17 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for Cannabis Abuse or Dependence were exposed to neutral (first) then MJ-related visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile cues. Mood, drug craving and physiology were assessed at baseline, post-neutral, post-MJ and 15-min post MJ cue exposure to determine magnitude of cue- responses. For a subset of participants (n=15; 9 male), measures of craving and physiology were collected also at 30-, 90-, and 150-min post-MJ cue to examine duration of cue-effects. Results In cue-response magnitude analyses, visual analog scale (VAS) items craving for, urge to use, and desire to smoke MJ, Total and Compulsivity subscale scores of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire, anxiety ratings, and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly elevated following MJ vs. neutral cue exposure. In cue-response duration analyses, desire and urge to use MJ remained significantly elevated at 30-, 90- and 150-min post MJ-cue exposure, relative to baseline and neutral cues. Conclusions Presentation of polysensory MJ cues increased MJ craving, anxiety and diastolic BP relative to baseline and neutral cues. MJ craving remained elevated up to 150-min after MJ cue presentation. This finding confirms that carry-over effects from drug cue presentation must be considered in cue reactivity studies. PMID:27436749

  6. The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been classified as an addictive disorder in the proposed DSM 5 draft. However, whether its underlying addiction mechanism is similar to other substance use disorders has not been confirmed. The present functional magnetic resonance images study is aimed at evaluating the brain correlates of cue-induced gaming urge or smoking craving in subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence to make a simultaneous comparison of cue induced brain reactivity for gaming and smoking. For this purpose, 16 subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence (comorbid group) and 16 controls were recruited from the community. All subjects were made to undergo 3-T fMRIs scans while viewing images associated with online games, smoking, and neutral images, which were arranged according to an event-related design. The resultant image data was analyzed with full factorial and conjunction analysis of SPM5. The results demonstrate that anterior cingulate, and parahippocampus activates higher for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. The conjunction analysis demonstrates that bilateral parahippocampal gyrus activates to a greater degree for both gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. Accordingly, the study demonstrates that both IGA and nicotine dependence share similar mechanisms of cue-induced reactivity over the fronto-limbic network, particularly for the parahippocampus. The results support that the context representation provided by the parahippocampus is a key mechanism for not only cue-induced smoking craving, but also for cue-induced gaming urge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of stress-induced and cue-induced drug craving: influences of sex and cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N; Hong, Kwang-ik Adam; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Fulbright, Robert K; Tuit, Keri L; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-04-01

    Although stress and drug cue exposure each increase drug craving and contribute to relapse in cocaine dependence, no previous research has directly examined the neural correlates of stress-induced and drug cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent women and men relative to comparison subjects. Functional MRI was used to assess responses to individualized scripts for stress, drug/alcohol cue and neutral-relaxing-imagery conditions in 30 abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals (16 women, 14 men) and 36 healthy recreational-drinking comparison subjects (18 women, 18 men). Significant three-way interactions between diagnostic group, sex, and script condition were observed in multiple brain regions including the striatum, insula, and anterior and posterior cingulate. Within women, group-by-condition interactions were observed involving these regions and were attributable to relatively increased regional activations in cocaine-dependent women during the stress and, to a lesser extent, neutral-relaxing conditions. Within men, group main effects were observed involving these same regions, with cocaine-dependent men demonstrating relatively increased activation across conditions, with the main contributions from the drug and neutral-relaxing conditions. In men and women, subjective drug-induced craving measures correlated positively with corticostriatal-limbic activations. In cocaine dependence, corticostriatal-limbic hyperactivity appears to be linked to stress cues in women, drug cues in men, and neutral-relaxing conditions in both. These findings suggest that sex should be taken into account in the selection of therapies in the treatment of addiction, particularly those targeting stress reduction.

  8. Cue-induced craving in pathological buying: empirical evidence and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Pedersen, Anya; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Pathological buying is associated with marked distress and impaired functioning in important life domains. It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered a behavioral addiction. In analogy to results reported in addicted individuals, craving reactions elicited by addiction-related cues might be an underlying mechanism for the etiology and pathogenesis of pathological buying. In the present study, 30 pathological buyers and 30 matched control participants were examined with a cue-reactivity paradigm consisting of shopping and control cues. Skin conductance responses, as well as subjective ratings for arousal, valence, and urge to buy, were assessed. Subjective craving reactions were measured before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm. On a physiological level, skin conductance responses toward shopping cues were higher in pathological buyers (mean [M; standard deviation {SD}] = 0.26 [0.13]) compared with control participants (M [SD] = 0.19 [0.09]; t(58) = 2.29, p = .025, d = 0.60). On a behavioral level, the individuals with pathological buying rated the shopping cues as more arousing and more positive, and reported a greater urge to buy compared with control participants and with control cues. An increase in subjective craving after completing the cue-reactivity paradigm was observed only in the pathological buyers (Mpre [SD] = 1.95 [1.47], Mpost [SD] = 2.87 [1.79]; t(29) = 5.07, p buying. The results demonstrate similarities between pathological buying and substance or behavioral addictions and provide implications for clinical treatment.

  9. Stress-induced and cue-induced craving for alcohol in heavy drinkers: Preliminary evidence of genetic moderation by the OPRM1 and CRH-BP genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A

    2011-01-01

    Neurobiological theories of addiction have highlighted disruption in stress pathways as a central feature of addictive disorders, and pharmacological treatments targeting stress mechanisms hold great promise. This study examines genetic determinants of stress-induced and cue-induced craving in heavy drinkers by testing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene. This study combines guided imagery stress exposure and in vivo alcohol cue exposure in a sample of 64 (23 women) non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Analyses, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, revealed that a tag SNP of the CRH-BP gene (rs10055255) moderated stress-induced craving in this sample. The same SNP predicted greater affective responses to the stress manipulation, including greater levels of subjective tension and negative mood. The Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 was associated with greater cue-induced alcohol craving following the neutral imagery condition. These initial results extend recent preclinical and clinical findings implicating the CRH-BP in stress-related alcoholism and confirm the role of the Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 gene in reward-driven alcohol phenotypes. Human laboratory models of stress and cue-induced craving may be useful in pharmacotherapy development targeting dysregulation of stress systems. Larger studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings, which should also be extended to clinical samples. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. The effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusions on motivation to quit and cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent research volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances; Foltin, Richard W; Nunes, Edward V; Hart, Carl L

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine dependence involves problematic neuroadaptations that might be responsive to modulation of glutamatergic circuits. This investigation examined the effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusions on motivation for quitting cocaine and on cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent participants, 24 hours postinfusion. Eight volunteers with active DSM-IV cocaine dependence not seeking treatment or abstinence were entered into this crossover, double-blind trial. Three 52-min intravenous infusions were administered: ketamine (.41 mg/kg or .71 mg/kg) or lorazepam 2 mg, counterbalanced into three orderings in which ketamine .41 mg/kg always preceded the .71 mg/kg dose. Infusions were separated by 48 hours, and assessments occurred at baseline and at 24 hours postinfusion. Outcomes were change between postinfusion and preinfusion values for: 1) motivation to quit cocaine scores with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment; and 2) sums of visual analogue scale craving ratings administered during cue exposure. Compared with the active control lorazepam, a single ketamine infusion (.41 mg/kg) led to a mean 3.9-point gain in University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (p = .012), which corresponds to an approximately 60% increase over preceding values. There was a reduction of comparable magnitude in cue-induced craving (p = .012). A subsequent ketamine infusion (.71 mg/kg) led to further reductions in cue-induced craving compared with the control. Infusions were well-tolerated. Subanesthetic ketamine demonstrated promising effects on motivation to quit cocaine and on cue-induced craving, 24 hours postinfusion. Research is needed to expand on these preliminary results and to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Neural correlates of stress- and food cue-induced food craving in obesity: association with insulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl; Small, Dana M; Sherwin, Robert S; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that obese individuals would show greater responses in corticolimbic-striatal neurocircuitry after exposure to stress and food cues and that brain activations would correlate with subjective food craving, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR. Fasting insulin levels were assessed in obese and lean subjects who were exposed to individualized stress and favorite-food cues during functional MRI. Obese, but not lean, individuals exhibited increased activation in striatal, insular, and hypothalamic regions during exposure to favorite-food and stress cues. In obese but not lean individuals, food craving, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels correlated positively with neural activity in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions during favorite-food and stress cues. The relationship between insulin resistance and food craving in obese individuals was mediated by activity in motivation-reward regions including the striatum, insula, and thalamus. These findings demonstrate that obese, but not lean, individuals exhibit increased corticolimbic-striatal activation in response to favorite-food and stress cues and that these brain responses mediate the relationship between HOMA-IR and food craving. Improving insulin sensitivity and in turn reducing corticolimbic-striatal reactivity to food cues and stress may diminish food craving and affect eating behavior in obesity.

  13. Is it beneficial to use Internet-communication for escaping from boredom? Boredom proneness interacts with cue-induced craving and avoidance expectancies in explaining symptoms of Internet-communication disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Elisa; Ostendorf, Sina; Brand, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The use of online-communication applications including messengers (e.g. WhatsApp) or social networking services (e.g. Facebook) on the smartphone has turned into daily practice for billions of people, for example during waiting times. An increasing number of individuals show diminished control over their usage of these applications despite negative consequences in everyday life. This can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigated the effect of boredom proneness on symptoms of an ICD. It further examined the mediating role of cognitive and affective mechanisms, namely expectancies to avoid negative feelings online and cue-induced craving. The results of a structural equation model (N = 148) illustrate that boredom proneness is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of an ICD as it had a significant direct effect on ICD symptoms. Furthermore, boredom proneness predicted avoidance expectancies as well as cue-induced craving. Both in turn enhanced the risk of developing ICD tendencies. Moreover, both variables mediated the effect of boredom proneness on ICD and interacted among each other. In summary, the results demonstrate that people who have a higher susceptibility to experience boredom show higher expectancies to avoid negative emotions online, which promotes higher craving reactions when being confronted with specific cues (e.g. an incoming message), and could result in ICD tendencies.

  14. Is it beneficial to use Internet-communication for escaping from boredom? Boredom proneness interacts with cue-induced craving and avoidance expectancies in explaining symptoms of Internet-communication disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, Sina

    2018-01-01

    The use of online-communication applications including messengers (e.g. WhatsApp) or social networking services (e.g. Facebook) on the smartphone has turned into daily practice for billions of people, for example during waiting times. An increasing number of individuals show diminished control over their usage of these applications despite negative consequences in everyday life. This can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigated the effect of boredom proneness on symptoms of an ICD. It further examined the mediating role of cognitive and affective mechanisms, namely expectancies to avoid negative feelings online and cue-induced craving. The results of a structural equation model (N = 148) illustrate that boredom proneness is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of an ICD as it had a significant direct effect on ICD symptoms. Furthermore, boredom proneness predicted avoidance expectancies as well as cue-induced craving. Both in turn enhanced the risk of developing ICD tendencies. Moreover, both variables mediated the effect of boredom proneness on ICD and interacted among each other. In summary, the results demonstrate that people who have a higher susceptibility to experience boredom show higher expectancies to avoid negative emotions online, which promotes higher craving reactions when being confronted with specific cues (e.g. an incoming message), and could result in ICD tendencies. PMID:29672574

  15. Human Laboratory Settings for Assessing Drug Craving; Implications for the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.

  16. Human Laboratory Settings for Assessing Drug Craving Implications for the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.

  17. Effect of oral THC pretreatment on marijuana cue-induced responses in cannabis dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-04-01

    The current study tested whether oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0-, 10-, and 20-mg) pretreatment would attenuate polysensory cue-induced craving for marijuana. Cannabis dependent participants (7 males and 7 females, who smoked on average 5.4 ± 1.1 blunts daily) completed 3 experimental sessions (oral THC pretreatment dose; counterbalanced order) using a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design. During each session, participants completed a baseline evaluation and were first exposed to neutral cues then marijuana cues while physiological measures and subjective ratings of mood, craving, and drug effect were recorded. Following placebo oral THC pretreatment, marijuana (vs. neutral) cues significantly increased ratings of marijuana craving (desire and urge to use, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ)-Compulsivity scale), anxious mood and feeling hungry. Males also reported feeling more "Down" during marijuana cues relative to females. Pretreatment with oral THC (10-mg and/or 20-mg vs. placebo) significantly attenuated marijuana cue-induced increases in craving and anxiety but not hunger. Oral THC attenuation of the cue-induced increase in MCQ-Compulsivity ratings was observed in females only. Oral THC produced statistically (but not clinically) significant increases in heart rate and decreases in diastolic blood pressure, independent of cues. These marijuana-cue findings replicate earlier results and further demonstrate that oral THC can attenuate selected effects during marijuana multi-cue exposure, and that some of these effects may be sex-related. Results of this study suggest oral THC may be effective for reducing marijuana cue-elicited (conditioned) effects. Further study is needed to determine whether females may selectively benefit from oral THC for this purpose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy.

  19. Extinction of conditioned cues attenuates incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Zbukvic, Isabel C; Luikinga, Sophia J; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to drug use is often precipitated by exposure to drug associated cues that evoke craving. Cue-induced drug craving has been observed in both animals and humans to increase over the first few weeks of abstinence and remain high over extended periods, a phenomenon known as 'incubation of craving'. As adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to developing drug addiction, potentially due to persistent reactivity to drug associated cues, we first compared incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (P35) and adult (P70) rats were trained to lever press to obtain intravenous cocaine, with each drug delivery accompanied by a light cue that served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Following acquisition of stable responding, rats were tested for cue-induced cocaine-seeking after either 1 or 30days of abstinence. Additional groups of rats were also tested after 30days of abstinence, however these rats were subjected to a cue extinction session 1week into the abstinence period. Rats were injected with aripiprazole, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like partial agonist, or vehicle, 30min prior to cue extinction. We found that adolescent and adult rats acquired and maintained a similar level of cocaine self-administration, and rats of both ages exhibited a higher level of cue-induced cocaine-seeking if they were tested after 30days of abstinence compared to 1day. Incubation of cocaine craving was significantly reduced to 1day levels in both adults and adolescents that received cue extinction training. Administration of aripiprazole prior to cue extinction did not further reduce cue-induced drug-seeking. These results indicate that cue extinction training during abstinence may effectively reduce cue-induced relapse at a time when cue-induced drug craving is usually high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Clonidine blocks stress-induced craving in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobes, Michelle L; Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Phillips, Karran A; Heishman, Stephen J; Preston, Kenzie L

    2011-11-01

    Reactivity to stressors and environmental cues, a putative cause of relapse in addiction, may be a useful target for relapse-prevention medication. In rodents, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists such as clonidine block stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, but not drug cue-induced reinstatement. The objective of this study is to test the effect of clonidine on stress- and cue-induced craving in human cocaine users. Healthy, non-treatment-seeking cocaine users (n = 59) were randomly assigned to three groups receiving clonidine 0, 0.1, or 0.2 mg orally under double-blind conditions. In a single test session, each participant received clonidine or placebo followed 3 h later by exposure to two pairs of standardized auditory-imagery scripts (neutral/stress and neutral/drug). Subjective measures of craving were collected. Subjective responsivity ("crave cocaine" Visual Analog Scale) to stress scripts was significantly attenuated in the 0.1- and 0.2-mg clonidine groups; for drug-cue scripts, this attenuation occurred only in the 0.2-mg group. Other subjective measures of craving showed similar patterns of effects but Dose × Script interactions were not significant. Clonidine was effective in reducing stress-induced (and, at a higher dose, cue-induced) craving in a pattern consistent with preclinical findings, although this was significant on only one of several measures. Our results, though modest and preliminary, converge with other evidence to suggest that alpha-2 adrenergic agonists may help prevent relapse in drug abusers experiencing stress or situations that remind them of drug use.

  2. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  3. Cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Orrú, Alessandro; Korkosz, Agnieszka; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats trained to lever press for ethanol in 30-min self-administration sessions. Four responses on an "active" lever led to presentation of 0.1 ml of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol by a liquid dipper and concurrent activation of a set of discrete light and auditory cues. In a 70-min extinction/reinstatement session, responding was first extinguished for 60 min. Subsequently, different stimuli were delivered in a noncontingent manner and reinstatement of nonreinforced responding was assessed. Fifteen presentations of the ethanol-predictive stimulus complex, including the dipper cup containing 5 or 15% ethanol, potently reinstated responding on the previously active lever. The magnitude of reinstatement increased with the number of stimulus presentations and concentration of ethanol presented by the dipper cup. Fifteen presentations of the ethanol-predictive stimulus complex, including the dipper cup filled with water (0% ethanol), did not produce any reinstatement. These results indicate that (1) noncontingent presentations of the ethanol-predictive stimulus complex may reinstate ethanol seeking in sP rats and (2) the orosensory properties of ethanol may play an important role in reinstatement of ethanol seeking in sP rats. The latter finding concurs with clinical observations that odor and taste of alcoholic beverages elicit immediate craving responses in abstinent alcoholics.

  4. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. METHODS: Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. RESULTS: We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32 engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  5. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of both cocaine and sucrose seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Leonardo A; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2015-03-15

    Stimuli previously associated with drug taking can become triggers that can elicit craving and lead to relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we examined the influence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the nucleus accumbens shell on cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.254 mg, i.v.) for 2 h daily for 21 days, with each infusion of cocaine being paired with a cue light. After 21 days of self-administration, cocaine-taking behavior was extinguished by replacing cocaine with saline in the absence of the cue light. Next, during the reinstatement phase, DBS was administered bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens shell through bipolar stainless steel electrodes immediately prior to re-exposure to cues previously associated with cocaine reinforcement. DBS continued throughout the 2 h reinstatement session. Parallel studies examined the influence of accumbens shell DBS on reinstatement induced by cues previously associated with sucrose reinforcement. Results indicated that DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell significantly attenuated cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and sucrose seeking. Together, these results indicate that DBS of the accumbens shell disrupts cue-induced reinstatement associated with both a drug and a natural reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intranasal Oxytocin Selectively Modulates Social Perception, Craving, and Approach Behavior in Subjects With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Arcuni, Peter A; Weinstein, Dawn; Woolley, Josh D

    2016-01-01

    A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability. Social perceptual ability, cue-induced craving, and approach bias for alcohol and appetitive imagery were quantified after intranasal oxytocin and placebo administration to 32 nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol abuse in a double-blind, crossover study. Because attachment style can moderate the effects of oxytocin, we also explored whether attachment style moderated oxytocin's effects on our behavioral measures. Oxytocin significantly improved recognition of easier items on a social perception task, but had no significant group-level effect on cue-induced craving. However, oxytocin effects on craving were moderated by attachment anxiety, with oxytocin reducing craving in more anxiously attached individuals and increasing craving in less anxiously attached individuals. Subjects did not display an approach bias to alcohol images on the placebo day, preventing meaningful analysis of this measure. Subjects did display an approach bias to appetitive images on the placebo day, which was significantly reduced by oxytocin administration. No adverse reactions were observed. Intranasal oxytocin has potential to improve social perception, reduce cue-induced alcohol cravings, and reduce appetitive approach bias in subjects with alcohol abuse, and can be safely tolerated in this population. The effects of oxytocin are complex, however, and require further investigation.

  7. Sex differences in smoking cue reactivity: craving, negative affect, and preference for immediate smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal

    2014-01-01

    Female smokers have greater difficulty quitting, possibly due to increased reactivity to smoking-related cues. This study assessed sex differences in craving, affect, and preference for immediate smoking after cue exposure. Regular smokers (n = 60; 50% female) were exposed to smoking and neutral cues in separate, counterbalanced sessions. Outcomes included changes in craving and affect and preference for immediate smoking following cue exposure. Findings indicated that women exhibited greater preference for immediate smoking (p = .004), and reported greater cue-induced increases in cigarette craving (p = .046) and negative affect (p = .025). These data suggest that women may have greater difficulty inhibiting smoking after cue exposure, possibly as a consequence of greater increases in craving and negative affect. Findings suggest a mechanism that may contribute to greater cessation failure among female smokers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Insula and drug cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Hugh

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the role of the insula in drug craving. Evidence is presented that drug craving may be a particular instance of the anterior insula's broader role in interoception and subjective feeling states similar, for example, to thirst and hunger. An important role for the insula in craving is supported by evidence of insular activity changing with satiety and with the top-down cognitive modulation of cravings. Cognitive processes involving the insula's role in awareness of one's own behaviour may also contribute to craving insofar as the avoidance of craving might require subjective awareness of the endogenous and exogenous cues that initiate it. Finally, some consideration is given to sex differences and developmental processes in craving.

  9. Effects of length of abstinence on decision-making and craving in methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibin Wang

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The majority of drug abusers are incapable of sustaining abstinence over any length of time. Accumulating evidence has linked intense and involuntary craving, Impulsive decision-making and mood disturbances to risk for relapse. However, little is known about temporal changes of these neuropsychological functions in methamphetamine (METH-dependent individuals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of length of abstinence on decision-making, craving (baseline and cue-induced, and emotional state in METH-addicted individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 183 adult METH-dependent patients at an addiction rehabilitation center who were abstinent for 6 days (n = 37, 14 days (n = 33, 1 month (n = 31, 3 months (n = 30, 6 months (n = 26, or 1 year (n = 30 and 39 healthy subjects were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to assess decision-making performance. Depression, anxiety, and impulsivity were also examined. One hundred thirty-nine METH abusers who were abstinent for the aforementioned times then underwent a cue session, and subjective and physiological measures were assessed. RESULTS: METH dependent individuals who were abstinent for longer periods of time exhibited better decision-making than those who were abstinent for shorter periods of time. And self-reported emotional symptoms improved with abstinence. METH abusers' ratings of craving decreased with the duration of abstinence, while cue-induced craving increased until 3 months of abstinence and decreased at 6 months and 1 year of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: We present time-dependent alterations in decision-making, emotional state, and the incubation of cue-induced craving in METH-dependent individuals, which might have significant clinical implications for the prevention of relapse.

  10. Development and Validation of the Questionnaire of Vaping Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Ashley N; Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2018-03-12

    Craving may represent core motivational processes in tobacco dependence, but there is no psychometrically evaluated measure of craving for e-cigarettes (vaping craving). This research developed and validated a brief measure of vaping craving. The measure was evaluated in two studies. In Study 1, a 42-item questionnaire assessing a wide range of vaping craving content was administered to 209 current e-cigarette users. In Study 2, a 10-item questionnaire derived from Study 1 results was administered to 224 current e-cigarette users. Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk, an online labor market. Principal factor analysis identified the strongest loading items (.815 - .867) on the first extracted factor (77% of the factor variance) for inclusion in a 10-item Questionnaire of Vaping Craving (QVC). This item set, with an internal consistency (α) of .97, focused on desire and intent to vape, and anticipation of positive outcomes related to e-cigarette use. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the items had strong factor loadings that were significantly predicted by the latent vaping craving construct (ps vaping craving was significantly associated with the level of e-cigarette use, greater negative mood, and lower confidence in ability to quit vaping (ps vaping craving was more strongly associated with e-cigarette dependence than tobacco dependence. The findings support the reliability and validity of the QVC and suggest it could be used in laboratory and clinical settings as a psychometrically sound measure of vaping craving.

  11. Heart rate variability biofeedback reduces food cravings in high food cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Freund, Rebecca; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback has been reported to increase HRV while decreasing symptoms in patients with mental disorders. In addition, associations between low HRV and lowered self-regulation were found in non-clinical samples, e.g., in individuals with strong chocolate cravings or unsuccessful dieting. The current study aimed at decreasing food cravings with HRV-biofeedback in individuals frequently experiencing such cravings. Participants (N = 56) with strong or low food cravings associated with a lack of control over eating were selected from the local community. Half of the participants with strong cravings (craving-biofeedback; n = 14) performed 12 sessions of HRV-biofeedback while the other half (craving-control; n = 14) and a group with low cravings (non-craving-control; n = 28) received no intervention. Subjective food cravings related to a lack of control over eating decreased from pre- to post-measurement in the craving-biofeedback group, but remained constant in the control groups. Moreover, only the craving-biofeedback group showed a decrease in eating and weight concerns. Although HRV-biofeedback was successful in reducing food cravings, this change was not accompanied by an increase in HRV. Instead, HRV decreased in the craving-control group. This study provides preliminary evidence that HRV-biofeedback could be beneficial for attenuating dysfunctional eating behavior although specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  12. Reward dependence moderates smoking-cue- and stress-induced cigarette cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p'scues (pcues (pcues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism modulates cue-elicited heroin craving in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chunhong; Li, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida; Zhang, Dandan; Xu, Yifeng; Lin, Ling; Wang, Qiuying; Zhao, Min; Jin, Li

    2006-06-01

    Subjective craving, which contributes to the continuation of drug use in active abuser and the occurrence of relapse in detoxified abusers, is considered to be a central phenomenon in addiction. Dopamine pathway has been implicated in the mechanism underlying the cue-elicited craving for a variety of addictive substances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that heroin addicts carrying D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) long type allele would have higher craving after exposure to a heroin-related cue. Craving was induced by a series of exposure to neutral and heroin-related cue and were assessed in a cohort of Chinese heroin abusers (n=420) recruited from the Voluntary Drug Dependence Treatment Center at Shanghai. Significantly stronger cue-elicited heroin craving was found in individuals carrying DRD4 VNTR long type allele than the non-carriers (F=31.040, pcue-elicited craving in heroin dependence, indicating DRD4 VNTR represents one of potential genetic risk factors for cue-induced craving.

  14. Sex differences in daily life stress and craving in opioid-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Landhing M; Kowalczyk, William J; Phillips, Karran A; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2018-04-11

    Responses to stress and drug craving differ between men and women. Differences in the momentary experience of stress in relation to craving are less well-understood. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we examined sex differences in real-time in two areas: (1) causes and contexts associated with stress, and (2) the extent to which stress and drug cues are associated with craving. Outpatients on opioid-agonist treatment (135 males, 47 females) reported stress, craving, and behavior on smartphones for 16 weeks. They initiated an entry each time they felt more stressed than usual (stress event) and made randomly prompted entries 3 times/day. In stress-event entries, they identified the causes and context (location, activity, companions), and rated stress and craving severity. The causes reported for stress events did not differ significantly by sex. Women reported arguing and being in a store more often during stress events, and men reported working more often during stress events, compared to base rates (assessed via random prompts). Women showed a greater increase in opioid craving as a function of stress (p stress ratings in the presence of both stress and drug cues relative to men (p stress but differ in stress- and cue-induced craving. These findings support sex-based tailoring of treatment, but because not all participants conformed to the overall pattern of sex differences, any such tailoring should also consider person-level differences.

  15. β-Endorphin via the Delta Opioid Receptor is a Major Factor in the Incubation of Cocaine Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshtein, Yahav; Barnea, Royi; Kronfeld, Noam; Lax, Elad; Roth-Deri, Ilana; Friedman, Alexander; Gispan, Iris; Elharrar, Einat; Levy, Sarit; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Cue-induced cocaine craving intensifies, or ‘incubates', during the first few weeks of abstinence and persists over extended periods of time. One important factor implicated in cocaine addiction is the endogenous opioid β-endorphin. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of β-endorphin in the incubation of cocaine craving. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, 10 days, 6 h/day), followed by either a 1-day or a 30-day period of forced abstinence. Subsequent testing for cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior (without cocaine reinforcement) was performed. Rats exposed to the drug-associated cue on day 1 of forced abstinence demonstrated minimal cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior concurrently with a significant increase in β-endorphin release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Conversely, exposure to the cue on day 30 increased cocaine seeking, while β-endorphin levels remained unchanged. Intra-NAc infusion of an anti-β-endorphin antibody (4 μg) on day 1 increased cue-induced cocaine seeking, whereas infusion of a synthetic β-endorphin peptide (100 ng) on day 30 significantly decreased cue response. Both intra-NAc infusions of the δ opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 μg) on day 1 and naltrindole together with β-endorphin on day 30 increased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. Intra-NAc infusion of the μ opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (30 ng and 3 μg) had no behavioral effect. Altogether, these results demonstrate a novel role for β-endorphin and the δ opioid receptor in the development of the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:23800967

  16. The effects of exogenous progesterone on drug craving and stress arousal in cocaine dependence: impact of gender and cue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Morgan, Peter T; Tuit, Keri L; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-09-01

    Exogenous progesterone has been shown to attenuate the rewarding effects of cocaine. However, its effects on provoked drug craving, stress arousal and cognitive performance has not been systematically investigated in cocaine dependent men and women. Thus, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled study assessing the efficacy of progesterone in reducing provoked drug craving, stress system arousal and improving cognitive performance in cocaine dependent men and women. Forty-two early abstinent treatment-seeking cocaine dependent individuals were randomly assigned to either daily doses of placebo (12M/9F) or micronized progesterone (12M/9F) (400 mg/day), for 7 days. Under experimental conditions, all subjects were exposed to three 5-min personalized guided imagery conditions (stress, cocaine cue, relaxing), one per day, consecutively in a random, counterbalanced order. Subjective craving, mood, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and cardiovascular output, and a cognitive measure of inhibitory control (Stroop Color Word Task) were assessed pre- and post imagery. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly decreased cue-induced craving and cortisol responses and increased cue-induced ACTH. In addition, women but not men receiving progesterone reported lower ratings of negative emotion and higher ratings of relaxed mood following stress exposure. Improved Stroop performance was observed in all participants receiving progesterone, across all conditions. Progesterone was selectively effective in reducing cocaine cue-induced but not stress-related cocaine craving as well as specific measures of the provoked arousal state. Findings suggest that progesterone's effects on drug craving and arousal are moderated by both the type of environmental cue exposure and gender. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Accelerated Right Prefrontal High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Cue-Reactivity: An fMRI Study on Craving in Recently Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Herremans

    Full Text Available In alcohol-dependent patients craving is a difficult-to-treat phenomenon. It has been suggested that high-frequency (HF repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS may have beneficial effects. However, exactly how this application exerts its effect on the underlying craving neurocircuit is currently unclear. In an effort to induce alcohol craving and to maximize detection of HF-rTMS effects to cue-induced alcohol craving, patients were exposed to a block and event-related alcohol cue-reactivity paradigm while being scanned with fMRI. Hence, we assessed the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on cue-induced and general alcohol craving, and the related craving neurocircuit. Twenty-six recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were included. First, we evaluated the impact of one sham-controlled stimulation session. Second, we examined the effect of accelerated right DLPFC HF-rTMS treatment: here patients received 15 sessions in an open label accelerated design, spread over 4 consecutive days. General craving significantly decreased after 15 active HF-rTMS sessions. However, cue-induced alcohol craving was not altered. Our brain imaging results did not show that the cue-exposure affected the underlying craving neurocircuit after both one and fifteen active HF-rTMS sessions. Yet, brain activation changes after one and 15 HF-rTMS sessions, respectively, were observed in regions associated with the extended reward system and the default mode network, but only during the presentation of the event-related paradigm. Our findings indicate that accelerated HF-rTMS applied to the right DLPFC does not manifestly affect the craving neurocircuit during an alcohol-related cue-exposure, but instead it may influence the attentional network.

  18. Cue-induced Behavioral and Neural Changes among Excessive Internet Gamers and Possible Application of Cue Exposure Therapy to Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Hou, Juan; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Li Zhuang; Wang, Ying; Han, Long; Bu, Junjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may lead to many negative consequences in everyday life, yet there is currently no effective treatment for IGD. Cue-reactivity paradigm is commonly used to evaluate craving for substance, food, and gambling; cue exposure therapy (CET) is applied to treating substance use disorders (SUDs) and some other psychological disorders such as pathological gambling (PG). However, no study has explored CET's application to the treatment of IGD except two articles having implied that cues' exposure may have therapeutic effect on IGD. This paper reviews studies on cue-induced behavioral and neural changes in excessive Internet gamers, indicating that behavioral and neural mechanisms of IGD mostly overlap with those of SUD. The CET's effects in the treatment of SUDs and PG are also reviewed. We finally propose an optimized CET paradigm, which future studies should consider and investigate as a probable treatment of IGD.

  19. Cue-induced Behavioral and Neural Changes among Excessive Internet Gamers and Possible Application of Cue Exposure Therapy to Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD may lead to many negative consequences in everyday life, yet there is currently no effective treatment for IGD. Cue-reactivity paradigm is commonly used to evaluate craving for substance, food, and gambling; cue exposure therapy (CET is applied to treating substance use disorders (SUDs and some other psychological disorders such as pathological gambling (PG. However, no study has explored CET’s application to the treatment of IGD except two articles having implied that cues’ exposure may have therapeutic effect on IGD. This paper reviews studies on cue-induced behavioral and neural changes in excessive Internet gamers, indicating that behavioral and neural mechanisms of IGD mostly overlap with those of SUD. The CET’s effects in the treatment of SUDs and PG are also reviewed. We finally propose an optimized CET paradigm, which future studies should consider and investigate as a probable treatment of IGD.

  20. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  1. The SPECT study on the regional cerebral blood flow of heroin addicts during cue-induced heroin craving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengqing; Liu Qinglong; Wang Yuhua; Wang Jinmin; Wang Shuo; Zhao Geyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the character of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of heroin addicts during the exposure to the heroin-related cues. Methods: Twenty-five heroin dependent individuals undergoing detoxification for more than one month were enrolled in the present study. All subjects were exposed to the heroin-related cues for 15 min. The rCBF was measured in these patients before and after exposure to heroin-related cues. Result: The rCBF in the frontal, temporal cortex and amygdala was significantly increased during the exposure to heroin-related cues. Conclusion: The findings indicate that drug-related cues play a critical role in the relapse of drug dependence; and the frontal, temporal cortex and amygdala are involved in the relapsing process

  2. Development of an effective virtual environment in eliciting craving in adolescents and young adults with internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Bin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Jung, Young Hoon; Eom, Hyojung

    2018-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a new disorder that warrants further investigation, as recently noted in the research criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Offering controlled environments that increase cue-induced craving, virtual reality cue-exposure therapy has been shown to be effective for some addiction disorders. To assess the feasibility of virtual reality for patients with IGD, this study aimed to develop virtual environments that represent risk situations for inducing craving, and assess the effect of virtual reality in cue reactivity. A total of 64 male adolescents and young adults (34 with IGD and 30 without) were recruited for participation. We developed a virtual internet café environment and the participants were exposed to four different tasks. As the primary feasibility outcome, cravings were measured with a visual analogue scale measuring current urge to play a game after exposure to each task. The virtual internet café induced significantly greater cravings in patients with IGD compared to controls. Additionally, patients exhibited a significantly higher acceptance rate of an avatar’s invitation to play a game together than that of controls. In IGD, craving response to the tasks was positively associated with the symptom severity score as measured by Young's Internet Addiction Test. These findings reveal that virtual reality laden with complex game-related cues could evoke game craving in patients with IGD and could be used in the treatment of IGD as a cue-exposure therapy tool for eliciting craving. PMID:29672530

  3. Development of an effective virtual environment in eliciting craving in adolescents and young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Bin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Jung, Young Hoon; Eom, Hyojung; Kim, Eunjoo

    2018-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a new disorder that warrants further investigation, as recently noted in the research criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Offering controlled environments that increase cue-induced craving, virtual reality cue-exposure therapy has been shown to be effective for some addiction disorders. To assess the feasibility of virtual reality for patients with IGD, this study aimed to develop virtual environments that represent risk situations for inducing craving, and assess the effect of virtual reality in cue reactivity. A total of 64 male adolescents and young adults (34 with IGD and 30 without) were recruited for participation. We developed a virtual internet café environment and the participants were exposed to four different tasks. As the primary feasibility outcome, cravings were measured with a visual analogue scale measuring current urge to play a game after exposure to each task. The virtual internet café induced significantly greater cravings in patients with IGD compared to controls. Additionally, patients exhibited a significantly higher acceptance rate of an avatar's invitation to play a game together than that of controls. In IGD, craving response to the tasks was positively associated with the symptom severity score as measured by Young's Internet Addiction Test. These findings reveal that virtual reality laden with complex game-related cues could evoke game craving in patients with IGD and could be used in the treatment of IGD as a cue-exposure therapy tool for eliciting craving.

  4. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

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    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  5. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  6. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  8. Incubation of extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement, but not context- or drug priming-induced reinstatement, after withdrawal from methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Sweta; Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Kallenberger, Paige; Shaham, Yavin; Bossert, Jennifer M

    2017-07-01

    In rats trained to self-administer methamphetamine, extinction responding in the presence of drug-associated contextual and discrete cues progressively increases after withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The conditioning factors underlying this incubation are unknown. Here, we studied incubation of methamphetamine craving under different experimental conditions to identify factors contributing to this incubation. We also determined whether the rats' response to methamphetamine priming incubates after withdrawal. We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine in a distinct context (context A) for 14 days (6 hours/day). Lever presses were paired with a discrete light cue. We then tested groups of rats in context A or a different non-drug context (context B) after 1 day, 1 week or 1 month for extinction responding with or without the discrete cue. Subsequently, we tested the rats for reinstatement of drug seeking induced by exposure to contextual, discrete cue, or drug priming (0, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg). Operant responding in the extinction sessions in contexts A or B was higher after 1 week and 1 month of withdrawal than after 1 day; this effect was context-independent. Independent of the withdrawal period, operant responding in the extinction sessions was higher when responding led to contingent delivery of the discrete cue. After extinction, discrete cue-induced reinstatement, but not context- or drug priming-induced reinstatement, progressively increased after withdrawal. Together, incubation of methamphetamine craving, as assessed in extinction tests, is primarily mediated by time-dependent increases in non-reinforced operant responding, and this effect is potentiated by exposure to discrete, but not contextual, cues. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Comparison of craving for opioid in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Chehri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT is the most important treatment for opioid -dependency recurrence. The aim of this study was to compare the craving level in opioid-dependent individuals and people under methadone maintenance therapy. Methods: In this case – control study, 120 men with opioid dependency were selected through cluster sampling method. They were divided into two groups, 60 people in opioid-dependent group and 60 people in MMT group. Both groups were matched for age, sex, marital status, education, duration of opioid dependency and method of consumption. Then, they completed INCAS Substance Abuse Profile (ISAP, opiate withdrawal symptoms checklist, self–report of craving, Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ, Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS and visual cue-induced craving questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean craving for drug significantly was lower in MMT group comparing opioid-dependent group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Methadone Maintenance Therapy decreased the craving for drugs and substances This can have an important role in relapse prevention.

  10. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L.; King, Christopher P.; Meyer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli (“cues”), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. Objectives To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food predictive cue (“sign-trackers”) or a reward-delivery location (“goal-trackers”). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Methods Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Results Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue, and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs. PMID:27282365

  11. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L; King, Christopher P; Meyer, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers"). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue-induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs.

  12. Common biology of craving across legal and illegal drugs - a quantitative meta-analysis of cue-reactivity brain response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2011-04-01

    The present quantitative meta-analysis set out to test whether cue-reactivity responses in humans differ across drugs of abuse and whether these responses constitute the biological basis of drug craving as a core psychopathology of addiction. By means of activation likelihood estimation, we investigated the concurrence of brain regions activated by cue-induced craving paradigms across studies on nicotine, alcohol and cocaine addicts. Furthermore, we analysed the concurrence of brain regions positively correlated with self-reported craving in nicotine and alcohol studies. We found direct overlap between nicotine, alcohol and cocaine cue reactivity in the ventral striatum. In addition, regions of close proximity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; nicotine and cocaine) and amygdala (alcohol, nicotine and cocaine). Brain regions of concurrence in drug cue-reactivity paradigms that overlapped with brain regions of concurrence in self-reported craving correlations were found in the ACC, ventral striatum and right pallidum (for alcohol). This first quantitative meta-analysis on drug cue reactivity identifies brain regions underlying nicotine, alcohol and cocaine dependency, i.e. the ventral striatum. The ACC, right pallidum and ventral striatum were related to drug cue reactivity as well as self-reported craving, suggesting that this set of brain regions constitutes the core circuit of drug craving in nicotine and alcohol addiction. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Boundary Conditions of Methamphetamine Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B.; Onyemekwu, Chukwudi; Hart, Carl L.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Kober, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has increased significantly and become a global health concern. Craving is known to predict methamphetamine use and relapse following abstinence. Some have suggested that cravings are automatic, generalized, and uncontrollable, but experimental work addressing these claims is lacking. In two exploratory studies we tested the boundary conditions of methamphetamine craving by asking: (1) is craving specific to users’ preferred route of administration? and (2) can craving be regulated by cognitive strategies? Two groups of methamphetamine users were recruited. In Study 1, participants were grouped by their preferred route of administration (intranasal vs. smoking), and rated their craving in response to photographs and movies depicting methamphetamine use (via the intranasal vs. smoking route). In Study 2, methamphetamine smokers implemented cognitive regulation strategies while viewing photographs depicting methamphetamine smoking. Strategies involved either focusing on the positive aspects of smoking methamphetamine or the negative consequences of doing so – the latter strategy based on treatment protocols for addiction. In Study 1, we found a significant interaction between group and route of administration, such that participants who preferred to smoke methamphetamine reported significantly stronger craving for smoking stimuli, whereas those who preferred the intranasal route reported stronger craving for intranasal stimuli. In Study 2, participants reported significantly lower craving when focusing on the negative consequences associated with methamphetamine use. Taken together, these findings suggest that strength of craving for methamphetamine is moderated by users’ route of administration and can be reduced by cognitive strategies. This has important theoretical, methodological, and clinical implications. PMID:26302338

  14. Development and initial validation of a caffeine craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Oliver; Roderique-Davies, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Craving for caffeine has received little empirical attention, despite considerable research into the potential for caffeine dependence. The main aim of this study was to develop, and initially validate, a multi-item, multidimensional instrument to measure cravings for caffeine. Participants were 189 caffeine consumers who completed the Questionnaire of Caffeine Cravings, which was based on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), in one of five naturally occurring periods of abstinence; 1-15 min; 16-120 mins; 3-7 h; 12-48 h and +48 h. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution best described the data; Factor 1 reflected strong desires, intentions and positive reinforcement; Factor 2 reflected mild/general positive and negative reinforcement and Factor 3 reflected functional/mood-based negative reinforcement. Significantly higher Factor 1 and Factor 2 scores were recorded for high frequency users; significantly higher Factor 1 and Factor 3 scores were recorded as a function of increased levels of dependence. Duration of abstinence did not significantly effect cravings across all three factors. Regression analyses suggested level of dependence best predicted both current cravings and frequency of daily use. These findings suggest caffeine cravings may be conceptualized multidimensionally and further validates the use of multidimensional, multi-item instruments. Cravings for caffeine may manifest and be detected across varying levels of dependence and, frequency of use and independently of duration of abstinence.

  15. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender...

  16. Assessing cue-induced brain response as a function of abstinence duration in heroin-dependent individuals: an event-related fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available The brain activity induced by heroin-related cues may play a role in the maintenance of heroin dependence. Whether the reinforcement or processing biases construct an everlasting feature of heroin addiction remains to be resolved. We used an event-related fMRI paradigm to measure brain activation in response to heroin cue-related pictures versus neutral pictures as the control condition in heroin-dependent patients undergoing short-term and long-term abstinence. The self-reported craving scores were significantly increased after cue exposure in the short-term abstinent patients (t = 3.000, P = 0.008, but no increase was found in the long-term abstinent patients (t = 1.510, P = 0.149. However, no significant differences in cue-induced craving changes were found between the two groups (t = 1.193, P = 0.850. Comparing between the long-term abstinence and short-term abstinence groups, significant decreases in brain activation were detected in the bilateral anterior cingulated cortex, left medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, middle occipital gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and right precuneus. Among all of the heroin dependent patients, the abstinence duration was negatively correlated with brain activation in the left medial prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal lobule. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence may be useful for heroin-dependent patients to diminish their saliency value of heroin-related cues and possibly lower the relapse vulnerability to some extent.

  17. Induction of food craving experience: the role of mental imagery, dietary restraint, mood and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Valero, E; Ruiz Prieto, I

    2012-01-01

    Food craving consists of a strong motivational state whereby a person is driven to seek and ingest a specifically desired food. To explore the influence of mental imagery on the food craving experience as well as to analyse the role of different psychological variables. Participants consisted of 65 normal weight undergraduate students. An experimental induction of food craving was analysed considering the actual previous craving and the induced one as a state food craving. Measures of trait food craving, imaging ability, dietary restraint, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies were considered. Sweet foods in general and chocolate in particular were the most craved foods. During the induction thoughts and images were the most highly rated triggers, and all the different sensory modalities were involved. Anxiety, depression, and negative coping strategies influenced the results with regards to the food craving. This study confirms the role of mental imagery, the correlation between state and trait food craving, and the influence of different psychological variables on the food craving.

  18. A comparison of emotion regulation strategies in response to craving cognitions: Effects on smoking behaviour, craving and affect in dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadman, Matthew; Das, Ravi K; Freeman, Tom P; Scragg, Peter; West, Robert; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2015-06-01

    The effects of three emotion regulation strategies that targeted smoking-related thoughts were compared on outcomes relevant to smoking cessation. Daily smokers applied defusion (n = 25), reappraisal (n = 25) or suppression (n = 23) to thoughts associated with smoking during a cue-induced craving procedure. Smoking behaviour, approach/avoidance behavioural bias, and subjective measures of experiential avoidance, craving, and affect were assessed during the experimental session, with additional behavioural and subjective outcomes assessed at 24 h and seven day follow-up. The influence of baseline group differences in smoking level and nicotine dependence were explored statistically. Defusion and reappraisal were associated with greater restraint in smoking behaviour in the immediate post-session period as well as reduction in smoking at seven day follow-up compared to suppression. Relative to suppression, reduced subjective craving was seen in the reappraisal group, and reduced experiential avoidance in the defusion group. Differences in approach/avoidance responses to smoking and neutral cues were observed only between the suppression and reappraisal groups. Although suppression was rated as lower in both credibility and strategy-expectancy compared to defusion and reappraisal, neither credibility nor expectancy mediated the effect of any strategy on changes in levels of smoking. Defusion and reappraisal produced similar benefits in smoking-related behavioural outcomes but, relative to suppression, were associated with distinctive outcomes on experiential avoidance and craving. The effects appear to be independent of perceived expectancy and credibility of the different strategies. Overall, the results suggest a role for reappraisal and defusion strategies in the development of psychological treatments for addiction-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...

  20. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  1. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  2. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  3. Craving as a DSM-5 Symptom of Alcohol Use Disorder in Non-Treatment Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Emily E; Ray, Lara A

    2018-05-01

    DSM-5 has added craving as a new criterion and changed the diagnostic structure of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Though craving has long been a target of intervention, less is known about the impact this addition will have on prevalence and factor structure of AUD, particularly in non-treatment seeker with alcohol problems. Non-treatment seeking individuals reporting alcohol-related problems (N = 296) completed a structured clinical interview and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS). PACS scores greater than 20 were considered to meet diagnostic criteria for the alcohol craving symptom. This study examined DSM-IV to DSM-5 diagnostic conversion and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to test the factor structure of the DSM-5 symptoms, including craving. The mean PACS score was 13.1 and alcohol craving was strongly correlated with other measures of alcohol use. Using the proposed cut-off score of PACS > 20, 46 participants (16.2%) met criteria for alcohol craving. Craving loaded moderately (0.47) onto the retained DSM symptoms and produced a unidimensional factor structure. The majority of participants who met for a DSM-IV AUD also met for a DSM-5 AUD (98.8%). Craving prevalence using the PACS was relatively low compared to the remaining 10 DSM-5 symptoms, possibly due to the non-treatment seeking nature of the sample. Conversion of DSM-IV to DSM-5 in this sample led to a small increase in overall AUD prevalence. Craving loaded well onto a single factor structure for AUD.

  4. Choosing to regulate: does choice enhance craving regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasser, Arian; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Goal-directed behavior and lifelong well-being often depend on the ability to control appetitive motivations, such as cravings. Cognitive reappraisal is an effective way to modulate emotional states, including cravings, but is often studied under explicit instruction to regulate. Despite the strong prediction from Self-Determination Theory that choice should enhance task engagement and regulation success, little is known empirically about whether and how regulation is different when participants choose (vs are told) to exert control. To investigate how choice affects neural activity and regulation success, participants reappraised their responses to images of personally-craved foods while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Participants were either instructed to view or reappraise (‘no-choice’) or chose freely to view or reappraise (‘yes-choice’). Choice increased activity in the frontoparietal control network. We expected this activity would be associated with increased task engagement, resulting in better regulation success. However, contrary to this prediction, choice slightly reduced regulation success. Follow-up multivariate functional neuroimaging analyses indicated that choice likely disrupted allocation of limited cognitive resources during reappraisal. While unexpected, these results highlight the importance of studying upstream processes such as regulation choice, as they may affect the ability to regulate cravings and other emotional states. PMID:29462475

  5. Hand-held dynamic visual noise reduces naturally occurring food cravings and craving-related consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-09-01

    This study demonstrated the applicability of the well-established laboratory task, dynamic visual noise, as a technique for reducing naturally occurring food cravings and subsequent food intake. Dynamic visual noise was delivered on a hand-held computer device. Its effects were assessed within the context of a diary study. Over a 4-week period, 48 undergraduate women recorded their food cravings and consumption. Following a 2-week baseline, half the participants watched the dynamic visual noise display whenever they experienced a food craving. Compared to a control group, these participants reported less intense cravings. They were also less likely to eat following a craving and consequently consumed fewer total calories following craving. These findings hold promise for curbing unwanted food cravings and craving-driven consumption in real-world settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food-craving and measures of hyperphagia behavior in participants with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gabriela L; Poje, Albert B; Perissinotti, Iago; Marcondes, Bianca F; Villamar, Mauricio F; Manzardo, Ann M; Luque, Laura; LePage, Jean F; Stafford, Diane; Fregni, Felipe; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities and insatiable appetite with compulsive eating leading to severe obesity with detrimental health consequences. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making and cue-induced food craving in healthy adults. We conducted a pilot double blind, sham-controlled, multicenter study of tDCS modulation of food drive and craving in 10 adult PWS participants, 11 adult obese (OB) and 11 adult healthy-weight control (HWC) subjects. PWS and OB subjects received five consecutive daily sessions of active or sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while HWC received a single sham and active tDCS in a crossover design. Standardized psychometric instruments assessed food craving, drive and hyperphagia by self-report and caregiver assessment over 30 days. Robust baseline differences were observed in severity scores for the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Dykens Hyperphagia Questionnaire (DHQ) for PWS compared to HWC while obese participants were more similar to HWC. Active tDCS stimulation in PWS was associated with a significant change from baseline in TFEQ Disinhibition (Factor II) (Ƶ = 1.9, P food drive and behaviors impacting hyperphagia in PWS. Transcranial direct current stimulation may represent a straight-forward, low risk and low cost method to improve care, management and quality of life in PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Changes in cue-induced, prefrontal cortex activity with video-game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Yong Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-12-01

    Brain responses, particularly within the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, to Internet video-game cues in college students are similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence in response to the substance-related cues. In this study, we report changes in brain activity between baseline and following 6 weeks of Internet video-game play. We hypothesized that subjects with high levels of self-reported craving for Internet video-game play would be associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one healthy university students were recruited. At baseline and after a 6-week period of Internet video-game play, brain activity during presentation of video-game cues was assessed using 3T blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Craving for Internet video-game play was assessed by self-report on a 7-point visual analogue scale following cue presentation. During a standardized 6-week video-game play period, brain activity in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex of the excessive Internet game-playing group (EIGP) increased in response to Internet video-game cues. In contrast, activity observed in the general player group (GP) was not changed or decreased. In addition, the change of craving for Internet video games was positively correlated with the change in activity of the anterior cingulate in all subjects. These changes in frontal-lobe activity with extended video-game play may be similar to those observed during the early stages of addiction.

  8. Measuring craving: An attempt to connect subjective craving with cue reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteman, W.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Vserheul, R.; Schippers, G.M.; van den Brink, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Better insight into craving may contribute to the development of more efficient relapse prevention strategies. Inconsistent findings on the relation between craving and relapse may be due to difficulties in the measurement of craving. These difficulties are accounted for by 3

  9. Measuring craving: an attempt to connect subjective craving with cue reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteman, Wendy; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Vserheul, Roel; Schippers, Gerard M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better insight into craving may contribute to the development of more efficient relapse prevention strategies. Inconsistent findings on the relation between craving and relapse may be due to difficulties in the measurement of craving. These difficulties are accounted for by 3

  10. Ghrelin enhances cue-induced bar pressing for high fat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Veronique; Watts, Alexander; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs) both peripherally and centrally. The presence of GHSRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggests that ghrelin signaling at this level may increase the incentive value of palatable foods as well as other natural and artificial rewards. The present investigation sought to determine if ghrelin plays a role in relapse to such foods following a period of abstinence. To achieve this, thirty-six male Long Evans rats were trained to press a lever to obtain a high fat chocolate food reward on a fixed ratio schedule of 1. Following an extinction period during which lever presses were not reinforced, rats were implanted with a cannula connected to a minipump that continuously delivered ghrelin, a GHSR antagonist ([d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6), or saline in the VTA for 14days. One week later, food reward-associated cues, food reward priming, and an overnight fast were used to induce reinstatement of the lever pressing response. Our results indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin enhances cue-induced reinstatement of responses for palatable food pellets. To the extent that the reinstatement paradigm is considered a valid model of relapse in humans, this suggests that ghrelin signaling facilitates relapse to preferred foods in response to food cues through GHSR signaling in the VTA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  12. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  13. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Behm, Frédérique M; Preud'homme, Xavier; Krystal, Andrew D

    2011-10-15

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown strong correlations between cue-elicited craving for cigarettes and activation of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a noninvasive means to reversibly affect brain cortical activity, which can be applied to testing hypotheses about the causal role of SFG in modulating craving. Fifteen volunteer smokers were recruited to investigate the effects of rTMS on subjective responses to smoking versus neutral cues and to controlled presentations of cigarette smoke. On different days, participants were exposed to three conditions: 1) high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; 2) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; and 3) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the motor cortex (control condition). Craving ratings in response to smoking versus neutral cues were differentially affected by the 10-Hz versus 1-Hz SFG condition. Craving after smoking cue presentations was elevated in the 10-Hz SFG condition, whereas craving after neutral cue presentations was reduced. Upon smoking in the 10-Hz SFG condition, ratings of immediate craving reduction as well as the intensity of interoceptive airway sensations were also attenuated. These results support the view that the SFG plays a role in modulating craving reactivity; moreover, the results suggest that the SFG plays a role in both excitatory and inhibitory influences on craving, consistent with prior research demonstrating the role of the prefrontal cortex in the elicitation as well as inhibition of drug-seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between tonic and phasic craving for alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Hartwell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple measures are utilized to assess alcohol craving, often interchangeably. Little is known about the relationship between tonic and phasic craving. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining the association between tonic levels of alcohol craving and phasic craving for alcohol that is provoked by alcohol administration. Methods: Forty-three non-treatment seeking problem drinkers underwent an initial interview and two laboratory testing sessions, where either alcohol or a saline placebo was administered intravenously. Tonic craving was assessed via the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS at the initial interview. Phasic craving was assessed during the laboratory sessions (i.e., alcohol and saline administrations, single blinded at baseline and at 3 subsequent breath alcohol concentrations (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/dl. Results: There was a main effect of PACS in predicting phasic craving across both saline and alcohol administration conditions (p  0.10, predicted phasic craving during alcohol, as compared to saline administration. Conclusion: In sum, tonic craving captured by the OCDS was predictive of phasic craving during alcohol administration whereas the PACS more generally captured the increase in phasic craving. Therefore, these measures of tonic craving may function differently in capturing the experience of phasic craving. Implications for the utilization of the PACS and OCDS as well as assessments of craving in alcoholism research are discussed. Keywords: Alcohol, Craving, Assessment

  16. Momentary Associations Between Reported Craving and Valuing Health in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Robert Ross; Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen M; Smyth, Joshua M; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that a blunted response to nondrug rewards, especially under conditions associated with strong cigarette cravings, is associated with reduced abstinence motivation in daily smokers. One limitation of previous studies is that they have largely focused on monetary rewards as broad representative of nondrug rewards. It remains unclear whether craving dampens responses to more abstract nondrug rewards, such as personal values. Personal values often have a positive valence and are frequently assumed to remain stable across time and situations. However, there may be time-varying and contextual influences on smokers' appraisal of values in daily life. Characterizing fluctuations in value importance in relation to relapse precipitants (eg, craving) may inform interventions that leverage personal values as motivation for cessation. Daily smokers (n = 18) completed ecological momentary assessment surveys measuring the importance of specific personal values and smoking-related variables during 8 days of monetarily reinforced cigarette abstinence. We hypothesized that value ratings would demonstrate adequate within-person heterogeneity for multilevel modeling and that within-person fluctuations in craving would be negatively related to valuing personal health. All values demonstrated adequate within-person variability for multilevel modeling. Within-person craving was negatively related to health valuation (p = .012) and a cross-level interaction (p > .0001) suggested this effect is stronger for individuals who report greater overall craving. Greater craving is associated with decreased importance of personal health in the moment, particularly for those with high average levels of craving. Timely interventions that bolster importance of health during moments of elevated craving can potentially improve cessation outcomes. This study builds on research highlighting the positive influence of personal values in motivating behavior change. Values are an often used

  17. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Caffeine cravings impair memory and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Ling, Angus; Riza, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test. Participants were randomly allocated to a craving or control condition; we manipulated caffeine cravings via a combination of abstinence, cue exposure, and imagery. Cravings impaired memory performance on the cued-recall and recognition tasks. Cravings also impaired resolution (the ability to distinguish items that would be remembered from those that would not) for FOK judgements but not JOLs, and reduced calibration (correspondence between predicted and actual accuracy) for JOLs but not FOK judgements. Additional analysis of the cued-recall data suggested that cravings also reduced participants' ability to monitor the likely accuracy of answers during the cued-recall test. These findings add to prior research demonstrating that memory strength manipulations have systematically different effects on different types of metacognitive judgements.

  19. The Firepower of Work Craving: When Self-Control Is Burning under the Rubble of Self-Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojdylo

    Full Text Available Work craving theory addresses how work-addicted individuals direct great emotion-regulatory efforts to weave their addictive web of working. They crave work for two main emotional incentives: to overcompensate low self-worth and to escape (i.e., reduce negative affect, which is strategically achieved through neurotic perfectionism and compulsive working. Work-addicted individuals' strong persistence and self-discipline with respect to work-related activities suggest strong skills in volitional action control. However, their inability to disconnect from work implies low volitional skills. How can work-addicted individuals have poor and strong volitional skills at the same time? To answer this paradox, we elaborated on the relevance of two different volitional modes in work craving: self-regulation (self-maintenance and self-control (goal maintenance. Four hypotheses were derived from Wojdylo's work craving theory and Kuhl's self-regulation theory: (H1 Work craving is associated with a combination of low self-regulation and high self-control. (H2 Work craving is associated with symptoms of psychological distress. (H3 Low self-regulation is associated with psychological distress symptoms. (H4 Work craving mediates the relationships between self-regulation deficits and psychological distress symptoms at high levels of self-control. Additionally, we aimed at supporting the discriminant validity of work craving with respect to work engagement by showing their different volitional underpinnings. Results of the two studies confirmed our hypotheses: whereas work craving was predicted by high self-control and low self-regulation and associated with higher psychological distress, work engagement was predicted by high self-regulation and high self-control and associated with lower symptoms of psychological distress. Furthermore, work styles mediated the relationship between volitional skills and symptoms of psychological distress. Based on these new

  20. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...

  1. Depression, Craving and Substance Use Following a Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses mindfulness-based practices to teach alternative responses to emotional discomfort and lessen the conditioned response of craving in the presence of depressive symptoms. The goal of the current study was to examine the relation between measures of depressive symptoms, craving, and substance use following MBRP. Methods Individuals with substance use disorders (N=168; age 40.45, (SD=10.28); 36.3% female; 46.4% nonwhite) were recruited after intensive stabilization, then randomly assigned to either eight weekly sessions of MBRP or a treatment-as-usual control group. Approximately 73% of the sample was retained at the final four-month follow-up assessment. Results Results confirmed a moderated-mediation effect, whereby craving mediated the relation between depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and substance use (Time Line Follow Back) among the treatment-as-usual group, but not among MBRP participants. Specifically, MBRP attenuated the relation between postintervention depressive symptoms and craving (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) two months following the intervention (f2=.21). This moderation effect predicted substance use four-months following the intervention (f2=.18). Conclusion MBRP appears to influence cognitive and behavioral responses to depressive symptoms, partially explaining reductions in postintervention substance use among the MBRP group. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of incorporating mindfulness practice into substance abuse treatment and identifies one potential mechanism of change following MBRP. PMID:20515211

  2. The effects of varied extinction procedures on contingent cue-induced reinstatement in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalari, Deanne M; Feltenstein, Matthew W; See, Ronald E

    2013-11-01

    Cue exposure therapy, which attempts to limit relapse by reducing reactivity to cocaine-paired cues through repeated exposures, has had limited success. The current experiments examined cocaine cue-induced anxiogenesis and investigated whether a model of cue exposure therapy would reduce reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats with a history of cocaine self-administration. Male rats experienced daily intravenous cocaine self-administration. Rats then experienced exposure to either the self-administration context or the context plus noncontingent presentations of cocaine-paired cues. Immediately following exposure, anxiety-like behavior was measured using elevated plus maze and defensive burying tests. In a second group of rats, self-administration was followed by 7 days of exposure to the context, context + noncontingent cue exposure, lever extinction, or cue + lever extinction. All animals then underwent two contingent cue-induced reinstatement tests separated by 7 days of lever extinction. Exposure to noncontingent cocaine-paired cues in the self-administration context increased anxiety-like behavior on the defensive burying test. Animals that experienced lever + cue extinction displayed the least cocaine seeking on the first reinstatement test, and lever extinction reduced cocaine seeking below context exposure or context + noncontingent cue exposure. All animals had similar levels of cocaine seeking on the second reinstatement test. Noncontingent cue exposure causes anxiety, and noncontingent cue and context exposure are less effective at reducing contingent cue-induced reinstatement than lever or lever + cue extinction. These data indicate that active extinction of the drug-taking response may be critical for reduction of relapse proclivity in former cocaine users.

  3. Individual differences in anticipatory activity to food rewards predict cue-induced appetitive 50-kHz calls in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Juan C; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2015-10-01

    Reward-related stimuli come to acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian learning and become capable of controlling reward-oriented behaviors. Here, we examined individual differences in anticipatory activity elicited by reward-related cues as indicative of how animals attribute incentive salience to otherwise neutral stimuli. Since adult rats can signal incentive motivation states through ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) at around 50-kHz, such calls were recorded in food-deprived rats trained to associate cues with food rewards, which were subsequently devalued by satiation.We found that the extent to which animals developed conditioned anticipatory activity to food cues while food deprived determined the level of cue-induced appetitive USVs while sated. Re-exposure to reward cues after a free-testing period reinstated USVs, invigorated reward seeking and consumption, and again, increases in calling occurred only in animals with high levels of cue-induced anticipatory activity. Reward-experienced rats systemically challenged with the catecholamine agonist amphetamine or with the dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol showed attenuated responses to these drugs, especially for USVs and in subjects with high levels of cue-induced anticipatory activity. Our results suggest that individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues showed heightened reward-induced USVs which were reliably expressed over time and persisted despite physiological needs being fulfilled. Also, prone subjects seemed to undergo particular adaptations in their dopaminergic system related with incentive learning. Our findings may have translational relevance in preclinical research modeling compulsive disorders, which may be due to excessive attribution of incentive salience to reward cues, such as overeating, pathological gambling, and drug addiction.

  4. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  5. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain correlates of cue-induced craving to play online games in subjects with Internet gaming addiction (IGA), subjects in remission from IGA and controls. The craving response was assessed by event-related design of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Fifteen subjects with IGA, 15 in remission from IGA and 15 controls were recruited in this study. The subjects were arranged to view the gaming screenshots and neutral images under investigation of fMRIs. The results showed that bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precuneus, left parahippocampus, posterior cingulate and right anterior cingulate were activated in response to gaming cues in the IGA group and their activation was stronger in the IGA group than those in the control group. Their region-of-interest was also positively correlated with subjective gaming urge under cue exposure. These activated brain areas represent the brain circuit corresponding to the mechanism of substance use disorder. Thus, it would suggest that the mechanism of IGA is similar to substance use disorder. Furthermore, the IGA group had stronger activation over right DLPFC and left parahippocampus than did the remission group. The two areas would be candidate markers for current addiction to online gaming and should be investigated in future studies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors during Pavlovian conditioning enhances subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploense, Kyle L; Kerstetter, Kerry A; Wade, Matthew A; Woodward, Nicholas C; Maliniak, Dan; Reyes, Michael; Uchizono, Russell S; Bredy, Timothy W; Kippin, Tod E

    2013-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) strengthen memory following fear conditioning and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Here, we examined the effects of two nonspecific HDACIs, valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), on appetitive learning measured by conditioned stimulus (CS)-induced reinstatement of operant responding. Rats were trained to lever press for food reinforcement and then injected with VPA (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.), NaB (250-1000 mg/kg, i.p.), or saline vehicle (1.0 ml/kg), 2 h before receiving pairings of noncontingent presentation of food pellets preceded by a tone+light cue CS. Rats next underwent extinction of operant responding followed by response-contingent re-exposure to the CS. Rats receiving VPA (100 mg/kg) or NaB (1000 mg/kg) before conditioning displayed significantly higher cue-induced reinstatement than did saline controls. Rats that received either vehicle or VPA (100 mg/kg) before a conditioning session with a randomized relation between presentation of food pellets and the CS failed to show subsequent cue-induced reinstatement with no difference between the two groups. These findings indicate that, under certain contexts, HDACIs strengthen memory formation by specifically increasing the associative strength of the CS, not through an increasing motivation to seek reinforcement. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  9. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enhances cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is still a major population health issue. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to control drug-seeking behaviors. There are two main endocannabinoids: anandamide degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) degraded by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The role of MAGL has only been explored recently, and so far, no study have been performed to evaluate the effects of MAGL inhibitor on nicotine reinforcing properties and cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Here, we investigated the effects of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 on nicotine self-administration under fixed and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement and on cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in mice. We also evaluated the effects of JZL184 on food self-administration for possible non-specific effects. JZL184 (0, 8, and 16 mg/kg) did not affect food taking, nicotine taking, or motivation for nicotine. MAGL inhibition by JZL184 (16 mg/kg) increased reinstatement of previously extinguished nicotine seeking induced by presentation of nicotine-associated cues, but did not produce reinstatement on its own. This study implicates involvement of 2-AG in nicotine-seeking behaviors.

  10. CHRONIC ALCOHOL NEUROADAPTATION AND STRESS CONTRIBUTE TO SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR ALCOHOL CRAVING AND RELAPSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    BREESE, GEORGE R.; SINHA, RAJITA; HEILIG, MARKUS

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Major characteristics observed in alcoholics during an initial period of alcohol abstinence are altered physiological functions and a negative emotional state. Evidence suggests that a persistent, cumulative adaptation involving a kindling/allostasis-like process occurs during the course of repeated chronic alcohol exposures that is critical for the negative symptoms observed during alcohol withdrawal. Basic studies have provided evidence for specific neurotransmitters within identified brain sites being responsible for the negative emotion induced by the persistent cumulative adaptation following intermittent-alcohol exposures. After an extended period of abstinence, the cumulative alcohol adaptation increases susceptibility to stress- and alcohol cue-induced negative symptoms and alcohol seeking, both of which can facilitate excessive ingestion of alcohol. In the alcoholic, stressful imagery and alcohol cues alter physiological responses, enhance negative emotion, and induce craving. Brain fMRI imaging following stress and alcohol cues has documented neural changes in specific brain regions of alcoholics not observed in social drinkers. Such altered activity in brain of abstinent alcoholics to stress and alcohol cues is consistent with a continuing ethanol adaptation being responsible. Therapies in alcoholics found to block responses to stress and alcohol cues would presumably be potential treatments by which susceptibility for continued alcohol abuse can be reduced. By continuing to define the neurobiological basis of the sustained alcohol adaptation critical for the increased susceptibility of alcoholics to stress and alcohol cues that facilitate craving, a new era is expected to evolve in which the high rate of relapse in alcoholism is minimized. 250 PMID:20951730

  11. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane ePotvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  12. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  13. Transient inactivation of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus enhances cue-induced reinstatement in goal-trackers, but not sign-trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Brittany N; Klumpner, Marin S; Covelo, Ignacio R; Campus, Paolo; Flagel, Shelly B

    2018-04-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has been shown to mediate cue-motivated behaviors, such as sign- and goal-tracking, as well as reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the role of the PVT in mediating individual variation in cue-induced drug-seeking behavior remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if inactivation of the PVT differentially mediates cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Rats were characterized as sign-trackers (STs) or goal-trackers (GTs) based on their Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior. Rats were then exposed to 15 days of cocaine self-administration, followed by a 2-week forced abstinence period and then extinction training. Rats then underwent tests for cue-induced reinstatement and general locomotor activity, prior to which they received an infusion of either saline (control) or baclofen/muscimol (B/M) to inactivate the PVT. Relative to control animals of the same phenotype, GTs show a robust increase in cue-induced drug-seeking behavior following PVT inactivation, whereas the behavior of STs was not affected. PVT inactivation did not affect locomotor activity in either phenotype. In GTs, the PVT appears to inhibit the expression of drug-seeking, presumably by attenuating the incentive value of the drug cue. Thus, inactivation of the PVT releases this inhibition in GTs, resulting in an increase in cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. PVT inactivation did not affect cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in STs, suggesting that the role of the PVT in encoding the incentive motivational value of drug cues differs between STs and GTs.

  14. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Production of Cue-Specific Craving for Cigarettes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Germeroth, Lisa J; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    The cue-reactivity procedure has demonstrated that smokers respond with increases in subjective craving in the presence of smoking-related cues. Virtual reality is an emerging mode of cue presentation for cue-reactivity research. Despite the successful implementation of virtual reality during the last decade, no systematic review has investigated the magnitude of effects across studies. This research systematically reviewed findings from studies using virtual reality in cigarette craving assessment. Eligible studies assessed subjective craving for cigarettes in smokers exposed to smoking-related and neutral environments. Cohen's d was used to assess differences in craving between smoking-related and nonsmoking-related virtual environments. A random effects approach was used to combine effect sizes. A total of 18 studies involving 541 smokers was included in the final analyses. Environments with smoking-related cues produced significant increases in craving relative to environments without smoking-related cues. The mean overall effect size (Cohen's d) was 1.041 (SE = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.28, Z = 8.68, P virtual reality can produce strong increases in craving among cigarette smokers. This strong cue-reactivity effect, which was comparable in magnitude to the craving effect sizes found with more conventional modes of cue presentation, supports the use of virtual reality for the generation of robust cue-specific craving in cue-reactivity research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A treatment model for craving identification and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalcup, S Alex; Christian, Darrell; Stalcup, Janice; Brown, Michelle; Galloway, Gantt P

    2006-06-01

    This article presents an addiction treatment model based on craving identification and management (CIM). Craving is broadly defined as the desire to use alcohol or other drugs; it increases the likelihood of use of these substances. In the CIM Model treatment interventions are referenced to craving, i.e., helping clients to identify their craving level and equipping them with strategies to avoid use. Four causes of craving are identified: (1) environmental cues (triggers): exposure to people, places, and things associated with prior drug-using experiences may cause immediate and overwhelming craving; (2) stress: addicted persons experience stress as craving; (3) mental illness; and (4) drug withdrawal: symptoms of both mental illness and withdrawal lead to craving if clients associate use with relief of these symptoms. The CIM Model incorporates four service delivery elements: Relapse Prevention Workshop, individual counseling, medical/psychiatric services, and screening for ongoing drug use. At its core, the CIM Model asks clients to be aware of craving, analyze its causes, and, based on those causes, implement specific strategies to prevent and manage craving. The CIM Model combines several treatment components, including control of exposure to environmental cues, establishment of a daily schedule, the use of behaviors that dissipate craving (tools), and treatment (with medications when appropriate) of mental health and withdrawal symptoms. The CIM Model is a client-derived approach to achieving and maintaining sobriety based on a process of analyzing craving and managing it with an individualized program of recovery activities.

  16. Induction and comparison of craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brasil Araujo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature findings report that use of multiple substances can produce adverse clinical and behavioral effects, which may affect craving and the results of drug treatment. Also, the understanding of craving construct and its interaction in the use of smoked substances is underexplored. Objectives To induce and compare craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack-cocaine on hospitalized dependents whose drug of choice is crack-cocaine. Methods Quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample consisting of 210 males divided into 3 equal groups (Group-1: craving induced by crack; Group-2: craving induced by tobacco; and Group-3: craving induced by marijuana. All participants met ICD-10 dependence criteria for cocaine/crack, marijuana and tobacco, were aged between 18 and 65 and had used these substances for at least one year. Photos were used to induce craving and self-report instruments to evaluate possible alterations. Results This study showed that craving for tobacco was more intense than for marijuana and crack, when the groups were compared by VAS. Using specific scales, both craving for tobacco and craving for marijuana were more intense than craving for crack. Discussion These results would imply interventions at the initial stages of abstinence with cognitive-behavioural techniques and pharmacotherapy in order to reduce craving.

  17. Cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour is reduced by disrupting the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Goltz, Christoph; Vengeliene, Valentina; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Pawlak, Cornelius R; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    In humans, the retrieval of memories associated with an alcohol-related experience frequently evokes alcohol-seeking behaviour. The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become labile and susceptible to disruption after memory retrieval. The aim of our study was to examine whether retrieval of alcohol-related memories undergoes a reconsolidation process. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol in the presence of specific conditioned stimuli. Thereafter, animals were left undisturbed in their home cages for the following 21 days. Memory retrieval was performed in a single 5-min exposure to all alcohol-associated stimuli. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, the non-competitive N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and acamprosate, a clinically used drug known to reduce a hyper-glutamatergic state, were given immediately after retrieval of alcohol-related memories. The impact of drug treatment on cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour was measured on the following day and 7 days later. Administration of both anisomycin and MK-801 reduced cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour, showing that memory reconsolidation was disrupted by these compounds. However, acamprosate had no effect on the reconsolidation process, suggesting that this process is not dependent on a hyper-glutamatergic state but is more related to protein synthesis and NMDA receptor activity. Pharmacological disruption of reconsolidation of alcohol-associated memories can be achieved by the use of NMDA antagonists and protein synthesis inhibitors and may thus provide a potential new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of relapse in alcohol addiction.

  18. Prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor insertion controls cue-induced relapse to nicotine seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Bart R; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Smit, August B; De Vries, Taco J; Spijker, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Current smoking cessation therapies offer limited success, as relapse rates remain high. Nicotine, which is the major component of tobacco smoke, is thought to be primarily responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine relapse, hampering development of more effective therapies. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptors in controlling relapse to nicotine seeking. Using an intravenous self-administration model, we studied glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor regulation in the synaptic membrane fraction of the rat mPFC following extinction and cue-induced relapse to nicotine seeking. Subsequently, we locally intervened at the level of GABAergic signaling by using a mimetic peptide of the GABA receptor associated protein-interacting domain of GABA type A (GABAA) receptor subunit γ2 (TAT-GABAγ2) and muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors were not regulated after the 30-min relapse test. However, GABAA receptor subunits α1 and γ2 were upregulated, and interference with GABAA receptor insertion in the cell membrane using the TAT-GABAγ2 peptide in the dorsal mPFC, but not the ventral mPFC, significantly increased responding during relapse. Increasing GABAA transmission with muscimol in the dorsal and ventral mPFC attenuated relapse. These data indicate that cue-induced relapse entails a GABAergic plasticity mechanism that limits nicotine seeking by restoring inhibitory control in the dorsal mPFC. GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal mPFC constitutes a possible future therapeutic target for maintaining smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Winding Road to Relapse: Forging a New Understanding of Cue-Induced Reinstatement Models and Their Associated Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Mark D; Tomek, Seven E; Olive, M Foster; Beckmann, Joshua S; Gipson, Cassandra D

    2018-01-01

    In drug addiction, cues previously associated with drug use can produce craving and frequently trigger the resumption of drug taking in individuals vulnerable to relapse. Environmental stimuli associated with drugs or natural reinforcers can become reliably conditioned to increase behavior that was previously reinforced. In preclinical models of addiction, these cues enhance both drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking. In this review, we will dissociate the roles of conditioned stimuli as reinforcers from their modulatory or discriminative functions in producing drug-seeking behavior. As well, we will examine possible differences in neurobiological encoding underlying these functional differences. Specifically, we will discuss how models of drug addiction and relapse should more systematically evaluate these different types of stimuli to better understand the neurobiology underlying craving and relapse. In this way, behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions may be better tailored to promote drug use cessation outcomes and long-term abstinence.

  20. Systemic treatment with D-fenfluramine, but not sibutramine, blocks cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Ford, Ryan T

    2013-11-27

    Individuals struggling with obesity often have difficulty maintaining dietary regimens. One source of dietary relapse is the reinstatement of previous feeding behaviors following the presentation of cues indicating the availability of palatable but highly caloric food reward. The drugs fenfluramine and sibutramine have previously been prescribed because they enhance satiety mechanisms and decrease meal size. However, it is unclear whether these anorectic agents are also effective in blocking the cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behaviors. In these three experiments, we compared the effects of systemic treatment of d-fenfluramine (3mg/kg; N=10) and sibutramine (3mg/kg; N=11) with that of the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (6μg/kg; N=11) at a dose that has previously been shown to attenuate cue-induced reinstatement. d-Fenfluramine treatment blocked the cue's ability to reinstate lever pressing as compared to the saline injection day. In contrast, sibutramine had no effect on cue-induced reinstatement; all animals reinstated their lever pressing during the first reinstatement test, and this was unaffected by sibutramine treatment. SCH 23390 treatment did not significantly reduce cue-induced reinstatement in this set of experiments. The results suggest that the motivational effects of d-fenfluramine is not limited to the promotion of satiety once a meal has been initiated, and demonstrate that some anorectic treatments may inhibit the effectiveness of conditioned cues to elicit relapse of food-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dopamine D2/3- and μ-opioid receptor antagonists reduce cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S C; Beck-Schimmer, B; Kajdi, M-E; Müller, D; Tobler, P N; Quednow, B B

    2016-07-05

    Increased responding to drug-associated stimuli (cue reactivity) and an inability to tolerate delayed gratification (reward impulsivity) have been implicated in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Whereas data from animal studies suggest that both the dopamine and opioid system are involved in these two reward-related processes, their role in humans is less clear. Moreover, dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have not been directly compared with regard to these functions, even though a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms might inform the development of specific treatments for elevated cue reactivity and reward impulsivity. In a randomized, double-blind, between-subject design we administered the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg, n=41), the unspecific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (50 mg, n=40) or placebo (n=40) to healthy humans and measured cue-induced responding with a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task and reward impulsivity with a delay discounting task. Mood was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Compared with placebo, amisulpride significantly suppressed cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity. The effects of naltrexone were similar, although less pronounced. Both amisulpride and naltrexone decreased average mood ratings compared with placebo. Our results demonstrate that a selective blockade of dopamine D2/D3 receptors reduces cue-induced responding and reward impulsivity in healthy humans. Antagonizing μ-opioid receptors has similar effects for cue-induced responding and to a lesser extent for reward impulsivity.

  2. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  3. Craving by imagery cue reactivity in opiate dependence following detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Debakanta; Goswami, Utpal; Khastgir, Udayan; Kumar, Satindra

    2003-01-01

    Background: Frequent relapses in opioid addiction may be a result of abstinentemergent craving. Exposure to various stimuli associated with drug use (drug cues) may trigger craving as a conditioned response to ?drug cues?. Aims: The present study explored the effects of imagery cue exposure on psychophysiological mechanisms of craving, viz. autonomic arousal, in detoxified opiate addicts. Methodology: Opiate dependent subjects (N=38) following detoxification underwent imagery cue reactivity t...

  4. Visual cue-specific craving is diminished in stressed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.

  5. Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis and corticotropin-releasing factor stress system on cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesi, Fernanda L; Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Mijares, Miriam Garcia; Cippitelli, Andrea; Cannella, Nazzareno; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

    2016-10-05

    A large body of evidence has shown that the Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) system, which plays a key role in stress modulation, is deeply involved in relapse to alcohol seeking induced by exposure to stressful events such as foot shock or yohimbine injections. Exposure to environmental cues is also known to be a trigger for alcohol relapse, nevertheless, the relationship between the relapse evoked by the cue-induced model and the CRF stress systems remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in male Wistar rats, the involvement of the CRF system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in relapse induced by environmental cues. Antalarmin, a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, Metyrapone, a corticosterone (CORT) synthesis inhibitor and CORT were evaluated for their effects on the reinstatement test in a cue-induced relapse model. Antalarmin (20mg/kg) blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by environmental cues. Metyrapone (50 and 100mg/kg) also blocked relapse in Wistar rats but only at the highest dose (100mg/kg). Corticosterone had no effect on relapse at the doses tested. The results obtained from this study suggest that the CRF stress system and the HPA axis are involved in cue-induced alcohol relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behaviour in male and female rats: influence of ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, L; Spano, M S; Altea, S; Fadda, P; Fratta, W

    2010-06-01

    Animal and human studies have shown that sex and hormones are key factors in modulating addiction. Previously, we have demonstrated that self-administration of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 12.5 microg.kg(-1) per infusion) is dependent on sex, intact female rats being more sensitive than males to the reinforcing properties of cannabinoids, and on the oestrous cycle, ovariectomized (OVX) females being less responsive than intact females. This follow-up study investigated whether sex and ovarian function also affect reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking in rats after exposure to drug or cue priming. After priming with 0.15 or 0.3 mg.kg(-1) WIN, intact female rats exhibited stronger reinstatement than males and OVX females. Responses of intact female rats were higher than those of male and OVX rats even after priming with a drug-associated visual (Light) or auditory (Tone) cue, or a WIN + Light combination. However, latency to the first response did not differ between intact and OVX female rats, and males showed the longest latency to initiate lever-pressing activity. Our study provides compelling evidence for a pivotal role of sex and the oestrous cycle in modulating cannabinoid-seeking, with ovariectomy diminishing drug and cue-induced reinstatement. However, it is possible that sex differences during self-administration training are responsible for sex differences in reinstatement. Finding that not only drug primings but also acute exposure to drug-associated cues can reinstate responding in rats could have significant implications for the development of pharmacological and behavioural treatments of abstinent female and male marijuana smokers.

  7. Craving's place in addiction theory: contributions of the major models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Marilyn D; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2010-03-01

    We examine in this paper the unfolding of craving concepts within 18 models that span roughly 60 years (1948-2009). The amassed evidence suggests that craving is an indispensable construct, useful as a research area because it has continued to destabilize patients seeking treatment for substances. The models fall into four categories: the conditioning-based models, the cognitive models, the psychobiological models, and the motivation models. In the conditioning models, craving is assumed to be an automatic, unconscious reaction to a stimulus. In the cognitive models, craving arises from the operation of information processing systems. In the psychobiological models, craving can be explained at least in part by biological factors with an emphasis on motivational components. Finally, in the motivation models, craving is viewed as a component of a larger decision-making framework. It is well accepted that no single model explains craving completely, suggesting that a solid understanding of the phenomenon will only occur with consideration from multiple angles. A reformulated definition of craving is proposed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of smoking cues in movies on craving among smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Research has shown that smoking-related cues are important triggers for craving. The objective of the present study was to test whether smoking cues in movies also function as triggers to evoke craving. To accomplish this, we conducted a pilot study in which we examined smokers' reactivity to

  9. Peak provoked craving: an alternative to smoking cue-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2013-06-01

    Smoking cue-exposure research has provided a powerful tool for examining cravings in the laboratory. A key attraction of this method is that tightly controlled experimental procedures can model craving experiences that are presumed to relate to addiction. Despite its appeal, key assumptions underlying the clinical relevance of smoking cue-reactivity studies have been questioned recently. For both conceptual and methodological reasons it may be difficult to tease apart cue-based and abstinence-based cravings. Moreover, conventional cue-reactivity procedures typically generate levels of craving with only minimal clinical relevance. We argue here that sometimes it is unfeasible-and in some instances conceptually misguided-to disentangle abstinence-based and cued components of cigarette cravings. In light of the challenges associated with cue-reactivity research, we offer an alternative approach to smoking cue-exposure experimental research focusing on peak provoked craving (PPC) states. The PPC approach uses nicotine-deprived smokers and focuses on urges during smoking cue-exposure without subtracting out urge ratings during control cue or baseline assessments. This design relies on two factors found in many cue-exposure studies-nicotine deprivation and exposure to explicit smoking cues-which, when combined, can create powerful craving states. The PPC approach retains key aspects of the cue-exposure method, and in many circumstances may be a viable design for studies examining robust laboratory-induced cravings. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Eating behavior style predicts craving and anxiety experienced in food-related virtual environments by patients with eating disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sánchez, Isabel; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-10-01

    Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral economic analysis of cue-elicited craving for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; O'Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Tidey, Jennifer W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug's value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. One-way within-subjects design. Human laboratory environment. Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (O(max)), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized P(max)). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from 0.21-0.43. These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving.

  12. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  13. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  14. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-08-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or 'wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened 'wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact ('liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal 'hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation.

  15. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike JF; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-01-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or ‘wanting’). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened ‘wanting’ was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact (‘liking’) of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal ‘hot-spots’ that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation. PMID:25761571

  16. Peak Provoked Craving: An Alternative to Smoking Cue-Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayette, Michael A.; Tiffany, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cue-exposure research has provided a powerful tool for examining cravings in the laboratory. A key attraction of this method is that tightly controlled experimental procedures can model craving experiences that are presumed to relate to addiction. Despite its appeal, key assumptions underlying the clinical relevance of smoking cue reactivity studies recently have been questioned. For both conceptual and methodological reasons it may be quite difficult to tease apart cue-based and abst...

  17. Craving sensation in the assessment of alcohol-dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Juczyński

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The approach to the problems of the occurrence of and coping with alcohol craving in the course of the therapy should be similar in men and women. However, there should be more focus on the working out of coping strategies, especially in the younger patients, because of the more frequent and intensive craving they experience, which poses a greater risk of relapse and recurrence of the problem.

  18. Influence of beer, wine and spirits consumption on craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemacher, Thomas; Bayerlein, Kristina; Reulbach, Udo; Sperling, Wolfgang; Wilhelm, Julia; Mugele, Brigitte; Kraus, Thomas; Bönsch, Dominikus; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    The importance of craving in alcoholism and the efficacy of treatment has been the subject of various studies. This study focuses on the consumption of different alcoholic beverages and their effect on craving, which has not yet been investigated. Therefore we assessed 197 inpatients using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) on the day of admission and after 1 week, distinguishing between the total score, the obsessive and the compulsive subscale. Socio-demographic data and the type of alcoholic beverage were recorded. Analysing data, the amount of beer consumption showed a significant influence on craving in male but not in female patients. These results were significant for the total score and both subscales of the OCDS (OCDS total score; day 0: Spearman's rho = 0.31; p = 0.001; logistic regression, dependent variable dichotomized OCDS total score day 0: OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.34; p = 0.011). On the other hand we, did not find any significant results for the amount of other beverages such as wine and spirits. Receiver operating curves analysis showed that beer consumption significantly predicts craving [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.66; p = 0.002]. We conclude that higher beer consumption is associated with higher withdrawal craving, at least in male patients. In addition, it is an important predictor for both obsessive and compulsive craving. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological basis of this finding.

  19. Methamphetamine craving induced in an online virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Christopher; Nicolas, Sam; Zaharovits, Itay; London, Edythe D; De La Garza, Richard; Brody, Arthur L; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess self-reported craving and physiological reactivity in a methamphetamine virtual reality (METH-VR) cue model created using Second Life, a freely available online gaming platform. Seventeen, non-treatment seeking, individuals that abuse methamphetamine (METH) completed this 1-day, outpatient, within-subjects study. Participants completed four test sessions: 1) METH-VR, 2) neutral-VR, 3) METH-video, and 4) neutral-video in a counterbalanced (Latin square) fashion. The participants provided subjective ratings of urges to use METH, mood, and physical state throughout each cue presentation. Measures of physiological reactivity (heart rate variability) were also collected during each cue presentation and at rest. The METH-VR condition elicited the greatest change in subjective reports of "crave METH", "desire METH", and "want METH" at all time points. The "high craving" participants displayed more high frequency cardiovascular activity while the "low craving" participants displayed more low frequency cardiovascular activity during the cue conditions, with the greatest difference seen during the METH-VR and METH-video cues. These findings reveal a physiological divergence between high and low craving METH abusers using heart rate variability, and demonstrate the usefulness of VR cues for eliciting subjective craving in METH abusers, as well as the effectiveness of a novel VR drug cue model created within an online virtual world. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased sensorimotor gating in recreational and dependent cocaine users is modulated by craving and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H; Ingold, Nina; Hulka, Lea M; Vonmoos, Matthias; Jenni, Daniela; Baumgartner, Markus R; Vollenweider, Franz X; Quednow, Boris B

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine dependence has been associated with blunted dopamine and norepinephrine signaling, but it is unknown if recreational cocaine use is also associated with alterations of catecholamine systems. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response-a measure of sensorimotor gating-is highly sensitive for manipulations of the catecholamine system. Therefore, we investigated whether relatively pure recreational users (RCU) and dependent cocaine users (DCU) display alterations of PPI, startle reactivity, and habituation. Moreover, the influences of methylenedioxymethamphetamine and cannabis co-use, craving, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on startle measures were examined. In 64 RCU, 29 DCU, and 66 stimulant-naïve control subjects, PPI of acoustic startle response, startle reactivity, habituation, ADHD symptoms, and cocaine craving were assessed. Drug use of all participants was controlled by hair and urine toxicologies. Both RCU and DCU showed increased PPI in comparison with control participants (Cohen's d=.38 and d=.67, respectively), while RCU and DCU did not differ in PPI measures (d=.12). No significant group differences were found in startle reactivity or habituation measures. In cocaine users, PPI was positively correlated with cumulative cocaine dose used, craving for cocaine, and ADHD symptoms. Users with a diagnosis of ADHD and strong craving symptoms displayed the highest PPI levels compared with control subjects (d=.78). The augmented PPI in RCU and DCU suggests that recreational use of cocaine is associated with altered catecholamine signaling, in particular if ADHD or craving symptoms are present. Finally, ADHD might be a critical risk factor for cocaine-induced changes of the catecholamine system. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The association of food characteristics and individual differences with ratings of craving and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Rizk, Marianne T; Treat, Teresa A

    2014-08-01

    Craving and liking are related to eating-related problems, but less is known about the association of specific food characteristics (e.g., sugar, fat) with craving/liking. The relation of individual differences in eating behavior with these craving and liking patterns is also relatively unknown. We examine the nomothetic impact of sugar, fat and processing on food craving and liking and the moderation of these effects by idiographic factors (e.g., Body Mass Index [BMI], hunger). One hundred and five overweight and obese women completed craving and liking ratings on 180 foods that differed in levels of sugar, fat and processing. Food craving was linked positively to fat content, but negatively to sugar. Food liking was associated negatively with sugar content and processing level. Addictive-like eating predicted elevated overall food craving and liking, and increased craving and liking for processed foods. Attempted restriction efforts were unrelated to craving and liking. BMI was associated with less craving for fattier foods and lower liking for the average food. Hunger was associated with increased craving for the average food. These findings highlight the role of fat in cravings and differences in craving and liking based on BMI, loss of control over eating, and hunger. These findings are relevant to theories of problematic eating and the development of eating-related interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and verification of an alcohol craving-induction tool using virtual reality: craving characteristics in social pressure situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sangwoo; Ku, Jeonghun; Park, Jinsick; Han, Kiwan; Lee, Hyeongrae; Choi, You Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I; Shen, Dong Fan

    2008-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease that affects parts of the brain that control emotion, decisions, and behavior. Therapy for people with alcoholism must address coping skills for facing high-risk situations. Therefore, it is important to develop tools to mimic such conditions. Cue exposure therapy (CET) provides high-risk situations during treatment, which raises the individual's ability to recognize that alcohol craving is being induced. Using CET, it is hard to simulate situations that induce alcohol craving. By contrast, virtual reality (VR) approaches can present realistic situations that cannot be experienced directly in CET. Therefore, we hypothesized that is possible to model social pressure situations using VR. We developed a VR system for inducing alcohol craving under social pressure situations and measured both the induced alcohol craving and head gaze of participants. A 2 x 2 experimental model (alcohol-related locality vs. social pressure) was designed. In situations without an avatar (no social pressure), more alcohol craving was induced if alcohol was present than if it was not. And more alcohol craving was induced in situations with an avatar (social pressure) than in situations without an avatar (no social pressure). The difference of angle between the direction of head gazing and the direction of alcohol or avatar was smaller in situations with an avatar alone (social pressure) than in situations with alcohol alone. In situations with both alcohol and an avatar, the angle between the direction of head gaze and the direction of the avatar was smaller than between the direction of head gaze and the direction of the alcohol. Considering the results, this VR system induces alcohol craving using an avatar that can express various social pressure situations.

  3. Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.

  4. Gastronomic nostalgia: Salvadoran immigrants' cravings for their ideal meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants typically express cravings for the food of their homeland, but for undocumented and temporarily documented Salvadoran immigrants living in the United States, the hunger for their traditional cuisine is particularly poignant. To cope with a history of food scarcity in El Salvador and their documentation liminality in the United States, Salvadoran immigrants in this study crave symbolically rich foods. Salvadoran women provide these foods by recreating for their families an ideal Salvadoran meal into which they "groom" meanings of an imagined past and a hoped for present and future. Salvadoran immigrants' cravings, more cultural than physiological, are not readily satisfied, thus contributing to the overconsumption of food and the high rate of overweight among first-generation Salvadoran-American children.

  5. Attentional bias for craving-related (chocolate) food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated attentional biases for craving-related food cues. A pictorial dot probe task was used to assess selective attentional processing of one particular highly desired food, namely chocolate, relative to that of other highly desired foods. In Experiment 1, we examined biased processing of chocolate cues in habitual (trait) chocolate cravers, whereas in Experiment 2 we investigated the effect of experimentally induced (state) chocolate cravings on such processing. As predicted, habitual chocolate cravers (Experiment 1) and individuals in whom a craving for chocolate was temporarily induced (Experiment 2) showed speeded detection of probes replacing chocolate-related pictures, demonstrating an attentional bias for chocolate cues. Subsequent examination indicated that in both experiments the observed attentional biases stemmed from difficulty in disengaging attention from chocolate cues rather than from a shift of attention toward such cues. The findings have important theoretical and practical implications.

  6. CRAVE: a database, middleware and visualization system for phenotype ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Green, Eain C J; Greenaway, Simon; Blake, Andrew; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Hancock, John M

    2005-04-01

    A major challenge in modern biology is to link genome sequence information to organismal function. In many organisms this is being done by characterizing phenotypes resulting from mutations. Efficiently expressing phenotypic information requires combinatorial use of ontologies. However tools are not currently available to visualize combinations of ontologies. Here we describe CRAVE (Concept Relation Assay Value Explorer), a package allowing storage, active updating and visualization of multiple ontologies. CRAVE is a web-accessible JAVA application that accesses an underlying MySQL database of ontologies via a JAVA persistent middleware layer (Chameleon). This maps the database tables into discrete JAVA classes and creates memory resident, interlinked objects corresponding to the ontology data. These JAVA objects are accessed via calls through the middleware's application programming interface. CRAVE allows simultaneous display and linking of multiple ontologies and searching using Boolean and advanced searches.

  7. The role of Facebook in Crush the Crave, a mobile- and social media-based smoking cessation intervention: qualitative framework analysis of posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Laura Louise; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2014-07-11

    smoking cessation posts (81/214, 37.9%) compared to the marketing Crush the Crave posts (11/64, 17%). With the exception of 4 posts, a moderator posted all the original posts. In addition, although 56.00% (18,937/33,815) of Crush the Crave Facebook page users were men, only 19.8% (55/278) of the reply posts were made by men. Finally, men were found to be more likely to express sarcasm or make strong assertions about quitting smoking and Crush the Crave than women. The CTC Facebook page presents as a unique platform for supporting young adult smoking cessation at all stages of the cessation process. The findings of this study indicate that social networking sites, especially Facebook, warrant inclusion in tobacco control efforts directed towards young adults. Research on effectiveness of the Facebook page for quitting smoking is needed.

  8. The relation between social desirability and different measures of heroin craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Marlies A. E.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    A low association between self-reported craving and physiological measures of craving is often found. Social desirability might influence this relation between subjective and physiological reactivity. Subjects were seventy-six in-patient abstinent heroin abusers. Social desirability, general craving

  9. An increase in tobacco craving is associated with enhanced medial prefrontal cortex network coupling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Janes

    Full Text Available Craving is a key aspect of drug dependence that is thought to motivate continued drug use. Numerous brain regions have been associated with craving, suggesting that craving is mediated by a distributed brain network. Whether an increase in subjective craving is associated with enhanced interactions among brain regions was evaluated using resting state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI in nicotine dependent participants. We focused on craving-related changes in the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC network, which also included the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC extending into the ventral striatum. Brain regions in the OMPFC network are not only implicated in addiction and reward, but, due to their rich anatomic interconnections, may serve as the site of integration across craving-related brain regions. Subjective craving and resting state fMRI were evaluated twice with an ∼1 hour delay between the scans. Cigarette craving was significantly increased at the end, relative to the beginning of the scan session. Enhanced craving was associated with heightened coupling between the OMPFC network and other cortical, limbic, striatal, and visceromotor brain regions that are both anatomically interconnected with the OMPFC, and have been implicated in addiction and craving. This is the first demonstration confirming that an increase in craving is associated with enhanced brain region interactions, which may play a role in the experience of craving.

  10. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  11. Regulation of Alcohol Extinction and Cue-Induced Reinstatement by Specific Projections among Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Nucleus Accumbens, and Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keistler, Colby R; Hammarlund, Emma; Barker, Jacqueline M; Bond, Colin W; DiLeone, Ralph J; Pittenger, Christopher; Taylor, Jane R

    2017-04-26

    The ability to inhibit drinking is a significant challenge for recovering alcoholics, especially in the presence of alcohol-associated cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that the regulation of cue-guided alcohol seeking is mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, given the high interconnectivity between these structures, it is unclear how mPFC projections to each subcortical structure, as well as projections between BLA and NAc, mediate alcohol-seeking behaviors. Here, we evaluate how cortico-striatal, cortico-amygdalar, and amygdalo-striatal projections control extinction and relapse in a rat model of alcohol seeking. Specifically, we used a combinatorial viral technique to express diphtheria toxin receptors in specific neuron populations based on their projection targets. We then used this strategy to create directionally selective ablations of three distinct pathways after acquisition of ethanol self-administration but before extinction and reinstatement. We demonstrate that ablation of mPFC neurons projecting to NAc, but not BLA, blocks cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and neither pathway is necessary for extinction of responding. Further, we show that ablating BLA neurons that project to NAc disrupts extinction of alcohol approach behaviors and attenuates reinstatement. Together, these data provide evidence that the mPFC→NAc pathway is necessary for cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, expand our understanding of how the BLA→NAc pathway regulates alcohol behavior, and introduce a new methodology for the manipulation of target-specific neural projections. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The vast majority of recovering alcoholics will relapse at least once and understanding how the brain regulates relapse will be key to developing more effective behavior and pharmacological therapies for alcoholism. Given the high interconnectivity of cortical, striatal, and limbic

  12. The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekic, Maria; McClelland, Jessica; Campbell, Iain; Nestler, Steffen; Rubia, Katya; David, Anthony S; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some forms of obesity are characterised by compulsive overeating that is often precipitated by food craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to suppress food cravings, but there is insufficient evidence to support its application in clinical practice. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of impulsivity has not been considered. This study used a randomised within-subjects crossover design to examine whether a 20-minute session of sham-controlled bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anode right/cathode left) would transiently modify food cravings and temporal discounting (TD; a measure of choice impulsivity) in 17 healthy women with frequent food cravings. Whether the effects of tDCS on food craving were moderated by individual differences in TD behaviour was also explored. Participants were exposed to food and a film of people eating, and food cravings and TD were assessed before and after active and sham stimulation. Craving for sweet but not savoury foods was reduced following real tDCS. Participants that exhibited more reflective choice behaviour were more susceptible to the anti-craving effects of tDCS than those that displayed more impulsive choice behaviour. No differences were seen in TD or food consumption after real versus sham tDCS. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS in temporarily lowering food cravings and identify the moderating role of TD behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of personality traits in cocaine craving throughout an outpatient psychosocial treatment program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ismael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cocaine dependence is a major international public health concern. Its chronically relapsing nature is possibly related to craving intensity, which can be influenced by diverse biological and psychological aspects. This study aimed to evaluate the role of different personality traits in craving measured throughout a psychosocial treatment program. Method: The sample comprised 66 cocaine-dependent outpatients who were enrolled in an individual and manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy program. The influence of personality traits on craving intensity, frequency, and duration was analyzed using a generalized estimating equations model with an autoregressive correlation structure. Results: Craving varied during treatment. The personality traits of novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance interacted with craving intensity, and the personality trait of persistence interacted with craving duration throughout the treatment period. Furthermore, there were significant interactions between drug use and craving intensity, and between different routes of administration and craving intensity. Participants who used cocaine/crack while in treatment and concurrent users of crack (i.e., freebase cocaine and powder cocaine also had a higher craving intensity. Conclusion: The extent of craving variation can depend on certain personality styles. This study shows that craving is influenced by personality traits, and this may presumably change clinical expression involved in disease.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation, implicit alcohol associations and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uijl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances working memory (e.g. in the n-back task), and reduces craving for cigarettes and alcohol. Stimulation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) improves response inhibition. The underlying

  15. Does naltrexone affect craving in abstinent opioid-dependent patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Bluschke, S.M.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2007-01-01

    Naltrexone blocks the opioid receptors that modulate the release of dopamine in the brain reward system and therefore blocks the rewarding effects of heroin and alcohol. It is generally assumed that naltrexone leads to reduction of craving, but few studies have been performed to prove this. The

  16. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, L.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Schmaal, L.; de Witte, N. A. J.; van den Brink, W.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Dom, G.

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and craving are both associated with higher relapse rates and a worse prognosis in patients with a substance use disorder, but the relationship between these two phenomena has been largely ignored in the field of alcohol use disorders. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the

  17. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, L.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Schmaal, L.; De Witte, N.A.J.; van den Brink, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Dom, G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Impulsivity and craving are both associated with higher relapse rates and a worse prognosis in patients with a substance use disorder, but the relationship between these two phenomena has been largely ignored in the field of alcohol use disorders. Objectives: The primary aim of this study

  18. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  19. Relapse and craving in alcohol-dependent individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H,; Snelleman, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. Objectives: The goal of the present

  20. Craving and Chewing Ice: A Sign of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... constantly craving and chewing ice a sign of anemia? Answers from Rajiv K. Pruthi, M.B.B.S. Possibly. Doctors use the term " ... often associated with iron deficiency, with or without anemia, although the reason is unclear. At least one ...

  1. Impulsive reactions to food-cues predict subsequent food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P C; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Low inhibitory control has been associated with overeating and addictive behaviors. Inhibitory control can modulate cue-elicited craving in social or alcohol-dependent drinkers, and trait impulsivity may also play a role in food-cue reactivity. The current study investigated food-cue affected response inhibition and its relationship to food craving using a stop-signal task with pictures of food and neutral stimuli. Participants responded slower to food pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Reaction times in response to food pictures positively predicted scores on the Food Cravings Questionnaire - State (FCQ-S) after the task and particularly scores on its hunger subscale. Lower inhibitory performance in response to food pictures predicted higher FCQ-S scores and particularly those related to a desire for food and lack of control over consumption. Task performance was unrelated to current dieting or other measures of habitual eating behaviors. Results support models on interactive effects of top-down inhibitory control processes and bottom-up hedonic signals in the self-regulation of eating behavior, such that low inhibitory control specifically in response to appetitive stimuli is associated with increased craving, which may ultimately result in overeating. © 2013.

  2. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  3. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Environmental cues induce changes of steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongheng; Huang, Suzhen; Han, Yulin; Yuan, Haiyan; Gu, Chunsun; Wang, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and secondary metabolism are commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature and water availability. In this study, the influences of low and high temperatures, dehydration, photoperiods, and different growing stages on the changes of steviol glycosides (SGs) contents and transcription levels of fifteen genes involved in SGs biosynthesis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni were examined using HPLC and RT-PCR. The observations showed that the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were maximum under 25 °C treatment, and the transcription of SrDXS, SrDXR, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI, SrGGDPS, SrCPPS1, SrUGT85C2 and SrUGT76G1 were restrained both in low temperature (15 °C) and high temperature (35 °C). Most genes in SGs biosynthesis pathway exhibited down-regulation in dehydration. To elucidate the effect of photoperiods, the plants were treated by different simulated photoperiods (8 L/16 D, 1 0L/14 D, 14 L/10 D and 16 L/8 D), but no significant transcription changes were observed. In the study of growing stages, there were evident changes of SGs contents, and the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were minimal in fast growing period, and exhibited evident increase both in flower-bud appearing stage and flowering stage. The obtained results strongly suggest that the effect of environmental cues on steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in S. rebaudiana is significant. It is worth to study deeply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  6. Identifying viable theoretical frameworks with essential parameters for real-time and real world alcohol craving research : a systematic review of craving models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk-van Lier, Erika; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C.; Postel, Marloes G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.; de Haan, Hein A.; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Substance use is known to be episodic, dynamic, complex, and highly influenced by the environment, therefore a situational and momentary focus to alcohol craving research is appropriate. Current advances in mobile and wearable technology provide novel opportunities for craving research.

  7. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    José De-Sola; Hernán Talledo; Hernán Talledo; Gabriel Rubio; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style...

  8. Development of a mobile phone addiction craving scale and its validation in a Spanish adult population

    OpenAIRE

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style...

  9. Inducción de craving por comida mediante realidad virtual no inmersiva

    OpenAIRE

    Agliaro López, Mario; Ferrer, Marta (Ferrer García); Pla Sanjuanelo, Joana; Gutiérrez Maldonado, José

    2014-01-01

    La terapia de exposición a señales se ha propuesto como un tratamiento eficaz para las conductas de atracón al propiciar la extinción de la asociación entre los estímulos relacionados con la ingesta compulsiva y la respuesta de craving. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar si la exposición a alimentos en entornos de realidad virtual (RV) es capaz de producir niveles de craving consistentes con diferencias individuales en craving-rasgo y craving-estado, de manera que puedan ser utilizados en...

  10. The computational form of craving is a selective multiplication of economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B; Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W

    2018-04-17

    Craving is thought to be a specific desire state that biases choice toward the desired object, be it chocolate or drugs. A vast majority of people report having experienced craving of some kind. In its pathological form craving contributes to health outcomes in addiction and obesity. Yet despite its ubiquity and clinical relevance we still lack a basic neurocomputational understanding of craving. Here, using an instantaneous measure of subjective valuation and selective cue exposure, we identify a behavioral signature of a food craving-like state and advance a computational framework for understanding how this state might transform valuation to bias choice. We find desire induced by exposure to a specific high-calorie, high-fat/sugar snack good is expressed in subjects' momentary willingness to pay for this good. This effect is selective but not exclusive to the exposed good; rather, we find it generalizes to nonexposed goods in proportion to their subjective attribute similarity to the exposed ones. A second manipulation of reward size (number of snack units available for purchase) further suggested that a multiplicative gain mechanism supports the transformation of valuation during laboratory craving. These findings help explain how real-world food craving can result in behaviors inconsistent with preferences expressed in the absence of craving and open a path for the computational modeling of craving-like phenomena using a simple and repeatable experimental tool for assessing subjective states in economic terms. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Food craving and obesity in survivors of pediatric ALL and lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Kelly, Michael J; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Liu, Shanshan; Must, Aviva; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment can impact the hypothalamic-pituitary region of the developing brain, impairing appetite regulation and causing food craving in children who have survived cancer. We assessed food craving using a modified Food Craving Inventory in 22 survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma (median age = 11.7 years) and evaluated its association with treatment exposure and changes in weight status over a one-year period. Mean total craving score was 2.1 (SD = 0.7). Survivors reported significantly higher mean craving score for fast-foods [2.6 (SD = 0.9)] than for sweets [2.1 (SD = 0.8)], carbohydrates [2.0 (SD = 0.6)], and fats [1.8 (SD = 0.7)] (all P values food craving than those diagnosed at a younger age (Food craving, however, was not significantly associated with survivors' weight status over 12 months of follow-up. Food craving alone does not appear to explain the obesity risk in this sample of childhood cancer survivors. The role of food craving in shaping eating behavior and obesity risk needs to be further evaluated in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diet Type and Changes in Food Cravings following Weight Loss: Findings from the POUNDS LOST Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Gallagher, Jacqueline; Carey, Vincent J.; Laranjo, Nancy; Cheng, Jing; Champagne, Catherine M.; Ryan, Donna H.; McManus, Kathy; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Few well-controlled trials have evaluated the effects that macronutrient composition has on changes in food cravings during weight loss treatment. The present study, which was part of the POUNDS LOST trial, investigated whether the fat and protein content of four different diets affected changes in specific food cravings in overweight and obese adults. A sample of 811 adults were recruited across two clinical sites, and each participant was randomly assigned to one of four macronutrient prescriptions: (1) Low fat (20% of energy), average protein (15% of energy); (2) Moderate fat (40%), average protein (15%); (3) Low fat (20%), high protein (25%); (4) Moderate fat (40%), high protein (25%). With few exceptions, the type of diet that participants were assigned did not differentially affect changes in specific food cravings. Participants assigned to the high fat diets, however, had reduced cravings for carbohydrates at Month12 (p< .05) and fruits and vegetables at Month 24. Also, participants assigned to high protein diets had increased cravings for sweets at Month 6 (p< .05). Participants in all four dietary conditions reported significant reductions in food cravings for specific types of foods (i.e., high fat foods, fast food fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches; all ps< .05). Cravings for fruits and vegetables, however, were increased at Month 24 (p< .05). Calorically restricted diets (regardless of their macronutrient composition) yielded significant reductions in cravings for fats, sweets, and starches whereas cravings for fruits and vegetables were increased. PMID:23010779

  14. Relapse and Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Comparison of Self-Reported Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelleman, Michelle; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Mheen, Dike

    2018-06-07

    Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. The goal of the present study is to explore and compare determinants for relapse and craving, using Marlatt's (1996) taxonomy of high risk situations as a template. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 alcohol-dependent patients about their most recent relapse and craving episodes. Interview transcripts were carefully reviewed for their thematic content, and codes capturing the thematic content were formulated. In total, we formulated 42 relapse-related codes and 33 craving-related codes. Descriptions of craving episodes revealed that these episodes vary in frequency and intensity. The presence of alcohol-related stimuli (n = 11) and experiencing a negative emotional state (n = 11) were often occurring determinants of craving episodes. Both negative emotional states (n = 17) and testing personal control (n = 11) were viewed as important determinants of relapses. Craving was seldom mentioned as a determinant for relapse. Additionally, participants reported multiple determinants preceding a relapse, whereas craving episodes were preceded by only one determinant. Patient reports do not support the claim that craving by itself is an important proximal determinant for relapse. In addition, multiple determinants were present before a relapse. Therefore, future research should focus on a complexity of different determinants.

  15. T-type calcium channel antagonism decreases motivation for nicotine and blocks nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Vardigan, Joshua D; Drott, Jason M; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lee, Ariel; Li, Zhaoxia; Lê, A D; Hutson, Pete H

    2010-10-15

    Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine delivery (n = 11 or 12 Long Evans rats/group). Furthermore, we examined the specificity of the TTA-A2 effects by characterizing its influence on PR responding for food (in the absence or presence of nicotine-potentiated responding), food- versus nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food administration (n = 11 or 12 Wistar Hannover rats/group), and its ability to induce a conditioned place aversion. TTA-A2 dose-dependently decreased self-administration of nicotine on a PR schedule and the ability of both nicotine and a cue paired with nicotine to reinstate responding. The effects were specific for nicotine's incentive motivational properties, as TTA-A2 did not influence responding for food on a PR schedule but did attenuate the ability of nicotine to potentiate responding for food. Likewise, TTA-A2 did not alter food-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food but did decrease nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement. Finally, TTA-A2 did not produce an aversive state, as indicated by a lack of ability to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimentally induced states of mind determine abstinent smokers' level of craving in reaction to smoking-cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Dijkstra

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The present studies provide experimental evidence that levels of craving can be determined by momentary states of mind. This theoretical perspective can be integrated in existing conditioning and social cognitive learning perspectives on craving and substance use.

  17. Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jochem M.; Daams, Joost G.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the available evidence regarding the effects of non-invasive neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on craving in substance dependence and craving for high palatable food. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques were restricted

  18. Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Daams, J.G.; Koeter, M.W.; Veltman, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the available evidence regarding the effects of non-invasive neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on craving in substance dependence and craving for high palatable food. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques were restricted

  19. Cravings as a mediator and moderator of drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Lendle, Samuel; van der Laan, Mark; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Ahern, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    Investigators of the COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcoholism) study examined whether combining medications with a behavioral intervention would improve outcomes over monotherapies. Unexpectedly, the combination did not offer any advantage over either treatment alone. This study aimed to explain the lack of incremental benefit offered by the combination over either monotherapy by assessing the role of cravings as a treatment mediator and moderator. Secondary mediation and moderation analyses of COMBINE study data. Eleven United States academic sites. A total of 863 patients randomized to one of four treatment groups: naltrexone (100 mg/day; n = 209), the combined behavioral intervention (CBI, n = 236), naltrexone and CBI combined (n = 213) and placebo naltrexone (n = 205). Percentage of days abstinent (PDA) measured between 13 and 16 weeks post-baseline. Cravings, the potential mediator/moderator, were measured at baseline, weeks 4 and 12 using the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale. Compared with placebo, naltrexone, CBI and the combination all increased PDA by an additional 6-10 percentage points for those with high cravings (P mediated at least partially by cravings; craving reduction explained 48-53% of treatment effects (P < 0.05 for all three treatment groups). Furthermore, naltrexone appeared to reduce cravings at 4 weeks, while CBI did not reduce cravings until 12 weeks. The Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcoholism (COMBINE) naltrexone + CBI combination may not be more beneficial than either monotherapy because craving reduction is a common mechanism of both. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Competing neurobehavioral decision systems and the neuroeconomics of craving in opioid addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofis MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Sofis,1 David P Jarmolowicz,1 Laura E Martin2 1University of Kansas, 2University of Kansas Medical Center, Lawrence, KS, USA Abstract: Craving is typically thought of as a classically conditioned response characterized by an elevated mesolimbic dopamine response to drug-related stimuli. Although this definition has spurred considerable research, the clinical impact of the research conducted has been less robust. The current review takes a more contemporary approach by conceptualizing craving as the breakdown of executive function and relative strengthening of the limbic system, occurring in the presence of conditioned cues, leading to a maladaptive craving response (ie, an increased likelihood of drug consumption. Working from this framework, the present review focuses on four issues in drug craving research: pivotal findings and limitations of cue-reactivity and neurocognitive tasks; two main processes of craving that include self-control and reward-based explanations; integration of neuroeconomic approaches to craving; and the theoretical implications and future directions of drug craving research. Keywords: craving, competing decision systems, executive function, loss of control, substance abuse 

  1. Craving and subsequent opioid use among opioid dependent patients who initiate treatment with buprenorphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Judith I.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Strong, David R.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have directly assessed associations between craving and subsequent opioid use among treated patients. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate the relative utility of two craving questionnaires to predict opioid use among opioid dependent patients in treatment. Method Opioid dependent patients (n=147) initiating buprenorphine treatment were assessed for three months. Craving was measured using: 1) the Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) and 2) the Penn Alcohol-Craving Scale adapted for opioid craving (PCS) for this study. Multi-level logistic regression models estimated the effects of craving on the likelihood of opioid use after adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, education, opioid of choice, frequency of use, pain and depression. In these analyses craving assessed at time t was entered as a time-varying predictor of opioid use at time t+1. Results In adjusted regression models, a 1-point increase in PCS scores (on a 7-point scale) was associated with a significant increase in the odds of opioid use at the subsequent assessment (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.08; 1.49, p .05) or DDQ control (OR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.85; 1.11, p > .05) scores. Conclusion Self-reported craving for opioids was associated with subsequent lapse to opioid use among a cohort of patients treated with buprenorphine. PMID:24521036

  2. Long-Term Effects of the Realfit Intervention on Self-Esteem and Food Craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Nina H. M.; Mulkens, Sandra; Mujakovic, Suhreta; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: RealFit is a 13-week weight-reduction programme for adolescents. This study investigated the programme's long-term effectiveness regarding the psychological outcomes of self-esteem and food craving. Methods: The study had a quasi-experimental design. Body mass index, self-esteem and food craving were assessed at baseline (T[subscript…

  3. A comparison of drug conditioning and craving for alcohol and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, D B

    1992-01-01

    Craving is a potentially important concept that is difficult to define and study in the laboratory. Although alcohol and cocaine are very different pharmacologically, this discussion emphasizes common factors in addiction to these drugs, such as the tendency of alcoholics and cocaine abusers to crave these substances. I review commonalities in drug conditioning and cue reactivity to alcohol and cocaine. Both drugs support Pavlovian conditioning when they are presented as unconditioned stimuli, whether studied in rodents or humans. In addition, both drugs are craved when abusers are presented with stimuli associated with these drugs. Finally, I propose a theoretical definition of craving based on autoshaping and sign-tracking phenomena that suggests a common mechanism of addiction to these drugs. This model defines craving as a reflection of sign tracking to internal and external stimuli that have in the past reliably predicted presentation of these drugs.

  4. Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between chronic stress, food cravings, and body mass index. A community-based sample of adults (N = 619) completed a comprehensive assessment battery and heights and weights were measured. Chronic stress had a significant direct effect on food cravings, and food cravings had a significant direct effect on body mass index. The total effect of chronic stress on body mass index was significant. Food cravings partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. These findings are consistent with research that chronic stress may potentiate motivation for rewarding substances and behaviors and indicate that high food cravings may contribute to stress-related weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Belief about nicotine Modulates subjective craving and insula activity in Deprived smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, X. S.; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence...... subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told "nicotine" vs. told "no......, smokers demonstrated significantly reduced craving after smoking when told "nicotine in cigarette" but showed no change in craving when told "no nicotine." Second, neural activity in the insular cortex related to craving was only significant when smokers were told "nicotine" but not when told "no nicotine...

  6. Detection of Craving for Gaming in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder Using Multimodal Biosignals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hodam; Ha, Jihyeon; Park, Wanjoo; Kim, Laehyun

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the number of adolescents with internet gaming disorder (IGD), a type of behavioral addiction is becoming an issue of public concern. Teaching adolescents to suppress their craving for gaming in daily life situations is one of the core strategies for treating IGD. Recent studies have demonstrated that computer-aided treatment methods, such as neurofeedback therapy, are effective in relieving the symptoms of a variety of addictions. When a computer-aided treatment strategy is applied to the treatment of IGD, detecting whether an individual is currently experiencing a craving for gaming is important. We aroused a craving for gaming in 57 adolescents with mild to severe IGD using numerous short video clips showing gameplay videos of three addictive games. At the same time, a variety of biosignals were recorded including photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and electrooculogram measurements. After observing the changes in these biosignals during the craving state, we classified each individual participant’s craving/non-craving states using a support vector machine. When video clips edited to arouse a craving for gaming were played, significant decreases in the standard deviation of the heart rate, the number of eye blinks, and saccadic eye movements were observed, along with a significant increase in the mean respiratory rate. Based on these results, we were able to classify whether an individual participant felt a craving for gaming with an average accuracy of 87.04%. This is the first study that has attempted to detect a craving for gaming in an individual with IGD using multimodal biosignal measurements. Moreover, this is the first that showed that an electrooculogram could provide useful biosignal markers for detecting a craving for gaming. PMID:29301261

  7. Detection of Craving for Gaming in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder Using Multimodal Biosignals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hodam; Ha, Jihyeon; Chang, Won-Du; Park, Wanjoo; Kim, Laehyun; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the number of adolescents with internet gaming disorder (IGD), a type of behavioral addiction is becoming an issue of public concern. Teaching adolescents to suppress their craving for gaming in daily life situations is one of the core strategies for treating IGD. Recent studies have demonstrated that computer-aided treatment methods, such as neurofeedback therapy, are effective in relieving the symptoms of a variety of addictions. When a computer-aided treatment strategy is applied to the treatment of IGD, detecting whether an individual is currently experiencing a craving for gaming is important. We aroused a craving for gaming in 57 adolescents with mild to severe IGD using numerous short video clips showing gameplay videos of three addictive games. At the same time, a variety of biosignals were recorded including photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and electrooculogram measurements. After observing the changes in these biosignals during the craving state, we classified each individual participant's craving/non-craving states using a support vector machine. When video clips edited to arouse a craving for gaming were played, significant decreases in the standard deviation of the heart rate, the number of eye blinks, and saccadic eye movements were observed, along with a significant increase in the mean respiratory rate. Based on these results, we were able to classify whether an individual participant felt a craving for gaming with an average accuracy of 87.04%. This is the first study that has attempted to detect a craving for gaming in an individual with IGD using multimodal biosignal measurements. Moreover, this is the first that showed that an electrooculogram could provide useful biosignal markers for detecting a craving for gaming.

  8. Brief psycho-education affects circadian variability in nicotine craving during cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2013-09-01

    Nicotine cravings are a key target of smoking cessation interventions. Cravings demonstrate circadian variation during abstinence, often peaking during the morning and evening hours. Although some research has also shown diurnal variation in the efficacy of nicotine replacement medications, little research has examined how brief psychosocial interventions affect temporal patterns of craving during abstinence. The present study examined the impact of two brief psycho-education interventions on circadian variations in cravings during a 24-h period. 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions. During the first session, participants received (a) mindfulness psycho-education that encouraged acceptance of cravings as a normal, tolerable part of quitting that people should not expect to perfectly control, (b) standard cessation psycho-education, or (c) no psycho-education. Half the sample initiated a cessation attempt the following day. Dependent variables were assessed using ecological momentary assessment (24-h of monitoring, immediately after first lab session) and questionnaires four days later. Partially consistent with hypotheses, both forms of psycho-education were associated with differential diurnal variation in cravings during cessation. Relative to those receiving no psycho-education, standard smoking cessation psycho-education decreased morning cravings. Psycho-education encouraging acceptance of cravings was associated with lower craving in both the morning and evening, albeit only among successfully abstinent smokers. Results demonstrate that brief non-pharmacological interventions can affect circadian craving patterns during smoking cessation. Further investigation of mechanisms of change and of the impact of psycho-education on cessation outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Grasman

    Full Text Available This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of addiction as a dynamical system in the way this is done in the natural and technological sciences. The dynamics of the addictive behaviour is described by a mathematical model consisting of two coupled difference equations. They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues. The latter are formulated as events that are Poisson distributed in time. With the model it is shown how a person can get addicted when changing lifestyle. Although craving is the dominant variable in the process of addiction, the moment of getting dependent is clearly marked by a switch in a variable that fits the definition of addiction vulnerability in the literature. Furthermore, the way chance affects a therapeutic addiction intervention is analysed by carrying out a Monte Carlo simulation. Essential in the dynamical model is a nonlinear component which determines the configuration of the two stable states of the system: being dependent or not dependent. Under identical external conditions both may be stable (hysteresis. With the dynamical systems approach possible switches between the two states are explored (repeated relapses.

  10. Reward and relief craving tendencies in patients with alcohol use disorders: results from the PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner-Rist, Angelika; Lémenager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl

    2013-02-01

    Previous research suggests that patients' tendencies toward either reward or relief craving are distinct continuous factorial dimensions of craving for alcohol. According to these tendencies patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might also be allocated into distinct subgroups. In personalized treatment, patients of such different subgroups might respond differently to various psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions aimed at relapse prevention. To establish that the items of the subscale Temptation to Drink of the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE) capture two continuous dimensions of reward and relief craving, and that they allow the identification of respective discrete class factors and subgroups of patients with AUD. Nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class factor analysis (LCFA) were performed with data from 426 detoxified patients with AUD. The validity of continuous relief and reward dimensions, discrete class factors, and subtypes with different craving tendencies was established by including past drinking in positive and negative settings, gender, trait anxiety and perceived stress as covariates in the finally accepted CFA and LCFA measurement models. The AASE temptation items formed two continuous relief and reward craving factors. They also associated themselves to two binary class factors, which defined four craving subgroups. Two of them (21% and 29% of patients) were characterized by high levels of either reward or relief craving tendencies. A third subgroup (31%) rated both tendencies in an equal high measure, while a fourth (18%) reported almost no craving tendencies at all. Past drinking in negative and positive settings was significantly associated with relief or reward craving tendencies. Male patients reported reward drinking more frequently than female patients. Trait anxiety was positively related only to the relief craving tendency. Unexpectedly, patients' level of perceived stress was associated

  11. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  12. Prevention of drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a methamphetamine (METH) derivative, exhibits METH-like actions at monoamine transporters and positive reinforcing effects in rodents and primates. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether cross-reinstatement would be observed between MDMA and METH and if the cannabinoid receptor, a receptor known to play critical roles in the brain reward system, could modulate MDMA craving. Rats were trained to press a lever for intravenous MDMA (0.3mg/infusion) or METH (0.02mg/infusion) infusions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule paired with drug-associated cues (light and tone). Following drug self-administration acquisition training, rats underwent extinction training (an infusion of saline). Reinstatement tests were performed once the extinction criteria were achieved. In MDMA-trained rats, the MDMA-priming injection (3.2mg/kg, i.p.) or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. Additionally, a priming injection of METH (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) also reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. In contrast, none of the MDMA doses reinstated METH-seeking behavior in the METH-trained rats. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 markedly attenuated the MDMA-seeking behaviors induced by MDMA-priming injection or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues in a dose-dependent manner. These findings show that MDMA has obvious addictive potential for reinstating drug-seeking behavior and that METH can be an effective stimulus for reinstating MDMA-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, based on the attenuating effect of AM251 in the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors, drugs that suppress CB1 receptors may be used in treatment of MDMA dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  14. Cue-Induced Brain Activation in Chronic Ketamine-Dependent Subjects, Cigarette Smokers, and Healthy Controls: A Task Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObservations of drug-related cues may induce craving in drug-dependent patients, prompting compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Sexual dysfunction is common in drug users. The aim of the study was to examine regional brain activation to drug (ketamine, cigarette smoking associated cues and natural (sexual rewards.MethodsA sample of 129 [40 ketamine use smokers (KUS, 45 non-ketamine use smokers (NKUS and 44 non-ketamine use non-smoking healthy controls (HC] participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing ketamine use related, smoking and sexual films.ResultsWe found that KUS showed significant increased activation in anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in response to ketamine cues. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in cerebellum and middle temporal cortex compared with non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC in response to sexual cues. Smokers (KUS and NKUS showed higher activation in the right precentral frontal cortex in response to smoking cues. Non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC showed significantly increased activation of cerebellum and middle temporal cortex while viewing sexual cues.ConclusionThese findings clearly show the engagement of distinct neural circuitry for drug-related stimuli in chronic ketamine users. While smokers (both KUS and NKUS showed overlapping differences in activation for smoking cues, the former group showed a specific neural response to relevant (i.e., ketamine-related cues. In particular, the heightened response in anterior cingulate cortex may have important implications for how attentionally salient such cues are in this group. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in response to sexual cues may partly reflect the neural basis of sexual dysfunction.

  15. Craving and drug reward: A comparison of celecoxib and ibuprofen in detoxifying opiate addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sara jafari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Craving for substance abuse is a usual and complicated problem in patients, with opioid addiction, who are in their opioid cessation process. Craving has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. AIM: The present trial was intended to compare effects of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in reducing pain and in decreasing the desire to use opiates in patients undergoing opiate detoxification. (n=32. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A total of 32 patients (both inpatients and outpatients, who were undergoing opiate detoxification procedure entered this 4 week study. Subjects who suffered pain due to opiate withdrawal were randomized into two groups; group one received celecoxib 200 milligrams once daily and group two received ibuprofen 400 milligrams four times per day.  Self-reported Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ was utilized at baseline and at the end of the study to evaluate changes in opiate craving. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of treatment, with either ibuprofen or celecoxib, significant improvements in pain and craving were noted in each group. However no significant difference between the two groups was observed after 4 weeks of treatment with celecoxib and ibuprofen. CONCLUSION: The study noted that both celecoxib and ibuprofen, reduce craving in patients with opiate craving after 4 weeks of treatment without any significant difference between the two groups. The results suggest further study of celecoxib and other NSAIDs in the maintenance treatment of opiate craving.

  16. The prevalence, intensity, and assessment of craving for MDMA/ecstasy in recreational users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence, intensity, and correlates of craving for MDMA/ecstasy among recreational users employing a new multi-item, self-report questionnaire reflecting experiences of desire, intention to use, and anticipated loss of control. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited MDMA/ecstasy users (n = 240) to rate their agreement with eight craving statements immediately before and immediately following 90 seconds of exposure to either ecstasy-related or control stimuli. Participants then completed questionnaires to measure ecstasy refusal self-efficacy, passionate engagement in ecstasy use, substance use history, and demographic information. Fifty percent of participants indicated some level of agreement with at least two (out of eight) statements indicative of craving and 30% agreed at some level with six or more such statements. The questionnaire used to assess craving was internally consistent, unidimensional, and had excellent one-week test-retest reliability. Craving scores varied as a function of both cue exposure and frequency of ecstasy use, and were significantly associated with ecstasy-related attitudes. Recreational users of MDMA/ecstasy endorse some experiences indicative of craving for this drug, even though only a minority report intense craving following explicit cue exposure.

  17. Behavioral economic analysis of cue-elicited craving for tobacco: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, John; MacKillop, James

    2013-08-01

    Subjective craving is a prominent construct in the study of tobacco motivation; yet, the precise measurement of tobacco craving poses several difficulties. A behavioral economic approach to understanding drug motivation imports concepts and methods from economics to improve the assessment of craving. Using an immersive virtual reality (VR) cue reactivity paradigm, this study tested the hypothesis that, compared with neutral cues, tobacco cues would result in significant increases in subjective craving and diverse aspects of demand for tobacco in a community sample of 47 regular smokers. In addition, the study examined these motivational indices in relation to a dual-component delay and cigarette consumption self-administration paradigm. In response to the VR tobacco cues, significant increases were observed for tobacco craving and the demand indices of Omax (i.e., maximum total expenditure toward cigarettes) and Breakpoint (i.e., price at which consumption is completely suppressed), whereas a significant decrease was observed for Elasticity (i.e., lower cigarette price sensitivity). Continuous analyses revealed trend-level inverse associations between Omax and Intensity in relation to delay duration and significant positive associations between subjective craving, Omax, and Elasticity in relation to the number of cigarettes purchased. The results from this study provide further evidence for the utility of behavioral economic concepts and methods in understanding smoking motivation. These data also reveal the incremental contribution of behavioral economic indices beyond subjective craving in predicting in vivo cigarette consumption. Relationships to previous studies and methodological considerations are discussed.

  18. Measurement of Drug Craving in Persian Speaking Subjects; a Review on Current Experiences and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug craving is considered as one of the main cores of drug dependency and addiction. Multidimensionality of drug craving, its cultural-bounded features and its intra individual rapidly changing nature makes it difficult to be measured. Nowadays, regarding different psychometric approaches, there are various instruments available for measurement of different aspects of drug craving but mainly for Latin-based languages in North America and European countries. High prevalence and special conditions, and unique subcultures in substance abuse and addiction in many countries, like Iran, make the design of culturally validated instruments for drug craving assessment priority. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review on drug craving measurement instruments for Persian speaking subjects have been performed by searching in databases (ELSEVIER, Science Direct and Scientific Information Database (SID and investigating of related documents on regional experiences. Results: In this article seven main categories of drug craving instruments have been reviewed focusing on validated versions in Persian language including: self-reports, reinforcement “proxies”, drug self administration, psycho physiological responding, neurobiological responding, cognitive processing and expressive methods. Conclusion: Reviewing on weak and strength points of each instrument group and national and regional experiences shows that designing and validating a new series of ecologically-validated instruments for multidimensional measurement of drug craving in different addiction subcultures should be prioritized to cover current methodological gaps in substance abuse studies in Iran.

  19. Alcohol craving in relation to coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gąsior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed at finding any relation between alcohol craving and strategies of coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted. Until now, studies have shown that generalized deficits in coping with stress, and the dominance of avoidance strategies, are significantly related to the increase of the risk of addiction and the course of this disease. This relation, which could link strategies of coping with stress and quality of life with experiencing alcohol craving, has only been explained to a small extent. Also, the role of gender in explaining these relations is ambiguous. Participants and procedure The study was conducted in a group of 550 addicted subjects in out-patient or in-patient treatment (396 men and 114 women. In the present study the following instruments were used: the Craving Typology Questionnaire by Marinotti et al., the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale by Modell et al., the Mini-Cope by Carver et al., SADD by Reistrick et al., and the Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. Statistical correlational analysis and structural equations were applied, namely partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. Results There are two types of links between craving and strategies of coping with stress among the addicted. The first dominating type is pointing at casual link between ineffective strategies of coping with stress and craving. The other weaker type indicates the diminishing influence of effective strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving. Life satisfaction lowers alcohol craving. Conclusions Effective strategies of reacting to stress, together with life satisfaction, protect against increase of alcohol craving. Severity of dependence is an important factor which moderates the influence of strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving.

  20. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  1. Cue-elicited anxiety and craving for food using virtual reality scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla, Joana

    2013-01-01

    Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical sample. The results show that exposure to virtual environments provokes changes in reported craving for food. High-calorie food cues are the ones that elicit the highest increases in craving.

  2. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  3. Targeting acceptance in the management of food craving: The mediating roles of eating styles and thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A; Heiss, Sydney; Hormes, Julia M

    2018-04-01

    Food craving is now widely considered to be a cognitively motivated state. Acceptance-based treatments are effective in reducing the adverse impact of food cravings on consumption, via a hypothesized decrease in experiential avoidance. The mechanisms that drive the success of acceptance-based management of craving remain to be empirically tested. This study examined the role of eating styles and thought suppression as mediators in the relationship between experiential avoidance and craving. Participants (n = 298, 51.5% female) completed the Food Craving Acceptance and Awareness Questionnaire (FAAQ), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a measure of thought suppression), and the reduced version of the Food Craving Questionnaire- Trait (FCQ-T-r). Scores on the FAAQ were inversely associated with scores on the FCQ-T-r, DEBQ, and WBSI; FCQ-T-r scores were positively correlated with scores on the DEBQ and WBSI (all p styles and thought suppression, acceptance remained a significant predictor of craving. Results thus provide initial evidence that eating styles and thought suppression mediate the relationship between food-specific experiential avoidance and food craving. Findings lay the foundation for future study of the proximal antecedents of food cravings and lend preliminary support for targeting thought suppression and eating styles in acceptance-based approaches to the management of craving. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a meal replacement system alone or in combination with phentermine on weight loss and food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Christina P; Weldon, Abby J; Daher, Noha S; Schneider, Louise E; Bellinger, Denise L; Berk, Lee S; Hermé, Alyson C; Aréchiga, Adam L; Davis, Willie L; Peters, Warren R

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of phentermine combined with a meal replacement program on weight loss and food cravings and to investigate the relationship between food cravings and weight loss. In a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 77 adults with obesity received either phentermine or placebo. All participants were provided Medifast ® meal replacements, were instructed to follow the Take Shape for Life ® Optimal Weight 5&1 Plan for weight loss, and received lifestyle coaching in the Habits of Health program. The Food Craving Inventory and the General Food Cravings State and Trait Questionnaires were used to measure food cravings. The phentermine group lost 12.1% of baseline body weight compared with 8.8% in the placebo group. Cravings for all food groups decreased in both groups; however, there was a greater reduction in cravings for fats and sweets in the phentermine group compared with the placebo group. Percent weight loss correlated significantly with reduced total food cravings (r = 0.332, P = 0.009), cravings for sweets (r = 0.412, P meal replacement program and meal replacements alone significantly reduced body weight and food cravings; however, the addition of phentermine enhanced these effects. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  5. Frequency of consuming foods predicts changes in cravings for those foods during weight loss: The POUNDS Lost Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolzan, John W.; Myers, Candice A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Beyl, Robbie A.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Anton, Stephen A.; Williamson, Donald A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Martin, Corby K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Food cravings are thought to be the result of conditioning or pairing hunger with consumption of certain foods. Methods In a two-year weight loss trial, subjects were randomized to one of four diets that varied in macronutrient content. The Food Craving Inventory (FCI) was used to measure cravings at baseline, 6, and 24 months. Also, food intake was measured at those time points. To measure free-living consumption of food items measured in the FCI, items on the FCI were matched to the foods consumed from the food intake assessments. Secondarily, we analyzed the amount of food consumed on food intake assessments from foods on the FCI. Results 367 subjects who were overweight and obese were included. There was an association between change from baseline FCI item consumption and change in cravings at months 6 (p<0.001) and 24 (p<0.05). There was no association between change from baseline amount of energy consumed per FCI item and change in cravings. Conclusions Altering frequency of consuming craved foods is positively associated with cravings; however, changing the amount of foods consumed does not appear to alter cravings. These results support the conditioning model of food cravings and provide guidance on how to reduce food cravings. PMID:28618170

  6. Effects of craving and DRD4 VNTR genotype on the relative value of alcohol: an initial human laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGeary John E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craving for alcohol is a highly controversial subjective construct and may be clarified by Loewenstein's visceral theory, which emphasizes craving's behavioral effects on the relative value of alcohol. Based on the visceral theory, this study examined the effects of a craving induction on the relative value of alcohol as measured by a behavioral choice task. In addition, based on previous evidence of its role in the expression of craving, the influence of DRD4 VNTR genotype (DRD4-L vs. DRD4-S was also examined. Methods Thirty-five heavy drinkers (54% male; 31% DRD4-L were randomly assigned to receive either a craving induction (exposure to personally relevant alcohol cues or a control induction (exposure to neutral cues, which was followed by an alcohol-money choice task. Participants were assessed for craving and positive/negative affect throughout the procedure, and relative value of alcohol was derived from participant choices for alcohol versus money. DRD4 VNTR status was assessed retrospectively via buccal samples using previously established protocols. Results Factorial analysis of the craving induction revealed that it was associated with significant increase in craving (p p p Conclusion These results are interpreted as generally supporting Loewenstein's visceral theory of craving and evidence of a functional role of DRD4 VNTR genotype in the expression of craving for alcohol. Methodological limitations, mechanisms underlying these findings, and future directions are discussed.

  7. Obsessive-compulsive aspects of craving: development of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, R F

    2000-08-01

    "Craving" for alcohol needs improved definition and measurement. This review provides a rationale for considering at least certain aspects of craving as having obsessive and compulsive features. As such, there may be phenomenological, but not necessarily etiological, overlap with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There are increasing data that suggest a neuroanatomical overlap between addiction/craving and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The self-rated Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), based on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for heavy drinking interview (YBOCS-hd), was developed to assist in the examination of certain aspects of "craving" in alcoholics. The development, reliability, face validity, congruent validity and predictive validity of the OCDS are presented and discussed in this paper. The utility of the OCDS as a measurement tool in cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological alcoholism treatment research is highlighted. The potential of this instrument as a research and clinical tool for the understanding and evaluation of alcohol dependence needs further evaluation.

  8. Effect of tobacco craving cues on memory encoding and retrieval in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Stephen J; Boas, Zachary P; Hager, Marguerite C; Taylor, Richard C; Singleton, Edward G; Moolchan, Eric T

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cue-elicited tobacco craving disrupted performance on cognitive tasks; however, no study has examined directly the effect of cue-elicited craving on memory encoding and retrieval. A distinction between encoding and retireval has been reported such that memory is more impaired when attention is divided at encoding than at retrieval. This study tested the hypothesis that active imagery of smoking situations would impair encoding processes, but have little effect on retrieval. Imagery scripts (cigarette craving and neutral content) were presented either before presentation of a word list (encoding trials) or before word recall (retrieval trials). A working memory task at encoding and free recall of words were assessed. Results indicated that active imagery disrupted working memory on encoding trials, but not on retrieval trials. There was a trend toward impaired working memory following craving scripts compared with neutral scripts. These data support the hypothesis that the cognitive underpinnings of encoding and retrieval processes are distinct.

  9. A short version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire – Trait: The FCQ-T-reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most often used instruments for the assessment of food cravings is the Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ, which consists of a trait (FCQ-T; 39 items and state (FCQ-S; 15 items version. Scores on the FCQ-T have been found to be positively associated with eating pathology, body-mass-index (BMI, low dieting success and increases in state food craving during cognitive tasks involving appealing food stimuli. The current studies evaluated reliability and validity of a reduced version of the FCQ-T consisting of 15 items only (FCQ-T-r. Study 1 was a questionnaire study conducted online among students (N = 323. In study 2, female students (N = 70 performed a working memory task involving food and neutral pictures. Study 1 indicated a one-factorial structure and high internal consistency ( = .94 of the FCQ-T-r. Scores on the FCQ-T-r were positively correlated with BMI and negatively correlated with dieting success. In study 2, participants reported higher state food craving after the task compared to before. This increase was positively correlated with the FCQ-T-r. Hours since the last meal positively predicted food craving before the task when controlling for FCQ-T-r scores and the interaction of both variables. Contrarily, FCQ-T-r scores positively predicted food craving after the task when controlling for food deprivation and the interaction term. Thus, trait food craving was specifically associated with state food craving triggered by palatable food-cues, but not with state food craving related to plain hunger. Results indicate high reliability of the FCQ-T-r. Replicating studies that used the long version, small-to-medium correlations with BMI and dieting success could be found. Finally, scores on the FCQ-T-r predicted cue-elicited food craving, providing further support of its validity. The FCQ-T-r constitutes a succinct, valid and reliable self-report measure to efficiently assess experiences of food craving as a trait.

  10. Explaining the effects of electronic cigarettes on craving for tobacco in recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-03-01

    To explore how e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco, in e-cigarette users who recently quit smoking. Cross-sectional survey of recent quitters, Internet (French and English), 2012-2014. Participants were 374 daily users of e-cigarettes who had quit smoking in the previous two months, enrolled on websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. We measured perception that e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco cigarettes, characteristics of e-cigarettes, modifications of the devices, patterns of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, and personal characteristics. The strongest attenuation of craving for tobacco was obtained by using higher nicotine concentrations in refill liquids, modular systems (rather than unmodified devices), and high voltage batteries. The strength of the effect of e-cigarettes on craving was also associated with more intensive use (more puffs per day, more refill liquid). Stronger effects on craving were associated with satisfaction with e-cigarettes, and with reporting that e-cigarettes helped to quit smoking. Participants who reported the strongest effects on craving for tobacco were the most dependent on the e-cigarette and had the strongest urges to vape. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarettes that provide high levels of nicotine, high satisfaction and more effects on craving for tobacco, but may also be addictive, and e-cigarettes that contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but are also less satisfactory and less efficient at relieving craving and at helping dependent smokers quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diet Type and Changes in Food Cravings following Weight Loss: Findings from the POUNDS LOST Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; Gallagher, Jacqueline; Carey, Vincent J.; Laranjo, Nancy; Cheng, Jing; Champagne, Catherine M.; Ryan, Donna H.; McManus, Kathy; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Few well-controlled trials have evaluated the effects that macronutrient composition has on changes in food cravings during weight loss treatment. The present study, which was part of the POUNDS LOST trial, investigated whether the fat and protein content of four different diets affected changes in specific food cravings in overweight and obese adults. A sample of 811 adults were recruited across two clinical sites, and each participant was randomly assigned to one of four macronutrient presc...

  12. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n=40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days. Control participants (n=18) received two exposures at the start and end of each session. Chocolate craving was measured (alternately) through subjective report and the amount of saliva secretion to cho...

  13. Live to Work or Love to Work: Work Craving and Work Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdylo, Kamila; Baumann, Nicola; Fischbach, Lis; Engeser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The prese...

  14. The effect of acamprosate on alcohol and food craving in patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyool, In Kyoon; Sung, Young Hoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2008-03-01

    The balance between inhibitory (gamma aminobutyric acid; GABAergic) and excitatory (glutamatergic) neurotransmission is thought to be associated with craving for alcohol and food. The anticraving effect of acamprosate is thought to be mediated through modifying the balance of GABA and glutamate. Recent studies in animals have suggested that acamprosate may have non-selective effects on craving for both alcohol and food. The influence of acamprosate for reducing craving for alcohol and food was assessed in 204 in-patients with alcohol dependence (96 patients treated with acamprosate, PWA; 108 patients were not treated PNA) was assessed at baseline and following 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. There was a significant reduction in craving for alcohol over 4 weeks of treatment in both PWA and PNA groups, but without significant group differences. In contrast, a reduction in food craving was observed only in the PWA group. In addition, there was a significant increase of body mass index (BMI) in the PNA group but not the PWA group over the 4-week period. These results demonstrate acamprosate nonselective effects on craving for drinking and eating in alcoholic patients.

  15. Live to work or love to work: work craving and work engagement.

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    Wojdylo, Kamila; Baumann, Nicola; Fischbach, Lis; Engeser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The present study proposes that work craving and work engagement are differentially associated with self-regulatory competencies and health. In particular, we expected that the working styles mediate the relationships between emotional self-regulation and health. In the cross-sectional study, 469 teachers from German schools completed online administered questionnaires. By means of structural equation modeling, we tested two indirect paths: a) from self-relaxation deficits via work craving to poor health and b) from self-motivation competencies via work engagement to good health. As expected, we found evidence that a) the negative relationship of self-relaxation deficits on health was partially mediated by work craving and b) the positive relationship of self-motivation competencies on health was partially mediated by work engagement. The present study emphasizes the importance of self-regulation competencies for healthy or unhealthy work styles. Whereas work craving was associated with a low ability to down-regulate negative emotions and poor health, work engagement was associated with a high ability to up-regulate positive emotions and good health.

  16. Autonomic stress reactivity and craving in individuals with problematic Internet use.

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    Moretta, Tania; Buodo, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features. Based on their Internet Addiction Test scores, participants were divided into PU (N = 24) and non-PU (N = 21). Their heart rate and skin conductance were continuously recorded during baseline, social stressors, and recovery. Craving for Internet usage were collected using a Likert scale before and after the TSST. The SDNN, an overall measure of HRV, was significantly lower in PU than non-PU during baseline, but not during and after stressful task. Furthermore, only among PU a significant negative correlation emerged between SDNN during recovery and craving ratings after the test. No group differences emerged for SCL. Lastly, PU endorsed more mood, obsessive-compulsive, and alcohol-related problems. Our findings suggest that problems in controlling one's use of the Internet may be related to reduced autonomic balance at rest. Moreover, our results provide new insights into the characterization of craving in PIU, indicating the existence of a relationship between craving for Internet usage and reduced autonomic flexibility.

  17. The acute effect of pleasurable music on craving for alcohol: A pilot crossover study.

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    Mathis, Walter S; Han, Xiaotong

    2017-07-01

    Chronic administration of drugs of abuse leads to a dopamine deficient state in the mesolimbic system, causing dysphoria in abstinence and contributing to craving and return to use. Recent functional imaging studies have shown that listening to personally pleasing music activates the mesolimbic reward system in a fashion similar to drugs of abuse. It has been proposed that such activation could ameliorate the dysphoria and craving of the hypodopaminergic state. The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of listening to personally pleasing or moving music on reducing craving in abstinent alcoholics using a single-blind, within-subject randomized block design, with three randomly determined presentations of each condition. Twelve participants with Alcohol Use Disorder on a residential substance rehabilitation unit reported their level of craving with a Visual Analog Scale before and after listening to either the participant-selected song or white noise. Using a mixed model to analyze the crossover design, the music intervention was found to have a statistically significant advantage in craving reduction compared to the noise control. Our results indicate that personally pleasing music might have a role in augmenting substance use disorder treatment via craving reduction. Further study is warranted to elucidate factors which predict the most robust response from this intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

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    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

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    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  20. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Affect and cortisol mechanisms through which acute exercise attenuates cigarette cravings during a temporary quit attempt.

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    De Jesus, Stefanie; Prapavessis, Harry

    2018-05-01

    A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain how exercise attenuates cravings among temporarily abstinent smokers; however, research has presented mixed findings. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanistic role of positive and negative affect and cortisol in the exercise-craving reduction relationship. Adult smokers (N=110, male=56, M age=33.1, M cigarettes/day=15.4) provided baseline affective and cortisol data (T1). After an 18-h period of abstinence, participants were randomized to a passive sitting (PSG) or moderate exercise group (MEG; 40-68% of heart rate reserve) for 10min. Affect and cortisol data were also collected immediately before (T2) and after (T3) the condition. The smoking abstinence manipulation increased cravings (p<0.001, eta=0.40) and negative affect (p<0.001, eta=0.17), as well as decreased positive affect (p<0.001, eta=0.08) and cortisol (trending, p=0.07, η2=0.04). As expected, a significant reduction in cravings from T2 to T3 was found for MEG but not PSG (p<0.001, eta=0.25). Mediation was tested using Sobel and bootstrapping tests with residual change scores of mediators and cravings. Findings showed that both positive and negative affect, but not cortisol, mediated the relationship between exercise and cravings. Understanding the mechanisms by which exercise induces craving reductions will better allow researchers and healthcare professionals to infer causality and implement interventions guided by the processes that yield such desirable outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sonhos e craving em alcoolistas na fase de desintoxicação Dreams and craving in alcohol addicted patients in the detoxication stage

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    Renata Brasil Araujo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a presença da relação entre os sonhos e craving em alcoolistas nos três primeiros dias de desintoxicação em unidades de internação hospitalar. Verificou-se se aqueles que tinham o craving aumentado relatavam sonhos com o tema "álcool" e analisou-se a qualidade do sono desses sujeitos. Foi um estudo transversal, de associação entre variáveis. A amostra foi de 77 sujeitos adultos do sexo masculino, dependentes de álcool, sem comorbidades clínicas ou psiquiátricas e não-dependentes de outras substâncias psicoativas, salvo a nicotina. Os instrumentos foram: entrevista estruturada; escala de avaliação do craving; questionário de avaliação do sono e dos sonhos; Mini-Mental State Examination e questionário Short-Form Alcohol Dependence Data. Quanto à fase inicial do sono, 67,6% considerou no mínimo satisfatória, 80,5% emitiu a mesma opinião quanto ao seu final, porém apenas 22,1% nunca apresentou interrupções durante o sono. Sonhar com álcool não foi um comportamento freqüente (27,3%, e a média de pontuação do craving foi "fraca", havendo associação entre sonhar com álcool e um aumento no craving (p The objective of this research is to evaluate the existence of a possible connection between dreams of alcohol-addicted patients and the craving they have during the first three days of detoxication at hospital ward units. The aim was to verify if those who had increased craving reported dreams where the theme "alcohol" was present, as well as to analyze the subjects'quality of sleep. It was a transversal study, with association of the sample variables. The taken sample has included 77 adult males, alcohol addicted, who would not have clinical or psychiatric comorbidities. In addition, the subjects would not be addicted to any other psychoactive substance but nicotine. The following instruments have been used: an Information File, where the subjects should fill in their social

  3. Development and Initial Validation of a Rock Climbing Craving Questionnaire (RCCQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Roderique-Davies

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e.g., surfing and activities (e.g., drug-use. Therefore, using validated craving measures as a template, the aim of the two studies outlined here was to design and preliminarily validate a subjective multidimensional inventory that could be used to measure craving in the sports of rock-climbing and mountaineering (“RCCQ”. The aim of the first study was to investigate the factor structure of a preliminary measure of craving. Climbers (n = 407 completed the RCCQ. A 3-factor model explained 53.65% of the total variance in item scores. All three factors comprised five items each, which were conceptually labeled as “urge to climb” “negative reinforcement” and “positive reinforcement.” The aim of the second study was to validate the 15-item 3-factor RCCQ resulting from Study 1 using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Climbers (n = 254 completed the questionnaire under a climbing-related cue condition or a cue-neutral condition. CFA revealed a good model fit and that all individual parameter estimates were significant and standard errors were within reasonable limits once item 13 was removed from Factor 1. Study 1 supports the multi-dimensional nature of rock climbing craving and shows parallels with substance-related craving in reflecting intention and positive (desire and negative (withdrawal reinforcement. Study 2 confirms this factor structure and gives initial validation to the measure with evidence that these

  4. Opioid withdrawal, craving, and use during and after outpatient buprenorphine stabilization and taper: a discrete survival and growth mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Thomas F; Stotts, Angela L; Green, Charles; Potter, Jennifer S; Marino, Elise N; Walker, Robrina; Weiss, Roger D; Trivedi, Madhukar

    2015-02-01

    Most patients relapse to opioids within one month of opioid agonist detoxification, making the antecedents and parallel processes of first use critical for investigation. Craving and withdrawal are often studied in relationship to opioid outcomes, and a novel analytic strategy applied to these two phenomena may indicate targeted intervention strategies. Specifically, this secondary data analysis of the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study used a discrete-time mixture analysis with time-to-first opioid use (survival) simultaneously predicted by craving and withdrawal growth trajectories. This analysis characterized heterogeneity among prescription opioid-dependent individuals (N=653) into latent classes (i.e., latent class analysis [LCA]) during and after buprenorphine/naloxone stabilization and taper. A 4-latent class solution was selected for overall model fit and clinical parsimony. In order of shortest to longest time-to-first use, the 4 classes were characterized as 1) high craving and withdrawal, 2) intermediate craving and withdrawal, 3) high initial craving with low craving and withdrawal trajectories and 4) a low initial craving with low craving and withdrawal trajectories. Odds ratio calculations showed statistically significant differences in time-to-first use across classes. Generally, participants with lower baseline levels and greater decreases in craving and withdrawal during stabilization combined with slower craving and withdrawal rebound during buprenorphine taper remained opioid-free longer. This exploratory work expanded on the importance of monitoring craving and withdrawal during buprenorphine induction, stabilization, and taper. Future research may allow individually tailored and timely interventions to be developed to extend time-to-first opioid use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  6. Cue reactivity in non-daily smokers: effects on craving and on smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Kirchner, Thomas R; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Scholl, Sarah M; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2013-03-01

    Non-daily, or intermittent smokers (ITS), are increasingly prevalent. Their smoking may be more situational than that of daily smokers (DS), and thus is hypothesized to be more influenced by cues. To assess ITS' response to cues, and compare it to that of DS. Samples of 239 ITS and 207 DS (previously reported in Shiffman et al. 2012a) were studied in 2,586 laboratory cue-reactivity sessions. Craving (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and smoking (probability, latency, puff parameters, and carbon monoxide increases) in response to cues was assessed following exposure to neutral cues and cues related to smoking, alcohol, negative affect, positive affect, and smoking prohibitions. Mixed effects models, generalized estimating equations and random-effects survival analyses were used to assess response to cues and differences between DS and ITS. ITS' craving increased following exposure to smoking and alcohol cues and decreased following positive affect cues, but cues had little effect on smoking behaviors. Cue reactivity was similar in ITS and DS. Among ITS, craving intensity predicted smoking probability, latency, and intensity, and the effects on latency were stronger among ITS than DS. Contrary to hypotheses, ITS were not more responsive to laboratory cues than DS. Results show that ITS do experience craving and craving increases that are then associated with smoking.

  7. The Effect of Social Anxiety on Urge and Craving among Smokers with and without Anxiety Disorders

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    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method Participants (N = 99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-hour nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Results Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. Conclusions These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. PMID:24331637

  8. Mindfulness practice moderates the relationship between craving and substance use in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkema, Matthew C; Bowen, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Relapse following treatment for substance use disorders is highly prevalent, and craving has been shown to be a primary predictor of relapse. Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) is a psychosocial aftercare program integrating mindfulness and cognitive-behavioral approaches, aimed at reducing the risk and severity of relapse. Results from a recent randomized clinical trial demonstrate enhanced remission resilience for MBRP participants versus both cognitive-behavioral and treatment-as-usual controls. The current study investigated between-session formal and informal mindfulness practice, a hypothesized primary mechanism of action in this treatment, as an attenuating factor in the relationship between craving and substance use. Participants in this secondary analysis were 57 eligible adults who completed either inpatient treatment or intensive outpatient treatment for substance use disorders, were randomized in the parent study to receive MBRP, and completed relevant follow-up assessments. For formal mindfulness practice at post-intervention, both number of days per week and number of minutes per day significantly moderated the relationship between craving at post-intervention and number of substance use days at 6-month follow up. Informal practice did not significantly influence the craving-use relationship in this analysis. These results indicate that increasing formal mindfulness practice may reduce the link between craving and substance use for MBRP participants and enhance remission resiliency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

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    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gaming Increases Craving to Gaming-Related Stimuli in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder.

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    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Lingxiao; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-07-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU. Subjects' craving responses to gaming-related stimuli were measured before and after 30 minutes of gaming. The comparison between post- and pregaming measures showed that for IGD, gaming was associated with increased craving and increased brain activation of the lateral and prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the precuneus when exposed to gaming-related stimuli. In individuals with RGU, no enhanced brain activity was observed. These results suggest that gaming behavior enhances craving responses in subjects with IGD but not in subjects with RGU, provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying IGD, and suggest behavioral and neurobiological targets for IGD-related interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Problematic internet pornography use: The role of craving, desire thinking, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Katsikitis, Mary

    2017-07-01

    Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect. From a theoretical perspective, environmental cues trigger positive metacognitions about desire thinking that directly influence desire thinking, resulting in the escalation of craving, negative metacognitions, and negative affect. Participants were recruited via an online survey and screened for problematic internet pornography use. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among the aforementioned constructs in a final sample of 191 participants. Consistent with previous research, results of this study validated the existence of metacognitive processes in the activation of desire thinking and escalation of craving, while indicating that desire thinking has the potential to influence negative affect. Additionally, results supported the role of significant indirect relationships between constructs within the revised model of metacognition, desire thinking, and psychopathology. Collectively, the findings demonstrate the clinical value of a metacognitive conceptualisation of problematic pornography use. Exploring the metacognitive mechanisms that underpin problematic internet pornography use may give rise to the development of new treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A prospective study of appetite and food craving in 30 patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Eliza B; Lalazar, Yelena; Couto, Lizette M; Cohen, Vanessa; Lipton, Lianna R; Shi, Wei; Bagiella, Emilia; Conwell, Irene; Bederson, Joshua; Kostadinov, Jane; Post, Kalmon D; Freda, Pamela U

    2016-04-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) exposure increases food intake, but the mechanisms in humans are not known. Investigation of appetite and food craving has not been done in patients with chronic GC exposure due to Cushing's disease (CD), either before or after treatment, and could provide insight into mechanisms of food intake and obesity in these patients. To examine whether surgical remission of CD changes appetite (prospective consumption, hunger, satisfaction, and fullness) and food cravings (sweet, salty, fatty, and savory); and to identify predictors of appetite and craving in CD remission. 30 CD patients, mean age 40.0 years (range 17-70), mean BMI 32.3 ± 6.4, were prospectively studied before and at a mean of 17.4 mo. after remission. At each visit fasting and post-test meal (50% carbohydrate, 35% protein, 15% fat) appetite and craving scores were assessed. Remission decreased prospective consumption, sweet and savory craving (p appetite regulation due to abdominal fat mass and circulating cortisol could play a role in the cardiovascular and metabolic risk that has been reported in CD patients despite remission.

  13. A prospective study of appetite and food craving in 30 patients with Cushing’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Eliza B.; Lalazar, Yelena; Couto, Lizette M.; Cohen, Vanessa; Lipton, Lianna R.; Shi, Wei; Bagiella, Emilia; Conwell, Irene; Bederson, Joshua; Kostadinov, Jane; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.

    2015-01-01

    Context Glucocorticoid (GC) exposure increases food intake, but the mechanisms in humans are not known. Investigation of appetite and food craving has not been done in patients with chronic GC exposure due to Cushing’s disease (CD), either before or after treatment, and could provide insight into mechanisms of food intake and obesity in these patients. Purpose To examine whether surgical remission of CD changes appetite (prospective consumption, hunger, satisfaction, and fullness) and food cravings (sweet, salty, fatty, and savory); and to identify predictors of appetite and craving in CD remission. Methods 30 CD patients, mean age 40.0 yr. (range 17–70), mean BMI 32.3 ± 6.4, were prospectively studied before and at a mean of 17.4 mo. after remission. At each visit fasting and post-test meal (50% carbohydrate, 35% protein, 15% fat) appetite and craving scores were assessed. Results Remission decreased prospective consumption, sweet and savory craving (pappetite regulation due to abdominal fat mass and circulating cortisol could play a role in the cardiovascular and metabolic risk that has been reported in CD patients despite remission. PMID:26496766

  14. Questionnaire of core beliefs related to drug use and craving for assessment of relapse risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, José Miguel; Vilar López, Raquel; Lozano-Rojas, Oscar; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-07-12

    This study was aimed at designing a questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-related core beliefs and craving. The sample comprised 215 patients (85.8% males and 14.2% females) in treatment for dependence to alcohol (40%), cocaine (36.3%) and cannabis (23.7%). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Variance, regression and factorial analyses were conducted to study the questionnaire structure and its relation with variables such as abstinence and craving. Items about drug-related beliefs yielded a four-factor structure: what patient think that they could not do without drug use, lack of withdrawal, conditions required to use drugs again, and use of drugs as the only way to feel good. Items related to craving yielded three factors: negative emotions as precipitants of drug use, positive emotions, and difficulties attributed to coping with craving. Furthermore, beliefs were more important to predict craving than abstinence time. The present questionnaire allows to assess a set of significant factors to design prevention relapse programs.

  15. Relationship between drug dreams, affect, and craving during treatment for substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Hélène; Zadra, Antonio; Good, Daniel; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occurrence of drug dreams (DDs) and daytime negative affect and drug craving during the course of a 5-week treatment program for substance dependence. Using the dream journal methodology, 86 participants reported occurrence of dreams, dream content, and ratings of affect and drug craving. The relationships between the experience of DD, dream content ("active" vs "passive"), and affect and craving were analyzed using mixed model methods. The experience of DD was associated with higher levels of negative affect (P < 0.001) and craving (P < 0.001). The occurrence of DD did not decrease significantly over the 5 weeks of the study. Cocaine/crack users reported a higher occurrence of DD (P < 0.05) than the other drug groups (opiates and alcohol), and DD involving "active" drug use was associated with larger (P < 0.05) changes in negative affect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DD can act as drug-conditioned stimuli to elevate negative affect and craving in abstaining individuals. Although correlational, such findings support the implementation of psychological and pharmacological interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of DD on individuals in recovery from drug addiction.

  16. Drive for Consumption, Craving, and Connectivity in the Visual Cortex during the Imagery of Desired Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eBullins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in understanding food cravings given the obesogenic environment of Western Society. In this paper we examine how the imagery of palatable foods affects cravings and functional connectivity in the visual cortex for people who differ on the power of food scale (PFS. Fourteen older, overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 hours prior to scanning. On one day they consumed a BOOST® liquid meal after the period of food restriction, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST® condition. After these manipulations, they had an fMRI scan in which they were asked to image both neutral objects and their favorite snack foods; they also completed visual analogue scales for craving, hunger, and the vividness of the imagery experiences. Irrespective of the BOOST® manipulation, we observed marked increases in food cravings when older, overweight/obese adults created images of favorite foods in their minds as opposed to creating an image of neutral objects; however, the increase in food craving following the imagery of desired food was more pronounced among those scoring high than low on the PFS. Furthermore, local efficiency within the visual cortex when imaging desired food was higher for those scoring high as compared to low on the PFS. The active imagery of desired foods seemed to have overpowered the BOOST® manipulation when evaluating connectivity in the visual cortex.

  17. Are addiction-related memories malleable by working memory competition? Transient effects on memory vividness and nicotine craving in a randomized lab experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, W.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Woud, M.L.; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Experimental research suggests that working memory (WM) taxation reduces craving momentarily. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) procedure, prolonged reductions in craving and relapse rates in alcohol dependence have been demonstrated.

  18. The craving withdrawal model for alcoholism: Towards the DSM-V Improving the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the discriminant validity of the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 classification of alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an alternative classification, the craving withdrawal model (CWM). CWM requires craving and withdrawal for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence and raises the alcohol abuse

  19. Examining nicotine craving during abstinence among adolescent smokers: the roles of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Visser, A.F.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies on the occurrence of nicotine craving among 125 daily-smoking adolescents. General perceived stress was measured at baseline. Craving was assessed at baseline and directly after a 24-hour period of

  20. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and dopamine release during cue-elicited craving in recently abstinent opiate-dependent males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Fleur; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by relapse behaviour, often preceded by craving and anhedonia. Chronic craving and anhedonia have been associated with low availability of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cue-elicited craving has been linked with endogenous dopamine release. We

  1. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Craving Behavior Intervention in Ameliorating College Students' Internet Game Disorder: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Craving, as a central feature of addiction and a precursor of relapse, is targeted recently in addiction intervention. While Internet gaming disorder (IGD), conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, is lack of effective treatment practice and exploration of its mechanism. This research aims to test the effectiveness and detect the active ingredients of craving behavior intervention (CBI) in mitigation of IGD among young adults. A total of 63 male college students with IGD were assigned into the intervention group (six-session CBI intervention) or the waiting-list control group. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in the severity of IGD in intervention group was found at post-intervention and lasting to 6 months after intervention. The value changes of craving could partially mediate the relationship between intervention and changes of IGD among all effects tests (immediate, T2-T1; short-term, T3-T1; and long-term effects, T4-T1). Further, explorations of the active ingredients of intervention found depression relief and shift of psychological needs from Internet to real life significantly predict craving amelioration at both post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of craving-aimed intervention practice in IGD treatment and identifies two potential active ingredients for mitigation of craving, and the long-term therapeutic benefits are further conferred. Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD; URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405; Registration number: NCT02550405.

  3. Live to work or love to work: work craving and work engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojdylo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: According to the theory of work craving, a workaholic has a craving for self-worth compensatory incentives and an expectation of relief from negative affect experienced through neurotic perfectionism and an obsessive-compulsive style of working. Research has shown that workaholism and work engagement should be considered as two distinct work styles with different health consequences. However, the mechanisms underlying the adoption of these work styles have been neglected. The present study proposes that work craving and work engagement are differentially associated with self-regulatory competencies and health. In particular, we expected that the working styles mediate the relationships between emotional self-regulation and health. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, 469 teachers from German schools completed online administered questionnaires. By means of structural equation modeling, we tested two indirect paths: a from self-relaxation deficits via work craving to poor health and b from self-motivation competencies via work engagement to good health. RESULTS: As expected, we found evidence that a the negative relationship of self-relaxation deficits on health was partially mediated by work craving and b the positive relationship of self-motivation competencies on health was partially mediated by work engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The present study emphasizes the importance of self-regulation competencies for healthy or unhealthy work styles. Whereas work craving was associated with a low ability to down-regulate negative emotions and poor health, work engagement was associated with a high ability to up-regulate positive emotions and good health.

  4. Cue-Elicited Increases in Incentive Salience for Marijuana: Craving, Demand, and Attentional Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. Methods This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana’s incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Results Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r’s: 0.23–0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Conclusions Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. PMID:27515723

  5. Cue exposure treatment in a virtual environment to reduce nicotine craving: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2009-02-01

    Smokers show an increase in cue reactivity during exposure to smoking-related cues. CET aims at extinguishing cue reactivity by repeated presentation of substance-related cues and has been claimed a potentially effective method of treating addictive behaviors, including cigarette smoking. We applied CET to eight late-adolescent smokers in virtual environments (VEs). When comparing pre-CET regions to those of post-CET, the inferior frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were detected. These regions are consistent with previous studies of activated brain regions related to nicotine craving, and VE-CET seems to be an effective method of treating nicotine craving.

  6. The management of food cravings and thirst in hemodialysis patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Ng, Hui J; Nandakumar, Mooppil; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-02-01

    This study set out to explore the experience of food cravings and thirst, and their management strategies in patients on hemodialysis. Semi-structured interviews with N = 32 hemodialysis patients were analyzed thematically. Findings indicated that food cravings and thirst were common in everyday life of patients and resulted in different emotional responses. A combination of cognitive and behavioral strategies was employed, including avoidance, controlled consumption, and substitution. Self-monitoring and compensatory strategies were also used to prevent or compensate for lapses. These findings lay the groundwork for future work aimed to improve adherence in end-stage renal disease patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  8. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHone-Blanchet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist, however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse.Current behavioural therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioural training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer-pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practice new skills in treatment. Virtual reality enhances ecological validity of traditional craving induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from 1 studies using virtual reality and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and 2 studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual reality in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug seeking behaviours and peer pressure.Findings indicate that virtual reality can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue exposure-therapy with virtual environment however reported mitigated success so far.

  9. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of aerobic exercise intensity on craving and reactivity to smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Elibero, Andrea; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Drobes, David J

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise can acutely reduce cigarette cravings during periods of nicotine deprivation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the differential effects of light and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on cigarette cravings, subjective and physiological reactivity to smoking cues, and affect after overnight nicotine deprivation. A secondary aim was to examine cortisol change as a mediator of the effects of exercise on smoking motivation. 162 (55 female, 107 male) overnight nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to one of three exercise conditions: light intensity, vigorous intensity, or a passive control condition. After each condition, participants engaged in a standardized cue reactivity assessment. Self-reported urges to smoke, affect, and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline (i.e., before each condition), immediately after each condition, and after the cue reactivity assessment. Light and vigorous exercise significantly decreased urges to smoke and increased positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, those in the vigorous exercise condition demonstrated suppressed appetitive reactivity to smoking cues, as indexed by the startle eyeblink reflex. Although exercise intensity was associated with expected changes in cortisol concentration, these effects were not related to changes in craving or cue reactivity. Both light and vigorous exercise can reduce general cravings to smoke, whereas vigorous exercise appears especially well-suited for reducing appetitive reactions to cues that may precede smoking. Results did not support exercise-induced cortisol release as a mechanism for these effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  12. Effects of standardised cigarette packaging on craving, motivation to stop and perceptions of cigarettes and packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Chong, Chwen B; Aspinall, Emily; Michie, Susan; McEwen, Andy

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether standardised packs of the form introduced in Australia are associated with a reduction in acute craving and/or an increase in motivation to stop, and to replicate previous findings on perceptions of packaging, perceptions of smokers using it and perceived effects on behaviour. Following abstinence of at least 12 h, 98 regular and occasional smokers were randomised to exposure to their own cigarette package, another branded package or a standardised package. Craving (QSU-brief), motivation to stop, both at baseline and post-exposure. Ratings of 10 attributes concerning package design, perceived smoker characteristics and effects on behaviour, post-exposure only. For craving, a mixed model ANCOVA showed a significant interaction of packaging and time of measurement (F(2,94) = 8.77, p interaction for motivation to stop smoking (p = .9). The standardised pack was perceived to be significantly less appealing and less motivating to buy cigarettes, smokers using them were perceived as less popular and cigarettes from them expected to taste worse. Standardised cigarette packaging may reduce acute (hedonic) craving and is associated with more negative perceptions than branded packaging with less prominent health warnings.

  13. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Beckers, T.; Hermans, D.; Baeyens, F.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n ¼ 40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days.

  14. Design decisions for a real time, alcohol craving study using physio- and psychological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, Hendrika G.; Oberhagemann, Mira; Stroes, Jessica D.; Enewoldsen, Niklas M.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C.; Postel, Marloes G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.; de Haan, Hein A.; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was a pilot for an alcohol craving monitoring study with a biosensor (E4 wristband) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone app. The E4 wristband was evaluated on compliance rates, usability, comfort and stigmatization. Two EMA methodologies (signal- and

  15. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, ppsychopathology (B=.47±.09, ppsychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Estradiol, SHBG and leptin interplay with food craving and intake across the menstrual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To understand the association between ovarian hormones, non-acute satiety hormones and craving calorie dense foods in the luteal phase. Methods: 17 premenopausal women, mean age 23.2 y, mean BMI 22.4 kg/m2 with regular menstrual cycles were studied during late follicular (FP) and luteal ...

  17. Exploring gambling craving through the elaborated intrusion theory of desire: a mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornil, Aurelien; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Devos, Gaetan; de Timary, Philippe; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Billieux, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Gambling disorder is a well-established behavioural addiction, which was classified with substance-related disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Although craving was introduced as a new diagnostic criterion for substance-related disorders, it

  18. A Mobile App Offering Distractions and Tips to Cope With Cigarette Craving: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wally; Pearce, Jon; Borland, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable effort, most smokers relapse within a few months after quitting due to cigarette craving. The widespread adoption of mobile phones presents new opportunities to provide support during attempts to quit. Objective To design and pilot a mobile app "DistractMe" to enable quitters to access and share distractions and tips to cope with cigarette cravings. Methods A qualitative study with 14 smokers who used DistractMe on their mobiles during the first weeks of their quit attempt. Based on interviews, diaries, and log data, we examined how the app supported quitting strategies. Results Three distinct techniques of coping when using DistractMe were identified: diversion, avoidance, and displacement. We further identified three forms of engagement with tips for coping: preparation, fortification, and confrontation. Overall, strategies to prevent cravings and their effects (avoidance, displacement, preparation, and fortification) were more common than immediate coping strategies (diversion and confrontation). Tips for coping were more commonly used than distractions to cope with cravings, because they helped to fortify the quit attempt and provided opportunities to connect with other users of the application. However, distractions were important to attract new users and to facilitate content sharing. Conclusions Based on the qualitative results, we recommend that mobile phone-based interventions focus on tips shared by peers and frequent content updates. Apps also require testing with larger groups of users to assess whether they can be self-sustaining. PMID:25099632

  19. Timing of nicotine lozenge administration to minimize trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Michael; Lindgren, Bruce R; Vuchetich, John P; Le, Chap; Mills, Anne M; Amiot, Elizabeth; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-08-01

    Smokers are often advised to use nicotine lozenge when craving or withdrawal symptoms occur. This may be too late to prevent lapses. This study assessed if nicotine lozenge use prior to a common smoking trigger can minimize trigger induced increases in craving and withdrawal symptoms. Eighty-four smokers completed two laboratory sessions in random order. At one session, nicotine lozenge was given immediately after a stressor (to approximate current recommended use - i.e., after craving and withdrawal symptoms occur); at the other session subjects were randomized to receive nicotine lozenge at time points ranging from immediately to 30min prior to the stressor. Withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were measured using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU). Relative to receiving lozenge after the stressor, a smaller increase in pre-stressor to post-stressor withdrawal symptom scores occurred when lozenge was used immediately (p=0.03) and 10min prior (p=0.044) to the stressor. Results were similar for factors 1 and 2 of the QSU when lozenge was used immediately prior to the stressor (pnicotine lozenge prior to a smoking trigger can decrease trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms. Future studies are needed to determine if such use would increase cessation rates. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT01522963. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroscience of drug craving for addiction medicine: From circuits to therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtiari, Hamed; Nasseri, Padideh; Yavari, Fatemeh; Mokri, Azarkhsh; Monterosso, John

    2016-01-01

    Drug craving is a dynamic neurocognitive emotional-motivational response to a wide range of cues, from internal to external environments and from drug-related to stressful or affective events. The subjective feeling of craving, as an appetitive or compulsive state, could be considered a part of this multidimensional process, with modules in different levels of consciousness and embodiment. The neural correspondence of this dynamic and complex phenomenon may be productively investigated in relation to regional, small-scale networks, large-scale networks, and brain states. Within cognitive neuroscience, this approach has provided a long list of neural and cognitive targets for craving modulations with different cognitive, electrical, or pharmacological interventions. There are new opportunities to integrate different approaches for carving management from environmental, behavioral, psychosocial, cognitive, and neural perspectives. By using cognitive neuroscience models that treat drug craving as a dynamic and multidimensional process, these approaches may yield more effective interventions for addiction medicine. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  2. Craving and illicit heroin use among patients in heroin-assisted treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): the course of heroin craving and illicit heroin use, their mutual association, and their association with multi-domain treatment response. Design: RCTs on the efficacy of 12 months

  3. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marijuana use, craving, and academic motivation and performance among college students: An in-the-moment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristina T; Phillips, Michael M; Lalonde, Trent L; Tormohlen, Kayla N

    2015-08-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the U.S., with high rates among young adults in the state of Colorado. Chronic, heavy marijuana use can impact cognitive functioning, which has the potential to influence academic performance of college students. It is possible that craving for marijuana may further contribute to diminished cognitive and affective functioning, thus leading to poor outcomes for students. College student marijuana users (n=57) were recruited based on heavy use and completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) via text-messaging. The association between marijuana use and craving in a college setting was explored, as well as how these variables might relate to academic motivation, effort and success. The participants were sent text messages for two weeks, three times per day at random times. A temporal association between craving and marijuana use was found, where momentary craving positively predicted greater marijuana use. Similarly, as craving levels increased, the number of minutes spent studying decreased at the next assessment point. A negative association between momentary craving for marijuana and academic motivation was found in the same moment. Greater academic self-efficacy positively predicted cumulative GPA, while average minutes spent smoking marijuana was negatively related. Using EMA, marijuana craving and use were significantly related. These findings provide further evidence that heavy marijuana use is negatively associated with academic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crave-Out: A Distraction/Motivation Mobile Game to Assist in Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaughter, Kathryn L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kamberi, Ariana; English, Thomas M; Seward, Greg L; Chan, S Wayne; Volkman, Julie E; Amante, Daniel J; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-05-26

    Smoking is still the number one preventable cause of death. Cravings-an intense desire or longing for a cigarette-are a major contributor to quit attempt failure. New tools to help smokers' manage their cravings are needed. To present a case study of the development process and testing of a distraction/motivation game (Crave-Out) to help manage cravings. We used a phased approach: in Phase 1 (alpha testing), we tested and refined the game concept, using a Web-based prototype. In Phase 2 (beta testing), we evaluated the distraction/motivation potential of the mobile game prototype, using a prepost design. After varying duration of abstinence, smokers completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urge-Brief (QSU-Brief) measurement before and after playing Crave-Out. Paired t tests were used to compare pregame and postgame QSU-Brief levels. To test dissemination potential, we released the game on the Apple iTunes App Store and tracked downloads between December 22, 2011, and May 5, 2014. Our concept refinement resulted in a multilevel, pattern memory challenge game, with each level increasing in difficulty. Smokers could play the game as long as they wanted. At the end of each level, smokers were provided clear goals for the next level and rewards (positive reinforcement using motivational tokens that represented a benefit of quitting smoking). Negative reinforcement was removed in alpha testing as smokers felt it reminded them of smoking. Measurement of QSU-Brief (N=30) resulted in a pregame mean of 3.24 (SD 1.65) and postgame mean of 2.99 (SD 1.40) with an overall decrease of 0.25 in cravings (not statistically significant). In a subset analysis, the QSU-Brief decrease was significant for smokers abstinent for more than 48 hours (N=5) with a pregame mean of 2.84 (SD 1.16) and a postgame mean of 2.0 (SD 0.94; change=0.84; P =.03). Between December 22, 2011, and May 29, 2014, the game was downloaded 3372 times from the App-Store, with 1526 smokers visiting the online

  6. Drive for consumption, craving, and connectivity in the visual cortex during the imagery of desired food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullins, Jessica; Laurienti, Paul J; Morgan, Ashley R; Norris, James; Paolini, Brielle M; Rejeski, W Jack

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding food cravings given the obesogenic environment of Western Society. In this paper we examine how the imagery of palatable foods affects cravings and functional connectivity in the visual cortex for people who differ on the power of food scale (PFS). Fourteen older, overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 h prior to scanning. On 1 day they consumed a BOOST(®) liquid meal after the period of food restriction, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST(®) condition). After these manipulations, they had an fMRI scan in which they were asked to image both neutral objects and their favorite snack foods; they also completed visual analog scales for craving, hunger, and the vividness of the imagery experiences. Irrespective of the BOOST(®) manipulation, we observed marked increases in food cravings when older, overweight/obese adults created images of favorite foods in their minds as opposed to creating an image of neutral objects; however, the increase in food craving following the imagery of desired food was more pronounced among those scoring high than low on the PFS. Furthermore, local efficiency within the visual cortex when imaging desired food was higher for those scoring high as compared to low on the PFS. The active imagery of desired foods seemed to have overpowered the BOOST(®) manipulation when evaluating connectivity in the visual cortex.

  7. Effects of exercise on craving and cigarette smoking in the human laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-06-01

    Exercise is increasingly being pursued as a treatment to reduce cigarette smoking. The efficacy of clinical, exercise-based cessation interventions may be enhanced by conducting laboratory studies to determine maximally effective conditions for reducing smoking, and the mechanisms through which the effects on smoking are achieved. The main purpose of this study was to assess whether the effects of exercise on two components of craving (anticipated reward from smoking, anticipated relief from withdrawal) mediated the relationship between exercise and delay (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Experiment 1 (N=21) assessed the effects of exercise intensity (inactivity, low, moderate) on craving components up to 60 min post-exercise. Because moderate-intensity exercise most effectively reduced craving on the reward component, all participants exercised at a moderate intensity in Experiment 2. Using an ABAB within-subjects design, Experiment 2 (N=20) evaluated whether the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on reward and relief components of craving mediated the relationship between exercise and participants' delays (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Delays were significantly longer after exercise (M=21 min) versus inactivity (M=4 min), and the effects of exercise on delay were mediated through the reward component of craving. Future research should continue to explore the mechanisms through which exercise influences behavioral indices of smoking in the human laboratory. Additionally, given the benefits uniquely afforded by exercise-based cessation interventions (e.g., improving mood and other health outcomes), implementing these interventions in clinical settings may contribute substantially to improving public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural Correlates of Stress- and Food Cue–Induced Food Craving in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl; Small, Dana M.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with alterations in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions involved in food motivation and reward. Stress and the presence of food cues may each motivate eating and engage corticolimibic-striatal neurocircuitry. It is unknown how these factors interact to influence brain responses and whether these interactions are influenced by obesity, insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that obese individuals would show greater responses in corticolimbic-striatal neurocircuitry after exposure to stress and food cues and that brain activations would correlate with subjective food craving, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting insulin levels were assessed in obese and lean subjects who were exposed to individualized stress and favorite-food cues during functional MRI. RESULTS Obese, but not lean, individuals exhibited increased activation in striatal, insular, and hypothalamic regions during exposure to favorite-food and stress cues. In obese but not lean individuals, food craving, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels correlated positively with neural activity in corticolimbic-striatal brain regions during favorite-food and stress cues. The relationship between insulin resistance and food craving in obese individuals was mediated by activity in motivation-reward regions including the striatum, insula, and thalamus. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate that obese, but not lean, individuals exhibit increased corticolimbic-striatal activation in response to favorite-food and stress cues and that these brain responses mediate the relationship between HOMA-IR and food craving. Improving insulin sensitivity and in turn reducing corticolimbic-striatal reactivity to food cues and stress may diminish food craving and affect eating behavior in obesity. PMID:23069840

  10. Social pressure-induced craving in patients with alcohol dependence: application of virtual reality to coping skill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Suk; Namkoong, Kee; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Park, Ji Yeon; Choi, You Kyong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I; Jung, Young-Chul

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the interaction between alcohol cues and social pressure in the induction of alcohol craving. Fourteen male patients with alcohol dependence and 14 age-matched social drinkers completed a virtual reality coping skill training program composed of four blocks according to the presence of alcohol cues (x2) and social pressure (x2). Before and after each block, the craving levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. Patients with alcohol dependence reported extremely high levels of craving immediately upon exposure to a virtual environment with alcohol cues, regardless of social pressure. In contrast, the craving levels of social drinkers were influenced by social pressure from virtual avatars. Our findings imply that an alcohol cue-laden environment should interfere with the ability to use coping skills against social pressure in real-life situations.

  11. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919). Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations ( r  = 0.785, p  = 0.000) with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) and state anxiety ( r  = 0.330, p  = 0.000). We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency ( r  = 0.303, p  = 0.000) and positive urgency ( r  = 0.290, p  = 0.000), which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1). The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of

  12. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José De-Sola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS. It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919. Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations (r = 0.785, p = 0.000 with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and state anxiety (r = 0.330, p = 0.000. We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency (r = 0.303, p = 0.000 and positive urgency (r = 0.290, p = 0.000, which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1. The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of

  13. Effects of progesterone stimulated allopregnanolone on craving and stress response in cocaine dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Covault, Jonathan; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    Fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect physiological and subjective effects of cocaine. Furthermore, our laboratory has demonstrated that following drug-cue exposure, cocaine dependent women with high levels of circulating progesterone display lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure responses and report lower levels of anxiety and drug craving compared to cocaine dependent women with low levels of progesterone. In the current study we examined the role of the progesterone derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on stress arousal, inhibitory control and drug craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Plasma levels of ALLO were measured using GC/MS in 46 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent men and women on day 5 of a 7-day treatment regimen of micronized progesterone (15M/8F) (400mg/day) or placebo (14M/9F) administered in a double blind, randomized manner. As a control, levels of the testosterone derived neurosteroid androstanediol (ADIOL) were also measured. All subjects participated in laboratory sessions on days 5-7 of progesterone/placebo administration in which they were exposed to a series of 5-min personalized guided imagery of either a stressful situation, cocaine use or of a neutral setting and dependent variables including subjective craving, mood, Stroop task as a measure of inhibitory control performance and plasma cortisol were assessed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO level and levels of dependent variables compared between ALLO groups. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly increased ALLO levels with no sex differences. There were no effects of micronized progesterone on the testosterone derived ADIOL. Individuals in the high versus the low ALLO group showed decreased levels of cortisol at baseline, and a higher cortisol response to stress; higher positive mood scores at baseline and improved Stroop performance in the drug-cue and stress conditions, and reduced cocaine

  14. Desensitizing Addiction: Using Eye Movements to Reduce the Intensity of Substance-Related Mental Imagery and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall traumatic memories while making horizontal eye movements (EM). Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on (1) vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students and (2) vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment. Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (experiment 2) and affected behavior (experiment 1): participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, these data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance-related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  15. Desensitizing addiction: using eye movements to reduce the intensity of substance-related mental imagery and craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLittel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall a traumatic memory while making horizontal eye movements (EM. Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories, but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on 1 vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students, and 2 vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment.Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition, but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (exp 2, and affected behavior (exp 1: participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, the data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  16. Behavioral and neural markers of cigarette-craving regulation in young-adult smokers during abstinence and after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Dara G; Faulkner, Paul; M Cox, Chelsea; London, Edythe D

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette craving contributes substantially to the maintenance of tobacco use disorder. Behavioral strategies to regulate craving may facilitate smoking cessation but remain underexplored. We adapted an emotion-regulation strategy, using proximal/distal self-positioning, to the context of cigarette craving to examine craving regulation in 42, daily smokers (18-25 years old). After overnight abstinence from smoking, before and after smoking their first cigarette of the day, participants viewed videos of natural scenes presenting young adults who were either smoking cigarettes ("smoke") or not ("non-smoke"). Before each video, participants were instructed to imagine themselves either immersed in the scene ("close") or distanced from it ("far"). They rated their craving after each video. Task-based fMRI data are presented for a subsample of participants (N = 21). We found main effects of smoking, instruction, and video type on craving-lower ratings after smoking than before, following the "far" vs. "close" instructions, and when viewing non-smoke vs. smoke videos. Before smoking, "smoke" vs. "non-smoke" videos elicited activation in, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, mid-occipital cortex, ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, and midbrain. Smoking reduced activation in anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal poles. Activation was reduced in the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex after the "far" vs. the "close" instruction, suggesting less engagement with the stimuli during distancing. The results indicate that proximal/distal regulation strategies impact cue-elicited craving, potentially via downregulation of the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, and that smoking during abstinence may increase cognitive control capacity during craving regulation.

  17. Alcohol Demand, Future Orientation, and Craving Mediate the Relation Between Depressive and Stress Symptoms and Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2017-06-01

    Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Acute effects of glucose tablets on craving, withdrawal symptoms, and sustained attention in 12-h abstinent tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakas, P; Foulds, J

    2002-05-01

    Glucose administration may decrease desire to smoke in abstinent smokers. Moreover, glucose administration has been associated with improved performance on measures of attention in healthy humans but evidence remains modest. The present study aimed to determine whether reported craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms can be relieved, and sustained attention on the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task improved, with the administration of 12 g oral glucose in nicotine-deprived smokers. Forty-one smokers, abstinent for 12 h, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to examine the effect of glucose on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, and attention. Participants completed the RVIP task once and then rated craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms before chewing four 3 g glucose tablets (experimental group) or four matched placebo tablets (control group). Following tablet consumption participants rated craving and withdrawal symptoms at 5-min intervals for 20 min. Subsequently a second RVIP task was performed, followed by a final rating of craving and withdrawal symptoms. Any effect of glucose across time was not statistically significant on craving, withdrawal symptoms, or performance on the RVIP task. There were no differences between the groups in measures of 'satisfaction' or 'sickness'. The present study failed to find a significant effect of 12 g oral glucose on tobacco craving, withdrawal symptoms, or sustained attention in relatively young tobacco smokers after 12 h of tobacco abstinence.

  19. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on smoking craving, attentional bias, and task persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul Lucian; Szentagotai, Aurora; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different strategies for regulating emotions associated with smoking on subjective, cognitive, and behavioral correlates of smoking. Emotion regulation was manipulated by instructing participants to reappraise (n = 32), accept (n = 31), or suppress (n = 31) their emotions associated with smoking. The dependent measures included subjective reports of craving, negative affect, and attentional biases, as measured by a modified dot-probe task, and persistence during a task to measure distress tolerance. Individuals who were encouraged to reappraise the consequences of smoking showed diminished craving, lower negative affect, had reduced attentional biases for smoking-related cues, and exhibited greater task persistence than those who were instructed to accept and suppress their urge to smoke. These findings suggest that reappraisal techniques are more effective than acceptance or suppression strategies for targeting smoking-related problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  1. Desire thinking as a confounder in the relationship between mindfulness and craving: Evidence from a cross-cultural validation of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun-Baggioni, Nadia; Corman, Maya; Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Gierski, Fabien

    2017-10-01

    Desire thinking and mindfulness have been associated with craving. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) and to investigate the relationship between mindfulness, desire thinking and craving among a sample of university students. Four hundred and ninety six university students completed the DTQ and measures of mindfulness, craving and alcohol use. Results from confirmatory factor analyses showed that the two-factor structure proposed in the original DTQ exhibited suitable goodness-of-fit statistics. The DTQ also demonstrated good internal reliability, temporal stability and predictive validity. A set of linear regressions revealed that desire thinking had a confounding effect in the relationship between mindfulness and craving. The confounding role of desire thinking in the relationship between mindfulness and craving suggests that interrupting desire thinking may be a viable clinical option aimed at reducing craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Binge eating behaviours and food cravings in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanes, Y M; Reeves, S; Gibson, E L; Piggott, C; May, V A; Hart, K H

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine condition in women, is often anecdotally associated with binge eating behaviours and food cravings; however there is a paucity of research. This study aimed to report the prevalence of binge eating and food cravings and their relation to obesity risk in women with PCOS. Participants completed an online survey including the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, Food Cravings-Trait Questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire revised-18. The study included obese (n = 340), overweight (n = 70) and lean (n = 45) women with PCOS and lean healthy women (n = 40). Sixty percent of obese women with PCOS were categorised with binge-eating behaviour, with 39% presenting with clinically significant behaviour. Obese women with PCOS presented with high mean food cravings-trait scores (131.6 ± 28.9) that were significantly greater compared with lean (114.0 ± 34.9) and overweight women with PCOS (120.1 ± 29.5; p women with PCOS (F = 130.4; p lean healthy women, lean women with PCOS exhibited significantly higher binge eating symptom scores (10.9 ± 7.8 versus 7.4 ± 6.0; p women with PCOS exhibit binge eating behaviours. We recommend screening women with PCOS for binge eating behaviours to help inform the choice of weight management approach for this clinical population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cue-elicited anxiety and craving for food using virtual reality scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Marta (Ferrer García); Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Pla Sanjuanelo, Joana

    2013-01-01

    Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical samp...

  4. Effects of fixed or self-titrated dosages of Sativex on cannabis withdrawal and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M.; Lagzdins, Dina; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Gamaleddin, Islam; Fischer, Benedikt; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background There is currently no pharmacological treatment approved for cannabis dependence. In this proof of concept study, we assessed the feasibility/effects of fixed and self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD)) on craving and withdrawal from cannabis among nine community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Methods Participants underwent an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial (an ABACADAE design), with four smoke as usual conditions (SAU) (A) separated by four cannabis abstinence conditions (B–E), with administration of either self-titrated/fixed doses of placebo or Sativex (up to 108 mg THC/100 mg CBD). The order of medication administration during abstinence conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Medication use was assessed during the study by means of self-reports, vial weight control, toxicology and metabolite analysis. Cannabis use was assessed by means of self-reports. Results High fixed doses of Sativex were well tolerated and significantly reduced cannabis withdrawal during abstinence, but not craving, as compared to placebo. Self-titrated doses were lower and showed limited efficacy as compared to high fixed doses. Participants reported a significantly lower “high” following Sativex or placebo as compared to SAU conditions. Cannabis/medication use along the study, as per self-reports, suggests compliance with the study conditions. Conclusions The results found in this proof of concept study warrant further systematic exploration of Sativex as a treatment option for cannabis withdrawal and dependence. PMID:26925704

  5. Cigarette craving is associated with blunted reward processing in nicotine-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peechatka, Alyssa L; Whitton, Alexis E; Farmer, Stacey L; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Janes, Amy C

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing leading to the undervaluation of non-drug rewards is hypothesized to play a crucial role in nicotine dependence. However, it is unclear if blunted reward responsivity and the desire to use nicotine are directly linked after a brief period of abstinence. Such an association would suggest that individuals with reduced reward responsivity may be at increased risk to experience nicotine craving. Reward function was evaluated with a probabilistic reward task (PRT), which measures reward responsivity to monetary incentives. To identify whether smoking status influenced reward function, PRT performance was compared between non-depressed, nicotine-dependent smokers and non-smokers. Within smokers, correlations were conducted to determine if blunted reward responsivity on the PRT was associated with increased nicotine craving. Time since last nicotine exposure was standardized to 4h for all smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in reward responsivity on the PRT. However, within smokers, a significant negative correlation was found between reward responsivity and intensity of nicotine craving. The current findings show that, among smokers, the intensity of nicotine craving is linked to lower sensitivity to non-drug rewards. This finding is in line with prior theories that suggest reward dysfunction in some clinical populations (e.g., depressive disorders, schizophrenia) may facilitate nicotine use. The current study expands on such theories by indicating that sub-clinical variations in reward function are related to motivation for nicotine use. Identifying smokers who show blunted sensitivity to non-drug rewards may help guide treatments aimed at mitigating the motivation to smoke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fixed or self-titrated dosages of Sativex on cannabis withdrawal and cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Lagzdins, Dina; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Gamaleddin, Islam; Fischer, Benedikt; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no pharmacological treatment approved for cannabis dependence. In this proof of concept study, we assessed the feasibility/effects of fixed and self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD)) on craving and withdrawal from cannabis among nine community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Participants underwent an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial (an ABACADAE design), with four smoke as usual conditions (SAU) (A) separated by four cannabis abstinence conditions (B-E), with administration of either self-titrated/fixed doses of placebo or Sativex (up to 108 mg THC/100 mg CBD). The order of medication administration during abstinence conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Medication use was assessed during the study by means of self-reports, vial weight control, toxicology and metabolite analysis. Cannabis use was assessed by means of self-reports. High fixed doses of Sativex were well tolerated and significantly reduced cannabis withdrawal during abstinence, but not craving, as compared to placebo. Self-titrated doses were lower and showed limited efficacy as compared to high fixed doses. Participants reported a significantly lower "high" following Sativex or placebo as compared to SAU conditions. Cannabis/medication use along the study, as per self-reports, suggests compliance with the study conditions. The results found in this proof of concept study warrant further systematic exploration of Sativex as a treatment option for cannabis withdrawal and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  8. Time course of electrocortical food-cue responses during cognitive regulation of craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea; Blechert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs) and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25) were presented with either high-calorie (HC) or low-calorie (LC) food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW) or long-term effects (LATER) of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms) were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550 ms) were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms), but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to an early attentional analysis of food type and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.

  9. Time course of electrocortical food-cue responses during cognitive regulation of craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25 were presented with either high-calorie (HC or low-calorie (LC food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW or long-term effects (LATER of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550ms were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms, but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to early neural appetitive responses and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.

  10. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumben...

  11. Guided imagery targeting exercise, food cravings, and stress: a multi-modal randomized feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter; Long, Dustin; Nolan, Richard; Shawley, Samantha; Johnson, Kelsey; Misra, Ranjita

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this randomized wait-list controlled trial was to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a guided imagery based multi-behavior intervention intended to address psychological stress, food cravings, and physical activity. Personalized guided imagery scripts were created and participants were instructed to practice guided imagery every day for 35 consecutive days. Of 48 women who enrolled, we report comparisons between 16 randomized to treatment with 19 who were wait-listed (overall M age  = 45.50; M bodymassindex  = 31.43). Study completers reported 89% compliance with practicing guided imagery during the intervention. A significant time-by-group interaction was observed with reductions in food cravings and increases in physical activity compared with wait-list controls. Telephone-based multi-behavior interventions that utilize guided imagery to address food cravings and exercise behavior appear to be acceptable for overweight and obese women. Future phone-based guided imagery research testing this skill to address multiple health behaviors is justified.

  12. Aripiprazole for relapse prevention and craving in alcohol use disorder: current evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Orsolini, Laura; Fornaro, Michele; Vecchiotti, Roberta; De Berardis, Domenico; Iasevoli, Felice; Torrens, Marta; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Among other approaches, the modulation of the dopaminergic pathway has been advocated in the therapeutic management of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). A potential avenue toward the modulation of the dopaminergic pathway across varying substance disorders seems to be provided by aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic characterized by a peculiar pharmacodynamics signature. In this review, the authors provided a qualitative synthesis and a critical perspective on the efficacy of aripiprazole in relapse prevention and craving in AUD. A systematic search was carried out through MEDLINE/Embase/PsycINFO/Cochrane Library from inception until September 2015, combining free terms and MESH headings for the topics of AUD and aripiprazole as following: (((Alcohol use Disorder) OR (Alcohol use)) AND aripiprazole). Based both on a qualitative synthesis and a critical interpretation of the evidence, the authors submit that aripiprazole would promote alcohol abstinence and reduce the alcohol seeking behaviour possibly via dopaminergic and serotoninergic modulations at the fronto-subcortical circuits underpinning alcohol reward and craving, impulsive behaviour as well as reduce alcohol-related anxiety/low mood and anhedonia. However, due to the lack of published studies, a conclusive statement about any direct effect of aripiprazole in the prevention of craving and/or alcohol consumption is not possible.

  13. Examining the interrelationships between social anxiety, smoking to cope, and cigarette craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; VanderVeen, Joseph W; Cohen, Lee M; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Morrell, Holly E R

    2012-08-01

    Smokers with symptoms of social anxiety often report smoking as a way to cope with negative affect. These individuals have lower success rates when attempting cessation compared with the general population. However, there is a paucity of research examining the role of social anxiety in nicotine dependence. The present study explored the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, smoking to cope with these symptoms during social situations (STC), and cigarette craving. Thirty-eight participants completed measures of social anxiety and STC at baseline. Cigarette craving was subsequently assessed pre and post exposure to smoking-related images during periods of nicotine satiation and deprivation. Regression analyses revealed that greater symptoms of social anxiety predicted the frequency of STC behaviors and the number of cigarettes participants thought they would need in order to feel more comfortable in social situations. Symptoms of social anxiety and several behaviors associated with STC (e.g., avoiding social situations in which smoking is not permitted) predicted increases in craving during nicotine deprivation, but not satiation. These findings suggest that symptoms of social anxiety and STC behaviors may play a role in the maintenance of smoking behaviors. Further, targeting symptoms of social anxiety within the context of smoking cessation treatment may be particularly helpful and may improve the rates of smoking cessation among individuals with symptoms of social anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Affect and Smoking Craving in the Weeks Before and After a Cessation Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Farris, Samantha G; Minami, Haruka; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Brown, Richard A

    2018-04-02

    Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect enhancing and craving reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects. Participants (N = 57; 68.4% women) were low-active daily smokers randomized to cessation treatments plus either group-based aerobic exercise (AE) or a health-education control (HEC). Mood, anxiety, and craving were assessed before and after each intervention session for each of the 12 weeks. Carbon monoxide (CO) breath samples ≤ 5ppm indicated smoking abstinence. During the prequit sessions, significantly greater decreases in anxiety following AE sessions relative to HEC sessions were observed. Changes in mood and craving were similar after AE and HEC sessions prior to quitting. Postquit attempt, significant reductions in craving and anxiety were observed after AE sessions but not following HEC. During the postquit period, positive mood increased following AE sessions relative to HEC only among individuals who were abstinence on that day. AE may be effective in acutely reducing anxiety prior to a quit attempt and both anxiety and craving following the quit attempt regardless of abstinence status. The mood-enhancing effects of AE may occur only in the context of smoking abstinence. The current findings underscore the importance of examining the acute effects of aerobic exercise prior to and after a cessation attempt and as a function of smoking status. Given the equivocal results from previous studies on the efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, increasing our understanding of how aerobic exercise produces its

  15. Daily Stressors as Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Use and Cravings in Community-Based Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Shevaun D.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Gray, Julie S.; Cohn, Amy M.; Doherty, Stephen; Knight, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Justice-involved individuals with alcohol and drug use problems reoffend at higher rates than their non-using counterparts, with alcohol and drug use serving as an important vector to recidivism. At the daily level, exposure to stressors may exacerbate problematic alcohol and drug use; at the individual-level, prior treatment experiences may mitigate substance use as individuals adapt to and learn new coping mechanisms. We conducted a daily diary study using Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology over 14 consecutive days with 117 men on probation or parole participating in a community-based treatment program (n = 860 calls) and referred to medication-assisted treatment. Participants reported daily stressors, craving for alcohol and illegal drugs, and use of alcohol and illegal drugs one time each day. Results of multilevel models showed significant day-to-day fluctuation in alcohol and drug craving and use. In concurrent models, increases in daily stressors were associated with increases in cravings and use of illegal drugs. Prior treatment experience modified many of these relationships, and additional lagged models revealed that those with less treatment experience reported an increase in next-day alcohol craving when they experienced increases in stressors on the previous day compared to those with more treatment experience. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of tailoring treatment as a function of individual differences, including prior treatment experiences, and targeting daily stressors and subsequent cravings among justice-involved adults with alcohol and drug use problems. PMID:28383933

  16. The interplay of history of depression and craving in terms of smoking relapse among treatment seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Rubén; Paulus, Daniel J; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez-Vispo, Carmela; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Becoña, Elisardo; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an interconnection between history of major depressive disorder and smoking, there has been relatively limited scientific attention oriented on the interplay between history of major depressive disorder and smoking maintenance processes. The current study sought to address whether history of major depressive disorder and post-cessation craving interact in the prediction of relapse among treatment-seeking smokers. Separate models were evaluated as a function of sex. Participants (n = 319, Mage = 41.7, 62.1% female) were treatment-seeking smokers who were abstinent at the end of six weekly 1-hour sessions involving psychosocial treatment for cessation. Participants completed a baseline assessment and reported post-cessation craving. Smoking status was assessed at 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up after the end of treatment. There was a significant interactive effect evident for females (B = 0.05, OR = 1.05, p = 0.013), but not males. The form of the interaction indicated females with history of major depressive disorder and greater post-treatment craving evinced the highest rate of relapse. Findings suggest that history of major depressive disorder and post-treatment craving are related to increased risk of relapse for female, but not male, smokers. Sex differences play a fundamental role in the explanation of the interaction of history of major depressive disorder and craving post-treatment in smoking relapse. Considering sex differences related to smoking relapse may help to tailor smoking cessation treatments.

  17. Distinct effects of protracted withdrawal on affect, craving, selective attention and executive functions among alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil De Sousa Uva, Mariana; Luminet, Olivier; Cortesi, Marie; Constant, Eric; Derely, Marc; De Timary, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of protracted alcohol withdrawal on affectivity, craving, selective attention and executive functions (EFs) in alcohol-dependent patients. Selective attention (The D2 Cancellation Test), flexibility (Trail Making Test), inhibition (Stroop Task), decision making (Iowa Gambling Task), craving (Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale) and state affectivity (Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule) were assessed in alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-IV, n = 35) matched to non-alcohol-dependent participants (n = 22) at the onset (T1: day 1 or 2) and at the end (T2: days 14-18) of protracted withdrawal during rehab. Alcohol-dependent patients' abilities to focus their attention on relevant information, to switch from one pattern to another, to inhibit irrelevant information and to make advantageous choices were lower than those of control participants during both times of a withdrawal cure. No effect of time emerged from analyses for selective attention and EF deficits. Conversely, significant differences between T1 and T2 were observed for craving and affect scores indicating a weakening of alcohol craving and negative affect as well as an improvement of positive affect among patients from onset to the end of cure. Control functions of the Supervisory Attentional System (Norman and Shallice, 1986) were impaired and did not improve during a 3-week withdrawal cure, whereas alcohol craving and negative state affectivity significantly improved in parallel during this period. Implications for understanding the clinical processes of withdrawal are discussed.

  18. Countering Craving with Disgust Images: Examining Nicotine Withdrawn Smokers' Motivated Message Processing of Anti-Tobacco Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Russell B; Leshner, Glenn; Tomko, Rachel L; Trull, Timothy J; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of research examining whether smoking cues in anti-tobacco advertisements elicit cravings, or whether this effect is moderated by countervailing message attributes, such as disgusting images. Furthermore, no research has examined how these types of messages influence nicotine withdrawn smokers' cognitive processing and associated behavioral intentions. At a laboratory session, participants (N = 50 nicotine-deprived adults) were tested for cognitive processing and recognition memory of 12 anti-tobacco advertisements varying in depictions of smoking cues and disgust content. Self-report smoking urges and intentions to quit smoking were measured after each message. The results from this experiment indicated that smoking cue messages activated appetitive/approach motivation resulting in enhanced attention and memory, but increased craving and reduced quit intentions. Disgust messages also enhanced attention and memory, but activated aversive/avoid motivation resulting in reduced craving and increased quit intentions. The combination of smoking cues and disgust content resulted in moderate amounts of craving and quit intentions, but also led to heart rate acceleration (indicating defensive processing) and poorer recognition of message content. These data suggest that in order to counter nicotine-deprived smokers' craving and prolong abstinence, anti-tobacco messages should omit smoking cues but include disgust. Theoretical implications are also discussed.

  19. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: Prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Jastreboff, Ania M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether baseline chronic stress, morning cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) predict future weight gain and food cravings in a naturalistic longitudinal 6-month follow-up study. Methods A prospective community cohort of three hundred and thirty-nine adults (age=29.1± 9.0 years; BMI=26.7±5.4 kg/m2; 56.9% female; 70.2% White) completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fasting blood draws were used to assess cortisol and other appetite-related hormones levels at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, body weight was measured and the Cumulative Adversity Interview and Food Craving Inventory were administered. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Over the 6-month period, 49.9% of the sample gained weight. Food cravings and chronic stress decreased over 6 months (psfood cravings at 6 months (p=0.04). Furthermore, higher cortisol, insulin, and chronic stress were each predictive of greater future weight gain (psfood cravings and reward-driven eating behaviors. Studies are needed that examine the utility of stress reduction methods for normalizing disrupted cortisol responses and preventing future weight gain. PMID:28349668

  20. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Craving, Depression & Anxiety among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Momeni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on craving, symptoms of depression and anxiety among the patients under MMT. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 opiate addicts under MMT were selected out of all the patients referring to Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies on a judgmental sampling method and were randomly allocated to two experimental and control groups. In experimental group, a total sum of 8 sessions (one session per week of cognitive behavioral group therapy were delivered. The main theme of these sessions were efficient management of craving, negative mood and anxiety. Data were gathered with different questionnaires including the questionnaire of demographic data, RPS for craving assessment, BDI-II for depression and BAI for anxiety. Different methods of statistical analysis were implemented. Results: The results indicated that post test and follow-up scores of craving index were decreased significantly (P<0.05. Depression and Anxiety scores showed significant decrease as well. Discussion: Considering the above mentioned findings, we concluded that cognitive-behavioral group therapy was effective in significantly decreasing craving and symptoms of anxiety and depression in opiate addicts under MMT.

  2. Suicidal ideation is associated with individual differences in prescription opioid craving and cue-reactivity among chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Riquino, Michael R; Priddy, Sarah E; Bryan, Craig J

    2017-01-01

    Given that chronic pain patients experience significant rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, access to prescription opioids compounds the risk of death by suicide. These patients may experience heightened opioid craving and exhibit increased cue-reactivity to stimuli associated with past opioid use when suicidal ideation produces negative affective states. Because both opioids and suicidal behavior are used to alleviate emotional and physical pain through a process of negative reinforcement, elucidating factors that mediate this association may yield insight into suicide risk among chronic pain patients. This study examined the relationship between suicidal ideation and opioid craving and cue-reactivity, and tested opioid self-medication as a mediator of associations between those factors after controlling for the impact of pain severity. A sample of 115 chronic pain patients provided demographic and clinical information on the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale, the Current Opioid Misuse Measure, and the Brief Pain Inventory before completing an opioid dot probe task in which heart rate variability was recorded. As hypothesized, suicidal ideation was positively correlated with subjective opioid craving and physiological cue-reactivity. Self-medication significantly mediated the association between suicidal ideation, craving, and cue-reactivity. As opioids relieve the emotional pain linked with suicidal thoughts, chronic pain patients with higher levels of suicidal ideation may experience more intense opioid craving and exhibit heightened physiological cue-reactivity when compared to patients with low levels of suicidal ideation.

  3. The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on cocaine use, craving and inhibition in regular cocaine users: correspondence of lab assessments and Ecological Momentary Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Boendermaker, Wouter J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim; van Deursen, Denise S.; Friese, Malte; Brede, Emily; Waters, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)

  4. Crave-Out: A Distraction/Motivation Mobile Game to Assist in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kamberi, Ariana; English, Thomas M; Seward, Greg L; Chan, S Wayne; Volkman, Julie E; Amante, Daniel J; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is still the number one preventable cause of death. Cravings—an intense desire or longing for a cigarette—are a major contributor to quit attempt failure. New tools to help smokers’ manage their cravings are needed. Objective To present a case study of the development process and testing of a distraction/motivation game (Crave-Out) to help manage cravings. Methods We used a phased approach: in Phase 1 (alpha testing), we tested and refined the game concept, using a Web-based prototype. In Phase 2 (beta testing), we evaluated the distraction/motivation potential of the mobile game prototype, using a prepost design. After varying duration of abstinence, smokers completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urge-Brief (QSU-Brief) measurement before and after playing Crave-Out. Paired t tests were used to compare pregame and postgame QSU-Brief levels. To test dissemination potential, we released the game on the Apple iTunes App Store and tracked downloads between December 22, 2011, and May 5, 2014. Results Our concept refinement resulted in a multilevel, pattern memory challenge game, with each level increasing in difficulty. Smokers could play the game as long as they wanted. At the end of each level, smokers were provided clear goals for the next level and rewards (positive reinforcement using motivational tokens that represented a benefit of quitting smoking). Negative reinforcement was removed in alpha testing as smokers felt it reminded them of smoking. Measurement of QSU-Brief (N=30) resulted in a pregame mean of 3.24 (SD 1.65) and postgame mean of 2.99 (SD 1.40) with an overall decrease of 0.25 in cravings (not statistically significant). In a subset analysis, the QSU-Brief decrease was significant for smokers abstinent for more than 48 hours (N=5) with a pregame mean of 2.84 (SD 1.16) and a postgame mean of 2.0 (SD 0.94; change=0.84; P =.03). Between December 22, 2011, and May 29, 2014, the game was downloaded 3372 times from the App

  5. Effect of Prazosin and Naltrexone on Script Induced Alcohol Craving in Veterans with Alcohol Use Disorders with and without Co-occurring PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    and each is postulated to be mediated by different neurological substrates. The neural networks postulated to subserve reward and relief craving...noradrenergic system with craving-related brain systems, blocking α1 receptors with the noradrenergic antagonist, prazosin, theoretically has the...to evaluate whether specific individual characteristics, including PTSD status, moderate medication response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alcohol Drinking

  6. Differences between craving and health-related quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence with or without dual pathology in outpatient treatment: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Martínez, María; García-Carretero, Miguel Ángel; Gibert, Juan; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Sorribes, Marta; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-23

    Dual diagnosis is the coexistence of an addictive disorder and another mental disorder. The objective is to estimate cravings and self-reported quality of life in a sample of patients with alcoholic dependence, with or without dual pathology, who attend an outpatient treatment centre. A cross-sectional study of 112 patients (56 dual and 56 non-dual), diagnosed with alcohol dependence according to DSM-IV-TR. The presence of cravings is determined by the Multidimensional Alcohol Craving Scale and quality of life through the SF-36 Health Questionnaire. There are no statistically significant differences in cravings in either subgroup; the latter tend to refer to lower alcohol cravings than non-dual patients. The dual patients have a worse quality of life in all categories evaluated, highlighting a worse quality of life in the categories: social function, emotional role, vitality and general health. Females present a lower quality of life emphasising those of social function and emotional role. No differences were detected in relation to cravings between the 2 groups. In order to perform a correct clinical and therapeutic approach for patients with alcohol dependence, we should consider focusing on the evaluation of cravings and quality of life. In order to perform a correct clinical and therapeutic approach for patients with alcohol dependence, it is necessary to consider cravings and quality of life, since these parameters are important for the evaluation of patients with alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating the structure of craving using structural equation modeling in analysis of the obsessive-compulsive drinking scale: a multinational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wildt, Wencke A. J. M.; Lehert, Philippe; Schippers, Gerard M.; Nakovics, Helmut; Mann, Karl; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no agreement among researchers on the definition of craving and its underlying theoretical model. The Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) seems to measure certain aspects of craving, but its theoretical basis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to

  8. Correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and craving in alcohol dependent stabilized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Maurizio; Mondola, Raffaella

    2018-06-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit. Alcoholism was assessed using the following tools: Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI Plus), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification test (AUDIT), Visual Analogic Scale for craving (VAS). Furthermore, during the first visit a blood sample was taken from all patients to measure the plasma concentration of both homocysteine and Carboxy Deficient Transferrin (CDT). Differences between groups in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed using the t-test and the Mann-Whitney's U test for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Correlation between clinical scale scores and plasma concentration of homocysteine and CDT was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Kendall's Tau-b bivariate correlation coefficient for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Our study included 92 patients. No difference was found in socio-demographic characteristics between groups. The group with high homocysteine had higher prevalence of mood disorders (p correlation with both VAS score (p correlated with alcoholism in a bidirectional manner because its level appears to be related with alcohol degree, but simultaneously, hyperhomocysteinemia could enhance the alcohol consumption increasing the severity of craving in a circular self reinforcing mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  10. Role of Anterior Intralaminar Nuclei of Thalamus Projections to Dorsomedial Striatum in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Witonsky, Kailyn R; Lofaro, Olivia M; Surjono, Felicia; Zhang, Jianjun; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2018-02-28

    Relapse to methamphetamine (Meth) seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration (incubation of Meth craving). We previously demonstrated a role of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in this incubation. Here, we studied the role of afferent glutamatergic projections into the DMS and local D1R-glutamate interaction in this incubation in male rats. We first measured projection-specific activation on day 30 relapse test by using cholera toxin b (retrograde tracer) + Fos (activity marker) double-labeling in projection areas. Next, we determined the effect of pharmacological reversible inactivation of lateral or medial anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus (AIT-L or AIT-M) on incubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 30. We then used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to determine whether an interaction between AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections and postsynaptic DMS D1Rs contributes to incubated Meth seeking. We also determined the effect of unilateral inactivation of AIT-L and D1R blockade of DMS on incubated Meth seeking, and the effect of contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections on nonincubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 1. Incubated Meth seeking was associated with selective activation of AIT→DMS projections; other glutamatergic projections to DMS were not activated. AIT-L (but not AIT-M) inactivation or anatomical disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections decreased incubated Meth seeking. Unilateral inactivation of AIT-L or D1R blockade of the DMS had no effect on incubated Meth craving, and contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections had no effect on nonincubated Meth seeking. Our results identify a novel role of AIT-L and AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections in incubation of drug craving and drug seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of

  11. A biocultural framework for examining maternal cravings and aversions among pastoral women in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alyson G; Pike, Ivy L

    2012-01-01

    Food preferences during pregnancy result from a complex set of biocultural interactions with important implications for maternal and child health. This article explores the social context of maternal food choice in marginal environments of East Africa. Biocultural data collected among Turkana and Datoga women living in Kenya and Tanzania indicate there is a significant social context to food choice that influences the types of food that women report craving and the food that is consumed. Our framework argues for a deeper understanding of how culture shapes food preferences and how marginalization can constrain access to favored and healthy foods.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Repeated Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Food Craving in Normal and Overweight Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubisavljevic, M; Maxood, K; Bjekic, J; Oommen, J; Nagelkerke, N

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Several previous studies demonstrated that a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC reduces food craving and caloric intake. We hypothesized that repeated tDCS of the right DLPFC cortex may exert long-term changes in food craving in young, healthy adults and that these changes may differ between normal and overweight subjects. Thirty healthy individuals who reported frequent food cravings without a prior history of eating disorders were initially recruited. Subjects were randomized into an ACTIVE group who received 5 days of real tDCS (20 minutes, anode right-cathode left montage, 2 mA with current density kept at 0.06 mA/cm2, 1 min ramp-up/ramp-down), and a SHAM group, who received one day of real tDCS, on the first day (same parameters), followed by 4 days of sham tDCS. Food craving intensity was examined by Food Craving Questionnaires State and Trait and Food Craving Inventory before, during, (5-days) and one month (30-days) after tDCS. Single session of tDCS significantly reduced the intensity of current food craving (FCQ-S). Five days of active tDCS significantly reduced habitual experiences of food craving (FCQ-T), when compared to baseline pre-stimulation levels. Furthermore, both current (FCQ-S) and habitual craving (FCQ-T) were significantly reduced 30 days after active tDCS, while sham tDCS, i.e. a single tDCS session did not have significant effects. Also, active tDCS significantly decreased craving for fast food and sweets, and to a lesser degree for fat, while it did not have significant effects on craving for carbohydrates (FCI). There were no significant differences between individual FCQ-T subscales (craving dimensions) after 5 or 30 days of either sham or active tDCS. Changes in craving were not significantly associated with the initial weight, or with weight changes 30 days after the stimulation in the

  13. Cigarette craving and stressful social interactions: The roles of state and trait social anxiety and smoking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Cohen, Lee M

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is a risk factor for the maintenance and relapse of smoking behaviors. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study tested the effects of state and trait levels of SA as well as smoking to cope with symptoms of SA on craving during a social stressor task in abstinent conditions. Participants (n = 60) were daily smokers, aged 18-30. Participants attended two sessions: a baseline session and a second session, wherein they engaged in a social stressor task while deprived from nicotine for 24 h. Subjective ratings of cigarette craving and state levels of SA were assessed six times throughout the task. Data were analyzed via multilevel modeling. Both trait SA and some forms of smoking to cope with symptoms of SA were more likely to predict increased craving during times of high, relative to low, social stress. Further, individuals with higher state SA, greater smoking to cope behaviors, and those who experience greater relief of social distress by smoking experienced greater craving throughout the task. These effects remained after controlling for nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, depression, and other symptoms of anxiety and stress. Smoking to cope with symptoms of SA did not moderate the relationship between state SA and craving. Smokers high in SA (state and trait) and smoking to cope with symptoms of SA may be at risk for continued smoking and relapse because of the intensity of cravings they experience during stressful social situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Putting the brakes on the "drive to eat": Pilot effects of naltrexone and reward based eating on food cravings among obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E.; Laraia, Barbara; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M.; Lustig, Robert H.; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy; Dallman, Mary; Kiernan, Michaela; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obese individuals vary in their experience of food cravings and tendency to engage in reward-driven eating, both of which can be modulated by the neural reward system rather than physiological hunger. We examined two predictions in a sample of obese women: (1) whether opioidergic blockade reduced food-craving intensity, and (2) whether opioidergic blockade reduced an association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating, which is a trait-like index of three factors (lack of control over eating, lack of satiation, preoccupation with food). Methods Forty-four obese, pre-menopausal women completed the Reward-based Eating Drive (RED) scale at study start and daily food-craving intensity on 5 days on which they ingested either a pill-placebo (2 days), a 25mg naltrexone dose (1 day), or a standard 50mg naltrexone dose (2 days). Results Craving intensity was similar under naltrexone and placebo doses. The association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating significantly differed between placebo and 50mg naltrexone doses. Reward-driven eating and craving intensity were significantly positively associated under both placebo doses. As predicted, opioidergic blockade (for both doses 25mg and 50mg naltrexone) reduced this positive association between reward-driven eating and craving intensity to non-significance. Conclusions Opioidergic blockade did not reduce craving intensity; however, blockade reduced an association between trait-like reward-driven eating and daily food-craving intensity, and may help identify an important endophenotype within obesity. PMID:26164674

  15. Craving for Food in Virtual Reality Scenarios in Non-Clinical Sample: Analysis of its Relationship with Body Mass Index and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Treasure, Janet; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran

    2015-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has been successfully used to study the influence of specific and contextual food-related cues on emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses in patients with eating disorders (ED) and healthy controls. Following this research line, the present study assesses the effect on reported food craving of the type of food (low calorie versus high calorie) and the presence or absence of other people (private versus social context) in VR environments. Relationships between craving and body mass index (BMI) and ED symptoms are also explored. Eighty-seven female students were exposed to four VR scenarios presented in random order: a low-calorie kitchen, a high-calorie kitchen, a low-calorie restaurant and a high-calorie restaurant. After 2 minutes of exposure to each virtual scenario, food craving was assessed. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were conducted to assess changes in food craving following exposure to the different VR environments. Time elapsed since the last meal was introduced as a covariate to control for responses produced by food deprivation. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were also conducted to assess the relationship between reported food craving and BMI and ED symptoms. Participants experienced higher levels of food craving after exposure to high-calorie foods (in both the kitchen and restaurant environments) than after exposure to low-calorie foods. Being alone in the kitchen or with friends in the restaurant had no effect on reported craving. Overall, neither BMI nor ED symptoms were related with reported food craving; only in the restaurant with low-calorie food was a significant negative correlation found between BMI and food craving. The results suggest that cue exposure in virtual environments is an effective procedure for inducing food craving in healthy controls and may be useful as a research and therapeutic tool in clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  16. Food craving and food "addiction": a critical review of the evidence from a biopsychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P J; Smit, H J

    2000-05-01

    Although certain commonalities exist between eating and drug use (mood effects, external cue-control of appetites, reinforcement, etc. ), it is argued that the vast majority of cases of (self-reported) food craving and food "addiction" should not be viewed as addictive behavior. An explanation is proposed that instead gives a prominent role to the psychological processes of ambivalence and attribution, operating together with normal mechanisms of appetite control, the hedonic effects of certain foods, and socially and culturally determined perceptions of appropriate intakes and uses of those foods. Ambivalence (e.g., "nice but naughty") about foods such as chocolate arises from the attitude that it is highly palatable but should be eaten with restraint. Attempts to restrict intake, however, cause the desire for chocolate to become more salient, an experience that is then labelled as a craving. This, together with a need to provide a reason for why resisting eating chocolate is difficult and sometimes fails, can, in turn, lead the individual to an explanation in terms of addiction (e.g., "chocoholism"). Moreishness ("causing a desire for more") occurs during, rather than preceding, an eating episode, and is experienced when the eater attempts to limit consumption before appetite for the food has been sated.

  17. Craving to quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A; Elwafi, Hani M; Davis, Jake H

    2013-06-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and behavioral addictions: relevance of impulsivity and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Filippo; Swierkosz-Lenart, Kevin; Guglielmo, Riccardo; Callea, Antonino; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Gino; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. 28.4% (n=27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n=21) of controls (χ(2)=6.27; p=.014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (paddictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil: validação semântica Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF/Brazil Version: semantic validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar tradução e adaptação transcultural do Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF10, que avalia o craving por maconha em uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODO: O MCQ-SF foi traduzido do inglês para o português, aplicado em 10 sujeitos, submetido ao brainstorming num grupo de três indivíduos para reprodução individual e verbal, item a item. Realizou-se o back-translation, uma versão para o idioma de origem, a partir da primeira tradução e do brainstorming. Logo após, traduziu-se novamente para o português. Um comitê de juízes especialistas analisou todas as traduções. RESULTADOS: Após as considerações do comitê e um estudo-piloto com 30 sujeitos, a versão final do MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil foi construída. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram uma equivalência semântica satisfatória entre as versões. O MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil pode ser útil para avaliar o craving pela maconha nos dependentes dessa substância.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate and adapt culturally the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF10 which evaluates the craving for marijuana in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF was translated from English to Portuguese, administered to 10 subjects, submitted to a brainstorming in a group of three people for individual and verbal reproduction, item by item. Back-translation was executed, a translation for the original language, based on first translation and from brainstorming. Soon after, it was translated again into Portuguese. A committee of specialists analyzed all translations. RESULTS: After the committee considerations and a pilot study with 30 subjects, the final version of MCQ-SF/Versão Brasil was built. CONCLUSION: The results showed a satisfactory semantic equivalence between versions. The MCQ/Versão Brasil can be useful to evaluate the craving for marijuana on the dependents of this substance.

  20. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  1. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  2. Association Splitting: A randomized controlled trial of a new method to reduce craving among inpatients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C; Moritz, Steffen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Reimer, Jens; Andreou, Christina; Jelinek, Lena

    2016-04-30

    Association Splitting, a novel cognitive intervention, was tested in patients with alcohol dependence as an add-on intervention in an initial randomized controlled trial. Preliminary support for Association Splitting has been found in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as in an online pilot study of patients with alcohol use disorders. The present variant sought to reduce craving by strengthening neutral associations with alcohol-related stimuli, thus, altering cognitive networks. Eighty-four inpatients with verified diagnoses of alcohol dependence, who were currently undergoing inpatient treatment, were randomly assigned to Association Splitting or Exercise Therapy. Craving was measured at baseline, 4-week follow-up, and six months later with the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (primary outcome) and the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire. There was no advantage for Association Splitting after three treatment sessions relative to Exercise Therapy. Among Association Splitting participants, 51.9% endorsed a subjective decline in craving and 88.9% indicated that they would use Association Splitting in the future. Despite high acceptance, an additional benefit of Association Splitting beyond standard inpatient treatment was not found. Given that participants were concurrently undergoing inpatient treatment and Association Splitting has previously shown moderate effects, modification of the study design may improve the potential to detect significant effects in future trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  4. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heel, Martijn; Van Gucht, Dinska; Vanbrabant, Koen; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence) of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively. PMID:28212302

  5. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heel, Martijn; Van Gucht, Dinska; Vanbrabant, Koen; Baeyens, Frank

    2017-02-15

    This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence) of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively.

  6. The Importance of Conditioned Stimuli in Cigarette and E-Cigarette Craving Reduction by E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Van Heel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h. A mixed-effects model clearly showed the importance of nicotine in craving reduction. However, also non-nicotine factors, in particular the sensorimotor component, were shown to contribute to craving reduction. Handling cues interacted with the level (presence/absence of nicotine: it was only when the standard hand-to-mouth action cues were omitted that the craving reducing effects of nicotine were observed. Effects of aroma or visual cues were not observed, or weak and difficult to interpret, respectively.

  7. The Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Craving and Dependence on Hookah in Suburban Pregnant Women in South East of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahed, Kheirolnesa; Navidian, Ali

    2018-05-30

    Hookah smoking during pregnancy is a health concern which requires effective interventions. Thus, the authors have aimed to evaluate the effect of motivational interviewing on craving and dependence on hookah in pregnant women (n = 140) addicted to hookah who reside in the outskirts of Zahedan, a city in southeast of Iran. The subjects were selected using the convenience sampling and randomly divided into either the control or intervention group. The intervention group received five motivational interviewing group sessions about hookah smoking withdrawal, whereas the control group was given the conventional recommendations for quitting hookah. Data were collected after eight weeks during the post intervention period using Hookah Craving Test and Hookah Addiction Severity Index. Next, they were analyzed using independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After the motivational interviewing intervention, the independent t-test indicated a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of the mean score of hookah craving (P = 0.0001). Moreover, ANCOVA, with control of the effect of pretest and duration of hookah addiction, demonstrated a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean score of hookah dependence after the intervention (P = 0.0001). Motivational interviewing had a significant positive impact on decreased hookah craving and dependence (two indices of withdrawal). Therefore, healthcare providers are recommended to incorporate motivational interviewing-based education into prenatal care programs to promote the chance of hookah smoking withdrawal.

  8. Electrical stimulation reduces smokers' craving by modulating the coupling between dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Zhuang; Shi, Bin; Li, Hai; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhou, Yanfei; Wang, Ying; Lv, Wanwan; Ji, Xuebing; Hudak, Justin; Zhou, Yifeng; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-08-01

    Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. This study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue-reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue-reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. The whole-brain analysis on the cue-reactivity task revealed a significant interaction between the stimulation condition (real vs sham) and the cue type (smoking vs neutral) in the left superior frontal gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus. The functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and the right parahippocampal gyrus, as revealed by both psychophysical interaction analysis and the resting state functional connectivity, is altered by electrical stimulation. Moreover, the craving change across the real and sham condition is predicted by alteration of functional connectivity revealed by psychophysical interaction analysis. The local and long-distance coupling, altered by the electrical stimulation, might be the underlying neural mechanism of craving regulation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Dodd, Michael; Carlson, Les; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store. Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) "feel a craving for a cigarette?" (2) "feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?" and (3) "feel like all you want is a cigarette?" The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (pmarketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Acute exercise modulates cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek

    2009-04-01

    Substances of misuse (such as nicotine) are associated with increases in activation within the mesocorticolimbic brain system, a system thought to mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Pharmacological treatments have been designed to reduce cigarette cravings during temporary abstinence. Exercise has been found to be an effective tool for controlling cigarette cravings. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomized crossover design, regular smokers (n = 10) undertook an exercise (10 min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and control (passive seating for same duration) session, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. Following treatments, participants entered a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Subjects viewed a random series of smoking and neutral images for 3 s, with an average inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) of 10 s. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. A significant interaction effect (time by group) was found, with self-reported cravings lower during and following exercise. During control scanning, significant activation was recorded in areas associated with reward (caudate nucleus), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex) and visuo-spatial attention (parietal lobe, parahippocampal, and fusiform gyrus). Post-exercise scanning showed hypo-activation in these areas with a concomitant shift of activation towards areas identified in the 'brain default mode' (Broadmanns Area 10). The study confirms previous evidence that a single session of exercise can reduce cigarette cravings, and for the first time provides evidence of a shift in regional activation in response to smoking cues.

  12. O craving, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em usuários de Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pedro Polese

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A cannabis é a substância psicoativa ilícita mais utilizada no Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o craving, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em usuários de cannabis da população geral. Foi um estudo transversal, com uma amostra de 24 homens usuários de cannabis (14 dependentes e 10 usuários da população geral, com uma média de 26,88 anos (DP=4,24; 18-40, que não dependiam de outras substâncias psicoativas, salvo a nicotina. Os participantes foram recrutados pelo método bola de neve. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Entrevista Clínica, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, SRQ-20, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade, Inventário Beck de Depressão, Escala Analógico-Visual para avaliar o craving, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-SF e a foto de cannabis para induzir o craving. Os resultados demonstraram que os usuários de cannabis da população geral têm baixas médias dos sintomas de ansiedade, depressão e craving, não havendo variação significativa entre das variáveis entre dependentes e usuários desta substância psicoativa. Conclui-se que devem ser feitos novos estudos para comprovar os resultados encontrados.

  13. Ghrelin system in alcohol-dependent subjects: role of plasma ghrelin levels in alcohol drinking and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Food cravings, food addiction, and a dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.

  15. Brain fMRI study of crave induced by cue pictures in online game addicts (male adolescents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueji; Ying, Huang; Seetohul, Ravi M; Xuemei, Wang; Ya, Zheng; Qian, Li; Guoqing, Xu; Ye, Sun

    2012-08-01

    To study crave-related cerebral regions induced by game figure cues in online game addicts. fMRI brain imaging was done when the subjects were shown picture cues of the WoW (World of Warcraft, Version: 4.1.014250) game. 10 male addicts of WoW were selected as addicts' group, and 10 other healthy male non-addicts who were matched by age, were used as non-game addicts' group. All volunteers participated in fMRI paradigms. WoW associated cue pictures and neutral pictures were shown. We examined functional cerebral regions activated by the pictures with 3.0 T Philips MRI. The imaging signals' database was analyzed by SPM5. The correlation between game craving scores and different image results were assessed. When the game addicts watch the pictures, some brain areas show increased signal activity namely: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporal cortex, cerebellum, right inferior parietal lobule, right cuneus, right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, left caudate nucleus. But in these same brain regions we did not observe remarkable activities in the control group. Differential image signal densities of the addict group were subtracted from the health control group, results of which were expressed in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobe and inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellum, right insular and the right angular gyrus. The increased imaging signal densities were significant and positively correlated with the craving scale scores in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and right inferior parietal lobe. Craving of online game addicts was successfully induced by game cue pictures. Crave related brain areas are: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior parietal lobe. The brain regions are overlapped with cognitive and emotion related processing brain areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress, cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones: Prospective prediction of 6-month changes in food cravings and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Jastreboff, Ania M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether baseline chronic stress, morning cortisol, and other appetite-related hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin) predict future weight gain and food cravings in a naturalistic, longitudinal, 6-month follow-up study. A prospective community cohort of 339 adults (age 29.1 ± 9.0 years; BMI = 26.7 ± 5.4 kg/m 2 ; 56.9% female; 70.2% white) completed assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Fasting blood draws were used to assess cortisol and other appetite-related hormone levels at baseline. At baseline and follow-up, body weight was measured, and the Cumulative Adversity Interview and Food Craving Inventory were administered. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Over the 6-month period, 49.9% of the sample gained weight. Food cravings and chronic stress decreased over 6 months (Ps < 0.05). However, after adjusting for covariates, individuals with higher baseline total ghrelin had significantly higher food cravings at 6 months (P = 0.04). Furthermore, higher cortisol, insulin, and chronic stress were each predictive of greater future weight gain (Ps < 0.05). These results suggest that ghrelin plays a role in increased food cravings and reward-driven eating behaviors. Studies are needed that examine the utility of stress reduction methods for normalizing disrupted cortisol responses and preventing future weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Craving for alcohol and food during treatment for alcohol dependence: modulation by T allele of 1519T>C GABAAalpha6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicholas; Daniels, Melissa A; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2008-09-01

    Craving for alcohol and food has been studied in association with alcohol dependence and eating disorders, respectively. One subclass of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 has been reported to be associated with both alcohol dependence and weight gain. In this study, we hypothesized that patients being treated for alcohol dependence would report decreased craving for alcohol, but an increased craving for food during a 4-week treatment period. We further hypothesized that the T allele of the 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 gene would modulate the extent of changes in craving for alcohol and food. This study included 98 male inpatients being treated for alcohol dependence. A 7-point visual analog scale was applied to evaluate relative levels of alcohol and food craving at baseline and again 4 weeks later. Body weight was also checked at the same periods. Genotyping of the 1519T>C SNP in GABA(A)alpha6 was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were significant changes in craving for alcohol and food in all patients with alcohol dependence. During the treatment period, body weight increased in all patients with alcohol dependence. Changes in alcohol and food craving in T-allele carriers (CT + TT) of 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 were greater than those observed in CC homozygotes. In T-allele carriers, body weight significantly increased and the changes in weight showed a negative correlation with the change in the craving for alcohol and a positive correlation with the changes in craving for food. The current results suggest that in T-allele carriers the change in craving for alcohol during treatment for alcohol dependence is negatively associated with changes in craving for food. The T allele of the 1519T>C GABA(A)alpha6 gene may be one of the modulating factors associated with changes in craving for alcohol and food during treatment of patients with alcohol dependence.

  18. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  19. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  20. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  1. [Effects of odor cue on morphine-induced dependence and craving in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Rui; Jia, Qiang; Guan, Su-Dong

    2012-04-01

    The olfactory system may play a pivotal role in drug addiction. To clarify the issues, we investigated the morphine dependence and psychological craving in morphine addicted mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm by taking an only odor cue as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The results showed that by pairing morphine with odor, the CPP could be induced in mice. When the morphine addicted mice were exposed to a novel environment during morphine withdrawal, they spent significantly longer time in the chamber with morphine-paired odor than in the control chamber. The effects of odor cue on the morphine CPP were blocked by the administration of dopamine D1 or D2 antagonists. The studies indicated that olfactory system plays an important role in drug addiction.

  2. Cocaine craving during protracted withdrawal requires PKCε priming within vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bailey W; Wroten, Melissa G; Sacramento, Arianne D; Silva, Hannah E; Shin, Christina B; Vieira, Philip A; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-05-01

    In individuals with a history of drug taking, the capacity of drug-associated cues to elicit indices of drug craving intensifies or incubates with the passage of time during drug abstinence. This incubation of cocaine craving, as well as difficulties with learning to suppress drug-seeking behavior during protracted withdrawal, are associated with a time-dependent deregulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) function. As the molecular bases for cocaine-related vmPFC deregulation remain elusive, the present study assayed the consequences of extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 hours/day; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 day) on the activational state of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), an enzyme highly implicated in drug-induced neuroplasticity. The opportunity to engage in cocaine seeking during cocaine abstinence time-dependently altered PKCε phosphorylation within vmPFC, with reduced and increased p-PKCε expression observed in early (3 days) and protracted (30 days) withdrawal, respectively. This effect was more robust within the ventromedial versus dorsomedial PFC, was not observed in comparable cocaine-experienced rats not tested for drug-seeking behavior and was distinct from the rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase observed in cocaine-seeking rats. Further, the impact of inhibiting PKCε translocation within the vmPFC using TAT infusion proteins upon cue-elicited responding was determined and inhibition coinciding with the period of testing attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior, with an effect also apparent the next day. In contrast, inhibitor pretreatment prior to testing during early withdrawal was without effect. Thus, a history of excessive cocaine taking influences the cue reactivity of important intracellular signaling molecules within the vmPFC, with PKCε playing a critical role in the manifestation of cue-elicited cocaine seeking during protracted drug withdrawal. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Gitelman syndrome in a South African family presenting with hypokalaemia and unusual food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Pieter Du Toit; Rensburg, Megan A; Haylett, William L; Bardien, Soraya; Davids, M Razeen

    2017-01-26

    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterised by renal salt wasting with hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in SLC12A3 encoding the sodium-chloride cotransporter on the apical membrane of the distal convoluted tubule. We report a South African family with five affected individuals presenting with hypokalaemia and unusual food cravings. The affected individuals and two unaffected first degree relatives were enrolled into the study. Phenotypes were evaluated through history, physical examination and biochemical analysis of blood and urine. Mutation screening was performed by sequencing of SLC12A3, and determining the allele frequencies of the sequence variants found in this family in 117 ethnically matched controls. The index patient, her sister, father and two aunts had a history of severe salt cravings, fatigue and tetanic episodes, leading to consumption of large quantities of salt and vinegar. All affected individuals demonstrated hypokalaemia with renal potassium wasting. Genetic analysis revealed that the pseudo-dominant pattern of inheritance was due to compound heterozygosity with two novel mutations: a S546G substitution in exon 13, and insertion of AGCCCC at c.1930 in exon 16. These variants were present in the five affected individuals, but only one variant each in the unaffected family members. Neither variant was found in any of the controls. The diagnosis of GS was established in five members of a South African family through clinical assessment, biochemical analysis and mutation screening of the SLC12A3 gene, which identified two novel putative pathogenic mutations.

  4. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Health Warning Labels for Smokeless Tobacco: The Impact of Graphic Images on Attention, Recall, and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Shoben, Abigail B; Cooper, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy K; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall). Linear and logistic regression analyses evaluated the proportion of time viewing the GHW, craving, and GHW recall. Participants who viewed a GHW spent a significantly greater proportion of their ad viewing time on GHWs (2.87 seconds or 30%), compared to those viewing a text-only warning (2.05 seconds or 24%). Although there were no significant differences by condition in total advertisement viewing duration, those participants viewing a GHW had increased recall of health warning messages compared to the text-only warning (76% had any warning message recall compared to 53%; p recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings among rural male smokeless tobacco users. Among a sample of rural smokeless tobacco users, GHWs attracted more attention and recall of health warning messages compared to text-only warnings when viewed within smokeless tobacco advertising. These findings provide additional empirical support that GHWs are an effective tobacco control tool for all tobacco products and advertisements. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of attentional retraining on cognition, craving, and smoking in African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Muench, Christine; Brede, Emily; Endrighi, Romano; Szeto, Edwin H; Sells, Joanna R; Lammers, John P; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Waters, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    African American cigarette smokers have lower rates of cessation than Whites and live in communities with a higher number of tobacco advertisements. Exposure to smoking cues may promote smoking and undermine cessation. It may be possible to reduce attention to smoking cues ("attentional bias"). In this study, we investigated the effect of attentional retraining (AR) on attentional bias and smoking in African American smokers. Nontreatment- seeking African American smokers (N = 64) were randomly assigned to an AR or control condition. Participants were given a mobile device for 2 weeks and prompted to complete up to 3 AR (or control) trainings per day. Participants completed assessments of attentional bias, craving, and smoking both in the lab and in the field. Participants in the AR and control conditions completed an average of 29.07 AR (SD = 12.48) and 30.61 control training tasks (SD = 13.07), respectively. AR reduced attentional bias assessed in the laboratory, F(1, 126) = 9.20, p = .003, and field, F(1, 374) = 6.18, p = .01. This effect generalized to new stimuli, but not to new tasks. AR did not significantly reduce craving or biological measures of smoking. Smoking assessed on the mobile device declined over days in the AR group, F(1, 26) = 10.95, p = .003, but not in the control group, F(1, 27) = 0.02, p = .89. Two weeks of AR administered on a mobile device reduced attentional bias in African American smokers and had mixed effects on smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effect of the CRF1-receptor antagonist pexacerfont on stress-induced eating and food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H; Kennedy, Ashley P; Furnari, Melody; Heilig, Markus; Shaham, Yavin; Phillips, Karran A; Preston, Kenzie L

    2016-12-01

    In rodents, antagonism of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug or palatable food seeking. To test anticraving properties of the CRF 1 antagonist pexacerfont in humans. We studied stress-induced eating in people scoring high on dietary restraint (food preoccupation and chronic unsuccessful dieting) with body-mass index (BMI) >22. In a double-blind, between-groups trial, 31 "restrained" eaters were stabilized on either pexacerfont (300 mg/day for 7 days, then 100 mg/day for 21 days) or placebo. On day 15, they underwent a math-test stressor; during three subsequent visits, they heard personalized craving-induction scripts. In each session, stress-induced food consumption and craving were assessed in a bogus taste test and on visual analog scales. We used digital video to monitor daily ingestion of study capsules and nightly rating of food problems/preoccupation on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The study was stopped early due to an administrative interpretation of US federal law, unrelated to safety or outcome. The bogus taste tests suggested some protective effect of pexacerfont against eating after a laboratory stressor (r effect  = 0.30, 95 % CL = -0.12, 0.63, Bayes factor 11.30). Similarly, nightly YFAS ratings were lower with pexacerfont than placebo (r effect  = 0.39, CI 0.03, 0.66), but this effect should be interpreted with caution because it was present from the first night of pill ingestion, despite pexacerfont's slow pharmacokinetics. The findings may support further investigation of the anticraving properties of CRF 1 antagonists, especially for food.

  8. Large-scale brain network coupling predicts acute nicotine abstinence effects on craving and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Caryn; Gu, Hong; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders. To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks--salience, executive control, and default mode--will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will predict abstinence-induced craving and cognitive deficits and to develop a resource allocation index (RAI) that reflects the combined strength of interactions among the 3 large-scale networks. A within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study in an academic medical center compared resting-state functional connectivity coherence strength after 24 hours of abstinence and after smoking satiety. We examined the relationship of abstinence-induced changes in the RAI with alterations in subjective, behavioral, and neural functions. We included 37 healthy smoking volunteers, aged 19 to 61 years, for analyses. Twenty-four hours of abstinence vs smoking satiety. Inter-network connectivity strength (primary) and the relationship with subjective, behavioral, and neural measures of nicotine withdrawal during abstinence vs smoking satiety states (secondary). The RAI was significantly lower in the abstinent compared with the smoking satiety states (left RAI, P = .002; right RAI, P = .04), suggesting weaker inhibition between the default mode and salience networks. Weaker inter-network connectivity (reduced RAI) predicted abstinence-induced cravings to smoke (r = -0.59; P = .007) and less suppression of default mode activity during performance of a subsequent working memory task (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, r = -0.66, P = .003; posterior cingulate cortex, r = -0.65, P = .001). Alterations in coupling of the salience and default mode networks and the inability to disengage from the default mode network may be critical in cognitive/affective alterations that underlie nicotine dependence.

  9. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  10. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  11. The acute effects of exercise on cigarette cravings, withdrawal symptoms, affect, and smoking behaviour: systematic review update and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vaughan; Maddison, Ralph; Simpson, Caroline; Bullen, Chris; Prapavessis, Harry

    2012-07-01

    Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. A systematic review of all studies published between January 2006 and June 2011 was conducted. Fifteen new studies were identified, 12 of which found a positive effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. The magnitude of statistically significant effect sizes for 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' ranged from 0.4 to 1.98 in favour of exercise compared to passive control conditions, and peaked either during or soon after treatment. Effects were found up to 30 min post-exercise. Cigarette cravings were reduced following exercise with a wide range of intensities from isometric exercise and yoga to activity as high as 80-85 % heart rate reserve. Meta-analyses revealed weighted mean differences of -1.90 and -2.41 in 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' outcomes, respectively. Measures of TWS and negative affect were reduced following light-moderate intensity exercise, but increased during vigorous exercise. Exercise can have a positive effect on cigarette cravings and TWS. However, the most effective exercise intensity to reduce cravings and the underlying mechanisms associated with this effect remain unclear.

  12. An exploratory analysis of changes in mood, anxiety and craving from pre- to post-single sessions of exercise, over 12 weeks, among patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A; Prince, Mark A; Minami, Haruka; Abrantes, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    Aerobic exercise is currently being studied as a relapse prevention strategy for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Negative affect and cravings predict relapse. The acute effects of moderate-intensity exercise have been shown to improve mood and reduce craving. The current study examined the acute effects of exercise on changes in mood, anxiety, and craving from pre- to post-exercise at each week of a 12-week moderate intensity exercise intervention with sedentary alcohol dependent adults. Twenty-six participants in the exercise condition of a larger randomized clinical trial (Brown et al., 2014) exercised in small groups at moderate intensity for 20 to 40 minutes per session. Participants rated mood, anxiety, and cravings in the present moment before and after each exercise session over the course of the 12-week intervention. Data analyses focused on effect size and interval estimation. Joinpoint analysis was used to model longitudinal trends. Increases in mood and decreases in anxiety and craving were apparent at every session. Effect size estimates revealed that average change from pre- to post-exercise was in the small to medium range with some individual sessions reaching the large range. Joinpoint analyses revealed that the pre-post exercise changes in mood increased, anxiety remained stable, and craving diminished across the 12 weeks. This study provides provisional support for a change in mood, anxiety and alcohol cravings for the role of exercise in the early recovery period for alcohol dependence. Acute single bouts of moderate-intensity exercise may help individuals with alcohol dependence manage mood, anxiety, and craving thereby reducing relapse risk, but further research is needed with a more rigorous study design.

  13. Cannabis craving in response to laboratory-induced social stress among racially diverse cannabis users: The impact of social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social st...

  14. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  15. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  16. Intention to abstain from smoking among cardiac rehabilitation patients: the role of attitude, self-efficacy, and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Esther C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Sloot, Caroline; Berndt, Nadine C; Bolman, Catherine A W

    2015-01-01

    Smoking cessation after developing coronary heart disease improves disease prognosis more than any other treatment. However, many cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital discharge. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the intention to (permanently) abstain from smoking among cardiac rehabilitation patients 2 to 4 weeks after discharge from hospital. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 149 cardiac rehabilitation patients recruited from 2 cardiac rehabilitation centers in The Netherlands 2 to 4 weeks after hospital discharge, at the start of the cardiac rehabilitation period. Psychosocial cognitions including attitude toward nonsmoking, social influence, and self-efficacy were measured with a standardized and validated Dutch questionnaire based on the Attitude-Social Influence-Self-efficacy model. Anxiety was measured using the shortened version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Craving for cigarettes was assessed with 6 items measuring the urge to smoke. Intention toward nonsmoking was assessed with 2 visual analog scales indicating the strength and probability of the intention to permanently refrain from smoking. Of all patients, 31% still smoked after hospital discharge. The smokers had a lower self-efficacy and intention to abstain from smoking and reported higher craving. Logistic regression analyses revealed that attitudes that embraced the advantages of not smoking, self-efficacy, and craving were significantly related to the intention to (permanently) abstain from smoking, whereas social influence and anxiety were not. Actual smoking behavior moderated the relation between self-efficacy and intention: only the quitters showed a significant positive relation. Anxiety did not moderate the relationship between psychosocial cognitive factors and intention. The intention to (permanently) abstain from smoking, measured 2 to 4 weeks after hospitalization for a cardiac event, predominantly depends on attitude, self

  17. Geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco: real-time craving and smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the association between point-of-sale marketing and behavior, because methods that directly link individual-level use outcomes to real-world point-of-sale exposure are only now beginning to be developed. Daily outcomes during smoking cessation were examined as a function of both real-time geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco (POST) and subjective craving to smoke. Continuous individual geospatial location data collected over the first month of a smoking-cessation attempt in 2010-2012 (N=475) were overlaid on a POST outlet geodatabase (N=1060). Participants' mobility data were used to quantify the number of times they came into contact with a POST outlet. Participants recorded real-time craving levels and smoking status via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on cellular telephones. The final data set spanned a total of 12,871 days of EMA and geospatial tracking. Lapsing was significantly more likely on days with any POST contact (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.18, 1.20), and increasingly likely as the number of daily POST contacts increased (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.06, 1.08). Overall, daily POST exposure was significantly associated with lapsing when craving was low (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.20, 1.23); high levels of craving were more directly associated with lapse outcomes. These data shed light on the way mobility patterns drive a dynamic interaction between individuals and the POST environment, demonstrating that quantification of individuals' exposure to POST marketing can be used to identify previously unrecognized patterns of association among individual mobility, the built environment, and behavioral outcomes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  18. The effects of exercise on cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Hodgson, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Smokers show heightened activation toward smoking-related stimuli and experience increased cravings which can precipitate smoking cessation relapse. Exercise can be effective for modulating cigarette cravings and attenuating reactivity to smoking cues, but the mechanism by which these effects occur remains uncertain. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomised crossover design, overnight abstinent smokers (n = 20) underwent an exercise (10-min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and passive control (seating for the same duration) treatment, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. After each treatment, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanning while viewing a random series of blocked smoking or neutral images. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. There was a significant interaction effect (treatment × time) for desire to smoke, F (2,32) = 12.5, p exercise at all time points compared with the control treatment. After both exercise and rest, significant areas of activation were found in areas of the limbic lobe and in areas associated with visual attention in response to smoking-related stimuli. Smokers showed increased activation to smoking images in areas associated with primary and secondary visual processing following rest, but not following a session of exercise. The study shows differing activation towards smoking images following exercise compared to a control treatment and may point to a neuro-cognitive process following exercise that mediates effects on cigarette cravings.

  19. Dose-response relationships between exercise intensity, cravings, and inhibitory control in methamphetamine dependence: An ERPs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongshi; Zhou, Chenglin; Zhao, Min; Wu, Xueping; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-04-01

    The present study integrated behavioral and neuroelectric approaches for determining the dose-response relationships between exercise intensity and methamphetamine (MA) craving and between exercise intensity and inhibitory control in individuals with MA dependence. Ninety-two individuals with MA dependence were randomly assigned to an exercise group (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) or to a reading control group. The participants then completed a craving self-report at four time points: before exercise, during exercise, immediately after exercise, and 50 min after exercise. Event-related potentials were also recorded while the participants completed a standard Go/NoGo task and an MA-related Go/NoGo task approximately 20 min after exercise cessation. The reduction in self-reported MA craving scores of the moderate and vigorous intensity groups was greater than that of the light intensity and control groups during acute exercise as well as immediately and 50 min following exercise termination. Additionally, an inverted-U-shaped relationship between exercise intensity and inhibitory control was generally observed for the behavioral and neuroelectric indices, with the moderate intensity group exhibiting shorter Go reaction times, increased NoGo accuracy, and larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes. Acute exercise may provide benefits for MA-associated craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals, as revealed by behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with more positive effects, providing preliminary evidence for the establishment of an exercise prescription regarding intensity for MA dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  1. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    McCaul, Mary E.; Hutton, Heidi E.; Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol?related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self?report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, al...

  2. D-cycloserine combined with cue exposure therapy fails to attenuate subjective and physiological craving in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Nietert, Paul J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-04-01

    Based on preclinical studies showing that the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, we evaluated whether 50 mg of DCS would reduce craving to cocaine cues when combined with cue exposure (CE) in cocaine dependent humans. In this double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 47 cocaine dependent participants were randomized to DCS or placebo (PBO), plus CE. Participants received DCS or PBO 30 minutes prior to two CE sessions, conducted one day apart. Craving and heart rate was assessed prior to CE sessions, during CE trials, and after CE trials. These measures were assessed again at a 1-week follow-up (session 3) after the second CE session. DCS failed to significantly attenuate cocaine cue reactivity based on subjective craving and physiological reactivity (heart rate) compared to PBO. The CE protocol, consisting of repeated exposure to drug cues combined with skills training, resulted in extinction to cocaine cues as suggested by decreased craving within and between sessions in both treatment conditions. All participants exhibited elevated heart rate with repeated exposures, demonstrating a potentiation in heart rate between sessions. 50 mg of DCS may not be effective for extinguishing reactivity to drug cues for individuals with cocaine dependence. Future studies examining the effect of DCS on facilitating extinction to drug cues should examine variations in cue exposure length, number of CE presentations, and timing of DCS dose administration prior to cue exposures, which may differentially impact drug cue reactivity. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. A bio-behavioral model of addiction treatment: applying dual representation theory to craving management and relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly

    2005-01-01

    A bio-behavioral approach to drug addiction treatment is outlined. The presented treatment model uses dual representation theory as a guiding framework for understanding the bio-behavioral processes activated during the application of expressive therapeutic methods. Specifically, the treatment model explains how visual processing techniques can supplement traditional relapse prevention therapy protocols, to help clients better manage cravings and control triggers in hard-to-treat populations such as chronic substance-dependent persons.

  4. The relationship of "passionate attachment" for pornography with sexual compulsivity, frequency of use, and craving for pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Kraus, Shane

    2014-05-01

    We recruited a sample of 221 undergraduate males who used pornography regularly to complete a series of questionnaires assessing their "passionate attachment" to pornography, pornography use history, sexual compulsivity, subjective craving to use pornography, compulsive Internet use, social desirability and non-sexual sensation seeking. Both Harmonious Passion and Obsessive Passion subscale scores varied as a function of typical weekly frequency of pornography use, and both subscales were positively significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, current craving to use pornography, and compulsive Internet use. However, neither subtype of passionate attachment to pornography was significantly associated with non-sexual sensation seeking or with the tendency to present oneself in a socially desirable manner. Trait-like sexual compulsivity and presumably transient craving to use pornography appear related to, but are not substitute measures for, passionate attachment for pornography. Further research could evaluate the clinical utility of this questionnaire to measure clients' preoccupation with and inclination to use pornography during assessment and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  6. Noninvasive brain stimulation to suppress craving in substance use disorders: Review of human evidence and methodological considerations for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fecteau, Shirley

    2015-12-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) can be viewed as a pathology of neuroadaptation. The pharmacological overstimulation of neural mechanisms of reward, motivated learning and memory leads to drug-seeking behavior. A critical characteristic of SUDs is the appearance of craving, the motivated desire and urge to use, which is a main focus of current pharmacological and behavioral therapies. Recent proof-of-concept studies have tested the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation on craving. Although its mechanisms of action are not fully understood, this approach shows interesting potential in tuning down craving and possibly consumption of diverse substances. This article reviews available results on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) in SUDs, specifically tobacco, alcohol and psychostimulant use disorders. We discuss several important factors that need to be addressed in future works to improve clinical assessment and effects of noninvasive brain stimulation in SUDs. Factors discussed include brain stimulation devices and parameters, study designs, brain states and subjects' characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  8. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  9. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  10. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  11. Social Networking Site use while driving: ADHD and the mediating roles of stress, self-esteem and craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofir eTurel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association. To do so, ADHD is viewed in this study as an underlying syndrome that promotes SNS use while driving in a manner similar to how addictive syndromes promote compulsive seeking of drug rewards.Methods: Time-lagged survey data regarding ADHD, stress, self-esteem, SNS craving experience, SNS use while driving and control variables were collected from a sample of 457 participants who use a popular SNS (Facebook and drive, after face-validity examination with a panel of five users and pretest with a sample of 47. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM analyses using the frequency of ADHD symptoms measured with ASRS v1.1 Part A as a continuous variable, as well as multivariate analysis of variance using ADHD classification based on ASRS v1.1 scoring guidelines.Results: ADHD symptoms promoted increased stress and reduced self-esteem, which in turn, together with ADHD symptoms, increased one's cravings to use the SNS. These cravings ultimately translated into increased SNS use while driving. Using the ASRS v1.1 classification, people having symptoms highly consistent with ADHD presented elevated levels of stress, cravings to use the SNS, and SNS use while driving, as well as decreased levels of self-esteem. Cravings to use the SNS among men were more potent than among women.Conclusion: SNS use while driving may be more prevalent than previously assumed and may be indirectly associated with ADHD symptoms. It is a new form of impulsive and risky

  12. Social Networking Site Use While Driving: ADHD and the Mediating Roles of Stress, Self-Esteem and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS) while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association. To do so, ADHD is viewed in this study as an underlying syndrome that promotes SNS use while driving in a manner similar to how addictive syndromes promote compulsive seeking of drug rewards. Time-lagged survey data regarding ADHD, stress, self-esteem, SNS craving experience, SNS use while driving, and control variables were collected from a sample of 457 participants who use a popular SNS (Facebook) and drive, after face-validity examination with a panel of five users and pretest with a sample of 47. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses using the frequency of ADHD symptoms measured with ASRS v1.1 Part A as a continuous variable, as well as multivariate analysis of variance using ADHD classification based on ASRS v1.1 scoring guidelines. ADHD symptoms promoted increased stress and reduced self-esteem, which in turn, together with ADHD symptoms, increased one's cravings to use the SNS. These cravings ultimately translated into increased SNS use while driving. Using the ASRS v1.1 classification, people having symptoms highly consistent with ADHD presented elevated levels of stress, cravings to use the SNS, and SNS use while driving, as well as decreased levels of self-esteem. Cravings to use the SNS among men were more potent than among women. SNS use while driving may be more prevalent than previously assumed and may be indirectly associated with ADHD symptoms. It is a new form of impulsive and risky behavior which is more common among people with symptoms

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  15. Are addiction-related memories malleable by working memory competition? Transient effects on memory vividness and nicotine craving in a randomized lab experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Wiebren; de Weert-van Oene, Gerdien H; Woud, Marcella L; Becker, Eni S; DeJong, Cornelis A J

    2016-09-01

    Experimental research suggests that working memory (WM) taxation reduces craving momentarily. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) procedure, prolonged reductions in craving and relapse rates in alcohol dependence have been demonstrated. Modified EMDR-procedures may also hold promise in smoking cessation attempts. A proof-of-concept study was conducted to narrow the gap between WM-taxation experiments and clinical EMDR studies. To this end the clinical EMDR-procedure was modified for use in a laboratory experiment. Daily smokers (n = 47), abstaining overnight, were allocated (by minimization randomization) to one of two groups using a parallel design. In both cases a modified EMDR-procedure was used. In the experimental group (n = 24) eye movements (EM) were induced while control group participants (n = 23) fixed their gaze (not taxing WM). During 6 min trials, craving-inducing memories were recalled. Craving, vividness of target memories, and smoking behavior were assessed at several variable-specific time-points between baseline (one week pre-intervention) and one week follow-up. The experimental group showed significant immediate reductions of craving and vividness of targeted memories. However, these effects were lost during a one-week follow-up period. A limited dose of WM-taxation, in the form of EM in a modified EMDR-procedure, resulted in transient effects on memory vividness and nicotine craving. EM provide a valuable way of coping with the acute effects of craving during smoking cessation attempts. Other aspects of the EMDR-procedure may provide additional effects. Component and dose-response studies are needed to establish the potential of EMDR-therapy in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. No influence of one right-sided prefrontal HF-rTMS session on alcohol craving in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients: results of a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, S C; Baeken, C; Vanderbruggen, N; Vanderhasselt, M A; Zeeuws, D; Santermans, L; De Raedt, R

    2012-01-01

    Prior research in substance dependence has suggested potential anti-craving effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) when applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, no single sham-controlled session studies applied to the right DLPFC have been carried-out in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Furthermore, no studies examined the effect of a single HF-rTMS session on craving in these patients' natural habitat. To further investigate the effect of high-frequency (HF)-rTMS of the right DLPFC on alcohol craving, we performed a prospective, single-blind, sham-controlled study involving 36 hospitalized patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. After successful detoxification, patients were allocated receiving one active or one sham HF-rTMS session. The obsessive-compulsive drinking scale (OCDS) was administered to evaluate the extent of craving just before and after the HF-rTMS session (on Friday), on Saturday and Sunday during the weekend at home, and on Monday when the patient returned to the hospital. One single blind sham-controlled HF-rTMS session applied to the right DLPFC did not result in changes in craving (neither immediately after the stimulation session, nor in patients' natural environment during the weekend). One HF-rTMS stimulation session applied to the right DLPFC had no significant effects on alcohol craving in alcohol dependent patients. One such session could have been too short to alter alcohol craving in a sample of alcohol dependent patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crave, like, eat: determinants of food intake in a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is heterogeneous condition with obese individuals displaying different eating patterns. Growing evidence suggests that there is a subgroup of obese adults that is marked by frequent and intense food cravings and addiction-like consumption of high-calorie foods. Little is known, however, about such a subgroup of obese individuals in childhood and adolescence. In the present study, a sample of children and adolescents with a wide range in body mass was investigated and trait food craving, liking for and intake of high- and low-calorie foods was measured. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents (51.4% female, n = 73; Mage = 13.7 years, SD = 2.25; MBMI-SDS = 1.26, SD = 1.50 completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire - Trait, then viewed pictures of high- and low-calorie foods and rated their liking for them, and subsequently consumed some of these foods in a bogus taste test. Contrary to expectations, higher body mass was associated with lower consumption of high-calorie foods. However, there was an interaction between body mass and trait food craving when predicting food consumption: in obese participants, higher trait food craving was associated with higher consumption of high-calorie foods and this association was not found in normal-weight participants. The relationship between trait food craving and high-calorie food consumption within obese individuals was mediated by higher liking for high-calorie foods (but not by liking for low-calorie foods. Thus, similar to adults, a subgroup of obese children and adolescents - characterized by high trait food craving - seems to exist, calling for specific targeted treatment strategies.

  18. Access to environmental reward mediates the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol problems and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G

    2018-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward bridging the gap between biological, psychobiological and psychosocial models of alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, P M; Rohsenow, D J; Hutchison, K E

    2000-08-01

    Urge to drink ("craving") has been a central focus of many theories and treatments, but some researchers question the importance of urges during recovery. Several studies assessed reactions to the presence of beverage alcohol (cue-reactivity) or to simulated high-risk situations (role plays). Higher urges in response to role plays predicted more drinking during the 6 months after treatment. However, urges in response to beverage cues were inconsistently predictive of outcome while measures of awareness or attention to cues predicted less drinking. Urge to drink might reflect a conflict between motivation to drink and awareness of danger. Whether urges predict increased risk of drinking should be a function of factors that affect motivation to drink, awareness of risk and effectiveness of coping. Cue-reactivity assessment has recently been used to bridge the gap between psychosocial and biomedical approaches in several ways: (1) salivation to cues predicts increased drinking independent of urge or attention, showing the value of including both physiological and psychosocial measures; (2) naltrexone has been shown to decrease cue-elicited urge to drink, illustrating the value of this assessment methodology for medications evaluation and (3) pre-pulse inhibition of startle response is being used to investigate the role of dopaminergic pathways in cue-elicited urge. Thus, this laboratory based program of research has the potential to add to knowledge of both biomedical and psychosocial mechanisms involved in urge and relapse, leading to greater integration of models.

  1. The insula: a critical neural substrate for craving and drug seeking under conflict and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Gaznick, Natassia; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-05-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by the inability to control drug use when it results in negative consequences or conflicts with more adaptive goals. Our previous work showed that damage to the insula disrupted addiction to cigarette smoking-the first time that the insula was shown to be a critical neural substrate for addiction. Here, we review those findings, as well as more recent studies that corroborate and extend them, demonstrating the role of the insula in (1) incentive motivational processes that drive addictive behavior, (2) control processes that moderate or inhibit addictive behavior, and (3) interoceptive processes that represent bodily states associated with drug use. We then describe a theoretical framework that attempts to integrate these seemingly disparate findings. In this framework, the insula functions in the recall of interoceptive drug effects during craving and drug seeking under specific conditions where drug taking is perceived as risky and/or where there is conflict between drug taking and more adaptive goals. We describe this framework in an evolutionary context and discuss its implications for understanding the mechanisms of behavior change in addiction treatments. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  6. Cannabis craving in response to laboratory-induced social stress among racially diverse cannabis users: The impact of social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social stress. Thus, the current study tested whether increases in state social anxiety (measured subjectively and via physiological arousal) were related to greater cannabis craving among 126 current cannabis users (88.9% with cannabis use disorder, 31.7% with social anxiety disorder, 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. As predicted, cannabis users in the social interaction condition reported greater cannabis craving than those in the reading condition. This effect was particularly evident among those with social anxiety disorder. Although physiological arousal did not moderate the relationship between condition and craving, coping motives were the most common reasons cited for wanting to use cannabis and were reported more among those in the social interaction task. These experimental results uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting the importance of elevated state social anxiety (especially among those with social anxiety disorder) in cannabis use vulnerability processes. PMID:26839322

  7. Cannabis craving in response to laboratory-induced social stress among racially diverse cannabis users: The impact of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social stress. Thus, the current study tested whether increases in state social anxiety (measured subjectively and via physiological arousal) were related to greater cannabis craving among 126 current cannabis users (88.9% with cannabis use disorder, 31.7% with social anxiety disorder, 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. As predicted, cannabis users in the social interaction condition reported greater cannabis craving than those in the reading condition. This effect was particularly evident among those with social anxiety disorder. Although physiological arousal did not moderate the relationship between condition and craving, coping motives were the most common reasons cited for wanting to use cannabis and were reported more among those in the social interaction task. These experimental results uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting the importance of elevated state social anxiety (especially among those with social anxiety disorder) in cannabis use vulnerability processes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Crush the Crave: Development and Formative Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Neill B; Struik, Laura L; Dash, Darly

    2018-03-02

    Emerging evidence supports the use of smartphone apps for smoking cessation, especially in young adults given their high smoking rates and high smartphone ownership rates. Although evaluative evidence is encouraging for supporting smoking cessation, there remains a paucity of research describing the design and development processes of mobile health (mHealth) interventions. The aim of this paper was to describe the process of developing Crush the Crave (CTC), an evidence-informed app to support smoking cessation in young adults, and the results of a formative evaluation of app usage behavior, as part of a broader program of research that seeks to establish the effectiveness of the CTC app. The Spiral Technology Action Research (STAR) 5-cycle model (listen, plan, do, act, and study) was employed to guide the development, implementation, and dissemination of CTC. The approach to development and formative evaluation included focus groups with young adult smokers (n=78) across 2 phases, analysis of the content of existing apps, 2 sessions with content experts, and Google Analytics to assess user behavior during a 12-month pilot. LISTEN-focus groups revealed young adult smoker preferences of (1) positive reinforcement, (2) personalization, (3) social support, (4) quit support, (5) tracking the behavior, and (6) tracking quit benefits. PLAN-informed by evidence for smoking cessation, young adult preferences and an assessment of popular cessation apps, content experts produced a mind map and a storyboard describing app content and structure. DO-focus groups with young adult smokers provided feedback on the first version of the app with opinions on content and suggestions for improvement such as providing alerts and distractions from craving. ACT-refinements were made, and app content was organized using the 4 key design components informed by principles of persuasive technology for behavior change: credibility, task support, dialogue support, and social support. CTC was

  9. Neurofeedback of visual food cue reactivity: a potential avenue to alter incentive sensitization and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Sokunbi, Moses O; Lawrence, Andrew D; Lawrence, Natalia S; Linden, David E J

    2017-06-01

    FMRI-based neurofeedback transforms functional brain activation in real-time into sensory stimuli that participants can use to self-regulate brain responses, which can aid the modification of mental states and behavior. Emerging evidence supports the clinical utility of neurofeedback-guided up-regulation of hypoactive networks. In contrast, down-regulation of hyperactive neural circuits appears more difficult to achieve. There are conditions though, in which down-regulation would be clinically useful, including dysfunctional motivational states elicited by salient reward cues, such as food or drug craving. In this proof-of-concept study, 10 healthy females (mean age = 21.40 years, mean BMI = 23.53) who had fasted for 4 h underwent a novel 'motivational neurofeedback' training in which they learned to down-regulate brain activation during exposure to appetitive food pictures. FMRI feedback was given from individually determined target areas and through decreases/increases in food picture size, thus providing salient motivational consequences in terms of cue approach/avoidance. Our preliminary findings suggest that motivational neurofeedback is associated with functionally specific activation decreases in diverse cortical/subcortical regions, including key motivational areas. There was also preliminary evidence for a reduction of hunger after neurofeedback and an association between down-regulation success and the degree of hunger reduction. Decreasing neural cue responses by motivational neurofeedback may provide a useful extension of existing behavioral methods that aim to modulate cue reactivity. Our pilot findings indicate that reduction of neural cue reactivity is not achieved by top-down regulation but arises in a bottom-up manner, possibly through implicit operant shaping of target area activity.

  10. Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M; Kearns, Brianna; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    To assess disordered online social networking use via modified diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, and to examine its association with difficulties with emotion regulation and substance use. Cross-sectional survey study targeting undergraduate students. Associations between disordered online social networking use, internet addiction, deficits in emotion regulation and alcohol use problems were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance. A large University in the Northeastern United States. Undergraduate students (n = 253, 62.8% female, 60.9% white, age mean = 19.68, standard deviation = 2.85), largely representative of the target population. The response rate was 100%. Disordered online social networking use, determined via modified measures of alcohol abuse and dependence, including DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) screen, along with the Young Internet Addiction Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, White Bear Suppression Inventory and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Disordered online social networking use was present in 9.7% [n = 23; 95% confidence interval (5.9, 13.4)] of the sample surveyed, and significantly and positively associated with scores on the Young Internet Addiction Test (P addictive. Modified measures of substance abuse and dependence are suitable in assessing disordered online social networking use. Disordered online social networking use seems to arise as part of a cluster of symptoms of poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to both substance and non-substance addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Intermittent exercise in response to cigarette cravings in the context of an Internet-based smoking cessation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E.; Rutledge, Thomas; Myers, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions using sustained aerobic exercise programs to aid smoking cessation have resulted in modest, short-term cessation rates comparable to conventional cessation methods. No smoking cessation trial to date has prescribed intermittent bouts of exercise in response to nicotine cravings. Objectives This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of an Internet-based smoking cessation program alone (CON) vs. the same Internet-based program + intermittent exercise in response to cigarette cravings (EX). Study population Participants (N = 38; mean age = 43.6 [SD = 11.5]; 60.5% women) were generally healthy, inactive adult smokers who desired to quit. Results The overall retention rate was 60.5% (n = 23), and no significant retention rate differences were found between groups (EX vs. CON). Although retained participants achieved a higher cessation rate (26.1%) than all enrolled participants (15.8%), adjusted intent-to-treat and per-protocol binary logistic regression analyses revealed no significant cessation rate differences between EX and CON groups. Linear regression results indicated that additional days of self-reported exercise on the study website during the intervention phase predicted significantly higher reduction rates among EX group participants, F(2, 16) = 31.08, p exercise in the presence of the apparently valuable Internet-based smoking cessation program. The results support findings from related research and underscore the need for additional investigation into both the mechanisms underlying the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and the challenges of poor adherence in the context of exercise-based smoking cessation interventions. PMID:23956792

  12. A Single Session of Attentional Bias Modification Reduces Alcohol Craving and Implicit Measures of Alcohol Bias in Young Adult Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehring-Jones, Peter; Louis, Courtney; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A; Erblich, Joel

    2017-12-01

    Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. This study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy. Participants were randomly assigned to a single session of active ABM training or a sham training condition in a laboratory setting. Measures of implicit drinking-related cognitions (alcohol Stroop and an Implicit Association Task) and attentional bias (AB; alcohol visual probe) were administered, and subjective alcohol craving was reported in response to in vivo alcohol cues. Results showed that active ABM training, relative to sham, resulted in significant differences in measures of implicit alcohol-related cognition, alcohol-related AB, and self-reports of alcohol craving. Mediation analysis showed that reductions in craving were fully mediated by ABM-related reductions in alcohol-Stroop interference scores, suggesting a previously undocumented relationship between the 2 measures. Results document the efficacy of brief ABM to reduce both implicit and explicit processes related to drinking, and highlight the potential intervention-relevance of alcohol-related implicit cognitions in social drinkers. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  14. Initial validation of two opiate craving questionnaires the obsessive compulsive drug use scale and the desires for drug questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Hendriksa, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the factor structure, internal consistency, and the concurrent validity of two heroin craving questionnaires are examined. The Desires for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) measures three factors: desire and intention, negative reinforcement, and control. The Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS) also measures three factors: thoughts about heroin and interference, desire and control, and resistance to thoughts and intention. Subjects were 102 Dutch patients who were currently in treatment for drug dependency. All proposed scales have good reliability and concurrent validity. Implementation of these instruments in both clinical and research field is advocated.

  15. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej S Buchowski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight.Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID.Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF.Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002.The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these beneficial effects on cannabis use may lead to understanding of the physical and

  16. Reward-related brain response and craving correlates of marijuana cue exposure: a preliminary study in treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Marina; Szucs-Reed, Regina P; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Ehrman, Ronald N; Wang, Ze; Li, Yin; Suh, Jesse J; Kampman, Kyle; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2013-01-01

    : Determining the brain substrates underlying the motivation to abuse addictive drugs is critical for understanding and treating addictive disorders. Laboratory neuroimaging studies have demonstrated differential activation of limbic and motivational circuitry (eg, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex) triggered by cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cues. The literature on neural responses to marijuana cues is sparse. Thus, the goals of this study were to characterize the brain's response to marijuana cues, a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse, and determine whether these responses are linked to self-reported craving in a clinically relevant population of treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects. : Marijuana craving was assessed in 12 marijuana-dependent subjects using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form. Subsequently, blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during exposure to alternating 20-second blocks of marijuana-related versus matched nondrug visual cues. : Brain activation during marijuana cue exposure was significantly greater in the bilateral amygdala and the hippocampus. Significant positive correlations between craving scores and brain activation were found in the ventral striatum and the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (P cues and craving and extends the current literature on marijuana cue reactivity. Furthermore, the correlative relationship between craving and brain activity in reward-related regions was observed in a clinically relevant sample (treatment-seeking marijuana-dependent subjects). Results are consistent with prior findings in cocaine, heroin, nicotine, and alcohol cue studies, indicating that the brain substrates of cue-triggered drug motivation are shared across abused substances.

  17. Preliminary validation and principal components analysis of the Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ) for the experience of food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M; Finlayson, G; Hill, A; Blundell, J

    2015-12-01

    The Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ) comprises 21-items that are designed to assess the severity and type of food cravings an individual experiences over the previous 7 days. The CoEQ has been used in clinical trials as a multi-dimensional measure of appetite, craving and mood regulation however its underlying component structure has yet to be determined. The current paper has two aims; (1) to examine the psychometric properties, and internal consistency of the CoEQ; and (2) to provide a preliminary examination of the underlying components by exploring their construct and predictive validity. Data were pooled from four studies in which a total 215 adults (80% women; Age=29.7 ± 10.3; BMI=26.5 ± 5.2) had completed the CoEQ alongside measures of psychometric eating behaviour traits, ad libitum food intake, and body composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) and parallel analysis was conducted to examine the underlying structure of the questionnaire. The resulting subscales were tested for internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.66-0.88). PCA revealed four components that explained 54.5% of the variance. The components were identified as: Craving Control, Positive Mood, Craving for Sweet, and Craving for Savoury. Associations between the underlying CoEQ subscales and measures of body composition and eating behaviour traits confirmed construct validity of the subscales. The associations between the subscales and snack food selection and intake of palatable snack foods supported the CoEQ's predictive validity. The CoEQ has good psychometric properties with a clear component structure and acceptable internal consistency. This preliminary validation supports the CoEQ as a measure of the experience of food cravings.

  18. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m -2 ; maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  19. PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E; Hasan, Khader M; Vincent, Jessica; Suchting, Robert; Weaver, Michael F; Moeller, F Gerard; Narayana, Ponnada A; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Dineley, Kelly T; Lane, Scott D

    2017-10-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance and tolerability were evaluated. Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC). Single-site out-patient treatment research clinic in Houston, TX, USA. Thirty treatment-seeking adults, 18 to 60 years old, with CUD. Eighteen participants (8 = PIO; 10 = PLC) completed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of WM integrity at pre-/post-treatment. Study medication was dispensed at thrice weekly visits along with once-weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for 12 weeks. Measures of target engagement mechanisms of interest included cocaine craving assessed by the Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS), the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS), a visual analog scale (VAS) and change in WM integrity. Feasibility measures included number completing treatment, medication compliance (riboflavin detection) and tolerability (side effects, serious adverse events). Target engagement change in mechanisms of interest, defined as a ≥ 0.75 Bayesian posterior probability of an interaction existing favoring PIO over PLC, was demonstrated on measures of craving (BSCS, VAS) and WM integrity indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Outcomes indicated greater decrease in craving and greater increase in FA values in the PIO group. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates among those starting treatment (21/26 = 80%) and medication compliance (≥ 80%). There were no reported serious adverse events for PIO. Compared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment. Pioglitazone shows good feasibility as a treatment for cocaine

  20. Applying Costs, Risks and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) methodology to Engineering Support Request (ESR) prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Prafulla N.

    1994-01-01

    Given limited budget, the problem of prioritization among Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) with varied sizes, shapes, and colors is a difficult one. At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the recently developed 4-Matrix (4-M) method represents a step in the right direction as it attempts to combine the traditional criteria of technical merits only with the new concern for cost-effectiveness. However, the 4-M method was not adequately successful in the actual prioritization of ESRs for the fiscal year 1995 (FY95). This research identifies a number of design issues that should help us to develop better methods. It emphasizes that given the variety and diversity of ESR's one should not expect that a single method could help in the assessment of all ESR's. One conclusion is that a methodology such as Costs, Risks, and Values Evaluation (CRAVE) should be adopted. It also is clear that the development of methods such as 4-M requires input not only from engineers with technical expertise in ESR's but also from personnel with adequate background in the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis. At KSC, ESR prioritization is one part of the Ground Support Working Teams (GSWT) Integration Process. It was discovered that the more important barriers to the incorporation of cost-effectiveness considerations in ESR prioritization lie in this process. The culture of integration, and the corresponding structure of review by a committee of peers, is not conducive to the analysis and confrontation necessary in the assessment and prioritization of ESR's. Without assistance from appropriately trained analysts charged with the responsibility to analyze and be confrontational about each ESR, the GSWT steering committee will continue to make its decisions based on incomplete understanding, inconsistent numbers, and at times, colored facts. The current organizational separation of the prioritization and the funding processes is also identified as an important barrier to the

  1. An Idiographic Examination of Day-to-Day Patterns of Substance Use Craving, Negative Affect, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual day-to-day variability. This intraindividual variability of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a day-to-day investigation of substance…

  2. Are smartphone dependence symptoms related to FoMO, craving and withdrawal symptoms during smartphone abstinence? : Findings from a natural experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Doornwaard, S.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.

    Background and aims: Adding to the ongoing discussion about the concept of behavioral addictions (Rosenburg & Feder, 2014), the present study tested whether or not individuals high on symptoms of smartphone addiction experience more craving and more withdrawal symptoms during a period of smartphone

  3. Craving and substance use among patients with alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or heroin addiction: a comparison of substance- and person-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Serre, Fuschia; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Debrabant, Romain; Auriacombe, Marc; Swendsen, Joel

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that craving increases following exposure to substance-related 'cues', but the role of life-styles or substance use habits that are unique to each person remains poorly understood. This study examines the association of substance-specific and personal cues with craving and substance use in daily life. Ecological momentary assessment was used during a 2-week period. Data were collected in a French out-patient addiction treatment centre. A total of 132 out-patients beginning treatment for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or opiate addiction were included. Using mobile technologies, participants were questioned four times per day relative to craving, substance use and exposure to either substance-specific cues (e.g. seeing a syringe) or personal cues unique to that individual (e.g. seeing the specific person with whom the substance is used). Craving intensity was associated with the number of concurrently assessed substance-specific cues (t = 4.418, P addictive substances, and the duration of this association may persist longer than for more general substance-specific cues. Mobile technologies provide new opportunities for understanding these person-specific risk factors and for providing individually tailored interventions. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The three year course of alcohol use disorders in the general population: DSM-IV, ICD-10 and the Craving Withdrawal Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in a prospective general population study using three different classification systems: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV), International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10) and the craving withdrawal model

  5. A brisk walk, compared with being sedentary, reduces attentional bias and chocolate cravings among regular chocolate eaters with different body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2013-12-01

    Poor self-regulation of high energy snacking has been linked to weight gain. Physical activity can acutely reduce chocolate consumption and cravings but the effects on attentional bias (AB) are unknown. The study aimed to test the effects of exercise among normal and overweight/obese individuals during temporary and longer abstinence. Participants were 20 normal and 21 overweight regular female chocolate eaters (after 24 h abstinence), and 17 females (after ≥1 week abstinence during Lent). They were randomly assigned to engage in 15 min brisk walking or rest, on separate days. AB was assessed using an adapted dot probe task pre and post-treatment at each session, with chocolate/neutral paired images presented for 200 ms (initial AB; IAB) or 1000 ms (maintained AB; MAB). Chocolate craving was assessed pre, during, immediately after, and 5 min and 10 min after treatment, using a 0-100 visual analogue score. Three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that there was no significant interaction effect between group (i.e., BMI status, or abstinence status) and condition × time for craving and AB to chocolate cues. Fully repeated 2-way ANOVAS revealed a significant condition × time interaction for IAB (F(1,57)=6.39) and chocolate craving (F(2.34,133.19)=14.44). After exercise IAB (t(57)=2.78, pchocolate cues, relative to control, irrespective of BMI or abstinence period. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Impulse Control on Reduction of Impulsiveness, Crave of Usage and Addiction Severity among Crack Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Hadadi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was done in order to study of the effectiveness of CBT of impulse control on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave of usage and addiction severity of Crack users. Method: In a quasi experimental design 30 Crack addict users who were treating with Methadone in a clinic selected by interview method and consideration of entrance criterions. Then they allocated to two groups (15 subjects for each group as a witness and experimental groups. The experimental group was under Methadone drug therapy and CBT of impulse control for 8 sessions, and 60 min for each session. But witness group was under Methadone drug therapy and there was not any other intervention. All participants in research were examined before and after treatment by three scales namely: Bart's Impulsiveness Scale, Tifani's Crave Usage, and Addiction Severity Index. MANCOVA was run for analyzing of data. Results: The results showed that significant difference between two groups on impulsiveness subscales crave usage, and addiction severity (except of medical status, job status, law status, and family status. Conclusion: It can say CBT of impulse control can be effective on the reduction of impulsiveness, crave usage and addiction severity in Crack users.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  8. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  9. Food craving, food choice and consumption: The role of impulsivity and sham-controlled tDCS stimulation of the right dlPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, Claudio; Goldhofer, Philipp; Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Blechert, Jens

    2017-08-01

    Impulsivity has been found to be associated with overeating and obesity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance inhibitory control while reducing food craving and intake. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether tDCS stimulation modifies food choice, craving and consumption as a function of trait impulsivity. Forty-two predominantly healthy-weight women received active tDCS stimulation to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and sham stimulation in a within participant design. Trait impulsivity was measured with a short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Participants completed a computerized food-choice task, during which their mouse movements were traced. Current food craving was measured by a modified version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State as well as by desire to eat ratings for food pictures. Food intake was measured in a taste test. There were no tDCS effects on any of the dependent variables. Trait impulsivity (and non-planning impulsivity in particular) was positively associated with higher calorie intake in the taste test, irrespective of tDCS stimulation. The current findings question the efficacy of single-session tDCS stimulation of the right dLPFC to reduce food craving, high caloric food choice and calorie intake in non-selected, predominantly healthy weight women. However, they do support the idea that trait impulsivity is related to overeating and, therefore, may be a risk factor for obesity. Future research needs to specify which appetitive behaviors can be modulated by brain stimulation and which populations might profit from it the most. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of post-retrieval propranolol on reconsolidation of memory for craving and cue reactivity in cocaine dependent humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Larowe, Steven D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Baker, Nathaniel L; Hartwell, Karen J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of propranolol vs. placebo, administered immediately after a "retrieval" session of cocaine cue exposure (CCE), on craving and physiological responses occurring 24 h later during a subsequent "test" session of CCE. It was hypothesized that compared to placebo-treated cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals, propranolol-treated CD individuals would evidence attenuated craving and physiological reactivity during the test session. Secondarily, it was expected that group differences identified in the test session would be evident at a 1-week follow-up CCE session. Exploratory analyses of treatment effects on cocaine use were also performed at follow-up. CD participants received either 40 mg propranolol or placebo immediately following a "retrieval" CCE session. The next day, participants received a "test" session of CCE that was identical to the "retrieval" session except no medication was administered. Participants underwent a "follow-up" CCE session 1 week later. Craving and other reactivity measures were obtained at multiple time points during the CCE sessions. Propranolol- vs. placebo-treated participants evidenced significantly greater attenuation of craving and cardiovascular reactivity during the test session. Analysis of the follow-up CCE session data did not reveal any group differences. Although there was no evidence of treatment effects on cocaine use during follow-up, this study was insufficiently powered to rigorously evaluate differential cocaine use. This double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study provides the first evidence that propranolol administration following CCE may modulate memories for learning processes that subserve cocaine craving/cue reactivity in CD humans. Alternative interpretations of the findings were considered, and implications of the results for treatment were noted.

  11. Effect of High-Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Craving in Substance Use Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Hota, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a noninvasive, neuromodulatory tool, has been used to reduce craving in different substance use disorders. There are some studies that have reported conflicting and inconclusive results; therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of high-frequency rTMS on craving in substance use disorder and to investigate the reasons behind the inconsistency across the studies. The authors searched clinical trials from MEDLINE, Cochrane databases, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The PRISMA guidelines, as well as recommended meta-analysis practices, were followed in the selection process, analysis, and reporting of the findings. The effect estimate used was the standardized mean difference (Hedge's g), and heterogeneity across the considered studies was explored using subgroup analyses. The quality assessment was done using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and sensitivity analysis was performed to check the influences on effect size by statistical models. After screening and assessment of eligibility, finally 10 studies were included for meta-analysis, which includes six studies on alcohol and four studies on nicotine use disorder. The random-model analysis revealed a pooled effect size of 0.75 (95% CI=0.29 to 1.21, p=0.001), whereas the fixed-model analysis showed a large effect size of 0.87 (95% CI=0.63 to 1.12, peffect size of -0.06 (95% CI=-0.89 to 0.77, p=0.88). In the case of nicotine use disorder, random-model analysis revealed an effect size of 1.00 (95% CI=0.48 to 1.55, p=0.0001), whereas fixed-model analysis also showed a large effect size of 0.96 (95% CI=0.71 to 1.22). The present meta-analysis identified a beneficial effect of high-frequency rTMS on craving associated with nicotine use disorder but not alcohol use disorder.

  12. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, pbrain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  13. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  14. Blood cues induce antipredator behavior in Nile tilapia conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Egydio Barreto

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that the fish Nile tilapia displays an antipredator response to chemical cues present in the blood of conspecifics. This is the first report of alarm response induced by blood-borne chemical cues in fish. There is a body of evidence showing that chemical cues from epidermal 'club' cells elicit an alarm reaction in fish. However, the chemical cues of these 'club' cells are restricted to certain species of fish. Thus, as a parsimonious explanation, we assume that an alarm response to blood cues is a generalized response among animals because it occurs in mammals, birds and protostomian animals. Moreover, our results suggest that researchers must use caution when studying chemically induced alarm reactions because it is difficult to separate club cell cues from traces of blood.

  15. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  17. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Reappraisal deficits promote craving and emotional distress among chronic pain patients at risk for prescription opioid misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam W; Bedford, Carter E; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Howard, Matthew O; Nakamura, Yoshio; Donaldson, Gary W; Froeliger, Brett

    2018-06-04

    A subset of chronic pain patients misuse prescription opioids as a means of regulating negative emotions. However, opioid misuse may result in deficits in emotion regulation strategies like reappraisal by virtue of the deleterious effects of chronic opioid exposure. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in reappraisal use among chronic pain patients at risk for opioid misuse and those who report taking opioids as prescribed. A sample of 127 pain patients receiving chronic opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy were classified as at risk for opioid misuse (n = 62) or taking opioids as prescribed (n = 65) using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) characterized use of emotion regulation strategies including reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants also reported levels of opioid craving, emotional distress, and pain severity. Patients at risk for opioid misuse reported significantly less reappraisal use (M = 25.31, SD = 7.33) than those who reportedly took opioids as prescribed (M = 30.28, SD = 7.50), p<.001, but did differ with regard to suppression strategies. Reduced reappraisal use was associated with higher opioid craving and emotional distress that mediated the association between reappraisal deficits and opioid misuse risk. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of opioid misuse on emotional distress via reappraisal use. Opioid misuse risk was associated with reduced use of reappraisal, which in turn was associated with dysregulated negative emotions and increased appetitive drive towards consuming opioids. Studying individual differences in emotion regulation may yield efficacious intervention and prevention approaches to stem the rising tide of the prescription opioid crisis.

  19. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  20. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  2. Correlation of stable elevations in striatal mu-opioid receptor availability in detoxified alcoholic patients with alcohol craving: a positron emission tomography study using carbon 11-labeled carfentanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andreas; Reimold, Matthias; Wrase, Jana; Hermann, Derik; Croissant, Bernhard; Mundle, Götz; Dohmen, Bernhard M; Braus, Dieter F; Braus, Dieter H; Schumann, Gunter; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Bares, Roland; Mann, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The pleasant effects of food and alcohol intake are partially mediated by mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, a central area of the brain reward system. Blockade of mu-opiate receptors with naltrexone reduces the relapse risk among some but not all alcoholic individuals. To test the hypothesis that alcohol craving is pronounced among alcoholic individuals with a high availability of mu-opiate receptors in the brain reward system. Patients and comparison sample. The availability of central mu-opiate receptors was measured in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand carbon 11-labeled carfentanil in the ventral striatum and compared with the severity of alcohol craving as assessed by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Hospitalized care. Volunteer sample of 25 male alcohol-dependent inpatients assessed after detoxification of whom 12 underwent PET again 5 weeks later. Control group of 10 healthy men. After 1 to 3 weeks of abstinence, the availability of mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, was significantly elevated in alcoholic patients compared with healthy controls and remained elevated when 12 alcoholic patients had these levels measured 5 weeks later (P<.05 corrected for multiple testing). Higher availability of mu-opiate receptors in this brain area correlated significantly with the intensity of alcohol craving as assessed by the OCDS. Abstinent alcoholic patients displayed an increase in mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, which correlated with the severity of alcohol craving. These findings point to a neuronal correlate of alcohol urges.

  3. O uso da técnica cognitiva substituição por imagem positiva no manejo do craving em dependentes de crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Pezzini dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo O estudo visa avaliar a técnica cognitiva substituição por imagem positiva (SIP no manejo do craving em dependentes de crack. Métodos Ensaio clínico do tipo quase-experimental de análise quantitativa. Amostra por conveniência, composta por 34 homens dependentes de cocaína/crack. Tinham o crack como a droga de escolha, haviam utilizado essa substância pela última vez entre 10 e 20 dias antes do início do tratamento. Os instrumentos aplicados foram: Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief (CCQB, Escala Analógica Visual (EAV para avaliar o craving e o quanto a técnica ajudou e uma ficha com dados sociodemográficos (FSD. Foram realizadas intervenções individuais. Inicialmente, foram aplicados o CCQB, a EAV e a FSD. Depois, os pacientes foram expostos a objetos relacionados ao uso do crack e foram reaplicados os instrumentos CCQB e EAV para mensuração da fissura. A seguir, foi realizada a técnica cognitiva substituição por imagem positiva e foram aplicados, pela terceira vez, o CCQB e a EAV. Resultados Os resultados desta pesquisa demonstraram uma redução dos escores do CCQB e da EAV pela técnica cognitiva SIP em uma amostra cujo perfil corresponde ao padrão geral dos usuários de crack. Conclusão Este estudo, apesar de algumas limitações metodológicas, sugere que a técnica cognitiva substituição por imagem positiva pode ser uma estratégia efetiva no manejo do craving em dependentes de crack.

  4. The CRF1 Antagonist Verucerfont in Anxious Alcohol-Dependent Women: Translation of Neuroendocrine, But not of Anti-Craving Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Melanie L; Cortes, Carlos R; Kwako, Laura E; George, David T; Momenan, Reza; Sinha, Rajita; Grigoriadis, Dimitri E; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Leggio, Lorenzo; Heilig, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) suppresses stress-induced alcohol seeking in rodents, but clinical translation remains. Here, we first showed that the CRF1 antagonist verucerfont potently blocks hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activation in adrenalectomized rats. We then evaluated verucerfont for its ability to block HPA axis activation and reduce stress-induced alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent patients. Anxious, alcohol-dependent women (age 21–65 years, n=39) were admitted to the NIH Clinical Center and completed withdrawal treatment before enrollment if needed. One-week single-blind placebo was followed by randomized double-blind verucerfont (350 mg per day) or placebo for 3 weeks. Verucerfont effects on the HPA axis were evaluated using the dexamethasone-CRF test. Craving was evaluated using two established protocols, one that combines a social stressor with physical alcohol cue exposure, and one that uses guided imagery to present personalized stress, alcohol, or neutral stimuli. An fMRI session examined brain responses to negative affective stimuli and alcohol cues. In contrast to our recent observations with another CRF1 antagonist, pexacerfont, verucerfont potently blocked the HPA axis response to the dexamethasone-CRF test, but left alcohol craving unaffected. Right amygdala responses to negative affective stimuli were significantly attenuated by verucerfont, but responses to alcohol-associated stimuli were increased in some brain regions, including left insula. Discontinuation rates were significantly higher in the verucerfont group. Our findings provide the first translational evidence that CRF1 antagonists with slow receptor dissociation kinetics may have increased efficacy to dampen HPA axis responses. The findings do not support a clinical efficacy of CRF1 blockade in stress-induced alcohol craving and relapse. PMID:27109623

  5. Therapeutic mechanisms of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for internet gaming disorder: Reducing craving and addictive behavior by targeting cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2018-03-22

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by signs and symptoms similar to substance use and gambling disorders, and associated with psychosocial impairments. Research suggests that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions and coping may be implicated in IGD; therefore, interventions for IGD need to target these underlying mechanisms. Mindfulness-based treatment is effective in changing maladaptive cognitive processes and increasing adaptive coping among people with addictions. This study used data from an RCT of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) for IGD to further examine changes in maladaptive gaming-related cognitions and positive reappraisal as mediators of the effects of MORE on IGD signs/symptoms. Participants (N = 30, Age M = 25.0, SD  = 5.4) were randomized to 8-weekly sessions of MORE or a support group (SG) control condition. IGD severity, levels of craving for video game playing, maladaptive gaming-related cognitions, and positive reappraisal were measured at pre-and posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Multivariate path analyses revealed that effects of MORE in reducing IGD and craving were statistically mediated by changes in maladaptive gaming-related cognitions. Though changes in positive reappraisal did not significantly mediate effects of MORE on IGD or craving, MORE enhanced positive reappraisal to a significantly greater extent than the SG at posttreatment. Findings suggest that effects of mindfulness treatment in reducing maladaptive gaming-related cognitions might lead to reductions in IGD severity and cravings for video game playing. This cognitive mechanism should be evaluated in a future, full-scale RCT.

  6. Effects of Perceived Sugar on Chocolate Intake on Self-Reported Food Cravings, Mood States, and Food Intake: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Lara J.

    1999-01-01

    Many dieters and compulsive overeaters report that sugar and chocolate are the most commonly craved foods. Further, many individuals have proclaimed themselves to be "addicted" to sugar or chocolate. It remains unclear, however, what factors lead to report of specific food addictions. A number of researchers have suggested that highly repetitive consumption of sugar and chocolate may result from various physiological processes (e.g., neurochemical imbalances, glucose/insulin malfunctioning). ...

  7. The effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention on the prevention of relapse, craving and self-control in opiate-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    alireza maredpour; Mahmmod Najafy; Farangiss amiri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention on the prevention of relapse, craving and self-control in opiate-dependent individuals in Yasuj. Methodology: This quasi-experimental study applied pretest - posttest and a control group. The sample included 30 male patients with drug addiction in Yasuj who were chosen from addiction clinics based on criterion sampling. To collect the required data the short form of Self-Co...

  8. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  9. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  10. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  11. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  12. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  13. Relations Between Cognitive Functioning and Alcohol Use, Craving, and Post-Traumatic Stress: An Examination Among Trauma-Exposed Military Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Pennington, David L; Cohen, Nicole; Schmeling, Brandi; Lasher, Brooke A; Schrodek, Emily; Batki, Steven L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and trauma exposure and is, in turn, associated with worse clinical outcomes. Accordingly, disruptions in cognitive functioning may be conceptualized as a trans-disease phenomenon representing a potential high-yield target for intervention. Less is known though about how different cognitive functions covary with alcohol use, craving, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity among trauma-exposed individuals with AUD. Sixty-eight male and female trauma-exposed military veterans with AUD, entering treatment trials to reduce alcohol use, completed measures assessing alcohol use and craving, post-traumatic stress symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. In multivariate models, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptom severity, poorer learning and memory was associated with higher alcohol consumption and higher risk taking/impulsivity was associated with stronger preoccupations with alcohol and compulsions to drink. Alcohol consumption and craving, but not performance on cognitive tests, were positively associated with post-traumatic stress symptom severity. Findings suggest that interventions to strengthen cognitive functioning might be used as a preparatory step to augment treatments for AUD. Clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of cognitive functioning, in addition to post-traumatic stress symptom severity, in treatment planning and delivery for this vulnerable and high-risk population. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Probing smoking craving with a multidimensional approach: validation of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dethier V

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Dethier,1 Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Laurence Galanti,3 Pierre Philippot,1 Joël Billieux1 1Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Science Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Clinical Biology, Mont-Godinne University Hospital, Yvoir, Belgium Background: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the 12-item French-language version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-12, a widely used multidimensional measure of cigarette craving. Methods: Daily smokers (n=230 completed the QSU-12, the Fägerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and items about addiction-related symptoms. Additional participants (n=40 completed the QSU-12 and the Fägerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and were assessed for expired carbon monoxide. Results: Consistent with studies validating the English version of the scale, confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor solution in the French version of the scale. Good scale and subscales reliabilities were observed, and convergent validity was evidenced through relationships with dependence and addiction-related symptoms. Conclusion: The French-language version of the QSU-12 is an adequate instrument to assess the multidimensional construct of craving in both research and clinical practice. Keywords: tobacco, smoking, nicotine, craving, measurement model, psychometrics, confirmatory factor analyses, carbon monoxide, addiction

  15. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  16. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  17. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  18. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  19. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  20. Cue-elicited craving in heroin addicts at different abstinent time: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Following short-term abstinence, greater activation was found in response to heroin cues compared to neutral cues in bilateral temporal, occipital, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, thalamus, cerebellum, and left hippocampus. In contrast, activations in bilateral temporal and occipital and deactivations in bilateral frontal, bilateral parietal, left posterior cingulate, insula, thalamus, dorsal striatum, and bilateral cerebellum were observed following long-term abstinence. Direct comparisons between conditions showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following short-term abstinence. In addition, short-term abstinence had more serious withdrawal symptoms than the long-term. The present findings indicate that compared to short-term, long-term abstinence manifests less serious withdrawal symptoms and significantly decreases neural responses to heroin-related cues in brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, memory, and action planning. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence can decrease the salience of conditioned cues, thereby reducing the risk of relapses. The study's limitations are noted.

  1. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  2. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  4. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  5. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  6. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  7. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  8. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  9. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  10. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  11. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  12. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  13. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  14. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  15. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  16. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  17. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  18. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  19. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  20. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  1. CranialVault and its CRAVE tools: a clinical computer assistance system for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Pierre-François; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Li, Rui; Remple, Michael S; Kao, Chris; Neimat, Joseph S; Konrad, Peter E; Dawant, Benoit M

    2012-04-01

    A number of methods have been developed to assist surgeons at various stages of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. These include construction of anatomical atlases, functional databases, and electrophysiological atlases and maps. But, a complete system that can be integrated into the clinical workflow has not been developed. In this paper we present a system designed to assist physicians in pre-operative target planning, intra-operative target refinement and implantation, and post-operative DBS lead programming. The purpose of this system is to centralize the data acquired a the various stages of the procedure, reduce the amount of time needed at each stage of the therapy, and maximize the efficiency of the entire process. The system consists of a central repository (CranialVault), of a suite of software modules called CRAnialVault Explorer (CRAVE) that permit data entry and data visualization at each stage of the therapy, and of a series of algorithms that permit the automatic processing of the data. The central repository contains image data for more than 400 patients with the related pre-operative plans and position of the final implants and about 10,550 electrophysiological data points (micro-electrode recordings or responses to stimulations) recorded from 222 of these patients. The system has reached the stage of a clinical prototype that is being evaluated clinically at our institution. A preliminary quantitative validation of the planning component of the system performed on 80 patients who underwent the procedure between January 2009 and December 2009 shows that the system provides both timely and valuable information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unified force and its relation with global warming crave for hydrogen energy and promote fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.J.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is presently a tremendous public interest and has become a threat to every individual. Huge quantities of CO/sub 2/ are emitted to the atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity in power plants and burning of gasoline in aeroplanes and vehicles. Enormous amount of greenhouse gasses are sent into the air when garbage is burnt in landfills. Cutting down of trees and other plants which collect CO/sub 2/ a greenhouse gas which is inhaled and which gives back oxygen which is exhaled makes global warming worse. 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is also known as Unified Force is also related with global warming which is proportional to increase of H/sub 2/O level in sea and causes floods, storms, droughts and severe impacts to the environment and society. In order to better understand global warming and its relation with Unified Force, this paper discusses the cause and effect system on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels and also the other green house gases like CH/sub 4/, water vapour, NOx etc. and emphasis its importance to focus on crave for Hydrogen Energy and to promote Fuel Cell technology to keep the earth green and safer from the impacts of global warming. The benefit of switching from fossil fuels to Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell technology reduces the impact of global warming, elimination of pollution caused by fossil fuels and greenhouse gases, economic dependence and distributed production. (author)

  3. Craving Responses to Methamphetamine and Sexual Visual Cues in Individuals With Methamphetamine Use Disorder After Long-Term Drug Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI cue-reactivity paradigms have demonstrated that short-term abstinent or current methamphetamine (MA users have increased brain activity in the ventral striatum, caudate nucleus and medial frontal cortex, when exposed to MA-related visual cues. However, patterns of brain activity following cue-reactivity in subjects with long-term MA abstinence, especially long-term compulsory drug rehabilitation, have not been well studied. To enrich knowledge in this field, functional brain imaging was conducted during a cue-reactivity paradigm task in 28 individuals with MA use disorder following long-term compulsory drug rehabilitation, and 27 healthy control subjects. The results showed that, when compared with controls, individuals with MA use disorder displayed elevated activity in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and right lateral posterior cingulate cortex in response to MA-related images. Additionally, the anterior cingulate region of mPFC activation during the MA-related cue-reactivity paradigm was positively correlated with craving alterations and previous frequency of drug use. No significant differences in brain activity in response to pornographic images were found between the two groups. Compared to MA cues, individuals with MA use disorder had increased activation in the occipital lobe when exposed to pornographic cues. In conclusion, the present study indicates that, even after long-term drug rehabilitation, individuals with MA use disorder have unique brain activity when exposed to MA-related cues. Additionally, our results illustrate that the libido brain response might be restored, and that sexual demand might be more robust than drug demand, in individuals with MA use disorder following long-term drug rehabilitation.

  4. Craving Responses to Methamphetamine and Sexual Visual Cues in Individuals With Methamphetamine Use Disorder After Long-Term Drug Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shucai; Zhang, Zhixue; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changcun; Yang, Cheng; Fan, Lidan; Liu, Jun; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2018-01-01

    Studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cue-reactivity paradigms have demonstrated that short-term abstinent or current methamphetamine (MA) users have increased brain activity in the ventral striatum, caudate nucleus and medial frontal cortex, when exposed to MA-related visual cues. However, patterns of brain activity following cue-reactivity in subjects with long-term MA abstinence, especially long-term compulsory drug rehabilitation, have not been well studied. To enrich knowledge in this field, functional brain imaging was conducted during a cue-reactivity paradigm task in 28 individuals with MA use disorder following long-term compulsory drug rehabilitation, and 27 healthy control subjects. The results showed that, when compared with controls, individuals with MA use disorder displayed elevated activity in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right lateral posterior cingulate cortex in response to MA-related images. Additionally, the anterior cingulate region of mPFC activation during the MA-related cue-reactivity paradigm was positively correlated with craving alterations and previous frequency of drug use. No significant differences in brain activity in response to pornographic images were found between the two groups. Compared to MA cues, individuals with MA use disorder had increased activation in the occipital lobe when exposed to pornographic cues. In conclusion, the present study indicates that, even after long-term drug rehabilitation, individuals with MA use disorder have unique brain activity when exposed to MA-related cues. Additionally, our results illustrate that the libido brain response might be restored, and that sexual demand might be more robust than drug demand, in individuals with MA use disorder following long-term drug rehabilitation.

  5. From lab to clinic: Extinction of cued cravings to reduce overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita; Schyns, Ghislaine; Bongers, Peggy; van den Akker, Karolien

    2016-08-01

    Food cue reactivity is a strong motivation to eat, even in the absence of hunger. Therefore, food cue reactivity might sabotage healthy eating, induce weight gain and impede weight loss or weight maintenance. Food cue reactivity can be learned via Pavlovian appetitive conditioning: It is easily acquired but the extinction of appetitive responding seems to be more challenging. Several properties of extinction make it fragile: extinction does not erase the original learning and extinction is context-dependent. These properties threaten full extinction and increase the risk of full relapse. Extinction procedures are discussed to reduce or prevent the occurrence of rapid reacquisition, spontaneous recovery, renewal and reinstatement after extinction. A translation to food cue exposure treatment is made and suggestions are provided, such as conducting the exposure in relevant contexts, using occasional reinforcement and targeting expectancy violation instead of habituation. A new hypothesis proposed here is that the adding of inhibition training to strengthen inhibition skills that reduce instrumental responding, might be beneficial to improve food cue exposure effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  7. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  8. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  9. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly se