WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong constitutive promoter

  1. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and eno (encoding enolase genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter, approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters.

  2. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul A Khan

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV, belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells.

  3. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  4. High level constitutive expression of luciferase reporter by lsd90 promoter in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Verma

    Full Text Available Because of a large number of molecular similarities with higher eukaryotes, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been considered a potentially ideal host for expressing human proteins having therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. However, efforts in this direction are hampered by lack of a strong promoter. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a strong, constitutive promoter from S. pombe. A new expression vector was constructed by cloning the putative promoter region of the lsd90 gene (earlier reported to be strongly induced by heat stress into a previously reported high copy number vector pJH5, which contained an ARS element corresponding to the mat2P flanking region and a truncated URA3m selectable marker. The resulting vector was used to study and compare the level of expression of the luciferase reporter with that achieved with the known vectors containing regulatable promoter nmt1 and the strong constitutive promoter adh1 in S. pombe and the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter in Pichia pastoris. Following growth in standard media the new vector containing the putative lsd90 promoter provided constitutive expression of luciferase, at a level, which was 19-, 39- and 10-fold higher than that achieved with nmt1, adh1 and AOX1 promoters, respectively. These results indicate a great potential of the new lsd90 promoter-based vector for commercial scale expression of therapeutic proteins in S. pombe.

  5. Using international human rights law to promote constitutional rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parliaments are guardians of human rights due to their role of representing the people in the management of public affairs. The activities of parliaments cover the entire spectrum of human rights and have an immediate impact on the enjoyment, protection andpromotion of rights. In South Africa, the Constitution requires ...

  6. Identification, isolation and evaluation of a constitutive sucrose phosphate synthase gene promoter from tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.Z.; Mubeen, H.; Maqsood, A.; Khatoon, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is one of the abundantly expressed genes in plants. The promoters of SPS gene was identified, analyzed and retrieved from high throughput genomic sequence (HTGS) database. The cis-acting regulatory elements and transcription start sites of promoter were identified through different bioinformatics tools. The SPS promoter was isolated from Solanum lycopersicum and was initially cloned in TA vector (pTZ57R/T). Later on this promoter was transferred to a plant expression binary vector, pGR1 (pGRSPS) that was used for the transient GUS expression studies in various tissues of Nicotiana tabacum. SPS promoter was also cloned in plant stable expression vector pGA482 (pGASPS) and was transformed in Nicotiana tabacum through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The histochemical GUS expression analysis of both transient and stable transgenic plants for this promoter indicated its functional importance in regulating gene expression in a constitutive manner. It was concluded that SPS promoter is constitutively expressed with a strength equivalent to CaMV 2X35S promoter. The promoter isolated through these studies may be effectively substituted in plant genetic engineering with other constitutive promoter for transgene expression in economically important agricultural crops. (author)

  7. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters......Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... concentrations of neomycin (20, 50, and 100 μg ml−1). Promoter strengths varied up to 12-fold, in small increments of activity increase, as determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR. This collection of promoters of various strengths can be useful for the fine-tuning of gene expression in genetic engineering...

  8. A Novel Moderate Constitutive Promoter Derived from Poplar (Populus tomentosa Carrière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min An

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel sequence that functions as a promoter element for moderate constitutive expression of transgenes, designated as the PtMCP promoter, was isolated from the woody perennial Populus tomentosa. The PtMCP promoter was fused to the GUS reporter gene to characterize its expression pattern in different species. In stable Arabidopsis transformants, transcripts of the GUS reporter gene could be detected by RT-PCR in the root, stem, leaf, flower and silique. Further histochemical and fluorometric GUS activity assays demonstrated that the promoter could direct transgene expression in all tissues and organs, including roots, stems, rosette leaves, cauline leaves and flowers of seedlings and maturing plants. Its constitutive expression pattern was similar to that of the CaMV35S promoter, but the level of GUS activity was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. We also characterized the promoter through transient expression in transgenic tobacco and observed similar expression patterns. Histochemical GUS staining and quantitative analysis detected GUS activity in all tissues and organs of tobacco, including roots, stems, leaves, flower buds and flowers, but GUS activity in PtMCP promoter::GUS plants was significantly lower than in CaMV35S promoter::GUS plants. Our results suggested that the PtMCP promoter from poplar is a constitutive promoter with moderate activity and that its function is presumably conserved in different species. Therefore, the PtMCP promoter may provide a practical choice to direct moderate level constitutive expression of transgenes and could be a valuable new tool in plant genetic engineering.

  9. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  10. Isolation of a strong Arabidopsis guard cell promoter and its potential as a research tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel Robert S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common limitation in guard cell signaling research is that it is difficult to obtain consistent high expression of transgenes of interest in Arabidopsis guard cells using known guard cell promoters or the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. An additional drawback of the 35S promoter is that ectopically expressing a gene throughout the organism could cause pleiotropic effects. To improve available methods for targeted gene expression in guard cells, we isolated strong guard cell promoter candidates based on new guard cell-specific microarray analyses of 23,000 genes that are made available together with this report. Results A promoter, pGC1(At1g22690, drove strong and relatively specific reporter gene expression in guard cells including GUS (beta-glucuronidase and yellow cameleon YC3.60 (GFP-based calcium FRET reporter. Reporter gene expression was weaker in immature guard cells. The expression of YC3.60 was sufficiently strong to image intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in guard cells of intact plants and resolved spontaneous calcium transients in guard cells. The GC1 promoter also mediated strong reporter expression in clustered stomata in the stomatal development mutant too-many-mouths (tmm. Furthermore, the same promoter::reporter constructs also drove guard cell specific reporter expression in tobacco, illustrating the potential of this promoter as a method for high level expression in guard cells. A serial deletion of the promoter defined a guard cell expression promoter region. In addition, anti-sense repression using pGC1 was powerful for reducing specific GFP gene expression in guard cells while expression in leaf epidermal cells was not repressed, demonstrating strong cell-type preferential gene repression. Conclusion The pGC1 promoter described here drives strong reporter expression in guard cells of Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. It provides a potent research tool for targeted guard cell expression or

  11. Identification of functional DNA variants in the constitutive promoter region of MDM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Marie-Eve

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although mutations in the oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2 are rare, MDM2 gene overexpression has been observed in several human tumors. Given that even modest changes in MDM2 levels might influence the p53 tumor suppressor signaling pathway, we postulated that sequence variation in the promoter region of MDM2 could lead to disregulated expression and variation in gene dosage. Two promoters have been reported for MDM2; an internal promoter (P2, which is located near the end of intron 1 and is p53-responsive, and an upstream constitutive promoter (P1, which is p53-independent. Both promoter regions contain DNA variants that could influence the expression levels of MDM2, including the well-studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP SNP309, which is located in the promoter P2; i.e., upstream of exon 2. In this report, we screened the promoter P1 for DNA variants and assessed the functional impact of the corresponding SNPs. Using the dbSNP database and genotyping validation in individuals of European descent, we identified three common SNPs (−1494 G > A; indel 40 bp; and −182 C > G. Three major promoter haplotypes were inferred by using these three promoter SNPs together with rs2279744 (SNP309. Following subcloning into a gene reporter system, we found that two of the haplotypes significantly influenced MDM2 promoter activity in a haplotype-specific manner. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the 40 bp insertion/deletion variation is causing the observed allelic promoter activity. This study suggests that part of the variability in the MDM2 expression levels could be explained by allelic p53-independent P1 promoter activity.

  12. The whole set of constitutive promoters recognized by RNA polymerase RpoD holoenzyme of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Shimada

    Full Text Available The promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is determined by the sigma subunit with promoter recognition activity. The model prokaryote Escherichia coli contains seven species of the sigma subunit, each recognizing a specific set of promoters. The major sigma subunit, sigma-70 encoded by rpoD, plays a major role in transcription of growth-related genes. Concomitant with the increase in detection of promoters functioning in vivo under various stressful conditions, the variation is expanding in the consensus sequence of RpoD promoters. In order to identify the canonical sequence of "constitutive promoters" that are recognized by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma in the absence of supporting transcription factors, an in vitro mixed transcription assay was carried out using a whole set of variant promoters, each harboring one base replacement, within the model promoter with the conserved -35 and -10 sequences of RpoD promoters. The consensus sequences, TTGACA(-35 and TATAAT(-10, were identified to be ideal for the maximum level of open complex formation and the highest rate of promoter opening, respectively. For identification of the full range of constitutive promoters on the E. coli genome, a total of 2,701 RpoD holoenzyme-binding sites were identified by Genomic SELEX screening, and using the reconfirmed consensus promoter sequence, a total of maximum 669 constitutive promoters were identified, implying that the majority of hitherto identified promoters represents the TF-dependent "inducible promoters". One unique feature of the constitutive promoters is the high level of promoter sequence conservation, about 85% carrying five-out-of-six agreements with -35 or -10 consensus sequence. The list of constitutive promoters provides the community resource toward estimation of the inducible promoters that operate under various stressful conditions in nature.

  13. Determination and optimization of a strong promoter element from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using a promoter probe vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuling; Wang, Bin; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2018-01-01

    To construct a promoter probe vector, pBE-bgaB, to screen strong promoters from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. 266 colonies containing active promoter elements from the genomic DNA of B. amyloliquefaciens were identified. Among these, promoter P41 exhibited the strongest β-Gal activity in Escherichia coli and B. amyloliquefaciens. Sequence analysis showed that promoter P41 contained P ykuN , a ykuN gene encoding flavodoxin. Optimization of the ribosome-binding site from P41 to P 382 improved β-Gal activity by ~ 200%. A new strong promoter for protein expression and genetic engineering of Bacillus species.

  14. Integrating ribosomal promoter vectors that offer a choice of constitutive expression profiles in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Radika; Tran, Khoa D; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A

    2015-12-01

    We have designed a novel series of integrating ribosomal RNA promoter vectors with five incrementally different constitutive expression profiles, covering a 250-fold range. Differential expression was achieved by placing different combinations of synthetic or leishmanial DNA sequences upstream and downstream of the transgene coding sequence in order to modulate pre-mRNA processing efficiency and mRNA stability, respectively. All of the vectors have extensive multiple cloning sites, and versions are available for producing N- or C- terminal GFP fusions at each of the possible relative expression levels. In addition, the modular configuration of the vectors allows drug resistance cassettes and other components to be readily exchanged. In toto, these vectors should be useful additions to the toolkit available for molecular and genetic studies of Leishmania donovani. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Public health promotion of "local food": Constituting the self-governing citizen-consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkatch, Colleen; Spoel, Philippa

    2017-03-01

    This article explores how the recent and growing promotion of local foods by public health units in Ontario, Canada, rhetorically interpellates the "good" health citizen as someone who not only takes responsibility for personal health but, through the consumption and support of "local food," also accepts and fulfills her responsibilities to care for the local economy, the community's well-being, and the natural environment. Drawing on Charland's concept of constitutive rhetoric, we analyze a selection of public health unit documents about local food to develop a textured account of the complex, multifaceted forms of health citizenship they constitute. Our analysis reveals that, despite their appeals to environmental sustainability and community well-being, these materials primarily characterize the ideal health citizen as an informed consumer who supports the interests of the neoliberal state through individualized lifestyle behaviors, consuming goods produced and distributed through private enterprise. By exhorting individuals to "buy local," public health discourse therefore frames responsible health citizenship principally in consumerist terms that constrain the range of available options for citizens to engage in meaningful action vis-à-vis their food systems.

  16. Combining Constitutively Active Rheb Expression and Chondroitinase Promotes Functional Axonal Regeneration after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Connors, Theresa; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J

    2017-12-06

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), severed axons in the adult mammalian CNS are unable to mount a robust regenerative response. In addition, the glial scar at the lesion site further restricts the regenerative potential of axons. We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach coincidentally targeting these obstacles would promote axonal regeneration. We combined (1) transplantation of a growth-permissive peripheral nerve graft (PNG) into an incomplete, cervical lesion cavity; (2) transduction of neurons rostral to the SCI site to express constitutively active Rheb (caRheb; a Ras homolog enriched in brain), a GTPase that directly activates the growth-promoting pathway mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) via AAV-caRheb injection; and (3) digestion of growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans within the glial scar at the distal PNG interface using the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). We found that expressing caRheb in neurons post-SCI results in modestly yet significantly more axons regenerating across a ChABC-treated distal graft interface into caudal spinal cord than either treatment alone. Excitingly, we found that caRheb+ChABC treatment significantly potentiates the formation of synapses in the host spinal cord and improves the animals' ability to use the affected forelimb. Thus, this combination strategy enhances functional axonal regeneration following a cervical SCI. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Triad pattern algorithm for predicting strong promoter candidates in bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakanyan Vehary

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial promoters, which increase the efficiency of gene expression, differ from other promoters by several characteristics. This difference, not yet widely exploited in bioinformatics, looks promising for the development of relevant computational tools to search for strong promoters in bacterial genomes. Results We describe a new triad pattern algorithm that predicts strong promoter candidates in annotated bacterial genomes by matching specific patterns for the group I σ70 factors of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. It detects promoter-specific motifs by consecutively matching three patterns, consisting of an UP-element, required for interaction with the α subunit, and then optimally-separated patterns of -35 and -10 boxes, required for interaction with the σ70 subunit of RNA polymerase. Analysis of 43 bacterial genomes revealed that the frequency of candidate sequences depends on the A+T content of the DNA under examination. The accuracy of in silico prediction was experimentally validated for the genome of a hyperthermophilic bacterium, Thermotoga maritima, by applying a cell-free expression assay using the predicted strong promoters. In this organism, the strong promoters govern genes for translation, energy metabolism, transport, cell movement, and other as-yet unidentified functions. Conclusion The triad pattern algorithm developed for predicting strong bacterial promoters is well suited for analyzing bacterial genomes with an A+T content of less than 62%. This computational tool opens new prospects for investigating global gene expression, and individual strong promoters in bacteria of medical and/or economic significance.

  18. Anomalous constitutive Src kinase activity promotes B lymphoma survival and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Darrell A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have shown that B cell receptor (BCR expression and B cell receptor signaling pathways are important for the basal growth of B lymphoma cells. In particular we have shown that the activation of Syk, a non-src family protein tyrosine kinase and the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK, ERK and JNK that mediate BCR signals are required for the constitutive growth of B lymphoma cells. Since src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs like Lyn are known to be needed for the phosphorylation of BCR co-receptors, Ig-α and Ig-β, we hypothesized that one or more SFKs will be constitutively activated in B lymphoma cells and may be necessary for B lymphoma growth. Results Src kinase activity was found to be constitutively high in many murine and human B lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma samples. The specific pharmacological inhibitors of SFKs, PP1 and PP2 inhibited the proliferation of a number of both murine and human B lymphomas in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, dasatinib (BMS-354825, an oral dual BCR-ABL and SFK specific inhibitor inhibited the growth of B lymphomas in the nanomolar range in vitro and strongly inhibited a mouse lymphoma growth in vivo. Among the SFKs, Lyn is predominantly phosphorylated and Lyn-specific small interfering RNA inhibited the growth of B lymphomas, supporting an important role for Lyn in B lymphoma growth. Suppression of SFK activity blocks BCR mediated signaling pathways. PMA or CpG can partially reverse the growth inhibition induced by SFK inhibition. Although blocking SFK activity inhibited the growth of a number of B lymphomas, some lymphomas such as SudHL-4, SudHL-6, OCI-Ly3 and OCI-Ly10 are more resistant due to an increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Conclusions These studies further support our concept that BCR signaling pathways are important for the continued growth of established B lymphoma cells. Some of the intermediates in this

  19. Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Genetically transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines have biotechnological applications as constitutive recombinant protein production platforms and improved hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant protein production. Insect cell transformation is often accomplished with a DNA construct(s) encoding a foreign protein(s) under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter, such as the ie1 promoter. However, the potential utility of increasingly stronger promoters from later baculovirus gene classes, such as delayed early (39K), late (p6.9), and very late (polh), has not been systematically assessed. Hence, we produced DNA constructs encoding secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the transcriptional control of each of the four temporally distinct classes of baculovirus promoters, used them to transform insect cells, and compared the levels of SEAP RNA and protein production obtained before and after baculovirus infection. The ie1 construct was the only one that supported SEAP protein production by transformed insect cells prior to baculovirus infection, confirming that only immediate early promoters can be used to isolate transformed insect cells for constitutive recombinant protein production. However, baculovirus infection activated transgene expression by all four classes of baculovirus promoters. After infection, cells transformed with the very late (polh) and late (p6.9) promoter constructs produced the highest levels of SEAP RNA, but only low levels of SEAP protein. Conversely, cells transformed with the immediate early (ie1) and delayed early (39K) promoter constructs produced lower levels of RNA, but equal or higher levels of SEAP protein. Unexpectedly, the 39K promoter construct provided tightly regulated, baculovirus-inducible protein production at higher levels than the later promoter constructs. Thus, this study demonstrated the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell engineering, particularly when one requires higher

  20. Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Jarvis, Donald L

    2013-05-10

    Genetically transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines have biotechnological applications as constitutive recombinant protein production platforms and improved hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant protein production. Insect cell transformation is often accomplished with a DNA construct(s) encoding a foreign protein(s) under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter, such as the ie1 promoter. However, the potential utility of increasingly stronger promoters from later baculovirus gene classes, such as delayed early (39K), late (p6.9), and very late (polh), has not been systematically assessed. Hence, we produced DNA constructs encoding secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the transcriptional control of each of the four temporally distinct classes of baculovirus promoters, used them to transform insect cells, and compared the levels of SEAP RNA and protein production obtained before and after baculovirus infection. The ie1 construct was the only one that supported SEAP protein production by transformed insect cells prior to baculovirus infection, confirming that only immediate early promoters can be used to isolate transformed insect cells for constitutive recombinant protein production. However, baculovirus infection activated transgene expression by all four classes of baculovirus promoters. After infection, cells transformed with the very late (polh) and late (p6.9) promoter constructs produced the highest levels of SEAP RNA, but only low levels of SEAP protein. Conversely, cells transformed with the immediate early (ie1) and delayed early (39K) promoter constructs produced lower levels of RNA, but equal or higher levels of SEAP protein. Unexpectedly, the 39K promoter construct provided tightly regulated, baculovirus-inducible protein production at higher levels than the later promoter constructs. Thus, this study demonstrated the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell engineering, particularly when one requires higher

  1. A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

    2003-08-01

    Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species.

  2. Identification of a type 1 diabetes-associated CD4 promoter haplotype with high constitutive activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, O P; Karlsen, A E; Larsen, Z M

    2004-01-01

    promoter activity and (2) the CD4-181G variant encodes higher stimulated promoter activity than the CD4-181C variant. This difference is in part neutralized in the frequently occurring CD4 promoter haplotypes by the more upstream genetic variants. Thus, we report functional impact of a novel CD4-181C/G SNP...

  3. Identification of strong promoters based on the transcriptome of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Haiyan; Zheng, Junwei; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2017-06-01

    To expand the repertoire of strong promoters for high level expression of proteins based on the transcriptome of Bacillus licheniformis. The transcriptome of B. licheniformis ATCC14580 grown to the early stationary phase was analyzed and the top 10 highly expressed genes/operons out of the 3959 genes and 1249 operons identified were chosen for study promoter activity. Using beta-galactosidase gene as a reporter, the candidate promoter pBL9 exhibited the strongest activity which was comparable to that of the widely used strong promoter p43. Furthermore, the pro-transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (pro-MTG) was expressed under the control of promoter pBL9 and the activity of pro-MTG reached 82 U/ml after 36 h, which is 23% higher than that of promoter p43 (66.8 U/ml). In our analyses of the transcriptome of B. licheniformis, we have identified a strong promoter pBL9, which could be adapted for high level expression of proteins in the host Bacillus subtilis.

  4. Anomalous constitutive Src kinase activity promotes B lymphoma survival and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Jiyuan; Chelvarajan, R Lakshman; Sindhava, Vishal; Robertson, Darrell A; Lekakis, Lazaros; Jennings, C Darrell; Bondada, Subbarao

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previously we have shown that B cell receptor (BCR) expression and B cell receptor signaling pathways are important for the basal growth of B lymphoma cells. In particular we have shown that the activation of Syk, a non-src family protein tyrosine kinase and the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), ERK and JNK that mediate BCR signals are required for the constitutive growth of B lymphoma cells. Since src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) like Lyn are known to be...

  5. The ban on "off-label" pharmaceutical promotion: constitutionally permissible prophylaxis against false or misleading commercial speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Critics of the Food & Drug Administration's ban on off-label promotion often claim that it violates the First Amendment because it suppresses pharmaceutical manufacturers' truthful speech about their legal--and beneficial--products. Characterizing the ban on off-label promotion in this way has more than rhetorical significance. Bans on truthful, non-misleading speech elicit special skepticism because of the belief that they "usually rest solely on the offensive assumption that the public will respond 'irrationally' to the truth." The legislative history of the provisions of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that underlie the ban on off-label promotion, however, reveals that Congress was concerned that physicians were responding rationally to false and misleading promotional claims. In this Article, I explore the doctrinal questions raised by conceiving of the ban on off-label promotion not as a ban on "truthful speech to physicians" but instead as a prophylaxis against false and misleading pharmaceutical promotion. I review the evidence that false and misleading claims were commonplace before the ban's adoption and persist today, along with the enforcement challenges the FDA confronted at that time and would confront were the ban lifted, and conclude the government likely could develop the factual record necessary to establish that Congress' rejection of an after-the-fact case-by-case approach to combating false and misleading prescription drug promotion is constitutional.

  6. HIV-1 clade promoters strongly influence spatial and temporal dynamics of viral replication in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centlivre, Mireille; Sommer, Peter; Michel, Marie; Ho Tsong Fang, Raphaël; Gofflo, Sandrine; Valladeau, Jenny; Schmitt, Nathalie; Thierry, Françoise; Hurtrel, Bruno; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Sala, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Although the primary determinant of cell tropism is the interaction of viral envelope or capsid proteins with cellular receptors, other viral elements can strongly modulate viral replication. While the HIV-1 promoter is polymorphic for a variety of transcription factor binding sites, the impact of

  7. Regulation of the mouse Treacher Collins syndrome homolog (Tcof1) promoter through differential repression of constitutive expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shows, Kathryn H; Shiang, Rita

    2008-11-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal-dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by haploinsufficiency of the TCOF1 gene product treacle. Mouse Tcof1 protein is approximately 61% identical and 71% similar to treacle, and heterozygous knockout of Tcof1 causes craniofacial malformation. Tcof1 expression is high in developing neural crest, but much lower in other tissues. To investigate this dual regulation, highly conserved regions upstream of TCOF1 homologs were tested through deletion and mutation reporter assays, and conserved predicted transcription factor binding sites were assessed through chromatin binding studies. Assays were performed in mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma cells and in HEK293 cells to determine differential activation in cell types at different stages of differentiation. Binding of Cebpb, Zfp161, and Sp1 transcription factors was specific to the Tcof1 regulatory region in P19 cells. The Zfp161 binding site demonstrated P19 cell-specific repression, while the Sp1/Sp3 candidate site demonstrated HEK293 cell-specific activation. Moreover, presence of c-myb and Zfp161 transcripts was specific to P19 cells. A minimal promoter fragment from -253 to +43 bp directs constitutive expression in both cell types, and dual regulation of Tcof1 appears to be through differential repression of this minimal promoter. The CpG island at the transcription start site remains unmethylated in P19 cells, 11.5 dpc mouse embryonic tissue, and adult mouse ear, which supports constitutive activation of the Tcof1 promoter.

  8. Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Hengkai; Zhu, Yan; Bao, Guanhui; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-03-28

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter P(cpc560), which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using P(cpc560), functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in P(cpc560) is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, P(cpc560) opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.

  9. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4 H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  10. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Lisa S; Muhs, Stefanie; Schiewek, Johanna; Grüb, Saskia; Nalaskowski, Marcus; Lin, Yuan-Na; Wikman, Harriet; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Lange, Tobias; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Konietzny, Anja; Mikhaylova, Marina; Windhorst, Sabine

    2017-12-15

    High expression of the actin bundling protein Fascin increases the malignancy of tumor cells. Here we show that fascin expression is up-regulated in more malignant sub-cell lines of MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to parental cells. Since also parental MDA-MB-231 cells exhibit high fascin levels, increased fascin expression was termed as "hyperexpression". To examine the effect of fascin hyperexpression, fascin was hyperexpressed in parental MDA-MB-231 cells and metastasis was analyzed in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. In addition, the effect of fascin mutants with inactive or constitutively active actin bundling activity was examined. Unexpectedly, we found that hyperexpression of both, wildtype (wt) and mutant fascin strongly increased metastasis in vivo , showing that the effect of fascin hyperexpression did not depend on its actin bundling activity. Cellular assays revealed that hyperexpression of wt and mutant fascin increased adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells while transmigration and proliferation were not affected. Since it has been shown that fascin controls adhesion by directly interacting with microtubules ( MTs), we analyzed if fascin hyperexpression affects MT dynamics. We found that at high concentrations fascin significantly increased MT dynamics in cells and in cell-free approaches. In summary our data show that strong expression of fascin in breast cancer cells increases metastasis independent of its actin bundling activity. Thus, it seems that the mechanism of fascin-stimulated metastasis depends on its concentration.

  11. A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitution activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Woeste; Joseph J. Kieber

    2000-01-01

    A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resuited in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a...

  12. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  13. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel strong tissue specific promoter for gene expression in human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Denis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue specific promoters may be utilized for a variety of applications, including programmed gene expression in cell types, tissues and organs of interest, for developing different cell culture models or for use in gene therapy. We report a novel, tissue-specific promoter that was identified and engineered from the native upstream regulatory region of the human gene NDUFV1 containing an endogenous retroviral sequence. Results Among seven established human cell lines and five primary cultures, this modified NDUFV1 upstream sequence (mNUS was active only in human undifferentiated germ-derived cells (lines Tera-1 and EP2102, where it demonstrated high promoter activity (~twice greater than that of the SV40 early promoter, and comparable to the routinely used cytomegaloviral promoter. To investigate the potential applicability of the mNUS promoter for biotechnological needs, a construct carrying a recombinant cytosine deaminase (RCD suicide gene under the control of mNUS was tested in cell lines of different tissue origin. High cytotoxic effect of RCD with a cell-death rate ~60% was observed only in germ-derived cells (Tera-1, whereas no effect was seen in a somatic, kidney-derived control cell line (HEK293. In further experiments, we tested mNUS-driven expression of a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB100X. The mNUS-SB100X construct mediated stable transgene insertions exclusively in germ-derived cells, thereby providing further evidence of tissue-specificity of the mNUS promoter. Conclusions We conclude that mNUS may be used as an efficient promoter for tissue-specific gene expression in human germ-derived cells in many applications. Our data also suggest that the 91 bp-long sequence located exactly upstream NDUFV1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the activity of this gene promoter in vitro in the majority of tested cell types (10/12, and an important role - in the rest two cell lines.

  15. Active gas adsorption-promoted evaporation of tungsten and niobium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Mikhajlovskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Field-ion methods and pulsed mass-spectrometeric analysis are used to study field evaporation of tungsten and niobium affected by nitrogen and hydrogen. Active gas-promoted evaporation is found to take place at field intensities high enough for the field ionization of active gases. The evaporating field intensity is established to increase from 1.45x10 8 to 5.5x10 8 V/cm while passing from continuous to pulsed conditions of evaporation, this testifies to the change of the mechanism of the promoted evaporation. Under the effect of active gases, the evaporation rate essentially depends on the surface state. It is shown that in the microcrystals irradiated with 1-3 kV helium ions, the dependence of the evaporation rate of Nb in hydrogen on the field intensity gets monotonous. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the recombination model of a promoted evaporation [ru

  16. Comparison of efficacy of the disease-specific LOX1- and constitutive cytomegalovirus-promoters in expressing interleukin 10 through adeno-associated virus 2/8 delivery in atherosclerotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqing Zhu

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy vectors for treating diseases of the cardiovascular system continues at a steady pace. Moreover, in the field of gene therapy the utility of "disease-specific promoters" has strong appeal. Many therapeutic genes, including transforming growth factor beta 1 or interleukin 10, are associated to adverse effects. The use of a disease-specific promoter might minimize toxicity. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is a marker of cardiovascular disease and a potential therapeutic target. The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 is known to be up-regulated early during disease onset in a number of cell types at the sites where the disease will be clinically evident. In this study an adeno-associated virus-2 DNA vector (AAV2 using the AAV8 capsid, and containing the full length The lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 promoter, was generated and assayed for its ability to express human interleukin 10 in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on high cholesterol diet. The cytomegalovirus early promoter was used for comparison in a similarly structured vector. The two promoters were found to have equal efficacy in reducing atherogenesis as measured by aortic systolic blood velocity, aortic cross sectional area, and aortic wall thickness. This is the first head-to-head comparison of a constitutive with a disease-specific promoter in a therapeutic context. These data strongly suggest that the use of a disease-specific promoter is appropriate for therapeutic gene delivery.

  17. A strong promoter of a non-cry gene directs expression of the cry1Ac gene in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Gao, Tantan; Peng, Qi; Song, Lai; Zhang, Jie; Chai, Yunrong; Sun, Dongmei; Song, Fuping

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria show insecticidal activities that rely upon the production of insecticidal crystal proteins, which are encoded by cry or cyt genes and can target a variety of insect pests. It has been shown that cry1Ac is the only cry gene in B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 (B. thuringiensis HD73) and its expression is controlled by both σ E and σ K . Here, we report a novel σ E -dependent strong promoter of a non-cry gene (HD73_5014), which can direct strong cry1Ac gene expression in B. thuringiensis HD73. We constructed an E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT315-P 5014 -1Ac) for cry1Ac gene expression, using the HD73_5014 gene promoter. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis showed that expression of the cry1Ac gene directed by the HD73_5014 gene promoter was at the same level as that directed by the previously known strongest cry promoter, P cry8E . However, this strain did not form typical bipyramidal crystals in mother cells, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The strain with Cry1Ac protein expression under the control of the HD73_5014 gene promoter (P 5014 -cry1Ac) showed insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella similar to that under the control of the orf1cry8E gene promoter (P cry8E -cry1Ac). Collectively, these results suggest that the HD73_5014 gene promoter, as a non-cry gene promoter, would be an efficient transcriptional element for cry gene expression. These data also show the possibility for improving Cry production by searching for transcriptional elements in not only cry genes, but also non-cry genes.

  18. Constitutive Signaling from an Engineered IL7 Receptor Promotes Durable Tumor Elimination by Tumor-Redirected T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Thomas; Omer, Bilal; Tashiro, Haruko; Kruse, Robert L; Wagner, Dimitrios L; Parikh, Kathan; Yi, Zhongzhen; Sauer, Tim; Liu, Daofeng; Parihar, Robin; Castillo, Paul; Liu, Hao; Brenner, Malcolm K; Metelitsa, Leonid S; Gottschalk, Stephen; Rooney, Cliona M

    2017-11-01

    Successful adoptive T-cell immunotherapy of solid tumors will require improved expansion and cytotoxicity of tumor-directed T cells within tumors. Providing recombinant or transgenic cytokines may produce the desired benefits but is associated with significant toxicities, constraining clinical use. To circumvent this limitation, we constructed a constitutively signaling cytokine receptor, C7R, which potently triggers the IL7 signaling axis but is unresponsive to extracellular cytokine. This strategy augments modified T-cell function following antigen exposure, but avoids stimulating bystander lymphocytes. Coexpressing the C7R with a tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) increased T-cell proliferation, survival, and antitumor activity during repeated exposure to tumor cells, without T-cell dysfunction or autonomous T-cell growth. Furthermore, C7R-coexpressing CAR T cells were active against metastatic neuroblastoma and orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft models even at cell doses that had been ineffective without C7R support. C7R may thus be able to enhance antigen-specific T-cell therapies against cancer. Significance: The constitutively signaling C7R system developed here delivers potent IL7 stimulation to CAR T cells, increasing their persistence and antitumor activity against multiple preclinical tumor models, supporting its clinical development. Cancer Discov; 7(11); 1238-47. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1201 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Development of an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Method and Evaluation of Two Exogenous Constitutive Promoters in Oleaginous Yeast Lipomyces starkeyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinping; Liu, Sasa; Bao, Ruiqi; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Sufang; Zhu, Rongqian; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2017-11-01

    Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L. starkeyi. Hygromycin-resistant transformants were obtained on antibiotic-contained plate. Mitotic stability test, genotype verification by PCR, and protein expression confirmation all demonstrated the success of this method. Furthermore, the strength of these two promoters was evaluated at the phenotypic level on a hygromycin-gradient plate and at the transcriptional level by real-time quantitative PCR. The PGK promoter strength was 2.2-fold as that of GPD promoter to initiate the expression of the hygromycin-resistance gene. This study provided an easy and efficient genetic manipulation method and elements of the oleaginous yeast L. starkeyi for constructing superior strains to produce advanced biofuels.

  20. Constitutively active erythropoietin receptor expression in breast cancer cells promotes cellular proliferation and migration through a MAP-kinase dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Ping; Jiang Xiaohong; Arcasoy, Murat O.

    2009-01-01

    The role of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression in tumor cells and the potential of EpoR-mediated signaling to contribute to cellular proliferation and invasiveness require further characterization. To determine whether EpoR expression and activation in tumor cells modulates intracellular signal transduction to promote cellular proliferation and migration, we employed a novel experimental model using human breast cancer cells engineered to stably express a constitutively active EpoR-R129C variant. EpoR-R129C expression resulted in increased cellular proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells and these effects were associated with significantly increased Epo-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, AKT and c-Jun-NH2-kinase (SAPK/JNK) proteins. Expression of the constitutively active EpoR-R129C receptor promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via activation of ERK- and SAPK/JNK-dependent signaling pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that EpoR over-expression and activation in breast cancer cells has the potential to contribute to tumor progression by promoting the proliferation and invasiveness of the neoplastic cells.

  1. Constitutional jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Katju, Markandey

    2011-01-01

    Justice Markandey Katja (Judge, Supreme Court of India) explains and illustrates the concept of 'constitutional jurisprudence' - as a kind of philosphy of constitutional law, seeking to explain in general terms ideas such as: What is a constitution? What is its purpose? What is its position in the legal system of the country?

  2. Recent experience in health promotion at Johnson & Johnson: lower health spending, strong return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Goetzel, Ron Z; McHugh, Janice; Isaac, Fik

    2011-03-01

    Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies introduced its worksite health promotion program in 1979. The program evolved and is still in place after more than thirty years. We evaluated the program's effect on employees' health risks and health care costs for the period 2002-08. Measured against similar large companies, Johnson & Johnson experienced average annual growth in total medical spending that was 3.7 percentage points lower. Company employees benefited from meaningful reductions in rates of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Average annual per employee savings were $565 in 2009 dollars, producing a return on investment equal to a range of $1.88-$3.92 saved for every dollar spent on the program. Because the vast majority of US adults participate in the workforce, positive effects from similar programs could lead to better health and to savings for the nation as a whole.

  3. RpoD promoters in Campylobacter jejuni exhibit a strong periodic signal instead of a-35 box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Ussery, David

    2003-01-01

    We have used a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify the consensus sequence of the RpoD promoters in the genome of Campylobacter jejuni. The identified promoter consensus sequence is unusual compared to other bacteria, in that the region upstream of the TATA-box does not contain a conserved -35...... region, but shows a very strong periodic variation in the AT-content and semi-conserved T-stretches, with a period of 10-11 nucleotides. The TATA-box is in some, but not all cases, preceded by a TGx, similar to an extended -10 promoter. We predicted a total of 764 presumed RpoD promoters in the C...... with a training set of 175 genes. This leads to the conclusion that the remaining genes (354) are more rarely preceded by a (RpoD) promoter, and consequently that operon structure may be more widespread in C.jejuni than has been assumed by others. Structural predictions of the regions upstream of the TATA...

  4. Promotion and Support of Strong Safety Culture at the Hungarian Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bódis, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) in 2014 carried out a self-assessment in order to preparation for IAEA IRRS mission. As a result of the SWOT analysis it was concluded that for the promotion, development and improvement of safety culture at the HAEA is displayed only on the policy level. In order to obtain a greater emphasis on safety culture within the organization a working group was created. The task of the working group was to define the proposed actions to develop the organizational safety culture. The working group reviewed the current situation, the international experiences and proposed on this basis the elaboration of a guideline regarding to organizational safety culture, to integrate this guideline into the organizational training program so as to apply to all levels of the organization and presentation of the safety culture as part of the training of new comers. Results so far: The working group has defined the main tasks and the connecting milestones in order to develop and improve the organizational safety culture at the HAEA. HAEA has elaborated a guideline for performing safety culture self-assessment based on IAEA and other relevant documents.

  5. Strong Rural Communities Initiative (SRCI) program: challenges in promoting healthier lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed M; Size, Tim; Crouse, Byron; Patterson, Leslie; Gass, Eric; Karon, Sarita L; Lund, Liz; Abert, Connie; Wergin, Amy; Hegranes, Karen; Bishop, Linda; Duffy, Sue; Jacobson, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    The Strong Rural Communities Initiative (SRCI) was created to address the health needs of rural Wisconsin communities through a multifaceted partnership that included the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (UWSMPH), the Rural Health Development Council (RHDC), and hospitals, public health departments, and businesses in 6 rural communities in Wisconsin. The SRCI provided a broad framework of leadership to assist each of the 6 rural communities in developing and implementing new, collaborative interventions that addressed the specific health needs of the community. Separate assessments were conducted for the communities that partnered with each respective medical school and focused on the processes of community collaboration and partnership function. Assessment approaches included formative and outcome evaluation. Each community independently reported positive outcomes associated with the partnership process and various aspects of community collaboration, including the successes and health impacts of the workplace wellness programs implemented. Assessment data also revealed challenges related to conducting effective community-academic partnerships. The SRCI was established to execute statewide programs in rural communities with the goal to improve the health of people living in those communities. We have gained applicable knowledge regarding the types of challenges that exist in establishing a rural-based community research network between academic partners and community leaders.

  6. Evaluation of the Start Strong initiative: preventing teen dating violence and promoting healthy relationships among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Authoritarian Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Legal scholars and political theorists interested in constitutionalism as a normative concept tend to dichotomize the subject. There is liberal constitutionalism of the sort familiar in the modern West, with core commitments to human rights and self-governance implemented by means of varying institutional devices, and there is authoritarianism, rejecting human rights entirely and governed by unconstrained power-holders. This Article explores the possibility of forms of constitutionalism other...

  8. Constitutive expression of AhR and BRCA-1 promoter CpG hypermethylation as biomarkers of ERα-negative breast tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F; Papoutsis, Andreas J; Laukaitis, Christina; Selmin, Ornella I

    2015-12-29

    Only 5-10% of breast cancer cases is linked to germline mutations in the BRCA-1 gene and occurs early in life. Conversely, sporadic breast tumors, which represent 90-95% of breast malignancies, have lower BRCA-1 expression, but not mutated BRCA-1 gene, and tend to occur later in life in combination with other genetic alterations and/or environmental exposures. The latter may include environmental and dietary factors that activate the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Therefore, understanding if changes in expression and/or activation of the AhR are associated with somatic inactivation of the BRCA-1 gene may provide clues for breast cancer therapy. We evaluated Brca-1 CpG promoter methylation and expression in mammary tumors induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with the AhR agonist and mammary carcinogen 7,12-dimethyl-benzo(a)anthracene (DMBA). Also, we tested in human estrogen receptor (ER)α-negative sporadic UACC-3199 and ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells carrying respectively, hyper- and hypomethylated BRCA-1 gene, if the treatment with the AhR antagonist α-naphthoflavone (αNF) modulated BRCA-1 and ERα expression. Finally, we examined the association between expression of AhR and BRCA-1 promoter CpG methylation in human triple-negative (TNBC), luminal-A (LUM-A), LUM-B, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)-positive breast tumor samples. Mammary tumors induced with DMBA had reduced BRCA-1 and ERα expression; higher Brca-1 promoter CpG methylation; increased expression of Ahr and its downstream target Cyp1b1; and higher proliferation markers Ccnd1 (cyclin D1) and Cdk4. In human UACC-3199 cells, low BRCA-1 was paralleled by constitutive high AhR expression; the treatment with αNF rescued BRCA-1 and ERα, while enhancing preferential expression of CYP1A1 compared to CYP1B1. Conversely, in MCF-7 cells, αNF antagonized estradiol-dependent activation of BRCA-1 without effects on expression of ERα. TNBC exhibited increased basal AhR and BRCA-1

  9. CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM CONTEMPORARY ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic society, the judicial legitimacy of the state and its power, of its institutions, but also the social and political grounds are generated and determined by the Constitution, defined as expressively as possible as being: “The fundamental political and judicial settlement of a people” (I. Deleanu. The supremacy of the Constitution has as main effect the conformity of the entire system of law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing the compliance with this principle, essential for the state of law, is first of all an attribution of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislative power to receive, through the adopted normative acts, in content and in form, the constitutional norms. Altering the fundamental law of a state represents a political and judicial act extremely complex with major meanings and implications for the socio-political and national systems, but also for each individual. This is why such measure should be very well justified, to answer certain socio-political and legal needs well shaped and mainly to match the principles and rules specific to a democratic constitutional and state system, by insuring its stability and functionality. These are a few aspects of the Romanian contemporary constitutionalism that this study shall critically analyse in order to differentiate between the constitutional ideal and reality.

  10. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...

  11. Awareness of diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in the Gambia: a strong case for health education and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foma, Mafomekong Ayuk; Saidu, Yauba; Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Jafali, James

    2013-12-05

    Awareness of various aspects of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is essential for the prevention, management and control of the disease. However, several studies have consistently shown that awareness of DM in the general population is low. None of these studies, however, was conducted in The Gambia, even though the condition constitutes a major public health problem in the country. In this paper, we assessed the awareness of DM among diabetic patients attending the Medical Out-Patient Department (MOPD) of Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital (RVTH), Banjul. We interviewed 200 patients attending the MOPD of RVTH. We used a tool containing questions on patient's demographic characteristics and awareness of various aspects of DM including general knowledge on DM, causes, complications, management and prevention. Of the 199 patients who were aware of their condition, only 47% said they knew what DM is. Similarly, 53% of the study participants had no knowledge of the causes of DM and about 50% were not aware of the methods of prevention. 67% knew that DM can result to loss of sight while 46.5% knew that DM can cause poor wound healing. Few respondents knew that DM can lead to kidney failure (13.5%), skin sepsis (12.0%), heart failure (5.5%) and stroke (4.5%). Close to 50% of the respondent did not know how DM can be prevented. Level of education, duration of illness and knowledge of a family member with diabetes were important predictors of knowledge in our study. Our study shows that the majority of patients attending the MOPD have poor knowledge on several aspects of DM. Hence, there is need for conscious efforts towards improving the level of awareness through health education and promotion, not limited to the hospital but also within the general population, as part of strategies to prevent, manage and control DM.

  12. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such constitutional provisions serve to confine the power to amend the constitution within the prescribed legal requirements as well as help to control arbitrary changes to the constitution, which consequently promotes constitutionalism within the country. The FDRE Constitution has been amended twice within these twenty ...

  13. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  14. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Viktorova

    Full Text Available Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  15. Acinetobacter strains IH9 and OCI1, two rhizospheric phosphate solubilizing isolates able to promote plant growth, constitute a new genomovar of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peix, Alvaro; Lang, Elke; Verbarg, Susanne; Spröer, Cathrin; Rivas, Raúl; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    During a screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in agricultural soils, two strains, IH9 and OCI1, were isolated from the rhizosphere of grasses in Spain, and they showed a high ability to solubilize phosphate in vitro. Inoculation experiments in chickpea and barley were conducted with both strains and the results demonstrated their ability to promote plant growth. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains were nearly identical to each other and to those of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T), as well as the strain CIP 70.29 representing genomospecies 3. Their phenotypic characteristics also coincided with those of strains forming the A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. They differed from A. calcoaceticus in the utilization of l-tartrate as a carbon source and from genomospecies 3 in the use of d-asparagine as a carbon source. The 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences of the two isolates showed nearly 98% identities to those of A. calcoaceticus, confirming that they belong to this phylogenetic group. However, the isolates appeared as a separate branch from the A. calcoaceticus sequences, indicating their molecular separation from other A. calcoaceticus strains. The analysis of three housekeeping genes, recA, rpoD and gyrB, confirmed that IH9 and OCI1 form a distinct lineage within A. calcoaceticus. These results were congruent with those from DNA-DNA hybridization, indicating that strains IH9 and OCI1 constitute a new genomovar for which we propose the name A. calcoaceticus genomovar rhizosphaerae.

  16. Utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Venter

    2001-12-01

    ;• the South African approach seeks on the one hand to promote equality as a near-absolute prohibition of discrimination, while on the other hand affirmative action is projected not as an exception to non-discrimination, but as a means of achieving equality;• whereas the identification of disadvantage in the USA and Canada tends to focus on discrete and insular minorities, the South African Constitution deals with an obvious reality of past disadvantage of a substantial majority, thus probably giving preferential programmes in South Africa a different character.It is concluded that "comparing with values" has, at the very least, the potential of revealing which foreign sources can justifiably be used locally as authoritative or pursuasive references, and which not.

  17. The MsPRP2 promoter enables strong heterologous gene expression in a root-specific manner and is enhanced by overexpression of Alfin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winicov, Ilga; Valliyodan, Babu; Xue, Lingru; Hoober, J Kenneth

    2004-10-01

    Promoter specificity and efficiency of utilization are essential for endogenous and transgene expression. Selective root expression remains to be defined in terms of both promoter elements and transcription factors that provide high levels of ubiquitous expression. We characterized expression from the MsPRP2 promoter with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and found that a promoter fragment (+1 to -652 bp) retained the root and callus specificity of the endogenous MsPRP2 gene and hence this promoter fragment contains elements necessary for root-specific expression. The strong ubiquitous expression obtained from this promoter was comparable to that of the CaMV 35S promoter in roots and was enhanced by transgenic overexpression of Alfin 1, a root- and callus-specific transcription factor in alfalfa. No transgenic expression was obtained in leaves with this promoter in the presence or absence of Alfin 1. The increased expression of GFP in alfalfa containing the Alfin 1 transgene confirms the function of Alfin 1 binding sites in the MsPRP2 promoter fragment and also indicates that Alfin 1 concentrations are limiting for maximal expression in calli and roots. These findings characterize the MsPRP2 promoter as a novel root- and callus-specific promoter of plant origin that can be used as an effective tool for strong root-directed gene expression. In addition, we have demonstrated that the signal sequence of MsPRP2 can be used for efficient secretion of transgene products from callus and roots.

  18. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfint, Rachel M; Chen, Paula R; Ahn, Jinsoo; Suh, Yeunsu; Hwang, Seongsoo; Lee, Sang Suk; Lee, Kichoon

    2017-01-19

    Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 ( MUC2 ) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis -acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A), and transcription factor 4 (TCF4) that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine.

  19. Identification of the MUC2 Promoter as a Strong Promoter for Intestinal Gene Expression through Generation of Transgenic Quail Expressing GFP in Gut Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Woodfint

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2 expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2.9 kb proximal promoter region, for transcription factors such as caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2, GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4A, and transcription factor 4 (TCF4 that are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis and functional integrity. By generating transgenic quail, we demonstrated that the 2.9 kb chicken MUC2 promoter could drive green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter expression exclusively in the small intestine, large intestine, and ceca. Fluorescence image analysis further revealed GFP expression in intestine epithelial cells. The GFP expression was barely detectable in the embryonic intestine, but increased during post-hatch development. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the reporter gene confirmed that the 2.9 kb MUC2 promoter could retain the regulatory element to drive expression of target genes in intestinal tissues after hatching. This new transgene expression system, using the MUC2 promoter, will provide a new method of overexpressing target genes to study gene function in the avian intestine.

  20. RpoD promoters in Campylobacter jejuni exhibit a strong periodic signal instead of a -35 box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Larsen, Thomas S.; Ussery, David W.

    2003-01-01

    .jejuni genome, of which 654 were located upstream of annotated genes. A similar promoter was identified in Helicobacter pylori, a close phylogenetic relative of Campylobacter, but not in Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, or six other Proteobacterial genomes, or in Staphylococcus aureus. We used upstream...

  1. Constitutional Law--State Action--Hiring and Promotion Practices of Private University Receiving Public Funds Held State Action--Braden v. University of Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York University Law Review, 1977

    1977-01-01

    In Braden vs University of Pittsburgh, a female professor filed suit against the University alleging sex discrimination in employment practices. The professor alleged that the school, which received state funds, was, in effect, a state actor and subject to constitutional restraints. This case and two relevant state action cases are discussed. (JMD)

  2. The global transcriptional landscape of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XH7 and high-throughput screening of strong promoters based on RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuling; Huang, Lianggang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Feng; Pan, Li

    2015-10-25

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important industrial microbe for the production of many industrial enzymes and primary metabolites. Although the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens has been now published, transcript structures of B. amyloliquefaciens remain poorly defined. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was applied to dissect the transcriptome of B. amyloliquefaciens strain XH7. In total, 3936 out of a total of 4204 B. amyloliquefaciens genes (93.6%) were transcribed under the selected growth condition. Transcriptional start sites (TSS) of 1064 annotated genes and 749 operons were identified. To screen for strong promoters, a beta-galactoside reporter was fused to eight candidate promoters from 288 genes with higher expression levels (RPKM values) than the control gene P43-bgaB. The results illustrated that the candidate promoter Pr2 (promoter for the sigW gene) displayed the strongest beta-galactosidase specific activity during the post-log phase, suggesting that it could be used effectively for heterologous gene expression. The presented data will contribute to the further study of the B. amyloliquefaciens transcriptome by identifying useful promoters for industrial uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Constitutional changes and the dilemmas of constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bačić, Arsen

    2009-01-01

    The need to develop constitutional mechanisms whose aim is to resolve fundamental relations in society demands the widest possible inclusion of all of society’s active participants in the discussion on the need to adopt or revise the Constitution. The opening of every new round of constitutional changes is of great importance because it always unlocks certain new and important questions. The answers to those questions should be offered by state authority (policy) and civil society including s...

  4. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  5. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  6. utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    a distinct set of commonalities, principles, standards and values that have gained currency in constitutional dialogue all over the world. Perhaps the best proof of this ripeness of constitutionalism is to be found in the signs that new, postmodern thinking about the state, the law and the sustainability of the established tenets of.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor is constitutively produced by donor-derived bone marrow cells and promotes regeneration of pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Takeshi; Yasuda, Daisuke; Koizumi, Tomotake; Suganuma, Chisaki; Saito, Koji; Murai, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Ken; Odaira, Masanori; Kusano, Tomokazu; Kushima, Miki; Kusano, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the transplantation of bone marrow cells following diabetes induced by streptozotocin can support the recovery of pancreatic β-cell mass and a partial reversal of hyperglycemia. To address this issue, we examined whether the c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling pathway was involved in the recovery of β-cell injury after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this model, donor-derived bone marrow cells were positive for HGF immunoreactivity in the recipient spleen, liver, lung, and pancreas as well as in the host hepatocytes. Indeed, plasma HGF levels were maintained at a high value. The frequency of c-Met expression and its proliferative activity and differentiative response in the pancreatic ductal cells in the BMT group were greater than those in the PBS-treated group, resulting in an elevated number of endogenous insulin-producing cells. The induction of the c-Met/HGF signaling pathway following BMT promotes pancreatic regeneration in diabetic rats

  8. Transgenic Bt cotton driven by the green tissue-specific promoter shows strong toxicity to lepidopteran pests and lower Bt toxin accumulation in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Lin; Li, Lebin; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-02-01

    A promoter of the PNZIP (Pharbitis nil leucine zipper) gene (1.459 kb) was cloned from Pharbitis nil and fused to the GUS (β-glucuronidase) and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin (Cry9C) genes. Several transgenic PNZIP::GUS and PNZIP::Cry9C cotton lines were developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Strong GUS staining was detected in the green tissues of the transgenic PNZIP::GUS cotton plants. In contrast, GUS staining in the reproductive structures such as petals, anther, and immature seeds of PNZIP::GUS cotton was very faint. Two transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C lines and one transgenic cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S::Cry9C line were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and insect bioassays. Expression of the Cry9C protein in the 35S::Cry9C line maintained a high level in most tissues ranging from 24.6 to 45.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight. In green tissues such as the leaves, boll rinds, and bracts of the PNZIP::Cry9C line, the Cry9C protein accumulated up to 50.2, 39.7, and 48.3 μg g(-1) fresh weight respectively. In contrast, seeds of the PNZIP::Cry9C line (PZ1.3) accumulated only 0.26 μg g(-1) fresh weight of the Cry9C protein, which was 100 times lower than that recorded for the seeds of the CaMV 35S::Cry9C line. The insect bioassay showed that the transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C cotton plant exhibited strong resistance to both the cotton bollworm and the pink bollworm. The PNZIP promoter could effectively drive Bt toxin expression in green tissues of cotton and lower accumulated levels of the Bt protein in seeds. These features should allay public concerns about the safety of transgenic foods. We propose the future utility of PNZIP as an economical, environmentally friendly promoter in cotton biotechnology.

  9. Isolating Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoters play the most important role in determining the temporal and spatial expression pattern and transcript level of a gene. Some strong constitutive promoters, such as cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter, are widely used in plant genetic engineering research. However, the expression levels of the foreign genes in ...

  10. Light-grown plants of transgenic tobacco expressing an introduced oat phytochrome A gene under the control of a constitutive viral promoter exhibit persistent growth inhibition by far-red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormac, A.; Whitelam, G.; Smith, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the photoregulation of development has been made for etiolated and light-grown plants of wild-type (WT) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacun L.) and an isogenic transgenic line which expresses an introduced oat phytochrome gene (phyA) under the control of a constitutive viral promoter. Etiolated seedlings of both the WT and transgenic line showed irradiance-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl growth under continuous far-red (FR) light; transgenic seedlings showed a greater level of inhibition under a given fluence rate and this is considered to be the result of the heterologous phytochrome protein (PhyA) functioning in a compatible manner with the native etiolated phytochrome. Deetiolation of WT seedlings resulted in a loss of responsiveness to prolonged FR. Light-grown transgenic seedlings, however, continued to respond in an irradiance-dependent manner to prolonged FR and it is proposed that this is a specific function of the constitutive PhyA. Mature green plants of the WT and transgenic lines showed a qualitatively similar growth promotion to a brief end-of-day FR-treatment but this response was abolished in the transgenic plants under prolonged irradiation by this same FR source. Growth inhibition (McCormac et al. 1991, Planta 185, 162-170) and enhanced levels of nitrate-reductase activity under irradiance of low red:far-red ratio, as achieved by the FR-supplementation of white light, emphasised that the introduced PhyA was eliciting an aberrant mode of photoresponse compared with the normal phytochrome population of light-grown plants. Total levels of the oat-encoded phytochrome in the etiolated transgenic tobacco were shown to be influenced by the wavelength of continuous irradiation in a manner which was qualitatively similar to that seen for the native, etiolated tobacco phytochrome, and distinct from that seen in etiolated oat tissues. These results are discussed in terms of the proposal that the constitutive oat-PhyA pool in the transgenic plants

  11. UNDERSTANDING INFORMAL CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Griffin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  12. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Dorothee U

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12 were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed.

  13. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  14. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  15. Expression of a high sweetness and heat-resistant mutant of sweet-tasting protein, monellin, in Pichia pastoris with a constitutive GAPDH promoter and modified N-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Li, Lei; Lu, Nan; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Liu; Liu, Bo

    2016-11-01

    To improve the stability and sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, monellin, by using site-directed mutagenesis and a Pichia pastoris expression system with a GAPDH constitutive promoter. Both wild-type and E2 N mutant of single-chain monellin gene were cloned into the PGAPZαA vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The majority of the secreted recombinant protein, at 0.15 g/l supernatant, was monellin. This was purified by Sephadex G50 chromatography. The sweetness threshold of wild-type and E2 N were 30 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Compared with the proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, the thermostability of both proteins was improved. The N-terminal sequence is determinative for the sweetness of the proteins expressed in yeast strains. Site-directed mutagenesis, modification of the N-terminus of monellin, and without the need of methanol induction in P. pastoris expression system, indicate the possibility for large-scale production of this sweet-tasting protein.

  16. Global environmental constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bosselmann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article supports the perspective that environmental constitutionalism is a global and foundational subject. Considering the novelty and thin base of this only emerging field of inquiry, it aims for making some suggestions for formulating the purpose and scope of environmental constitutionalism in a global range. Moreover, considering that the very nature of environmental rights is more fundamental than classic human rights, the mindset and methodology applied to the studies of constituti...

  17. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  18. Mycolactone gene expression is controlled by strong SigA-like promoters with utility in studies of Mycobacterium ulcerans and buruli ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Tobias

    Full Text Available Mycolactone A/B is a lipophilic macrocyclic polyketide that is the primary virulence factor produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, a human pathogen and the causative agent of Buruli ulcer. In M. ulcerans strain Agy99 the mycolactone polyketide synthase (PKS locus spans a 120 kb region of a 174 kb megaplasmid. Here we have identified promoter regions of this PKS locus using GFP reporter assays, in silico analysis, primer extension, and site-directed mutagenesis. Transcription of the large PKS genes mlsA1 (51 kb, mlsA2 (7 kb and mlsB (42 kb is driven by a novel and powerful SigA-like promoter sequence situated 533 bp upstream of both the mlsA1 and mlsB initiation codons, which is also functional in Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum. Promoter regions were also identified upstream of the putative mycolactone accessory genes mup045 and mup053. We transformed M. ulcerans with a GFP-reporter plasmid under the control of the mls promoter to produce a highly green-fluorescent bacterium. The strain remained virulent, producing both GFP and mycolactone and causing ulcerative disease in mice. Mosquitoes have been proposed as a potential vector of M. ulcerans so we utilized M. ulcerans-GFP in microcosm feeding experiments with captured mosquito larvae. M. ulcerans-GFP accumulated within the mouth and midgut of the insect over four instars, whereas the closely related, non-mycolactone-producing species M. marinum harbouring the same GFP reporter system did not. This is the first report to identify M. ulcerans toxin gene promoters, and we have used our findings to develop M. ulcerans-GFP, a strain in which fluorescence and toxin gene expression are linked, thus providing a tool for studying Buruli ulcer pathogenesis and potential transmission to humans.

  19. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...

  20. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  1. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  2. MGMT Promoter Methylation Is a Strong Prognostic Biomarker for Benefit from Dose-Intensified Temozolomide Rechallenge in Progressive Glioblastoma: The DIRECTOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Michael; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Kästner, Bärbel; Felsberg, Jörg; Steinbach, Joachim P; Wick, Antje; Schnell, Oliver; Hau, Peter; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Sabel, Michael C; Wirsching, Hans-Georg; Ketter, Ralf; Bähr, Oliver; Platten, Michael; Tonn, Jörg C; Schlegel, Uwe; Marosi, Christine; Goldbrunner, Roland; Stupp, Roger; Homicsko, Krisztian; Pichler, Josef; Nikkhah, Guido; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Vajkoczy, Peter; Kollias, Spyros; Hüsing, Johannes; Reifenberger, Guido; Wick, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Rechallenge with temozolomide (TMZ) at first progression of glioblastoma after temozolomide chemoradiotherapy (TMZ/RT→TMZ) has been studied in retrospective and single-arm prospective studies, applying temozolomide continuously or using 7/14 or 21/28 days schedules. The DIRECTOR trial sought to show superiority of the 7/14 regimen. Patients with glioblastoma at first progression after TMZ/RT→TMZ and at least two maintenance temozolomide cycles were randomized to Arm A [one week on (120 mg/m(2) per day)/one week off] or Arm B [3 weeks on (80 mg/m(2) per day)/one week off]. The primary endpoint was median time-to-treatment failure (TTF) defined as progression, premature temozolomide discontinuation for toxicity, or death from any cause. O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation was prospectively assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Because of withdrawal of support, the trial was prematurely closed to accrual after 105 patients. There was a similar outcome in both arms for median TTF [A: 1.8 months; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.8-3.2 vs. B: 2.0 months; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5] and overall survival [A: 9.8 months (95% CI, 6.7-13.0) vs. B: 10.6 months (95% CI, 8.1-11.6)]. Median TTF in patients with MGMT-methylated tumors was 3.2 months (95% CI, 1.8-7.4) versus 1.8 months (95% CI, 1.8-2) in MGMT-unmethylated glioblastoma. Progression-free survival rates at 6 months (PFS-6) were 39.7% with versus 6.9% without MGMT promoter methylation. Temozolomide rechallenge is a treatment option for MGMT promoter-methylated recurrent glioblastoma. Alternative strategies need to be considered for patients with progressive glioblastoma without MGMT promoter methylation. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  4. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  5. The constitutional view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Horácio Sá Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n2p165   This brief paper is devoted to criticizing the widespread reading of Kant’s first Critique, according to which reference to subject-independent objects is “constituted” by higherorder cognitive abilities (concepts. Let us call this the “constitutional view”. In this paper, I argue that the constitutional reading confuses the un-Kantian problem of how we come to represent objects (which I call the intentionality thesis, with the quite different problem of how we cognize (erkennen (which I call the “cognition thesis” that we do represent objects, that is, things that exist independently of the subject.

  6. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    analysis, providing problems that highlight the behavior of various constitutive models to the engineer can be of great benefit. LAME is currently implemented in the Sierra based solid mechanics codes Adagio [3] and Presto [4]. The constitutive models in LAME are available in both codes. Due to the nature of a transient dynamics code--e.g. Presto--it is difficult to test a constitutive model due to inertia effects that show up in the solution. Therefore the testing of constitutive models is primarily done in Adagio. All of the test problems detailed in this report are run in Adagio. It is the goal of the constitutive model test suite to provide a useful service for the constitutive model developer, application code developer and engineer that uses the application code. Due to the conflicting needs and tight time constraints on solid mechanics code development, no requirements exist for implementing test problems for constitutive models. Model developers are strongly encouraged to provide test problems and document those problems, but given the choice of having a model without a test problem or no model at all, certain requirements must be kept loose. A flexible code development environment, especially with regards to research and development in constitutive modeling, is essential to the success of such an environment. This report provides documentation of a number of tests for the constitutive models in LAME. Each section documents a separate test with a brief description of the model, the test problem and the results. This report is meant to be updated periodically as more test problems are created and put into the test suite.

  7. The Bicentennial and State Constitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates how the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution provides an opportunity to teach about the broader concept of constitutionalism through study of the state constitutions. Presents an argument for teaching about state constitutions, their role in the federal system, and the values they convey. (LS)

  8. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    body, space and artefact, thereby revealing the materialization process. Based on results of the analysis, ANT (Actor-Network- Theory) is used in order to discuss how The Danish Folk High School's conception of simplicity as an aesthetic and gendered ideal in the formal education of female handcraft...... personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...

  9. Strong transcription blockage mediated by R-loop formation within a G-rich homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence localized in the vicinity of the promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Soo Shin, Jane Hae; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2017-06-20

    Guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine-homopyrimidine nucleotide sequences can block transcription with an efficiency that depends upon their orientation, composition and length, as well as the presence of negative supercoiling or breaks in the non-template DNA strand. We report that a G-rich sequence in the non-template strand reduces the yield of T7 RNA polymerase transcription by more than an order of magnitude when positioned close (9 bp) to the promoter, in comparison to that for a distal (∼250 bp) location of the same sequence. This transcription blockage is much less pronounced for a C-rich sequence, and is not significant for an A-rich sequence. Remarkably, the blockage is not pronounced if transcription is performed in the presence of RNase H, which specifically digests the RNA strands within RNA-DNA hybrids. The blockage also becomes less pronounced upon reduced RNA polymerase concentration. Based upon these observations and those from control experiments, we conclude that the blockage is primarily due to the formation of stable RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), which inhibit successive rounds of transcription. Our results could be relevant to transcription dynamics in vivo (e.g. transcription 'bursting') and may also have practical implications for the design of expression vectors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  11. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  12. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    16 ..... stem from the pre-constitutional era, and the constitutional framework and its legitimate reform efforts. A decision on what is just ...... Carroll L Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Digital Scanning Scituate MA. 2007). Dagan 1999 Va L Rev.

  13. State provision of constitutional goods

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa , Romain

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates the impact of constitutional rights on the level of public expenditure in a large sample of countries. To do so, we construct a panel of 73 countries from 1960 to 2011. We first investigate factors that drive constitutional changes regarding constitutional rights. To address potential endogeneity concerns in the choice of constitutional rules, we rely on an instrumental variable within estimation (country and time fixed effects) to estimate the ...

  14. Start Of The French Constitutionalism: Constitution Of 1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Bochkarev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes questions of French constitutionalism origin. Author notes that in France, over the past two centuries, a state of law, which is based on the principles of popular sovereignty has been formed; observance of human rights and freedoms by the state; parliamentary democracy; supremacy of constitution in relation to all other laws and regulations; separation of powers and institute of authorities responsibility as an organizational framework for the legal state; independence of the judiciary; compliance with commitments taken by the State during international relations. These principles were laid down in the constitutional history of the country. In the present article an attempt to explore the beginning of the French constitutionalism through the prism of the Constitution of 1791 was made. Author makes concludes that in the Constitution of 1791 the fundamental principles of constitutional law were laid, some of which are reflected in the Constitution of the Fifth Republic in France and continue to operate. Constitution of the Fifth Republic proclaimed commitment to "human rights and principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789, confirmed and complemented by the Preamble to the Constitution of 1946, and despite many disputes, Constitutional Council reaffirmed inviolability of the equality before the law principle, which exists in the Declaration.

  15. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  16. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  17. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by promoting the inclusion of right to health in the new constitution.

  18. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  19. Dilemmas on the European Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Posavec

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses the dilemmas associated with the role of the European Constitution in the further development of the Union. Analysing the implications of the rejection of the European Constitution by the referenda in France and the Netherlands, the author sets forth arguments why such decisions should be neither overrated nor underrated. Aiming to broaden the basis for understanding the European constitutional crisis, the author further discusses the categories of state, constitution and nation. Scrutiny into these categories, he argues, is a crucial prerequisite for understanding the sources of dilemmas regarding the European Constitution and for further development of the EU political system

  20. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  1. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This chapter deals with a core topic in constitutional law, that of the conflict between constitutions and will of the demos. Aristotle in Book IV of the Politics had already anticipated the possible conflict between these two forms of Politeia (constitutions), when defining the types of democracy...... and politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  2. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  3. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  4. Constitutions compared : An introduction to comparative constitutional law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Aalt Willem

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the origins

  5. La Constitution économique parmi les Constitutions européennes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2011-01-01

    In the European context, the place of the revolutionary notions of constitutive power, demos and constitutional moment is occupied by the evolutionary concept of constitutionalisation. Economic constitution is merely one aspect in multi-dimensional European constitution (alisation). My tentative proposal is to distinguish between the following dimensions of constitution : economic constitution ; juridical constitution ; political constitution ; social constitution ; and security constitution....

  6. National constitutional courts in the European Constitutional Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article critically assesses the transformation of national constitutional courts’ place in the law and politics of the EU and its member states. This process eliminates the difference between constitutional and ordinary national courts, which is crucial for the institutional implementation...... the EU and its member states, understood together as the European Constitutional Democracy—the central notion developed in this article in order to support an argument that should speak to both EU lawyers and national constitutionalists....... of the discourse theory of law and democracy. It also disrupts the symbiotic relationship between national constitutional democracies established after World War II and European integration. The article argues that maintaining the special place of national constitutional courts is in the vital interest of both...

  7. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  8. The Constitution and Its Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  9. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...... of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  10. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  11. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  12. Characterization of a CREB Gain-of-Function Mutant with Constitutive Transcriptional Activity In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Keyong; Asahara, Hiroshi; Jhala, Ulupi S.; Wagner, Brandee L.; Montminy, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive factor CREB promotes cellular gene expression, following its phosphorylation at Ser133, via recruitment of the coactivator paralogs CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300. CBP and p300, in turn, appear to mediate target gene induction via their association with RNA polymerase II complexes and via intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activities that mobilize promoter-bound nucleosomes. In addition to cAMP, a wide variety of stimuli, including hypoxia, UV irradiation, and growth factor addition, induce Ser133 phosphorylation with stoichiometry and kinetics comparable to those induced by cAMP. Yet a number of these signals are incapable of promoting target gene activation via CREB phosphorylation per se, suggesting the presence of additional regulatory events either at the level of CREB-CBP complex formation or in the subsequent recruitment of the transcriptional apparatus. Here we characterize a Tyr134Phe CREB mutant that behaves as a constitutive activator in vivo. Like protein kinase A (PKA)-stimulated wild-type CREB, the Tyr134Phe polypeptide was found to stimulate target gene expression via the Ser133-dependent recruitment of CBP and p300. Biochemical studies reveal that mutation of Tyr134 to Phe lowers the Km for PKA phosphorylation and thereby induces high levels of constitutive Ser133 phosphorylation in vivo. Consistent with its constitutive activity, Tyr134Phe CREB strongly promoted differentiation of PC12 cells in concert with suboptimal doses of nerve growth factor. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ser133 phosphorylation is sufficient for cellular gene activation and that additional signal-dependent modifications of CBP or p300 are not required for recruitment of the transcriptional apparatus to the promoter. PMID:10825195

  13. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  14. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  15. The merits of global constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Peters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global constitutionalism is an agenda that identifies and advocates for the application of constitutionalist principles in the international legal sphere. Global constitutionalization is the gradual emergence of constitutionalist features in international law. Critics of global constitutionalism doubt the empirical reality of constitutionalization, call into question the analytic value of constitutionalism as an academic approach, and fear that the discourse is normatively dangerous because it is anti-pluralist, artificially creates a false legitimacy, and promises an unrealistic end of politics. This article addresses these objections. I argue that global constitutionalization is likely to compensate for globalization induced constitutionalist deficits on the national level, that a constitutionalist reading of international law can serve as a hermeneutic device, and that the constitutionalist vocabulary uncovers legitimacy deficits of international law and suggests remedies. Global constitutionalism, therefore, has a responsibilizing and much-needed critical potential.

  16. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  17. Cleanup liability and the Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, D.M.; Hagen, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on open-quotes ex post factoclose quotes suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles. Like many Constitutional principles, however, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution's bar on ex post facto laws has a long history. The Court has consistently interpreted this clause as limited to criminal or penal statutes. This article discusses the history of the ex post facto clause, the retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA, the decision that retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA does not violate the ex post facto clause, and laws, regulations, and guidance. 27 refs

  18. CONSTITUTIONALISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Mao Zedong's statement seems to hold true in the contemporary world as well. In democratic countries, it is the democratically elected officials who are allowed to govern or control the military, although technical affairs are left to the military personnel. Instead, if full autonomy or sovereignty is granted to the military leaders,.

  19. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cross......-country estimates suggest that national trust levels are indeed robustly and negatively associated with the length of countries’ constitutions....

  20. Global Survey of National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states’ legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one’s sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform. PMID:29302182

  1. COMPARATIVE FEDERALISM WITH REFERENCE TO CONSTITUTIONAL MACHINERY FAILURE (EMERGENCY) IN INDIA AND PAKISTA

    OpenAIRE

    Panch Rishi Dev Sharma

    2017-01-01

    The constitutions and courts both in India and in Pakistan have shown their aspirations and fundamental faith in the federal structure but in practice there is a strong centripetal bias in each of their constitutional-political structures. This bias becomes more evident when the constitution sanctions power to the centre to proclaim emergency situations in the provinces on the basis of Constitutional Machinery Failure. Emerging from their colonial roots, the constitutions of India and Pakista...

  2. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  3. Isolation and characterization of an ubiquitin extension protein gene (JcUEP) promoter from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan-Bin; He, Liang-Liang; Niu, Long-Jian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The JcUEP promoter is active constitutively in the bio-fuel plant Jatropha curcas , and is an alternative to the widely used CaMV35S promoter for driving constitutive overexpression of transgenes in Jatropha. Well-characterized promoters are required for transgenic breeding of Jatropha curcas, a biofuel feedstock with great potential for production of bio-diesel and bio-jet fuel. In this study, an ubiquitin extension protein gene from Jatropha, designated JcUEP, was identified to be ubiquitously expressed. Thus, we isolated a 1.2 kb fragment of the 5' flanking region of JcUEP and evaluated its activity as a constitutive promoter in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. As expected, histochemical GUS assay showed that the JcUEP promoter was active in all Arabidopsis and Jatropha tissues tested. We also compared the activity of the JcUEP promoter with that of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter, a well-characterized constitutive promoter conferring strong transgene expression in dicot species, in various tissues of Jatropha. In a fluorometric GUS assay, the two promoters showed similar activities in stems, mature leaves and female flowers; while the CaMV35S promoter was more effective than the JcUEP promoter in other tissues, especially young leaves and inflorescences. In addition, the JcUEP promoter retained its activity under stress conditions in low temperature, high salt, dehydration and exogenous ABA treatments. These results suggest that the plant-derived JcUEP promoter could be an alternative to the CaMV35S promoter for driving constitutive overexpression of transgenes in Jatropha and other plants.

  4. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Environmental liability in constitutional law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Gabrielle Braga e Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is scope to undertake a study of the Brazilian constitutional treatment given to environmental liability institute. This institute enters the constitutional law of special and unique way in the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil in 1988, stamped on Article 225, third paragraph. The Federal Constitution gives broad protection to the environment and inserts it into the list of social rights and assigns it still status of fundamental right. With regard to environmental liability, the Constitution welcomes the normative content of Article 14, first paragraph, of the Act establishing the National Environmental Policy, Law 6.938 / 81, and includes the environmental objective accountability. The study called State Environmental Law is the new and necessary law paradigm that conjunctiva presents proposal of economic, social, cultural and environmental rights and advocates the idea of a broad existential minimum, not merely physical or biological. Finally, the liability was highlighted in its objective application in their individual and collective achievements. The literature review was the methodology used, whose deductive method to corroborate the findings made by this study. It is concluded that environmental liability is an institute that is associated with the consolidation of a Social and Environmental rule of law and that this is a challenge that everyone, without distinction, is presented.

  6. The United States Constitution: A Non-Trivial Pursuit. Fifty-Three Radio Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Walter B.

    These 53 radio scripts present the history of the founding and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Each script is designed to fit within a 2 to 2-1/2 minute time-frame. The titles are: "Introduction to Series" (Promotional Segment); "Did You Know: Our Present Constitution Is Our Second Constitution?"; "The First…

  7. Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The Nigeria nation has experienced many Constitutional changes since Sir. Frederick Lugard in 1914 to the .... Exclusive for the Federal Government and Concurrent for both Federal and Regional. Residual matters were also left for .... Mechanism for stability in the polity and change of government e. Adoption to economic ...

  8. Time and constitution of sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection over our time-consciousness under the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The idea is make a release the key role of the sense constitution like the fundament and development of the ongoing intentionality, a shape that make the possibility to catch sight of the sense of every life situation like conscience experience that displays itself over the time, and open the world of the Phenomenon World, constituted in the flux and flow of our live experience. The immanent time in which the things served in a lived-present inevitably displays to its own immediate-past of retentions, then of commemorations, constituting and enabling, not just the sense of ever present, but the sense of our own past like memory and our future like expectative. This reflection is based and supporter over the text “Phenomenology Lesson of the Internal Time-Consiusness” (Husserl, 2002.

  9. Immigration, naturalization and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecoli, R J

    1987-03-01

    This essay focuses upon major decisions made by the US government affecting aliens and the constitutional bases for them. These include: 1) the admission and exclusion of aliens, 2) the deportation of aliens, 3) the rights of aliens within the US, and 4) naturalization and denaturalization. The recourse to the extra-constitutional doctrine of sovereignty by the Supreme Court was the source of the plenary power of the Congress over immigration, thus denying the authority of the judiciary to extend the guarantees of due process of law and the equal protection of the law to aliens. The courts in the last 2 decades have assumed a more activist posture with respect to the rights of aliens, extending a greater degree of constitutional protection to the security of acquired citizenship and to the rights of due process and equal protection of foreigners, even to undocumented aliens.

  10. Constitutional Analysis of Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ van der Walt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Constitutional Court’s treatment of property interests in the face of state regulation to gain an understanding of the type of state interference that is justifiable in terms of section 25(1 of the Bill of Rights. This is done by examining the Constitutional Court’s dicta relating to the meaning of deprivation and how these inform the meaning of property in the constitutional context. The methodology that the Constitutional Court has formulated to assess if state interference complies with the provisions of section 25 is explained to show the type of state regulation that has been found legitimate. We then consider how this understanding of constitutional property and the state’s legitimate exercise of its inherent police power interact in the setting of intellectual property by contrasting the various policy objectives underlying the different statutory regimes governing intellectual property. This theoretical analysis is then applied to two contemporary examples of feasible state interference with existing intellectual property interests, namely the proposed plain packaging measures which severely restrict the use of tobacco trade marks, and a fair dealing exception allowing the use of copyright works for the purpose of parody. These examples serve to illustrate the context and manner in which intellectual property interests may come before the Court and the necessary differentiation with which these interests should be treated. The appropriate judicial assessment of the true impact that state action could have on vested property interests is explained and contrasted with the balancing exercise that is employed at the earlier stage of policy making. This discussion is concluded by highlighting some of the interpretational issues that will arise and how some constitutional values could be curtailed in the absence of legislative intervention.

  11. Expression of RNA-interference/antisense transgenes by the cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing strategy to study gene functions in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Jiang, Dagang; Zhou, Hai; Li, Feng; Yang, Jiawei; Hong, Laifa; Fu, Xiao; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Zhenlan; Li, Jianming; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2011-03-03

    Antisense and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing systems are powerful reverse genetic methods for studying gene function. Most RNAi and antisense experiments used constitutive promoters to drive the expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes; however, several reports showed that constitutive promoters were not expressed in all cell types in cereal plants, suggesting that the constitutive promoter systems are not effective for silencing gene expression in certain tissues/organs. To develop an alternative method that complements the constitutive promoter systems, we constructed RNAi and/or antisense transgenes for four rice genes using a constitutive promoter or a cognate promoter of a selected rice target gene and generated many independent transgenic lines. Genetic, molecular, and phenotypic analyses of these RNAi/antisense transgenic rice plants, in comparison to previously-reported transgenic lines that silenced similar genes, revealed that expression of the cognate promoter-driven RNAi/antisense transgenes resulted in novel growth/developmental defects that were not observed in transgenic lines expressing constitutive promoter-driven gene-silencing transgenes of the same target genes. Our results strongly suggested that expression of RNAi/antisense transgenes by cognate promoters of target genes is a better gene-silencing approach to discovery gene function in rice.

  12. Towards a global climate constitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikard, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper my concern is the study of the incentives of individual countries to sign an international climate agreement that sets the terms of a climate constitution, that is, it establishes emission rights and rules for trading these rights to combat the climate problem effectively and

  13. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality...

  14. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  15. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  16. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  17. Multimotor transport in constitutive exocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso Serra Marques, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transport along cytoskeletal filaments is an essential cellular process that controls numerous cellular functions by promoting correct sorting, transport and delivery of different cargos in the cell. The microtubule system and associated molecular motors, dynein and kinesins, are

  18. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  19. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Part II The President Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America... journey. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, and during Constitution Week, we commemorate the legacy...

  20. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42...

  1. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically......This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations...... in social media....

  2. Essence and constitution in Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound Zubiri’s concept of essence and to begin a critical discussion and evaluation of his proposal. Before explaining what essence is, it is necessary to observe that, for our author, not all things have an essence: only «reality-things» but not «meaning-things» form part of the «essentiable domain». This distinction between «reality-things» and «meaning-things» supposes a new conception of nature. (Nature is not the opposite of the artificial, as the Greek term physis is.«Reality-things» form a constitutional and «closed» system of non-causal and non-«external» characteristics or traits. These «foundational characteristics» of constitution, then, are precisely the essence. The article discusses critically the assumptions of this doctrine (reality, ontological pluralism, foundation and its possible limits in the light of contemporary science. It can be a useful theory for the philosophy of language.

  3. Development of inelastic constitutive model for type 304 stainless steel and its application to fracture mechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1993-01-01

    Inelastic deformation plays an important role in the structural integrity of components of liquid metal fast breeder reactors and its accurate assessment is strongly desirable for development of a reliable design procedure. A time-independent plastic constitutive model was developed for this purpose with an emphasis on temperature and temperature history-dependence of cyclic deformation behavior. This model was incorporated into a finite clement code for promoting its use in structural integrity assessment of components. A function of fracture mechanics analysis was also developed. This paper describes both the constitutive model and an example of fracture mechanics analysis. Methods for numerically estimating fracture mechanics parameters were given and their effectiveness was verified by application to a simple problem

  4. Voltage-clamp-based methods for the detection of constitutively active acetylcholine-gated I(K,ACh) channels in the diseased heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Niels; Makary, Samy; Nattel, Stanley; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2010-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation can promote atrial fibrillation (AF) that requires activation of the acetylcholine (ACh)-gated potassium current I(K,ACh). In chronic AF (cAF), I(K,ACh) shows strong activity despite the absence of ACh or analogous pharmacological stimulation. This receptor-independent, constitutive I(K,ACh) activity is suggested to represent an atrial-selective anti-AF therapeutic target, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. This chapter provides an overview of the voltage-clamp techniques that can be used to study constitutive I(K,ACh) activity in atrial myocytes and summarizes briefly the current knowledge about the potential underlying mechanism(s) of constitutive I(K,ACh) activity in diseased heart. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  6. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1 stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2 Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3 Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  7. Constitution of the Communication Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Braga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to clarify key points to characterize the field of communication studies – its possible formation as a discipline of knowledge, the question of interdisciplinarity; perspectives related to the objects of study, emphasizing the angle of “social interaction” and the theme of “media”; the problem of sharing the study of communication phenomena with other humanities and social sciences, the question of the constitution of the field, in its internal diversity, and the relationship between the phenomenon and sociocultural contexts. Each of these aspects is addressed in two stages – as perceived in the first article appeared, in 2001, and notes included now, seeking to clarify further perceptions occurring in the period.

  8. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  9. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  10. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  11. Analysis on constitution of American college republicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on internet survey and comparative analysis, according to the firsthand materials, comprehensively and systematically probes the formation of the constitution form and structure, and analyzes its contents of Constitution of American College Republicans among 15 colleges respectively, which includes the illustration of constitution, membership, personnel, meeting, financial amendment, etc. Finally, this essay analyzes the characteristics of constitution of college republicans and its advantages.

  12. 118 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    This paper attempts to analyse the constitutional development of Nigeria with a view to really determining at what point it can be said that Nigeria had a constitution. The various determinants of constitutionalism are to be x-rayed and juxtaposed with the activities of the government particularly the fourth and fifth republics.

  13. How Does the Constitution Secure Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Third in a series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication presents six essays addressing the issue of human rights and the Constitution. "How the Constitution Protects Our Rights: A Look at the Seminal Years" (Robert A. Rutland) focuses on James Madison's role…

  14. Teaching about Democratic Constitutionalism. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    There are more than 100 democracies in the world today. All but three of them--Great Britain, Israel, and New Zealand --have written constitutions. This digest examines the importance of constitutions and constitutionalism and the teaching of these concepts through the use of comparisons. The primary objectives of civic education for democratic…

  15. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  16. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  17. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  18. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  19. Recombinant vectors construction for cellobiohydrolase encoding gene constitutive expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina GURGU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91 are important exo enzymes involved in cellulose hydrolysis alongside endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4 and β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21. Heterologous cellobiohydrolase gene expression under constitutive promoter control using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host system is of great importance for a successful SSF process. From this point of view, the main objective of the work was to use Yeplac181 expression vector as a recipient for cellobiohdrolase - cbhB encoding gene expression under the control of the actin promoter, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hybridvectors, YEplac-Actp and YEplac-Actp-CbhB, were generated usingEscherichia coli XLI Blue for the cloning experiments. Constitutive cbhB gene expression was checked by proteine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE after insertion of these constructs into Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. CONSTITUTIONAL COMPLAINT DAN CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION DAN PERLINDUNGAN HAK-HAK KONSTITUSIONAL WARGA NEGARA

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2012-01-01

    The 1945 Constitution gives limitative authority to the Constitutional Court only to review of laws against the constitution, adjudicate dispute over state institution whose authorities are mandate by constitution, adjudicate dispute on the result of general election, dissolution of political parties and obliged to decide upon DPR’s opinion in the case of the impeachment of the President. In practice, many of the constitutional issues can not be resolved by the Constitutional Court because it...

  1. Constitutional Complaint Dan Constitutional Question Dan Perlindungan Hak-hak Konstitusional Warga Negara

    OpenAIRE

    Zoelva, Hamdan

    2012-01-01

    The 1945 Constitution gives limitative authority to the Constitutional Court only to review of laws against the constitution, adjudicate dispute over state institution whose authorities are mandate by constitution, adjudicate dispute on the result of general election, dissolution of political parties and obliged to decide upon DPR's opinion in the case of the impeachment of the President. In practice, many of the constitutional issues can not be resolved by the Constitutional Court because it...

  2. The Power of Comparison in Teaching about Constitutionalism, Law, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kermit L.

    Promoting change in civic education means rethinking what are the important aspects to teach about the Constitution, law, and democracy to equip students to be effective and affective citizens. The scope of instruction needs to broaden to include specific comparisons between the U.S. federal system of law and constitutionalism with counterparts in…

  3. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  4. Two Nucleolar Proteins, GDP1 and OLI2, Function As Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Are Preferentially Involved in Promotion of Leaf Cell Proliferation without Strongly Affecting Leaf Adaxial–Abaxial Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf abaxial–adaxial patterning is dependent on the mutual repression of leaf polarity genes expressed either adaxially or abaxially. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this process is strongly affected by mutations in ribosomal protein genes and in ribosome biogenesis genes in a sensitized genetic background, such as asymmetric leaves2 (as2. Most ribosome-related mutants by themselves do not show leaf abaxialization, and one of their typical phenotypes is the formation of pointed rather than rounded leaves. In this study, we characterized two ribosome-related mutants to understand how ribosome biogenesis is linked to several aspects of leaf development. Previously, we isolated oligocellula2 (oli2 which exhibits the pointed-leaf phenotype and has a cell proliferation defect. OLI2 encodes a homolog of Nop2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a ribosome biogenesis factor involved in pre-60S subunit maturation. In this study, we found another pointed-leaf mutant that carries a mutation in a gene encoding an uncharacterized protein with a G-patch domain. Similar to oli2, this mutant, named g-patch domain protein1 (gdp1, has a reduced number of leaf cells. In addition, gdp1 oli2 double mutants showed a strong genetic interaction such that they synergistically impaired cell proliferation in leaves and produced markedly larger cells. On the other hand, they showed additive phenotypes when combined with several known ribosomal protein mutants. Furthermore, these mutants have a defect in pre-rRNA processing. GDP1 and OLI2 are strongly expressed in tissues with high cell proliferation activity, and GDP1-GFP and GFP-OLI2 are localized in the nucleolus. These results suggest that OLI2 and GDP1 are involved in ribosome biogenesis. We then examined the effects of gdp1 and oli2 on adaxial–abaxial patterning by crossing them with as2. Interestingly, neither gdp1 nor oli2 strongly enhanced the leaf polarity defect of as2. Similar results were obtained with as2 gdp1 oli2

  5. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 Proclamation 8715--National Employer Support of the... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America... country stands for. Every year, thousands of candidates for citizenship commemorate Constitution Day and...

  6. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  7. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  8. Constitutional Amendment and Political Constitutionalism: The Potential Mitigation of Critiques on Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Néia Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The criticisms toward judicial review from Richard Bellamy and Jeremy Waldron’s political constitutionalism approach demonstrate that they do not exclude constitutional courts entirely, as they accept mechanisms of legislative responses, except constitutional amendments. This paper concludes that the high number of constitutional amendments in Brazil does not mitigate judicial review critiques. The extensive structure of the Brazilian Constitution imposes frequent changes, which do not modify its essence. Furthermore, the possibility of judicial review over constitutional amendments represents that constitutional court could overrule legislative response.

  9. The constitutional right subject: Beyond an analytical program

    OpenAIRE

    Caridad Rosa Jiménez-Morales; Danelia Cutié-Mustelier

    2017-01-01

    Since the Cuban higher education must ensure the comprehensive training of students, with a strong scientific-technical, humanistic and high ideological values, political, ethical and aesthetic training, in order to achieve professional revolutionaries educated, competent independent and creators, so that they can perform successfully in the various sectors of the economy and society in general. The contribution of a group of teachers who have taught or teach the subject of Constitutional Law...

  10. Childrens' Rights in the South African Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Children were in many respects defenceless victims of discriminatory practices in ‘apartheid South Africa’. In fact, discrimination on the basis of gender, race and other inequalities were inscribed in the social fabric of the previous constitutional dispensation. The constitutional dispensation that came into effect on the 27th April 1994 was therefore designed to innovate social, political and legal structures that would be radically different from those of the country’s past history.In this contribution the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children are considered. In order to fathom the impact. a general overview of constitutional principles and provisions necessary for the comprehension of the rights of children is provided. Thereafter the rights of children expressly mentioned in the Constitution will be addressed. Attention is also paid to the equal protection and non-discrimination provisions of the Constitution, albeit only indirectly.

  11. "Not our constitution". Assessing the United Nations' assistance to the recent Somali constitution-making process.

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The UN increasingly provides assistance to constitution-making in war-torn countries as an element of larger peacebuilding operations. The underlying assumption is that constitution-making, if conducted in the right way, may contribute positively to peace in several ways. First, constitution-making can contribute to reconciliation by providing a platform for people to come together and agree on a common future for their state. Second, constitution-making can provide legitimacy to constitution...

  12. The Jurisdiction of The Constitutional Court In Controlling The Constitutionality of Criminal Judgments: Kosovo Case

    OpenAIRE

    BRAHA, Florentina Shala; BYTYQI, Vilard; VUNIQI, Dardan; Berisha, Fadil

    2016-01-01

    This paper will deal with individual requests that are submitted at the Constitutional Court in order to assess the constitutionality of criminal judicial decisions. The right to submit issues for assessing the constitutionality of criminal court decisions is a constitutionally guaranteed right. Many individuals who are dissatisfied with the decisions of the judicial instances use their right to oppose such a decision even at the Constitutional Court.Not all the cases submitted to the Court a...

  13. Autonomous Province of Vojvodina between the Constitution and the decision of the Constitutional court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiplić Svetozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals individual assessments Constitutional court of the Competent in Law, as well as its different interpretation of constitutional and legal provisions. The author is of the opinion that the Constitutional Court amended the constitution and the law guaranteed the position of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and that the 'conservative interpretation of' diminished the rights of citizens by the constitution itself by.

  14. Complexities of Constitutional Change in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Cheryl; Yusingco, Michael Henry

    2018-01-01

    President Rodrigo Duterte assumed office in July 2016, His party, PDP-Laban, had campaigned under the slogan: “No to Drugs, Yes to Federalism”. Duterte thus is committed to shepherding the Philippines towards a federal form of government; an undertaking that would require an extensive overhaul of the country’s constitution. The future of constitutional change under Duterte in any event is uncertain for a series of constitutional and political reasons. Critically, some of the most pressing of ...

  15. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  16. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  17. Engineering of synthetic, stress-responsive yeast promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajkumar, Arun Stephen; Liu, Guodong; Bergenholm, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and our understanding of the rules of promoter architecture have led to the development of diverse synthetic constitutive and inducible promoters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the design of promoters inducibleby specific endogenous or environmental conditions...

  18. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  19. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution of 1996 contain specific provisions applicable to juristic persons. Juristic persons are also entitled to the fundamental rights contained in the Bill of Rights to the extent that these rights are applicable to them. It must be kept in mind that juristic persons have peculiar ...

  20. Constitutional Government: The Soul of Modern Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Harvey C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma faced by constitutionalism today: limited, constitutional government requires that people and society be independent and distrustful of the state, but if the people are too independent and capable of ruling, they may wish to extend their powers and attempt to rule over others. (PS)

  1. Distinguishing Limitation on Constitutional Rights from Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspension of and limitation on fundamental rights and freedoms are justified violations of constitutional rights. Temporary suspension of some fundamental rights and freedoms can be made on the ground of a state of emergency. Since most constitutional rights are not absolute, they can be limited on basis of national ...

  2. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  3. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  4. N-Glycosylation Engineering to Improve the Constitutive Expression of Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in Komagataella phaffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Min; Jiang, Chuanhuan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yan

    2017-07-26

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the N-glycans in Rhizopus chinensis lipase (RCL) was important for its secretion. In order to improve the secretion of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) under the control of the GAP promoter in Komagataella phaffii, two extra N-glycosylation sites were introduced in ROL according to the position of the N-glycosylation sites of RCL by sequence alignment. The results indicated that the secretion level of ROL was strongly improved by N-glycosylation engineering, and the highest value of extracellular enzyme activity was increased from 0.4 ± 0.2 U/mL to 207 ± 6 U/mL in a shake flask. In the 7-L fermenter, the extracellular enzyme activity of the mutant (2600 ± 43 U/mL) and the total protein concentration (2.5 ± 0.2 g/L) were 218- and 6.25-fold higher than these of the parent, respectively. This study presents a strategy for constitutive recombinant expression of ROL using the GAP promoter combined with N-glycosylation engineering, providing a potential enzyme for application in the food industry.

  5. New vectors for chromosomal integration enable high-level constitutive or inducible magnetosome expression of fusion proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Sarah; Hofmann, Julia; Pollithy, Anna; Lang, Claus; Schüler, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense biomineralizes magnetosomes, which consist of monocrystalline magnetite cores enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer containing specific proteins. Magnetosomes represent magnetic nanoparticles with unprecedented magnetic and physicochemical characteristics. These make them potentially useful in a number of biotechnological and biomedical applications. Further functionalization can be achieved by expression of foreign proteins via genetic fusion to magnetosome anchor peptides. However, the available genetic tool set for strong and controlled protein expression in magnetotactic bacteria is very limited. Here, we describe versatile vectors for either inducible or high-level constitutive expression of proteins in M. gryphiswaldense. The combination of an engineered native PmamDC promoter with a codon-optimized egfp gene (Mag-egfp) resulted in an 8-fold increase in constitutive expression and in brighter fluorescence. We further demonstrate that the widely used Ptet promoter is functional and tunable in M. gryphiswaldense. Stable and uniform expression of the EGFP and β-glucuronidase (GusA) reporters was achieved by single-copy chromosomal insertion via Tn5-mediated transposition. In addition, gene duplication by Mag-EGFP-EGFP fusions to MamC resulted in further increased magnetosome expression and fluorescence. Between 80 and 210 (for single MamC-Mag-EGFP) and 200 and 520 (for MamC-Mag-EGFP-EGFP) GFP copies were estimated to be expressed per individual magnetosome particle.

  6. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  7. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  8. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

  9. MINISTERIAL LIABILITY IN THE ROMANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PAVEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available What seems relevant to us for highlighting in this study is the approach of the ministerial liability within the Romanian constitutional and legal system starting with the first document of constitutional value, namely the Developing Statute of the Paris Convention of 1858 until today, that is the Constitution of Romania, revised in 2003 and republished. Having in view that this is a generous study topic covering over 150 years of constitutional and legal evolution of ministerial liability in Romania, it is necessary to specify from the very beginning the need of a diachronic approach of this topic by identifying all Romanian Constitutions that have regulated the constitutional system during this period of time. Moreover, we have to specify that, during this period of time, Romania has experienced several forms of governance, namely monarchy, people’s republic, socialist republic and semi-presidential republic. With this approach, the proposed study opens a complex and complete yet not exhaustive vision in the current scope of the ministerial liability. It is also the reason why the study begins with preliminary considerations in which the terminology used in the content of the study is justified. Following a key-scheme, there are successively examined the two major parts of the study, namely the general theory regarding the concepts of ministerial responsibility and liability and the Romanian constitutional, legal and doctrinaire milestones of the ministerial liability.

  10. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  11. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  12. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  13. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  14. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J.; Sun, Tae Boo

    2016-01-01

    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort

  15. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  16. Dynamic constitutional frameworks for DNA biomimetic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Romina; Barboiu, Mihail; Moleavin, Ioana; Clima, Lilia; Rotaru, Alexandru; Ursu, Elena-Laura; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-02-07

    Linear and cross-linked dynamic constitutional frameworks generated from reversibly interacting linear PEG/core constituents and cationic sites shed light on the dominant coiling versus linear DNA binding behaviours, closer to the histone DNA binding wrapping mechanism.

  17. Constitutive equation of concrete: Mesomechanical isotropic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav; Vokoun, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2005), s. 183-193 ISSN 1573-6105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : plasticity * constitutive modeling * concrete * mesomechanics Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  18. Social rights constitutionalism: an antagonistic endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulidis, Emilios

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses how we might understand solidarity as the organizing concept behind the institutionalization of social rights. I argue that writing solidarity into social rights constitutionalism carries productive tension into constitutional thinking because it disturbs the smooth passage from civil to political and finally to social rights. Marshall's influential argument that social rights are continuous to civil and political rights has become both the grounding assumption in consti...

  19. Constitutional rights and hypnotically elicited testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A W; Thompson, J W

    1999-01-01

    Despite the former popularity of hypnosis as a way of "improving" eyewitness memory, many courts almost always regard the use of this testimony to be inadmissible, whereas others allow it only when strict procedural guidelines have been followed. Although the U.S. Supreme Court recognized a defendant's constitutional right to admit his own hypnotically elicited testimony, others have recognized a constitutional basis to exclude hypnotically elicited testimony in most other circumstances.

  20. On the constitutionality of dose limiting values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, V.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental right according to Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the German Constitution is relevant for the set-up and application of radiation protection law. Resulting from Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution it is a general obligation of the state to protect life (Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 25th Feb., 1975, BVerfGE 39.1) and physical soundness. The subjective basic right of everybody to defend against official encroachments his personal integrity corresponds to the right of the individual within the framework of the official obligation for protection from the state (to ward off danger). The term of danger, as to the degree of its determination, corresponds to that of the encroachment. To speak of danger in a legal sense, the causal connection between a certain source of danger and certain damage must be ascertained and proved. Topical controversies as to the admissibility of activity discharges of low doses range in the field of risk reduction and thus in the field of the duty of the state to take precautionary steps against risks (Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution). The constitution, however, does not contain any basic right that every risk has to be avoided. On the other hand, the necessity of cautions valuation of radiation risks can be derived from the Constitution. The fixation of dose limits and their application in connection with general radiation protection principles (paragraph 28 E of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) do not contain any 'interference' with the basic right in the sense of Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 3 of the Constitution. Neither from aspects of the principle of the legal state nor from Art. 80 par. 1 of the Constitution can the use of the legal form of the Ordinance be doubted. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Enhancement of endothelial cell migration by constitutively active LPA{sub 1}-expressing tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitayoshi, Misaho; Kato, Kohei; Tanabe, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Kyohei; Fukui, Rie [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fukushima, Nobuyuki [Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Cancer Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} stimulates cell migration of endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF expressions are increased by mutated LPA{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} is involved in angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} promotes cancer cell progression. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors belong to G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors (LPA receptors; LPA{sub 1} to LPA{sub 6}). They indicate a variety of cellular response by the interaction with LPA, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Recently, we have reported that constitutive active mutated LPA{sub 1} induced the strong biological effects of rat neuroblastoma B103 cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of mutated LPA{sub 1} on the interaction between B103 cells and endothelial F-2 cells. Each LPA receptor expressing B103 cells were maintained in serum-free DMEM and cell motility assay was performed with a Cell Culture Insert. When F-2 cells were cultured with conditioned medium from Lpar1 and Lpar3-expressing cells, the cell motility of F-2 cells was significantly higher than control cells. Interestingly, the motile activity of F-2 cells was strongly induced by mutated LPA{sub 1} than other cells, correlating with the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf)-A and Vegf-C. Pretreatment of LPA signaling inhibitors inhibited F-2 cell motility stimulated by mutated LPA{sub 1}. These results suggest that activation of LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} may play an important role in the promotion of angiogenesis in rat neuroblastoma cells.

  2. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  3. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  4. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  5. Promoting Strong ISO 50001 Outcomes with Supportive National Infrastructure:

    OpenAIRE

    McKane, Aimee, T.; Siciliano, Graziella; de los Reyes, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The ISO 50001 standard is a key mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency globally. An increasing number of companies are seeking certification, creating the need for personnel that are competent to conduct ISO 50001 certification audits. The growth of ISO 50001 is expected to accelerate as more companies integrate ISO 50001 into their corporate sustainability strategies and supplier requirements. Robust implementation of ISO 50001 represents an impo...

  6. Promoting Strong ISO 50001 Outcomes with Supportive National Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee, T.; Siciliano, Graziella; de los Reyes, Pamela

    2015-08-04

    The ISO 50001 standard is a key mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency globally. An increasing number of companies are seeking certification, creating the need for personnel that are competent to conduct ISO 50001 certification audits. The growth of ISO 50001 is expected to accelerate as more companies integrate ISO 50001 into their corporate sustainability strategies and supplier requirements. Robust implementation of ISO 50001 represents an important tool for countries with climate change mitigation goals. Because of its dual focus on continual improvement of an organization’s energy management system (EnMS) and its energy performance improvement, ISO 50001 requires skills of both implementers and certification auditors that are not well-supported by current credentials and training. This paper describes an effort to address skill gaps of certification auditors, a critical factor to ensure that ISO 50001 implementations are robust and result in continued energy performance improvement. A collaboration of governments through the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG), formerly under Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP), has formed to build workforce capacity for ISO 50001 certification audits. The EMWG is leading the development of an internationally-relevant certification scheme for ISO 50001 Lead Auditor that meets requirements for ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation and ISO 50003 for defining ISO 50001 Lead Auditor competency. Wider availability of competent ISO 50001 Lead Auditors will ultimately increase the impact and market value of ISO 50001 certification and improve consistency of ISO 50001 certification outcomes by establishing a standardized and high level of knowledge and skills globally.

  7. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  8. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  10. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  11. Nuclear energy and the constitutional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladin, P.

    1984-01-01

    This article puts the main emphasis on the problems of the constitutional principles of democracy, federalism, peaceful living together of peoples and constitutional state, i.e. problems caused by the development of nuclear energy. The fact that these problems are explained by way of the example of Switzerland, does not reduce the validity of the findings also for the German constitutional system, since the problems are identical and comparable. A long-term goal is a state theory which helps to define the aims and tasks of the state under technical, social, economic and cultural conditions of the end of the 20th and perhaps of the 21st century. Nuclear technology challenges the modern Western state and puts to the test the firmness of its legitimacy basis and the efficiency of its principles. It was conceived in a time which is separated from the present by technological revolutions. Safeguarding of humanity is aim and obligation of the modern constitutional state; the constitutional state stipulates the rules of conduct and, if the state remains true to its claim, it sets the procedures and the organization which give due priority order to the development of modern technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  13. COMPARATIVE FEDERALISM WITH REFERENCE TO CONSTITUTIONAL MACHINERY FAILURE (EMERGENCY IN INDIA AND PAKISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panch Rishi Dev Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitutions and courts both in India and in Pakistan have shown their aspirations and fundamental faith in the federal structure but in practice there is a strong centripetal bias in each of their constitutional-political structures. This bias becomes more evident when the constitution sanctions power to the centre to proclaim emergency situations in the provinces on the basis of Constitutional Machinery Failure. Emerging from their colonial roots, the constitutions of India and Pakistan contain an identical provision on Constitutional Machinery Failure Emergency which has been misused and abused regularly and has been the biggest question mark on federal claims of the two States. This unique system of Constitutional Machinery Failure Emergency has also gone through a number of radical changes in India and Pakistan, which often have been influenced by each other. The article specifies the socio-political-constitutional background of Constitutional Machinery Failure resulting in Provincial Emergency, both in India and in Pakistan, their respective use and abuse by the Executive, legislative attempts to amend and control such power, and judicial response, with similarities and differences in respect of justifiability of such Emergency Proclamations.

  14. Human β-defensin-2 production from S. cerevisiae using the repressible MET17 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Thea S B; Hay, Joanna; Saxton, Malcolm J; Bunting, Karen; Petersen, Evamaria I; Kjærulff, Søren; Finnis, Christopher J A

    2017-01-18

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host for the commercial production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. For the manufacture of heterologous proteins with activities deleterious to the host it can be desirable to minimise production during the growth phase and induce production late in the exponential phase. Protein expression by regulated promoter systems offers the possibility of improving productivity in this way by separating the recombinant protein production phase from the yeast growth phase. Commonly used inducible promoters do not always offer convenient solutions for industrial scale biopharmaceutical production with engineered yeast systems. Here we show improved secretion of the antimicrobial protein, human β-defensin-2, (hBD2), using the S. cerevisiae MET17 promoter by repressing expression during the growth phase. In shake flask culture, a higher final concentration of human β-defensin-2 was obtained using the repressible MET17 promoter system than when using the strong constitutive promoter from proteinase B (PRB1) in a yeast strain developed for high-level commercial production of recombinant proteins. Furthermore, this was achieved in under half the time using the MET17 promoter compared to the PRB1 promoter. Cell density, plasmid copy-number, transcript level and protein concentration in the culture supernatant were used to study the effects of different initial methionine concentrations in the culture media for the production of human β-defensin-2 secreted from S. cerevisiae. The repressible S. cerevisiae MET17 promoter was more efficient than a strong constitutive promoter for the production of human β-defensin-2 from S. cerevisiae in small-scale culture and offers advantages for the commercial production of this and other heterologous proteins which are deleterious to the host organism. Furthermore, the MET17 promoter activity can be modulated by methionine alone, which has a safety profile applicable to

  15. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  16. The Trials and Tribulations of Constitutionalism and the Constitution Making Process in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mapuva, Jephias

    2015-01-01

    Constitutionalism in Zimbabwe has been characterised by controversy with citizens getting a raw deal. The colonial era was characterised by deprivation of basic rights and civil liberties. A plethora of constitutions were established to try and create a semblance of black representativity. The post-colonial era was informed by governance structures provided by the Lancaster House Constitutional document which was a surrender document that brought the protracted liberation struggle to an end. ...

  17. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  18. A survey of unified constitutive theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of time temperature dependent elastic viscoplastic constitutive theories which are based on the unified approach werre assessed. This class of constitutive theories is characterized by the use of kinetic equations and internal variables with appropriate evolutionary equations for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation. More than 10 such unified theories which are shown to satisfy the uniqueness and stability criteria imposed by Drucker's postulate and Ponter's inequalities are identified. The theories are compared for the types of flow law, kinetic equation, evolutionary equation of the internal variables, and treatment of temperature dependence. The similarities and differences of these theories are outlined in terms of mathematical formulations and illustrated by comparisons of theoretical calculations with experimental results which include monotonic stress-strain curves, cyclic hysteresis loops, creep and stress relaxation rates, and thermomechanical loops. Numerical methods used for integrating these stiff time temperature dependent constitutive equations are reviewed.

  19. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  20. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...

  1. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  2. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  3. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  4. Health promotion in context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; Lehn Christiansen, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context...... model,” which is presented in this article. The model provides a framework for the analysis of health-promotion initiatives, employing eight perspectives each intertwined with the others. It is based on the assumption that health and health inequities are contextual and that the theoretically inspired...... understanding of contexts is central for health promoters. Contexts for health are seen as more than the local setting; they are embedded in societal and global conditions—which, vice versa, influence the local setting. A Danish community health project is used to exemplify how the model can be used in relation...

  5. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.

  6. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Tort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jeffrey J.

    1988-01-01

    Given state law barriers to recovery for the negligence of public officials, redress is often sought in federal courts. Discusses the concept of "constitutional tort" and analyzes the various components and the elements that must be satisfied before recovery is allowed. (MLF)

  7. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been developed at NTNU, Norway, to reproduce the mechanical behavior of the stabilized quick clay in the triaxial p'-q stress space. The model takes into account the actual mechanical properties of the stabilized material, such as ...

  8. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  9. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the

  10. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited ...

  12. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  13. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  14. A hypoplastic constitutive model for clays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2005), s. 311-336 ISSN 0363-9061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : clay * constitutive model * hypoplasticity Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.590, year: 2005

  15. Constitutive equations for two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1974-12-01

    The mathematical model of a system of fluids consists of several kinds of equations complemented by boundary and initial conditions. The first kind equations result from the application to the system, of the fundamental conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy). The second kind equations characterize the fluid itself, i.e. its intrinsic properties and in particular its mechanical and thermodynamical behavior. They are the mathematical model of the particular fluid under consideration, the laws they expressed are so called the constitutive equations of the fluid. In practice the constitutive equations cannot be fully stated without reference to the conservation laws. Two classes of model have been distinguished: mixture model and two-fluid models. In mixture models, the mixture is considered as a single fluid. Besides the usual friction factor and heat transfer correlations, a single constitutive law is necessary. In diffusion models, the mixture equation of state is replaced by the phasic equations of state and by three consitutive laws, for phase change mass transfer, drift velocity and thermal non-equilibrium respectively. In the two-fluid models, the two phases are considered separately; two phasic equations of state, two friction factor correlations, two heat transfer correlations and four constitutive laws are included [fr

  16. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited the highest ...

  17. Constitutive modelling of sandvik 1RK91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Datta, K.; Hommes, M.; Post, J.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Beyer, J.; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2003-01-01

    A physically based constitutive equation is being developed for the maraging stainless steel Sandvik 1RK91. The steel is used to make precision parts. These parts are formed through multistage forming operations and heat treatments from cold rolled and annealed sheets. The specific alloy is designed

  18. POSITION AND STRATEGIC LEITMOTIVS IN CONSTITUTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    novel rigorously interrogating issues of identity and difference. A resoluteness not to repeat the injustices of ... to mind in this regard are National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Justice43 (the ... Lesbian and Gay Equality Project v Minister of Home Affairs,48 the Constitutional. Court judgment in which the ...

  19. globalisation, the development of constitutionalism and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    is important because labour law systems differ among countries. There may be ... international law and each country's courts will apply its own rules if the court is ..... evidence about the Mozambican constitution or the protection of human rights in that country. What is significant is that the court was prepared to assume.

  20. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  1. Constitutive laws, tensorial invariance and chocolate cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, John B.; Passman, S. L.

    1982-04-01

    Although constitutive modeling is a well-established branch of mathematics which has found wide industrial application, geophysicists often do not take full advantage of its known results. We present a synopsis of the theory of constitutive modeling, couched in terms of the ‘simple material’, which has been extensively studied and is complex enough to include most of the correct models proposed to describe the behavior of geological materials. Critical in the development of the theory are various invariance requirements, the principal ones being coordinate invariance, peer group invariance (isotropy), and frame-indifference. Each places distinet restrictions on constitutive equations. A noncomprehensive list of properly invariant and commonly used constitutive equations is given. To exemplify use of the equations, we consider two problems in detail: steady extension, which models the commonly performed constant strain rate triaxial test, and simple shearing. We note that each test is so restricted kinematically that only the most trivial aspects of material behavior are manifested in these tests, no matter how complex the material. Furthermore, the results of one test do not generally determine the results of the other.

  2. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  3. Does the Constitution Protect the Despised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Richard L; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is the history of the Scottsboro case, in which eight Black men were found guilty and sentenced to death for raping two White women in Alabama. At the heart of the Scottsboro trials was the issue of whether the U.S. Constitution established standards of justice in state criminal trials. (RM)

  4. income tax assignment under the ethiopian constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Constitution from an income tax point of view. And finally, the article ends with some concluding remarks. 1. Theories of Fiscal Federalism In Income Tax Assignment. Few countries pursue the course of decentralization on grounds of its perceived economic efficiency or equity. Political, social, cultural or historical forces are.

  5. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert

    2004-01-01

    divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down...

  6. Constitutional protection against discrimination of homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaldijk, K

    A brief review of equality for homosexuals prior to 1983 is presented followed by the introduction and explanation of the relevant section of the revised edition of the Dutch Constitution (enacted in 1983). The possible impact of this section on the abolishment of discrimination based on sex and sexual orientation is discussed.

  7. Notes: Constitutionalism | Bazezew | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Notes: Constitutionalism. M Bazezew. Abstract. (No abstract). Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  8. 1 HUMAN DIGNITY - OUR SUPREME CONSTITUTIONAL VALUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    There can be little doubt that, as far as constitutional interpretation and statutory interpretation in general is concerned, South Africa is undergoing a transformation from a formal, positivistic vision of law to a substantive, natural law vision of law.4 And the single most significant factor in this transformation is the existence of ...

  9. Language question and the constitutional challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the analogy of the Tower of Babel_ a linguistic confusion. This paper puts multilingualism in its proper perspective as a blessing, which must be accorded a full constitutional recognition, rather than a curse; an asset, rather than a liability. While making Nigeria a focal point of reference, especially the language component ...

  10. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal is empowered to deal with all cases of professional discipline under the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is examined against the background of constitutional provision that affects the exercise of the powers of the ...

  11. The parameters of constitutional conflict after Melloni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Melloni makes clear that primacy of EU law is not about citizens’ rights: even the core of their constitutional rights under national law has to be set aside in favour of the "primacy, unity and effectiveness" of EU law. Melloni extends the duty to

  12. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...... market, policy field, technical standards, transnationalization, new approach harmonization, private product policy...

  13. LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL EVALUATION OF THE NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or other financial in- struments funded by foreign exchange assets. These assets can include: balance of payments ...... national agency or programme with the funds meant for the three tiers of government which is dealt with in section 162(3) of the 1999 Constitution. It is important to ...

  14. Culture (and religion) in constitutional adjudication | Rautenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, ...

  15. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  16. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  17. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  18. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    does not combine easily, and if we ignore the effect of language on understanding we will no ... the ways in which the South African Constitutional Court has dealt with the question of religious freedom as an .... recognises both the dependence of politics on social and economic conditions and the dependence of these ...

  19. The U.S. Constitution in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    A comparative study of constitutions and governments in world history is a key to deeper understanding of the U.S. Constitution. While many countries have constitutions, the United States is among a minority of nations in today's world that has a constitutional government. Many nations' constitutions truly guarantee few protections of individual…

  20. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Today... the candidates for citizenship who will commemorate this day by joining our American family. For more...

  1. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  2. The Franco-German constitutional divide: reflections on national and constitutional identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reestman, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    German Constitutional Court decision of 30 June 2009 on the compatibility of the Lisbon Treaty with the German Constitution - ‘Identity’ key word of the Lissabon-Urteil - The national identity clause in the current Union Treaty - Nation: people and state; diachronic and synchronic identity -

  3. Parameters of constitutional development: The fiscal compact in between EU and member state constitutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Rossi, L.S.; Casolari, F.

    2014-01-01

    The answer to the questions whether the Lisbon Treaty is a quasi-constitutional framework to be revised, and whether the crisis is a matter for amending or just completing the Lisbon Treaty, depends on our understanding of what constitutional change is and entails. In this chapter, the boundaries of

  4. BUT IS IT SPEECH? MAKING CRITICAL SENSE OF THE DOMINANT CONSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE ON PORNOGRAPHY, MORALITY AND HARM UNDER THE PERVASIVE INFLUENCE OF UNITED STATES FIRST AMENDMENT JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letetia van der Poll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the pervasive influence of United States First Amendment jurisprudence, adult gender-specific sexually explicit (or “pornographic” material is conceptualized, and thus protected in the “marketplace of ideas”, as a particular mode of expression; to be viewed as part of the fabric of an open, free and democratic society. The values which free expression are seen to promote centre upon the advancement of political debate and promotion of personal self-fulfilment and autonomy. Attempts to conceptualise sexually explicit material within a gender-specific human rights framework present distinct challenges which, in a patriarchal legal and political design, appear to be near insurmountable. These challenges seem to be related to the enduring impact of the common law conception of obscenity (with its strong moralistic overtones on the jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court, coupled with a subjective libertarian-inspired test, and the Supreme Court’s general reluctance (also echoed by the South African Constitutional Court to consider a gender-specific conception of harm emanating from feminist arguments premised upon women’s constitutional interests in human dignity, equality and bodily integrity. The social revolution of the 1960s, coupled with the women’s liberation movement, called for a distinct departure from the traditional conception of sexually explicit material as a mode of constitutionally defendable free speech and expression, a conception which unavoidably calls for a moralistic approach, separating acceptable forms of expression from those not deemed worthy of (constitutional protection (termed “obscenity”, specifically created to satisfy the “prurient interest”. The Supreme Court’s obscenity jurisprudence is characterised by two key features. First, the court subscribes to an abstract concept of free speech, which proceeds from the assumption that all speech is of equal value, and thereby surmises

  5. Effect of pps disruption and constitutive expression of srfA on surfactin productivity, spreading and antagonistic properties of Bacillus subtilis 168 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutte, F; Leclère, V; Béchet, M; Guez, J-S; Lecouturier, D; Chollet-Imbert, M; Dhulster, P; Jacques, P

    2010-08-01

    To analyse the effects of plipastatin operon disruption and constitutive expression of surfactin operon in Bacillus subtilis 168 on surfactin productivity, in vitro invasive growth and antagonism against fungi. The srfA native promoter was replaced by the constitutive promoter P(repU) in B. subtilis 168 after integration of a functional sfp gene. Moreover, the plipastatin synthesis was further disrupted in the B. subtilis 168 derivatives. In liquid media, an earlier and higher expression of P(repU), than that found with P(srfA), led to a specific surfactin production fivefold higher after 6 h of culture. On solid media, not only the invasive growth and the haemolytic activity but also the antifungal activity of the constitutive strains were improved when compared to the parental strain BBG111. As expected, the disruption of the plipastatin operon strongly reduced in vitro antifungal properties but, interestingly, enhanced specific surfactin production (1.47 g g(-1) of biomass), spreading behaviour and haemolytic activity of the strains. This work demonstrates for the first time the interdependency of surfactin and plipastatin regarding their biosynthesis as well as their influence on the biological activities of the producing strain. The constitutive overproduction of surfactin enhances the invasive growth and the in vitro antagonistic activity of the mutant strain. Both properties are known to play an important role in the biocontrol of plant diseases. Plipastatin operon disruption increases the surfactin productivity of mutant strains. These mutants are interesting for use in continuous bioprocesses for surfactin production or in bioremediation.

  6. CAN THE MUSLIM WORLD BORROW FROM INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM? A Comparative Constitutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analytically examine the possibility of constitutional borrowing for the Muslim world regardless the differences in history, system, culture, language, and cha­racteristics. It discusses this issue by looking at the arguments put forth by the oppo­nents of comparative cons­titutional interpre­tation and their counter arguments. It will consider materials from Canada, USA, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hungary, taking the position that constitutional borrowing can be justified. The paper argues that the 1999-2002 Indonesian constitutional reform should be taken into account by other Muslim countries in undertaking their constitutional reform. The substantive approach of the Shari‘ah that has been used in Indonesia has shown that Muslim world can reform its constitutions without the “assistance” of Western foreign policy. Indo­nesian constitutional reform has demonstrated that Islamic constitutionalism comes from within Islamic teaching and the Islamic community itself; it is a home grown product.

  7. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Hongjun [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  8. Laboratory investigation of constitutive property scaling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because many constitutive rock properties must be measured at one scale but applied at another, scaling behavior is an issue facing many applied disciplines, including the petroleum industry. A research program has been established to investigate and a quantify scaling behavior through systematic physical experimentation, with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. The approach is to systematically isolate those factors that influence property scaling and investigate their relative contributions to overall scaling behavior. Two blocks of rock, each exhibiting differing heterogeneity structure. have recently been examined. The two samples were found to yield different scaling behavior, as exhibited by changes in the distribution functions and semi-variograms. Simple models have been fit to the measured scaling behavior that are of similar functional form but of different magnitude

  9. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1989-01-01

    Reprocessing and final storage involve two different systems of nuclear energy utilization: with or without the use of plutonium. There is a choice available between these two systems. The paper discusss the constitutional implications of this choice. The permission of the use of plutonium as nuclear fuel by the Atomic Energy Law is irreconcilable with the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. If the corresponding provisions of the Atomic Energy Law are repealed, then only the plutonium-related branch will be revoked and not the legal permission of nuclear energy as a whole. The fact is not ignored that the Atomic Energy law does not permit the construction and operation of a plant or the handling of plutonium if this were to violate a basic right. However, the plutonium-related branch of nculear energy utilization inevitably results in such basic right violations; hence the Atomic Energy law is unconstitutional in this respect. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Technical risks as a constitutional problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murswiek, D.

    1991-01-01

    Between the constitutional duty to protect, and the limits of protecting powers lies a domain where governmental bodies are empowered, but not obligated, to control and plan technical development and risks. Thus there is political responsibility for the way technical matters are handled, and a constitutional perspetive for accepting technical risks. As long as there has been general consent for technical progress, politicians were able to let the progress process take its course. Now they are asked to intervene. The transformation of living conditions through technical innovation has a greater significance for the individual and the State as a whole than most of the other matters of political decision-making. It would be irresponsible therefore to leave technical development to its own dynamics, and not continuously assess impacts of new technologies, weight up possible advantages and disadvantages, and change the course if necessary. (orig./HWCH) [de

  11. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    The EU internal market has predominantly been studied in terms of changes in delegation of authority and division of labor between EU institutions and member states. However, this EU internal focus ignores that already in 1987 the completion of the internal market was substantially left...... outside EU political and administrative control - in the constitution of the internal market. Second, the delegation raises important analytical questions concerning the identification of the institutional locus of European integration, when the realization of the political goals with the internal market...... is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...

  12. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict......A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...

  13. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  14. National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos

    2016-01-01

     The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a numb...

  15. Irish Supreme Court finds abortion information law constitutional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    On May 12, 1995, the Irish Supreme Court upheld constitutional legislation governing the provision of information regarding legal abortion services abroad. The measure, which was adopted, 85-67, on March 8 by the lower House (Dail) and approved on March 14 by the Senate (Seanad), permits Irish family planning groups, physicians, health advisory services, and counseling centers to continue informing women about abortion within the context of a comprehensive discussion of pregnancy options. Making direct referrals or appointments for abortion services, writing letters of introduction for patients or clients, and advocating or promoting the procedure are prohibited. Medical records may be forwarded once a woman has made her own appointment. The law bans dissemination of the information to the general public and any financial connection between the groups providing counseling and those performing abortions. Irish President Mary Robinson sent the measure to the Supreme Court for review, rather than signing it. The measure was initially intended to implement one portion of a three-part 1992 constitutional referendum on abortion, which occurred in the wake of a case of a pregnant 14-year-old rape survivor who sought to travel to England for an abortion. A lower court decision which had prevented the woman from leaving the country was overturned by the Irish Supreme Court, based on her suicidal state. That year, nearly 60% of the electorate supported a measure making information about abortion in other countries available to Irish women. 65% rejected a proposal limiting abortion to cases where the mother's life, not health, was in danger. The rejected proposal would not have allowed abortions in cases where self-destruction was an issue. 62% approved an amendment guaranteeing an unambiguous constitutional right to travel, including for abortion services. More than 4000 women travel to England for abortions annually. After the Supreme Court ruling, the measure was signed

  16. Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, R; Rajagopal, K R

    2015-03-08

    Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder.

  17. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal cau...

  19. Global Survey of National Constitutions: Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarossa, Lucía Berro; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-12-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one's sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform.

  20. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  1. The Constitutional Deficiencies of the German 'Rechtsgutslehre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the theoretical merits and constitutional validity of the “Rechtsgutslehre” (doctrine of the protection of legal goods, a widely held doctrine about the limits of legitimate criminalization in Germany and some other jurisdictions. The immediate cause for this reassessment is a recent decision of the German constitutional court which upheld the German incest prohibition and simultaneously rejected the traditional “Rechtsgutslehre” as constitutionally irrelevant, thereby stirring up considerable controversy among academic criminal lawyers. The paper tries to show why the court’s view is correct by pointing out the main deficiencies of the doctrine and what criteria a better theory must fulfil. Este artículo cuestiona los méritos teóricos y la validez constitucional de la "Rechtsgutslehre" (doctrina de la protección de los bienes jurídicos, una doctrina muy extendida acerca de los límites de la criminalización legítima en Alemania y algunas otras jurisdicciones. La causa inmediata de esta nueva valoración es una decisión reciente del Tribunal Constitucional alemán que ratificó la prohibición del incesto en Alemania y al mismo tiempo rechazó el tradicional "Rechtsgutslehre" por ser constitucionalmente irrelevante, lo que provocó una considerable controversia entre la comunidad académica de abogados criminalistas. El artículo trata de mostrar por qué la decisión de la corte es correcta, señalando las deficiencias principales de la doctrina y los criterios que una teoría más adecuada debe cumplir. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200870

  2. Constitutionalism and good governance in Nigeria (1999-2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the country, at present, has a written constitution which in reality, was derived from a military decree, there has been constant debate as to whether what the country has is really a constitution and whether the subsequent civilian regimes are constitutional governments. This paper attempts to analyse the constitutional ...

  3. An Integrated Theory of Constitutionalism in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    both been regarded a indicating a triumph as well as a failure of constitutionalism. This article circumvents this standoff by questioning the very foundation of constitutional theory in the public/private and the national/transnational distinctions. It is argued that the object of constitutions...... for compatibility between orders through constitutionalisation and the idea of constitutionalism as a way of approaching the future....

  4. Ubuntu versus the core values of the South African Constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the dawn of South Africa's new era of constitutionalism the Constitutional Court introduced “African law and legal thinking” and ubuntu to South African jurisprudence as part of the Constitution's source of democratic values. Whereas the Constitutional Court averred on the one hand that African law sustains firmly ...

  5. 1 CHILDREN'S RIGHTS IN THE SOUTH-AFRICAN CONSTITUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1994-04-27

    Apr 27, 1994 ... In order to fathom the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children, a general overview of constitutional principles and provisions necessary for the comprehension of the rights of children in the Constitution will be given. .... terms of section 8(2) entitles a court to read constitutional rights into the.

  6. The constitutional right subject: Beyond an analytical program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Rosa Jiménez-Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Cuban higher education must ensure the comprehensive training of students, with a strong scientific-technical, humanistic and high ideological values, political, ethical and aesthetic training, in order to achieve professional revolutionaries educated, competent independent and creators, so that they can perform successfully in the various sectors of the economy and society in general. The contribution of a group of teachers who have taught or teach the subject of Constitutional Law in the form of classroom study with the primary purpose of presentation of several curricular activities and extracurricular, as a reference point for his team, will provide an educational legacy to future generations of teachers, and assess their relevance for possible generalization in other university centers where the School of law is studied.

  7. Theological Reform, Bernhardt Varenius and the Constitution of Geographic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that the relationship among science and religion has been of great importance for the development of a mechanical conception of nature since the seventeenth century that was by the Protestant Reform. Such reform has led to the desecration of the Nature, the formation of a mechanical conception of it, including a strong imaginative and practical component which conducted to the construction of the telescope and the microscope, furthermore the innovations in chemistry and medicine. In this context the geographic work of Bernhardt Varenius started the modern geographical thought due to the reflection on the empirical validity of the works of Galileo Galilei, Kepler and Descartes. Varenius understood the surface of as an articulated set of different areas identified by each part that constitutes the product of a complex crossroads between culture,religion and nature.

  8. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  10. Validation of constitutive equations for steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, T.; Magain, P.; Quik, M.; Labibes, K.; Albertini, C.

    1997-01-01

    High strain rate mechanical properties are a major concern for each steel manufacturer, especially with respect to thin sheet steel used in the automotive branch. We began to study this topic by starting a project with the following goals: acquiring reliable experimental data, understanding in depth the energy absorption in thin sheet steel and finding the right constitutive material equation. The first part of the project has been presented in. In this paper we present data computation and comparison with the existing material model theories to exploit the experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  12. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    surprising development in the region. This article analyses how strategic relations between the EU and Egypt are being challenged by constitutional changes in Egypt following the political development since early 2011. Initially the article describes European-Egyptian relations prior to the fall of President...... of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...

  14. What Constitutes 'Failure to Notify' National Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    “The inclusion of article 260(3) TFEU adopted as part of the Lisbon Treaty changed the landscape of infringement proceedings. The provision grants the Commission the power to propose monetary sanctions already during the initial Court litigation against a Member State that ‘failed to notify...... and is prone to lead to judicial uncertainty. It further increases the already heavily criticized Commission discretion. Furthermore, the lack of proper guidelines of what constitutes ‘failure to notify’ can lead to the arbitrary launching of non-communication proceedings as well as further complicate...

  15. Engineering and the constitution. Technik und Verfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, R.

    1988-01-01

    We can see at every turn how instruments once used for the good of mankind become blunt right before our very eyes. They still serve their purpose, but each further step brings about less additional benefit ('residual benefit'). This is a fundamental problem rather than a detail problem, as it is the self-concept, reliability and stability of our public order that is at risk. 'Constitution' in this sense is more than just the legal basis of the state; as used by the author it refers to the laws governing a society's life. (orig./HSCH).

  16. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  17. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  18. Ide Mengakomodasi Constitutional Complain sebagai Kewenangan Baru Mahkamah Konstitusi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Taruna, Bayu Lesmana

    2010-01-01

    Constitutional Courts presence in the Indonesian state administration system in, order to reform state affairs which menutut law enforcement in a fair and democratic about the constitution. In general, society or justitiabellen who feel their human rights have been violated by the law expect to benefit by the existence of the Constitutional Court. Further development of the Constitutional Court has managed to provide protection for the constitutional rights of citizens from any violation of l...

  19. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  20. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH) [de

  1. National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a number of industries, such as the automotive industry, the passenger transport industry, the energy industry and the industry of manufacture of weapons, beverages and tobacco products. By demonstrating the mistakes of the arguments in favor of such exclusions, the article holds up that none of these provisions meets constitutional standards. Furthermore, based on a critical analysis of the Positive Law, it is shown that the hidden desire behind the exclusions was to keep the economic sectors of high profitability under control of big corporations to the detriment of smaller initiatives.

  2. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  3. Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades.

  4. Constitutive model for coupled inelasticity and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, M.

    1995-01-01

    A constitutive model to describe a coupling between deformation and damage due to creep of polycrystalline metallic materials is developed from phenomenological and continuum mechanics points of view. The constitutive modeling is based on the irreversible thermodynamics for internal state variable theories, where the thermodynamic potentials, i.e., free energy and dissipation energy functions, are defined using hardening and damage variables. The material damage is assumed to be isotropic. We first derive a damage coupled kinematic-hardening model in the invariant form on the basis of the Malinin-Khadjinsky model. Then, an isotropic-hardening model which includes a coupling with damage is formulated by assuming a particular representation of the kinematic hardening variable. The evolution equation of the hardening variable is prescribed by the Bailey-Orowan format which includes the effect of damage. The damage rate is governed by the magnitude of the assumed strain hardening variable. These models can describe a transition from primary to tertiary creep stages, and it is applicable to variable loading conditions. In a particular case the expression for the creep rupture time has a similar form to the Kachanov-Rabotnov type, although it depends on the time and damage at the instant of a hardening saturation under the applied stress condition. (author)

  5. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  6. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  7. Association between Albuminuria and Different Body Constitution in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Because albuminuria is modifiable, identifying relevant risk factors could facilitate prevention and/or management. This cross-sectional study investigated whether body constitution (BC independently predicts albuminuria. Method. Patients with T2DM (n=846 received urinalysis, a blood test, and diabetic retinopathy examination. Albuminuria was defined by an elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg. BC type (Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ. Traditional risk factors for albuminuria were also recorded. Odds ratios (ORs of albuminuria for BC were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Albuminuria was more prevalent in patients with Yang deficiency or Phlegm stasis (both P<0.01. After adjustment, patients with both Yang deficiency and Phlegm stasis exhibited a significantly higher risk of albuminuria (OR = 3.037; 95% confidence interval = 1.572–5.867, and P<0.001. Conclusion. BC is strongly associated with albuminuria in T2DM patients. Using a BCQ to assess BC is noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive and can provide information for health care professionals to identify T2DM patients who are at a high risk of albuminuria.

  8. Constitutive overexpressed type I interferon induced downregulation of antiviral activity in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Shun; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2017-03-01

    In fish, as well as vertebrates, type I interferons (IFNs) are important cytokines that help to provide innate, antiviral immunity. Although low amounts of IFN are constitutively secreted under normal physiological conditions, long-term and excessive IFN stimulation leads to reduced sensitivity to the IFN signal. This provides a negative feedback mechanism that prevents inappropriate responses and autoimmunity. At present, however, neither IFN desensitization nor the normal physiological role of constitutive IFN are well characterized in fish. The objective here was therefore to produce and characterize a transgenic medaka fish (Oryzias latipes), designated IFNd-Tg, that constitutively overexpressed the IFNd gene. A dual promoter expression vector was constructed for overexpression of IFNd under an EF1α promoter and a DsRed reporter gene under control of a γF-crystaline promoter. The phenotype of the IFNd-Tg fish had a lower response to poly(I:C) and increased susceptibility to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection compared to wild-type (WT). Furthermore, transduction of IFN signals for STAT1b, STAT2 and IRF9 were down-regulated in the IFNd-Tg fish, and expression levels of RLR signal molecules (MDA5, MITA, IRF1 and IRF3) were lower than in WT. The constitutive overexpression of IFNd resulted in desensitization of IFN-stimulation, apparently due to downregulation of IFN signal transduction, and this caused increased susceptibility to NNV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Good global governance through trade : constitutional moorings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.; Wouters, J.; Marx, A.; Geraets, D.; Natens, B.

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring good global governance through trade is not just a powerful idea, or a ‘global strategy’; it is also firmly anchored in the highest laws of the European Union. Promoting good global governance through trade policy brings together two of the hallmarks of the EU as an international actor. On

  10. Qualitative elements constituting effective agricultural cooperatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural cooperatives like all cooperatives are built on the principle of cooperation and community spirit, also known as ubuntu. They are widely promoted as a positive force for collective effort in smallholder agriculture development. However, research suggests that they generally have not been effective and successful ...

  11. Field tolerance to fungal pathogens of Brassica napus constitutively expressing a chimeric chitinase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, R.; Grezes-Besset, B.; Lucante, N. [Rustica Prograin Genetique, Mondonville (France)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in field trials at two different geographical locations. These plants exhibited an increased tolerance to disease as compared with the nontransgenic parental plants. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Brief Considerations on the German Constitutional Approach of the Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen MOLDOVAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of understanding the concept of freedom of expression is very complex and it implies thorough knowledge of the constitutional values and the analysis of the constitutional tradition of different legal systems. At the same time, a balancing operation is necessary between the value of freedom of speech and other fundamental rights, process that establishes limits of the expression such as criminalizing hate speech or other actions which affect the individual dignity. The human dignity has become a constant component of the constitutional case law of many States that share the same characteristics due to the promotion of fundamental rights. In the absence of a hierarchy of rights and fundamental freedom, freedom of expression is analyzed in many cases as a primary right (Kentridge, 1996, p. 254 that prevails over other fundamental rights. This study aims to analyze the landmarks of the German constitutional interpretation of the concept of freedom of expression, to identify its scope and types of speech excluded from the constitutional protection. The choice of this constitutional legal order was justified by the complexity of this topic and the specificity of the German history and tradition, elements that have contributed to an interesting vision in the matter of conflict between different fundamental rights.

  13. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  14. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  15. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  16. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal causes of failure of the European Constitution will be presented in the form of certain preliminary assumptions, which will then be examined in the light of certain comparative experiences of constitution-making in two federal systems – the American and the Swiss system. The primary mistakes of the European constitution-making are refl ected in the lack of an appropriate moment for making the constitution, in the vagueness of the document in terms of its constitutional or contractual quality, in the creation of a text of the Constitution which is completely incomprehensible to the average citizen, in the making of the Constitution without a vision or ambition, in the complete lack of any strategy of ratifi cation of the Constitution, in the insistence on the direct participation of the people in the adoption of the Constitution, which is legally and politically considered primarily an international treaty, and in badly managed media presentation and defence of the Constitution before the European public. The most important mistakes, crucial to the failure of the Constitution, are the ambivalent approach of the European constitutionmakers to the mode of ratifi cation of the Constitution, and their disregard of the constitution-making experience of other federal countries.

  17. Global Survey of National Constitutions : Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate

  18. The Balancing Act between the Constitutional Right to Strike and the Constitutional Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context,…

  19. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  3. Global Constitutionalism, Control of Conventionality and the Right to Strike in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available n the Inter-American context, the control of conventionality promoted by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights is linked to the process of construction of an ius commune in human rights. Human rights are identified as norm of constitutional character. The universality of human rights allows its consideration as an aspect of global constitutionalism. This paper aims at determining whether the control of conventionality can be considered an expression of global constitutionalism within the Inter-American region. We hold that the control of conventionality in the Inter-American system has propelled the application of a minimum standard of human rights and has stimulated the emergence of an ius commune in human rights.

  4. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  5. The Theory of Global Governance, Constitutionalization and Comparative Constitutional Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 195-207 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : globalization of political culture * global constitutionalism * comparative constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  6. Keterbatasan Pengadilan untuk Melakukan Pengujian Konstitusional (Constitutional Review): Pengalaman Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Isharyanto,

    2015-01-01

    The realm of political practice today , a mechanism for checking the legalnorms by the court to ensure the coherence of the legislation of the constitution becomes inevitable (judicial constitutional review ) . Learning the Japanese experience , that constitutionalism is the reconstruction of post-war Japan ystem ystem kenegaran of civil law -based rule by law be a constitutionalism which is based on the rule of law .

  7. Protection of the employee's constitutional rights and freedoms

    OpenAIRE

    Vanagėlienė, Renata

    2014-01-01

    PROTECTION OF THE EMPLOYEE'S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS SUMMARY The goal aimed at in the present thesis is on the basis of the Constitution, Labour Code and other legal acts regulating labour legislation, International agreements, Council Directives Resolutions of the Constitutional Code of the Republic of Lithuania to disclose the concept of constitutional rights and freedoms of an employee, to present a mechanism of their protection and to examine guarantees provided for in the Labo...

  8. Promoter Sequences for Defining Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The design of reverse genetic experiments that utilize transgenic approaches often requires transgenes to be expressed in a predefined pattern and there is limited information regarding the gene expression profile for specific promoters. It is important that expression patterns are predetermined in the specific genotype targeted for transformation because the same promoter-transgene construct can produce different expression patterns in different host species. This chapter compares constitutive, targeted, or inducible promoters that have been characterized in specific cereal species.

  9. CINPA1 binds directly to constitutive androstane receptor and inhibits its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Milu T; Chai, Sergio C; Wright, William C; Singh, Aman; Alexandra Casal, Morgan; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Jing; Lee, Richard E; Griffin, Patrick R; Chen, Taosheng

    2018-03-31

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters. CAR activation promotes drug elimination, thereby reducing therapeutic effectiveness, or causes adverse drug effects via toxic metabolites. CAR inhibitors could be used to attenuate these adverse drug effects. CAR and PXR share ligands and target genes, confounding the understanding of the regulation of receptor-specific activity. We previously identified a small-molecule inhibitor, CINPA1, that inhibits CAR (without activating PXR at lower concentrations) by altering CAR-coregulator interactions and reducing CAR recruitment to DNA response elements of regulated genes. However, solid evidence was not presented for the direct binding of CINPA1 to CAR. In this study, we demonstrate direct interaction of CINPA1 with the CAR ligand-binding domain (CAR-LBD) and identify key residues involved in such interactions through a combination of biophysical and computational methods. We found that CINPA1 resides in the ligand-binding pocket to stabilize the CAR-LBD in a more rigid, less fluid state. Molecular dynamics simulations, together with our previously reported docking model, enabled us to predict which CAR residues were critical for interactions with CINPA1. The importance of these residues for CINPA1 binding were then validated by directed mutations and testing the mutant CAR proteins in transcription reporter and coregulatory interaction assays. We demonstrated strong hydrogen bonding of CINPA1 with N165 and H203 and identified other residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with CINPA1. Overall, our data confirm that CINPA1 directly binds to CAR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement.

  11. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  12. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  13. Constitutive Laws for Geomaterials Lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichos E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of constitutive laws exists to approximate the behavior of geomaterials under various stresses, boundary conditions and loading paths, pore pressures, temperatures and so on. The construction of constitutive laws is driven by two competing trends: the tendency for a unifying law describing the material behavior under the most general conditions, and the need for laws that can be used efficiently in practice. The latter incorporates both the possibility of calibration from available specimens and the user-friendliness of the law. For engineering purposes, the second tendency dominates and the engineer scientist has to evaluate the problem and select the most appropriate model to describe the dominant phenomena on hand. A review of various constitutive laws for geomaterials is presented with an emphasis on their application. Various examples of engineering problems and geomaterials with emphasis on petroleum applications are used to demonstrate that the law must be as simple as possible but not simpler. Il existe un nombre important de lois constitutives permettant d'approcher le comportement des géomatériaux sous diverses contraintes, conditions aux limites et divers chemins de chargement, pressions de pore, températures, etc. L'élaboration de lois constitutives suit deux tendances concurrentes : la tendance à élaborer une loi unifiée décrivant le comportement du matériau sous les conditions les plus générales, et le besoin de lois justifié par une utilisation efficace dans la pratique. La dernière tendance inclut à la fois la possibilité d'une calibration par des essais sur des échantillons disponibles, et la convivialité de la loi. À des fins d'ingénierie, la seconde tendance domine, l'ingénieur doit évaluer le problème et sélectionner le modèle le plus approprié pour décrire le phénomène dominant observé. Dans cet article, un examen des diverses lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux, et en

  14. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  15. Avoiding Mazibuko : water security and constitutional rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide ...

  16. The Practice of Informal Changes to the Ethiopian Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    A constitution outlines the major principles and the basic organization, structure, and process of a state.2 ... Publishing, p 96. 9 Ibid. 10 Bjørn Erik Rasch, (2008), Foundations of Constitutional Stability: Veto Points, Qualified ... changes in the life of the Constitution such as judicial interpretation, legislation, party practice and ...

  17. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  18. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of…

  19. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... and constitutionalism as a cultural imposition, and as a new form of colonization....

  20. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria: A reflection and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of bringing forth a constitution is as crucial and important as the constitution itself. However, while this ideal has been institutionalized in many liberal democracies, it is yet to be fully embraced in many illiberal countries. In Nigeria, the focus of this discourse, the process of constitution-making is as old as the ...

  1. Expression and Maintenance of Embryogenic Potential Is Enhanced through Constitutive Expression of AGAMOUS-Like 151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ellen W.; Tang, Weining; Nichols, Karl W.; Fernandez, Donna E.; Perry, Sharyn E.

    2003-01-01

    The MADS domain protein AGL15 (AGAMOUS-Like 15) has been found to preferentially accumulate in angiosperm tissues derived from double fertilization (i.e. the embryo, suspensor, and endosperm) and in apomictic, somatic, and microspore embryos. Localization to the nuclei supports a role in gene regulation during this phase of the life cycle. To test whether AGL15 is involved in the promotion and maintenance of embryo identity, the embryogenic potential of transgenic plants that constitutively express AGL15 was assessed. Expression of AGL15 was found to enhance production of secondary embryos from cultured zygotic embryos, and constitutive expression led to long-term maintenance of development in this mode. Ectopic accumulation of AGL15 also promoted somatic embryo formation after germination from the shoot apical meristem of seedlings in culture. These results indicate that AGL15 is involved in support of development in an embryonic mode. PMID:14512519

  2. Discovery of novel plant peptides as strong inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Dina M; Duarte, Isabel C; Francisco, Rita; Ricardo, Cândido P P; Duque-Magalhães, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Five novel metalloproteinase protein inhibitors (MPIs) with molecular mass between 5.6 and 8.9 kDa and acid/neutral pI were detected in lupin seeds and exhibited strong inhibitory activities against thermolysin and/or gelatinase B. These novel peptides constitute not only the first MPIs described in plants but also the first plant peptides with inhibitory activity against a matrixin.

  3. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug ...

  4. Constitutive and Inducible Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein in Brucella suis

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Stephan; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Layssac, Marion; Teyssier, Jacques; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    A gene fusion system based on plasmid pBBR1MCS and the expression of green fluorescent protein was developed for Brucella suis, allowing isolation of constitutive and inducible genes. Bacteria containing promoter fusions of chromosomal DNA to gfp were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and examined by flow cytometry. Twelve clones containing gene fragments induced inside J774 murine macrophages were isolated and further characterized.

  5. Constitution and structure of earth's mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Khan, Amir; Cupillard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a quantitative approach that integrates data and results from mineral physics, petrological analyses, and geophysical inverse calculations to map geophysical data directly for mantle composition and thermal state. Seismic tomography has proved an important tool to image...... seismic data. There is a growing consensus that the cause of the imaged wavespeed anomalies not only relates to variations in temperature, but also bears a strong compositional component. However, separation of thermal and chemical effects from seismic wave speeds alone is difficult and is further...

  6. Opportunity without Equity: Educational Inequality and Constitutional Protections in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jackson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The claim that the law can be an inequality-reducing weapon is a staple of legal and political discourse. Although it is hard to dispute that legal provisions sometimes work to reduce inequality, we argue that, at least in the domain of equal opportunity in education, the pattern of these effects can be more perverse than has typically been appreciated. Positive laws implemented in the name of promoting equality of opportunity may yield only a narrowly formal equality, with the goal of substantive equality undermined because a high-profile reform will often expose the pathway to educational success. The pathway, once exposed, can then be navigated and successfully subverted by the socioeconomically advantaged. We illustrate such pitfalls of a positive legal approach by examining educational inequality in Egypt, a country with long-standing constitutional protections for equality of opportunity in education. Using data recently collected from a cohort of young people, we show that despite the institutional commitments to equality of opportunity present in Egypt, privileged families have a range of options for subverting the aims of positive legal provisions. We argue that the pattern of educational inequality in Egypt is distinctive relative to countries without similar legal protections.

  7. The Jefferson Meeting on the Constitution: The Constitution in the Community. A Guide to Organizing a Community Jefferson Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Since its founding in 1983, The Jefferson Foundation has engaged increasing numbers of Americans in study and discussion of the U.S. Constitution. Through participation in Jefferson Meetings on the Constitution citizens will come to a fuller understanding of how the Constitution was made, why it designed the national government the way it did, and…

  8. Constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic responses of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Sanporean, Catalina-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform experimental investigation and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene (mPP) with application to lifetime assessment under conditions of creep rupture. Design/methodology/approach ......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform experimental investigation and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of metallocene catalyzed polypropylene (mPP) with application to lifetime assessment under conditions of creep rupture. Design...... an arbitrary three-dimensional deformation with small strains, and its parameters are found fitting the observations. Findings – Crystalline structure and molecular architecture of polypropylene strongly affect its time and rate-dependent behavior. In particular, time-to-failure of metallocene catalyzed...... in long-term creep tests. Keywords Metallocene catalyzed polypropylene, Viscoelasticity, Viscoplasticity, Creep rupture, Constitutive modeling, Elastoplastic analysis, Viscosity, Creep, Physical properties of materials Paper type Research paper...

  9. Entropic Constitutive Relation and Modeling for Fourier and Hyperbolic Heat Conductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most existing phenomenological heat conduction models are expressed by temperature and heat flux distributions, whose definitions might be debatable in heat conductions with strong non-equilibrium. The constitutive relations of Fourier and hyperbolic heat conductions are here rewritten by the entropy and entropy flux distributions in the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT and extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT. The entropic constitutive relations are then generalized by Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon (BGS statistical mechanics, which can avoid the debatable definitions of thermodynamic quantities relying on local equilibrium. It shows a possibility of modeling heat conduction through entropic constitutive relations. The applicability of the generalizations by BGS statistical mechanics is also discussed based on the relaxation time approximation, and it is found that the generalizations require a sufficiently small entropy production rate.

  10. The constitutive compatibility method for identification of material parameters based on full-field measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2013-10-01

    We revisit here the concept of the constitutive relation error for the identification of elastic material parameters based on image correlation. An additional concept, so called constitutive compatibility of stress, is introduced defining a subspace of the classical space of statically admissible stresses. The key idea is to define stresses as compatible with the observed deformation field through the chosen class of constitutive equation. This makes possible the uncoupling of the identification of stress from the identification of the material parameters. As a result, the global cost of the identification is strongly reduced. This uncoupling also leads to parametrized solutions in cases where the solution is non-unique as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  12. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aleem Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional gene promoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant.

  13. The spirit of the constitution. The institutionalized unsociability in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas MAVRIDIS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article attempts a comparison of the Greek Constitution of 1975, the constitutions of Germany, USA, Switzerland, Austria, France, UK and Italy on the issue of property relations and general interest, in order to highlight those notified differences relating to these communities and resulted in specific social situations. While the constitutions of the other countries, which are among the most representative democracies of the Western world, are characterized by an increased institutionalization of sociability, the Greek constitution on the issue of general interest takes an antisocial and, at best, neutral attitude. The convergence of the Greek constitution on this issue with the other constitutions is considered a prerequisite for overcoming the crisis and, more generally, for social development. This little effort hopes to contribute to a more social future formulation of the Greek constitution and a corresponding behaviour of Greek society.

  14. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  15. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    , the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  16. A novel prokaryotic promoter identified in the genome of some monopartite begomoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Wang

    Full Text Available Geminiviruses are known to exhibit both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features in their genomes, with the ability to express their genes and even replicate in bacterial cells. We have demonstrated previously the existence of unit-length single-stranded circular DNAs of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV, a species in the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae in Escherichia coli cells, which prompted our search for unknown prokaryotic functions in the begomovirus genomes. By using a promoter trapping strategy, we identified a novel prokaryotic promoter, designated AV3 promoter, in nts 762-831 of the AYVV genome. Activity assays revealed that the AV3 promoter is strong, unidirectional, and constitutive, with an endogenous downstream ribosome binding site and a translatable short open reading frame of eight amino acids. Sequence analyses suggested that the AV3 promoter might be a remnant of prokaryotic ancestors that could be related to certain promoters of bacteria from marine or freshwater environments. The discovery of the prokaryotic AV3 promoter provided further evidence for the prokaryotic origin in the evolutionary history of geminiviruses.

  17. A Novel Prokaryotic Promoter Identified in the Genome of Some Monopartite Begomoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng; Wu, Chia-Ying; Lai, Yi-Chin; Hu, Chung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Geminiviruses are known to exhibit both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features in their genomes, with the ability to express their genes and even replicate in bacterial cells. We have demonstrated previously the existence of unit-length single-stranded circular DNAs of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV, a species in the genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) in Escherichia coli cells, which prompted our search for unknown prokaryotic functions in the begomovirus genomes. By using a promoter trapping strategy, we identified a novel prokaryotic promoter, designated AV3 promoter, in nts 762-831 of the AYVV genome. Activity assays revealed that the AV3 promoter is strong, unidirectional, and constitutive, with an endogenous downstream ribosome binding site and a translatable short open reading frame of eight amino acids. Sequence analyses suggested that the AV3 promoter might be a remnant of prokaryotic ancestors that could be related to certain promoters of bacteria from marine or freshwater environments. The discovery of the prokaryotic AV3 promoter provided further evidence for the prokaryotic origin in the evolutionary history of geminiviruses. PMID:23936138

  18. ANTIGENIC PROMOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Yu; Cinader, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with p-azobenzene arsonic acid derivatives of human serum albumin (HA-As) or of dissociated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The IgM response to the hapten was evaluated in terms of the number of hapten-specific plaque-forming cells in the lymph node draining the injection site. In some experiments, antibody was measured by agglutination of tanned and sensitized erythrocytes. The hapten response of animals immunized with HA-As was increased (promoting effect) when the animals were injected with one of several structurally unrelated macromolecules: keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), horse spleen ferritin (HSF), lysozyme (Lys), alum-precipitated human gamma globulin (alum-precipitated HGG). Different macromolecules differed in the magnitude of the promoting effect they induced, e.g., promotion by the associated form of KLH was greater than that by the dissociated form; alum-precipitated HGG was a better promoter than was soluble HGG. The relative magnitude of promotion by different macromolecules (associated vs. dissociated KLH, alum-precipitated vs. soluble HGG) correlated with the relative magnitude of the carrier effect, as judged by the hapten response induced by p-azobenzene arsonic acid conjugated to various proteins. Promotion was detected by agglutination assay of circulating antibody, by plaque assay of cells from the popliteal lymph node draining the site of preinjection, but not by plaque assay of cells from the contralateral lymph node. Promotion was dependent on the dose of the promoting macromolecule and on the dose of the hapten-protein conjugate. It was not observed in animals tolerant to the promoting macromolecule. Inhibition (i.e. antigenic competition), rather than promotion, was observed upon a secondary response to the preinjected macromolecule or when the hapten-protein conjugate was incorporated in Freund's adjuvant. PMID:15776570

  19. Regulation of mtl operon promoter of Bacillus subtilis: requirements of its use in expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Kambiz Morabbi; Wenzel, Marian; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2011-10-20

    Several vector systems have been developed to express any gene desired to be studied in Bacillus subtilis. Among them, the transcriptionally regulated promoters involved in carbohydrate utilization are a research priority. Expression systems based on Bacillus promoters for xylose, maltose, and mannose utilization, as well as on the heterologous E. coli lactose promoter, have been successfully constructed. The promoter of the mtlAFD operon for utilization of mannitol is another promising candidate for its use in expression vectors. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis. Regulation of the promoters of mtlAFD operon (P(mtlA)) and mtlR (P(mtlR)) encoding the activator were investigated by fusion to lacZ. Identification of the P(mtlA) and P(mtlR) transcription start sites revealed the σ(A) like promoter structures. Also, the operator of P(mtlA) was determined by shortening, nucleotide exchange, and alignment of P(mtlA) and P(mtlR) operator regions. Deletion of the mannitol-specific PTS genes (mtlAF) resulted in P(mtlA) constitutive expression demonstrating the inhibitory effect of EIICB(Mtl) and EIIA(Mtl) on MtlR in the absence of mannitol. Disruption of mtlD made the cells sensitive to mannitol and glucitol. Both P(mtlA) and P(mtlR) were influenced by carbon catabolite repression (CCR). However, a CcpA deficient mutant showed only a slight reduction in P(mtlR) catabolite repression. Similarly, using P(groE) as a constitutive promoter, putative cre sites of P(mtlA) and P(mtlR) slightly reduced the promoter activity in the presence of glucose. In contrast, glucose repression of P(mtlA) and P(mtlR) was completely abolished in a ΔptsG mutant and significantly reduced in a MtlR (H342D) mutant. The mtl operon promoter (P(mtlA)) is a strong promoter that reached a maximum of 13,000 Miller units with lacZ as a reporter on low copy

  20. Regulation of mtl operon promoter of Bacillus subtilis: requirements of its use in expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenbuchner Josef

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several vector systems have been developed to express any gene desired to be studied in Bacillus subtilis. Among them, the transcriptionally regulated promoters involved in carbohydrate utilization are a research priority. Expression systems based on Bacillus promoters for xylose, maltose, and mannose utilization, as well as on the heterologous E. coli lactose promoter, have been successfully constructed. The promoter of the mtlAFD operon for utilization of mannitol is another promising candidate for its use in expression vectors. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis. Results Regulation of the promoters of mtlAFD operon (PmtlA and mtlR (PmtlR encoding the activator were investigated by fusion to lacZ. Identification of the PmtlA and PmtlR transcription start sites revealed the σA like promoter structures. Also, the operator of PmtlA was determined by shortening, nucleotide exchange, and alignment of PmtlA and PmtlR operator regions. Deletion of the mannitol-specific PTS genes (mtlAF resulted in PmtlA constitutive expression demonstrating the inhibitory effect of EIICBMtl and EIIAMtl on MtlR in the absence of mannitol. Disruption of mtlD made the cells sensitive to mannitol and glucitol. Both PmtlA and PmtlR were influenced by carbon catabolite repression (CCR. However, a CcpA deficient mutant showed only a slight reduction in PmtlR catabolite repression. Similarly, using PgroE as a constitutive promoter, putative cre sites of PmtlA and PmtlR slightly reduced the promoter activity in the presence of glucose. In contrast, glucose repression of PmtlA and PmtlR was completely abolished in a ΔptsG mutant and significantly reduced in a MtlR (H342D mutant. Conclusions The mtl operon promoter (PmtlA is a strong promoter that reached a maximum of 13,000 Miller units with lacZ as a reporter on

  1. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  2. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  3. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  4. Report between the President and Constitutional Court and its influence on the functioning of the Constitutional System in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Muçaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at clarifying the report between the President and the Constitutional Court. If we take as a starting point the constitutional mandate of these two institutions it follows that their final mission is the same, i.e., the protection and safeguarding of the constitutional system. This paper, thus, will clarify the key points in which this report is expressed. Further, this paper examines the theoretical aspects of the report between the President and the Constitutional Court, starting from the debate over this issue between Karl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen. An important part of the paper will examine the Constitution of Kosovo, i.e., the contents of the constitutional norm and its application. The analysis focuses on the role such report between the two institutions has on the functioning of the constitutional system. In analyzing the case of Kosovo, this paper examines Constitutional Court cases in which the report between the President and the Constitutional Court has been an issue of review. Such cases assist us in clarifying the main theme of this paper. Therefore, the reader will be able to understand the key elements of the report between the President as a representative of the unity of the people on the one hand and the Constitutional Court as a guarantor of constitutionality on the other hand.

  5. Comparative Constitutional Law, Urban Development and Housing Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Migliari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to comparative law method, the present article delves into the urban ques- tion regarding the right to housing in conflict with the private property system in two dif- ferent constitutional realities under strong singular interpretations (ACKERMAN, 1977, p. 168-169; MACPHERSON, 2012, p. 125-126. Taking into consideration the justice of São Paulo State in Brazil defending a property lacking its social function and the Spanish executive power in approving local decrees to sell protected state houses, we compare the cases of Pinheirinho eviction and Madrid government negotiating dwellings with some relevant legal aspects. The city should be for those who live in it and construct it (BREN- NER; MARCUSE; MAYER, 2012. There are two judges and two different sentences that are pointed out observing contrasts for the same dispute. The decisions for the cases invol- ve vulnerable homeless collectives that should be defended by all means with constitutio- nal interpretations and with the help of international treaties ratified by both countries.

  6. A thermomechanical constitutive model for superelastic SMA wire with strain-rate dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Songye; Zhang, Yunfeng

    2007-10-01

    The recent increased use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) for civil engineering applications manifests the need for a high-fidelity constitutive model which considers the material's strong dependence on the loading rate. This paper presents an improved thermomechanical constitutive model with strain-rate dependence for predicting the uniaxial superelastic behavior of shape memory alloys. The proposed constitutive model, which is formulated within a thermomechanical framework, is comprised of three principal parts: a mechanical law, an energy balance equation, and a transformation kinetics rule. The analytical derivation of the model and experimental test results for superelastic NiTi wires are described in this paper. The prediction made by this phenomenological model shows good agreement with experimental data for superelastic NiTi wires at various loading rates. Through a comparison with experimental results, the proposed constitutive model was evaluated for several key characteristics of superelastic behavior such as reduction of hysteresis area, increase of transformation plateau, and temperature change with strain rate. The proposed constitutive model offers a useful tool for the design and simulation of superelastic SMA-based devices in civil engineering applications.

  7. Constitutional Decree No. 19 promulgating the Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, 15 August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree amends Section 44 of the Constitution of Uruguay to read as follows: "44. The State shall legislate on all matters related to public health and hygiene, and shall assure the improvement of the physical, moral, and social well-being of all the inhabitants of the country. All inhabitants shall have a duty to care for their own health and to have themselves treated in the event of disease. The State shall make available, without charge, means of prevention and medical care to indigent persons or to persons lacking sufficient resources." full text

  8. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  9. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  10. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  11. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  12. Constitutive lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of high endothelial venules is regulated by the autotaxin/lysophosphatidic acid axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongbin; Cai, Linjun; Umemoto, Eiji; Takeda, Akira; Tohya, Kazuo; Komai, Yutaka; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti Thanikachalam; Hata, Erina; Sugiura, Yuki; Kubo, Akiko; Suematsu, Makoto; Hayasaka, Haruko; Okudaira, Shinichi; Aoki, Junken; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Albers, Harald M H G; Ovaa, Huib; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2013-03-01

    Lymphocyte extravasation from the high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymph nodes is crucial for the maintenance of immune homeostasis, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this article, we report that lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of the HEVs is regulated, at least in part, by autotaxin (ATX) and its end-product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is an HEV-associated ectoenzyme that produces LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), which is abundant in the systemic circulation. In agreement with selective expression of ATX in HEVs, LPA was constitutively and specifically detected on HEVs. In vivo, inhibition of ATX impaired the lymphocyte extravasation from HEVs, inducing lymphocyte accumulation within the endothelial cells (ECs) and sub-EC compartment; this impairment was abrogated by LPA. In vitro, both LPA and LPC induced a marked increase in the motility of HEV ECs; LPC's effect was abrogated by ATX inhibition, whereas LPA's effect was abrogated by ATX/LPA receptor inhibition. In an in vitro transmigration assay, ATX inhibition impaired the release of lymphocytes that had migrated underneath HEV ECs, and these defects were abrogated by LPA. This effect of LPA was dependent on myosin II activity in the HEV ECs. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that HEV-associated ATX generates LPA locally; LPA, in turn, acts on HEV ECs to increase their motility, promoting dynamic lymphocyte-HEV interactions and subsequent lymphocyte transmigration across the basal lamina of HEVs at steady state.

  13. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  14. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  15. Constitutional Crowdsourcing to Reconcile Demos with Aristos and Nomos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    After the failed Icelandic experience of constitutional crowdsourcing (2009-2012), some of the country’s legal community, parliamentarians and policymakers affirmed that the constitutional draft proposed by the constitutional council of 25 citizens and approved unanimously on 27 July 2011....... This paper first remarks on how revolutionary and innovative the constitutional crowdsourcing experience was. From Solon, Ephialtes and Cleisthenes that laid out the foundation of democratic Athens, to modern constitutions that have been penned by few people men, regardless of the political system in which...... it is framed, been liberal democracies or authoritarian states. Derrida stated there is a sort of “semantic indeterminacy” at the core of democracy and that constitutional crowdsourcing is a way to intervene in this indeterminacy. The Icelandic example enlightened that there is a way to mediate between...

  16. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  17. Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Corsino, Patrick E; Davis, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    The cell has many mechanisms for protecting the integrity of its genome. These mechanisms are often weakened or absent in many cancers, leading to high rates of chromosomal instability in tumors. Control of the cell cycle is crucial for the function of these checkpoints, and is frequently lost in...

  18. The President of the Republic in the constitutional order of Serbia: Ten years of the Constitution of 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Aleksandar S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is undoubted that the President of the Republic of Serbia represents the most controversial issue debating in constitutional theory and practice. We can find completely opposite attitudes toward the constitutional status of the President of the Republic: on one hand, the prevailing opinion that the President of the Republic has an active role in the executive branch of the government, but on the other hand, the opinion that the President of the Republic is a figurehead and has only a moderating role. If we remain focused only on normative analysis, there is no doubt that we will be brought to a conclusion that the constitution-maker insisted on the moderating role of the President of the Republic making him an independent constitutional body providing the balance in the system of government. In the constitutional practice, in the previous ten years, we have been in a position to see two totally different 'stiles of presidency'. None of them is in accordance with the 'constitutional picture' of the institution. From 2007 to 2012 president Tadić was a central constitutional figure. He tended to concentrate all constitutional powers in his hands using the position of the leader of the strongest political party. With coming into power president Nikolic, who gave up the function of the president of the party, constitutional and political power moved almost completely to the president of the Government. The president of the Republic acts sometimes as he has less power than the Constitution gives him.

  19. Constitutional Justice Procedure in Lithuania: a Search for Optimal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pūraitė-Andrikienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation systematically analyzes the preconditions for optimising the existing constitutional justice model, i.e. whether the current model meets the expectations of Lithuanian society and the legal community, corresponds to the capabilities of the legal system, and is in line with the tendencies of constitutional justice in European states, identifies the problematic aspects of the existing constitutional justice model and brings forward proposals regarding how the legal regulation c...

  20. Study Guide for the United States Constitution and Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Frances L.

    Presented in this document are a student's study guide and an accompanying teacher's manual. The purpose of the study guide is to present information on (1) what the U.S. Constitution means, (2) how the U.S. government is organized, (3) why the Constitution is a living document, and (4) why the Constitution is a source of pride for U.S. citizens.…

  1. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  2. Constitutive Behavior and Damage Characterization of High Temperature Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the constitutive behavior, physical aging, damage mechanisms and damage development in high temperature polymer matrix composites under various...

  3. Selective elimination of high constitutive activity or chemokine binding in the human herpesvirus 8 encoded seven transmembrane oncogene ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2000-01-01

    expressing ORF74 under control of the CD2 promoter develop highly vascularized Kaposi's sarcoma-like tumors. Through targeted mutagenesis we here create three distinct phenotypes of ORF74: a receptor with normal, high constitutive signaling through the phospholipase C pathway but deprived of binding...

  4. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  5. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  6. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  7. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  8. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  9. Do Promotions Benefit Manufacturers, Retailers or Both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Shuba); K.H. Pauwels (Koen); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWhile there has been strong managerial and academic interest in price promotions, much of the focus has been on the impact of such promotions on category sales, brand sales and brand choice. In contrast, little is known about the long-run impact of price promotions on manufacturer and

  10. Synthetic Promoter Library for Modulation of Actinorhodin Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Fazio, Alessandro; Workman, Christopher T.; Mijakovic, Ivan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was the application of the synthetic promoter library (SPL) technology for modulation of actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The SPL technology was used to optimize the expression of a pathway specific positive transcriptional regulator ActII orf4, which activates the transcription of the S. coelicolor actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster. The native actII orf4 promoter was replaced with synthetic promoters, generating a S. coelicolor library with a broad range of expression levels of actII orf4. The resulting library was screened based on the yield of actinorhodin. Selected strains were further physiologically characterized. One of the strains from the library, ScoSPL20, showed considerably higher yield of actinorhodin and final actinorhodin titer, compared to S. coelicolor wild type and S. coelicolor with actII orf4 expressed from a strong constitutive promoter. ScoSPL20 demonstrated exceptional productivity despite having a comparatively weak expression from the promoter. Interestingly, the ScoSPL20 promoter was activated at a much earlier stage of growth compared to the wild type, demonstrating the advantage of fine-tuning and temporal tuning of gene expression in metabolic engineering. Transcriptome studies were performed in exponential and actinorhodin-producing phase of growth to compare gene expression between ScoSPL20 and the wild type. To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the SPL technology for secondary metabolite production in filamentous bacteria. PMID:24963940

  11. Molecular mechanisms that distinguish TFIID housekeeping from regulatable SAGA promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Wim J.; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Lijnzaad, Philip; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Kemmeren, Patrick; Holstege, Frank C P

    2017-01-01

    An important distinction is frequently made between constitutively expressed housekeeping genes versus regulated genes. Although generally characterized by different DNA elements, chromatin architecture and cofactors, it is not known to what degree promoter classes strictly follow regulatability

  12. Constitutional medicine, neoromanticism, and the politics of antimechanism in interwar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, C

    2001-01-01

    One of the defining features of interwar medical debates in German-speaking countries was the remarkable popularity of holistic concepts among both experts and the lay public. Attacks on the allegedly too-mechanistic outlook of modern medicine were frequent and were often associated with calls to research and treat the constitution of patients rather than isolated causes of disease. This paper traces the rise of the new constitutional medicine, locating its roots in nineteenth-century medical science. The essay attempts to explain the increasingly antimechanistic outlook of promoters of constitutional medicine by relating it to the larger context of the politics of health in Weimar Germany, to concerns of medical practitioners over the rise of the welfare state and the popularity of nonlicensed healers, culminating in the widespread notion of a "crisis of medicine." Drawing on case studies of, among others, the Danzig surgeon Erwin Liek and the Vienna gynecologist Bernhard Aschner, the article distinguishes between rationalist and neoromantic constitutionalists and aims to demonstrate that antimechanism in constitutional medicine was related to neoromantic tendencies in art and other realms of society, while rationalists were concerned with making German men and women fit for war and the requirements of modern industry.

  13. Democratisation in Africa: The Role of Self-Enforcing Constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on economic ideas about contracts and institutions, this paper outlines a conceptual framework for thinking about the role of constitutional rules in achieving political stability. It also elucidates a critical requirement for sustainable democratic systems, namely that constitutional rules must become self-sustaining to ...

  14. Unquenched thirst: the need for a constitutionally recognized right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... As demonstrated in South Africa, the codification of the right to water in its constitution has improved access to adequate water, sparked government concern and ... Is constitutional recognition of the right to water an adequate alternative to privatization of water?

  15. he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures. LWH Ackermann ... legislature and the executive, their substantive independence can easily be undermined by fiscal starvation and their ability to function properly impeded by bureaucratic ...

  16. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  17. Legal Pluralism, Sharia Courts and Constitutional Issues in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... identity groups as long as they are in conformity with constitutional and human rights standards. Another option is to adopt a hands-off approach whereby the norms and practices of cultural and/or religious groups are permitted to operate and are not necessarily required to meet constitutional and human rights standards.

  18. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehrmann, Ingo; Ringwald, Roman

    2012-01-01

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  19. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010. In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by ...

  20. New constitutive vectors: useful genetic engineering tools for biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

  1. Constitution Building : a Handbook and Resource Website | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Constitutions set the rules of the relationship between the state and its citizens. But if constitutions are to ... Branch (CIC-NCB). The Canadian International Council (CIC) aims to provide Canadians with a nonpartisan, nationwide institution for the advancement of research and dialogue on international affairs, and to support.

  2. Dialectical tensions in the values of the 1996 Constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his paper The Dialectics in the Values of the 1996 Constitution Jan Swanepoel discusses various value statements in the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and focuses the attention on indications of a lack of coherence as far as these value statements are concerned. He does this against the background ...

  3. the emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    (Zurich); Professor of International Constitutional Law, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The. Netherlands; Extraordinary ... public power between different international legal subjects on the concept of a. 'total' constitutional order ..... normative supremacy of human rights obligations - also in relation to obligations flowing from the ...

  4. The emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This vision of an international constitutional model is inspired by the intensification in the shift of public decision-making away from the nation state towards international actors of a regional (for example EU) or functional (for example WTO, UN) nature, and its eroding impact on the notion of a “total” constitutional order, ...

  5. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  6. The U.S. Constitution and Its Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Law School.

    The report presents a collection of articles on constitutional issues from a 1976 social studies conference. It is intended to be used by teachers in planning and implementing curriculum materials on development of the U.S. Constitution. The booklet is divided into eight articles. The first article discusses interpretive problems in the formation…

  7. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  8. The South African constitutional court's use of foreign precedent in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Court or whether it is a characteristic of a court which is confident enough that its independence will remain intact in spite of its looking elsewhere for answers. KEYWORDS: transjudicialism; foreign precedent, comparative judicialism, stare decisis; foreign case law; comparative constitutionalism; Constitutional Court.

  9. Sub-National Constitutions in Ethiopia: Towards Entrenching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Thus this paper offers an overview of state constitutions in Ethiopia with a view to highlighting their significance in the public life of Ethiopians. It also provides an analysis of how we can deepen and entrench constitutionalism in the states of ...

  10. Legal and Constitutional Evaluation of the Nigerian Sovereign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central aim of this paper is to examine the constitutionality of Nigeria's sovereign wealth fund (SWF) which was established in August 2012, pursuant to the Nigeria Sovereign Investment Authority (Establishment etc) Act 2011 (the NSIA Act). The paper reviews and discusses how questions on the constitutionality of a ...

  11. Contemporary Perspectives on the Constitution and Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    A collection of essays designed to provide educators and other interested individuals with contemporary perspectives on the U.S. Constitution and separation of powers is presented. Separation of powers refers to one of the enduring principles of the U.S. constitutional system of government, in which governmental powers are subject to a division of…

  12. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH... default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make full...

  13. Constitutionalism and conflict in Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Allegedly the oldest in Indonesia, and to some even beyond, the constitution treasured in the Kedaton (traditional palace) of the Sultan of Ternate (North Maluku, Indonesia) constitutes a dividing line between North and South Ternate in terms of government, ethnicity, and, spirituality. Moreover, it

  14. the meaning of the provision of the 1996 constitution | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the meaning of the provision of the 1996 constitution. ... The introduction of this notion in South African law and its meaning in general is described. ... The weaknesses of this theory are exposed and it is argued that the force external to the Constitution that guarantees its primacy, is its practical legitimacy, i.e. sufficient ...

  15. Constitutional Review and Referendums in Kenya | Kersting | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Committee of Experts presented a harmonised draft which again was converted by government. It included US-style presidentialism with a number of checks and balances. The subsequent referendum in 2010 was successful. The Kenya constitutional process gives important insight for constitutional engineering as well ...

  16. The viability and constitutionality of the South African National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South ...

  17. Mootness and the approach to costs awards in constitutional litigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heleba, Siyambonga

    with a costs order. Until such time as it is appealed against and overturned, as it stands this decision presents a grave concern to some constitutional law principles relating to mootness and the approach to costs in constitutional litigation between the State and private litigants. Particularly, the decision threatens the hitherto ...

  18. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  19. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  20. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  1. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  2. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  3. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Advances and New Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Hong; Yao, Yangping

    2013-01-01

    The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007.   Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geote...

  4. Traditional Land Rights before the Indonesian Constitutional Court - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Butt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2013, the Indonesian Constitutional Court handed down its decision in the Traditional Forest Community case. In what has been heralded as a landmark decision, the Court upheld, as constitutional rights, the traditional rights of indigenous communities over forest resources upon which they had long depended. After introducing the Court and discussing aspects of its decision-making in constitutional review cases, this article demonstrates that the Traditional Forest Community case is in fact only the latest in a line of cases in which the Court has upheld traditional rights in the face of legislation that purport to allow the state to override them. In these cases, Court has provided important constitutional recognition to these traditional rights. However, its decisions do not appear to have cleared significant administrative stumbling blocks that remain in the way of communities seeking to enjoy the traditional rights to which they are now constitutionally entitled.

  5. New Constitutionalism for Biosiversity vs. Neoconstitutionalism of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carducci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p255 Based on an “eco-systemic” democracy that seeks to preserve biodiversity through the recognition of the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, the Andean Constitutionalism emerges as the expression of a counter-hegemonic constitutionalism committed to the construction of a new institutional framework through the inclusion of new participatory and intercultural mechanisms. Departing from western constitutional paradigms, this groundbreaking constitutionalism revisits the “Gaia hypothesis” and legitimizes a real “social contract” among the people and nature, and instead of considering it as an “object” of ownership, exploitation, or conservation, it regards nature as a legal “subject” and primary source of society itself and the Constitution as its “legal grantor and protector”.

  6. A constitutive model for simple shear of dense frictional suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinendra; Mari, Romain; Denn, Morton M.; Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2018-03-01

    Discrete particle simulations are used to study the shear rheology of dense, stabilized, frictional particulate suspensions in a viscous liquid, toward development of a constitutive model for steady shear flows at arbitrary stress. These suspensions undergo increasingly strong continuous shear thickening (CST) as solid volume fraction $\\phi$ increases above a critical volume fraction, and discontinuous shear thickening (DST) is observed for a range of $\\phi$. When studied at controlled stress, the DST behavior is associated with non-monotonic flow curves of the steady-state stress as a function of shear rate. Recent studies have related shear thickening to a transition between mostly lubricated to predominantly frictional contacts with the increase in stress. In this study, the behavior is simulated over a wide range of the dimensionless parameters $(\\phi,\\tilde{\\sigma}$, and $\\mu)$, with $\\tilde{\\sigma} = \\sigma/\\sigma_0$ the dimensionless shear stress and $\\mu$ the coefficient of interparticle friction: the dimensional stress is $\\sigma$, and $\\sigma_0 \\propto F_0/ a^2$, where $F_0$ is the magnitude of repulsive force at contact and $a$ is the particle radius. The data have been used to populate the model of the lubricated-to-frictional rheology of Wyart and Cates [Phys. Rev. Lett.{\\bf 112}, 098302 (2014)], which is based on the concept of two viscosity divergences or \\textquotedblleft jamming\\textquotedblright\\ points at volume fraction $\\phi_{\\rm J}^0 = \\phi_{\\rm rcp}$ (random close packing) for the low-stress lubricated state, and at $\\phi_{\\rm J} (\\mu) < \\phi_{\\rm J}^0$ for any nonzero $\\mu$ in the frictional state; a generalization provides the normal stress response as well as the shear stress. A flow state map of this material is developed based on the simulation results.

  7. Cicero and the Mixed Constitution (res publica mixta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sadek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the mixed constitution is the story of the most stable and just constitution. In theory, this is a combination of at least two of the three elementary forms of government (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, with some advantages that elementary forms may lack. It originated with the deliberation of Greek philosophers, who wanted to draw up a constitution safeguarding against the permanent variation of elementary constitutional forms and against coups d’état. For both Plato and Aristotle, the mixed constitution was, above all, the reflection of a search for balance between the two extreme forms of government, direct (Athenian democracy on the one hand and the exclusion of the people from governing on the other. The Greek theory was applied by the historian Polybius to the traditional tripartite constitution of the Roman republic. In his view, the consuls were monarchic elements, the senate an aristocratic element, and the comitia a democratic one. Cicero’s introduction of the idea of the mixed constitution in De re publica can only be understood in the light of the author’s personal situation and contemporary political circumstances. His political engagement at a time when the republic was gradually transforming into a monarchy aimed at restoring the important role of the nobility, represented by the senate. For Cicero, the mixed constitution was mainly an instrument for restoring the lost balance between the consuls, the senate, and the comitia, a last chance to save the decaying republic. The concluding part of the article addresses Alois Riklin’s recent discussion of the modern reception of the mixed constitution idea, which advances the controversial thesis that the paradigm of power division, the foundation of modern representative democracy, originates directly from the mixed constitution.

  8. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  9. Isolation of cyanophycin from tobacco and potato plants with constitutive plastidic cphATe gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Katja; Hühns, Maja; Hausmann, Tina; Klemke, Friederike; Lockau, Wolfgang; Kahmann, Uwe; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Kragl, Udo; Broer, Inge

    2012-03-31

    A chimeric cyanophycin synthetase gene composed of the cphATe coding region from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, the constitutive 35S promoter and the plastid targeting sequence of the integral photosystem II protein PsbY was transferred to the tobacco variety Petit Havanna SRI and the commercial potato starch production variety Albatros. The resulting constitutive expression of cyanophycin synthetase leads to polymer contents in potato leaf chloroplasts of up to 35 mg/g dry weight and in tuber amyloplasts of up to 9 mg/g dry weight. Both transgenic tobacco and potato were used for the development of isolation methods applicable for large-scale extraction of the polymer. Two different procedures were developed which yielded polymer samples of 80 and 90% purity, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Constitutional Models of Semi-Presidential Systems of Government in Russia and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of new political systems in Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of communist regimes implied a decision on a new system of government instead of the earlier proclaimed assembly system. The position of the framers of the Constitution on the need for a strong institution of state presidency during the transition process, and the correlation of forces between diff erent actors in the political arena, have resulted in the establishment of the semi-presidential system in many of these countries. In Russia and Poland, with the fi rst modifi cations of their Constitutions, some elements of semi-presidentialism were adopted, and then the whole concept of semi-presidentialism has been accepted. The constitutional models in the two countries are compatible with the criteria of semi-presidential systems – they have a dual structure of the executive branch of government and a fi xed term of the state president elected on the general elections and politically unaccountable to the parliament. The political practice in these countries during the last fi fteen years has shown diff erent eff ects of the established system. In Russia, the state president dominated so much over the political system that the system was virtually presidential, while in Poland the constitutional changes in 1990, 1992 and 1997 have resulted in the change of the correlation of forces within the dual structure of the executive branch of government.

  11. Strain rate-dependent viscohyperelastic constitutive modeling of bovine liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Esra; Vemaganti, Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical response of most soft tissue is considered to be viscohyperelastic, making the development of accurate constitutive models a challenging task. In this article, we present a constitutive model for bovine liver tissue that utilizes a viscous dissipation potential, and use it to model the response of bovine liver tissue at strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 0.04 s(-1). On the material modeling front of this study, the free energy is assumed to depend on the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, whereas a separate rate-dependent viscous potential is posited to characterize viscoelasticity. This viscous dissipation component is a function of the time rate of change of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. On the experimental front, no-slip uniaxial compression experiments are conducted on bovine liver tissue at various strain rates. A numerical correction approach is used to account for the no-slip edge conditions, and the constitutive model is fit to the resulting corrected stress-strain data. The complete derivation of the material model, its implementation in the finite element software package ABAQUS, and a validation study are presented in this article. The results show that bovine liver tissue exhibits a strong strain-rate dependence even at the low strain rates considered here and that the proposed constitutive model is able to accurately describe this response.

  12. Land-restoration provisions of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act: constitutional considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichbaum, W.M.; Buente, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    This examination of the land-capability requirements of SMCRA rested upon the proposition that a proper application of constitutional principles requires an appreciation of changing national conditions. Accordingly, this article examined the possible Fifth and Tenth Amendment challenges to SMCRA's land-capability provisions in the context of an evolving history of national concern over natural resources and in light of lengthy congressional deliberations based on concern for future national environmental and energy needs. The analysis suggests that SMCRA's land-capability requirements are well within the constitutional authority of the national government. The history of environmental protection legislation in the 1970's suggests that Federal action will increasingly impose regulatory restraints on the use of privately-owned natural resources. This trend is meeting strong resistance, including varied demands to reduce the impact and scope of Federal regulation. While the conclusion may be limited to SMCRA, its approach to examining constitutional challenges to Federal regulation protecting natural resources can be broadly applied. Natural resources are essential, finite, and irrevocably threatened by human activity. In the absence of effective state action, Federal protective action to provide national management of those resources is necessary and consistent with constitutional principles. 184 references.

  13. The Constitutional Debate: A One Man Show? Václav Klaus and the Constitutional Discourse in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakušanová, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2007), s. 342-373 ISSN 1570-5854 Grant - others:VW Stiftung(DE) 218036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : European Constitutional Treaty * European constitutional ratification * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. The brazilian constitution as third generation product: convergence and differences between the latin american constitutionalism and legal garantism theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the phenomenon of the latinamerican constitutionalism, its characteristics, critical issues and its challenges facing the European constitutional models, such as the legal garantism and neoconstitutionalism. That being said, this work compares the recent theoretical proposals within the Latin American constitutional theory with the European tradition. In this way, we delimit the aspects of main Latin American constitutionalism theory and contrast European constitutional theories, such as Ferrajoli’s legal garantism and representatives of neoconstitutionalism such as Dworkin, Alexy, Müller and Haberle. In this work, we seek to understand and explain the so-called "third generation constitutions”, in order to think properly of the Brazilian constitutionalism and the influence of the new legal institutions and procedural safeguards contained in our Constitution which give means to make possible fundamental and social rights. After that, we examine the affinities that Latin American constitutionalism has found in the legal garantism theory, which enables fundamental and social rights, and which has been largely accepted in countries similar to Brazil despite of its European origins.

  15. Constitutionalism in Education for Democracy: The Continuing Relevance of Arguments on Constitutional Government of the American Founding Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper contends that the issues of constitutional government debated during the founding of the United States should be in the core curriculum of any school that seeks to educate students to become responsible citizens of a constitutional democracy. For purposes of teaching students, the issues debated by founding-era political thinkers can be…

  16. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional democracy recognises the ancient democratic principle that government of a country is based on and legitimated by the will and consent of the governed, which is determined by regular multi-party elections based on universal adult franchise. Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a Bill of Rights that forms part of the Constitution and which is designed to protect and enforce individual rights principally, although not exclusively, against the state. Constitutionalism also embodies the principle of the separation of powers. A competent and independent judiciary, with the power to review all legislative and executive conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution, is regarded, almost universally, as the prime and most effective check on the legislative and executive branches of government. Recently it has come to be realised that for the truly effective and meaningful operation of constitutionalism, other independent state institutions are necessary. The collective objective of these institutions is to ensure that the Constitution in fact produces what it proclaims: that constitutionalism becomes a way of life in all institutional structures. The South African Constitution has clearly designated the judiciary as the prime upholder and enforcer of the Constitution. The Constitution has, however, gone further and makes provision for a variety of independent state institutions whose purpose is to "strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic". Apart from these state institutions the Constitution also makes provision for other independent bodies designed to play an important checking and balancing role. The regular effective functioning of

  17. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  18. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  19. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  20. Prospects of the Constitutional State of Indonesia: Ideas and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia since its inception has asserted itself as a constitutional state. It may be inferred through the clear regulation related to powers and functions of each state institution in the form of checks and balances system, the protection of human rights, the clarity of the principles of democratic mechanism, as well as the guarantee of an independent judiciary. Although the constitution has been set in such a way, efforts to achieve a constitutional state is not an easy road. Nowadays, it seems that the trip of the Indonesian as a constitutional state was still hobbled. A variety of legal issues that disturb the sense of justice continues to emerge one after another. The outcomes of the research indicate that over the last decade, Indonesia has made many changes to realize the ideal of a constitutional state. As it turns out in practice, however, legal development was still far short from the expectations. The success of building a constitutional state can not be measured by the ability to produce legislation and to create or revitalize legal institutions. Moreover, the success of a constitutional state must also be measured by the implementation and law enforcement which able to create justice for all people. Therefore, the main focus of various studies of law and legal policy, must be oriented in the judicial institutions and law enforcement.

  1. Possibilities for a constitutional embodiment of environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenberger, D.

    1991-03-01

    The main topic is the question of adequacy and desirability of a constitutional rule for the protection of the environment with regard to the specific Austrian situation and the extensive discussion about this topic in German. As variants are discussed a human right of environment, objective categories of constitutional rules (constitutional aims of state's policy) and procedural or organisational rules. It begins with an explanation of the general responsibility of states in the field of environment protection and a determination of the term 'environment '. In respect of a human right first already guaranteed rights are examined for their relevance in the field of conservation with regard to the change in the understanding of human rights. Then arguments pro and against a specific right to environment are mentioned and appraised. With regard to the counter-arguments a subjective right should not be incorporated. A revision of the present concept of human rights would be necessary. Similar arguments are mentioned against the constitution of an objective norm in respect of some judicial decisions of the Austrian Constitutional Court. The problem of the protection of the environment will not be solved with a constitutional rule. It would raise new problems, which would damage the constitution as a fundamental order of human living together. (author)

  2. Engineered Promoters for Potent Transient Overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Y Even

    Full Text Available The core promoter, which is generally defined as the region to which RNA Polymerase II is recruited to initiate transcription, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. The core promoter consists of different combinations of several short DNA sequences, termed core promoter elements or motifs, which confer specific functional properties to each promoter. Earlier studies that examined the ability to modulate gene expression levels via the core promoter, led to the design of strong synthetic core promoters, which combine different core elements into a single core promoter. Here, we designed a new core promoter, termed super core promoter 3 (SCP3, which combines four core promoter elements (the TATA box, Inr, MTE and DPE into a single promoter that drives prolonged and potent gene expression. We analyzed the effect of core promoter architecture on the temporal dynamics of reporter gene expression by engineering EGFP expression vectors that are driven by distinct core promoters. We used live cell imaging and flow cytometric analyses in different human cell lines to demonstrate that SCPs, particularly the novel SCP3, drive unusually strong long-term EGFP expression. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of long-term expression in transiently transfected mammalian cells, indicating that engineered core promoters can provide a novel non-viral strategy for biotechnological as well as gene-therapy-related applications that require potent expression for extended time periods.

  3. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  4. Starting Strong: Feasibility of an Indicated Prevention Programme during the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Baker, Bruce L.; Taylor, Heather

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health services are a promising context for evidence-based interventions to promote early socio-emotional development, yet implementation presents significant challenges. This paper describes the rationale, content and format of a school-based intervention, Starting Strong in Kindergarten (Starting Strong). Starting Strong is a…

  5. Transgenic Expression of Constitutively Active RAC1 Disrupts Mouse Rod Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongman; Bush, Ronald A.; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Fariss, Robert N.; Kjellstrom, Sten; Sieving, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Dominant-active RAC1 rescues photoreceptor structure in Drosophila rhodopsin-null mutants, indicating an important role in morphogenesis. This report assesses the morphogenetic effect of activated RAC1 during mammalian rod photoreceptor development using transgenic mice that express constitutively active (CA) RAC1. Methods. Transgenic mice were generated by expressing CA RAC1 under control of the Rhodopsin promoter, and morphological features of the photoreceptors were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Function was evaluated by electroretinography. Potential protein partners of CA RAC1 were identified by co-immunoprecipitation of retinal extracts. Results. Constitutively active RAC1 expression in differentiating rods disrupted outer retinal lamination as early as postnatal day (P)6, and many photoreceptor cell nuclei were displaced apically into the presumptive subretinal space. These photoreceptors did not develop normal inner and outer segments and had abnormal placement of synaptic elements. Some photoreceptor nuclei were also mislocalized into the inner nuclear layer. Extensive photoreceptor degeneration was subsequently observed in the adult animal. Constitutively active RAC1 formed a complex with the polarity protein PAR6 and with microtubule motor dynein in mouse retina. The normal localization of the PAR6 complex was disrupted in CA RAC1-expressing rod photoreceptors. Conclusions. Constitutively active RAC1 had a profound negative effect on mouse rod cell viability and development. Rod photoreceptors in the CA RAC1 retina exhibited a defect in polarity and migration. Constitutively active RAC1 disrupted rod morphogenesis and gave a phenotype resembling that found in the Crumbs mutant. PAR6 and dynein are two potential downstream effectors that may be involved in CA RAC1-mediated defective mouse photoreceptor morphogenesis. PMID:24651551

  6. A Mathematical Approach to Establishing Constitutive Models for Geomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hua Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical foundation of the traditional elastoplastic constitutive theory for geomaterials is presented from the mathematical point of view, that is, the expression of stress-strain relationship in principal stress/strain space being transformed to the expression in six-dimensional space. A new framework is then established according to the mathematical theory of vectors and tensors, which is applicable to establishing elastoplastic models both in strain space and in stress space. Traditional constitutive theories can be considered as its special cases. The framework also enables modification of traditional constitutive models.

  7. Constitutional and non-specific immunity to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, S N

    1998-04-01

    Most immunologists focus on elaborate non-specific and antigen-specific factors of reactive immunity produced by the vertebrate lymphoid system. Modern principles of immunogenic prophylaxis and therapy are based solely on the use of these agents. There is, however, a more effective system of specific resistance which is shared by all forms of life: hereditary constitutional immunity to infection and invasion. An explosive growth in knowledge of the constitutional immunogenic system has occurred during the past two decades. The author illustrates the nature and importance of constitutional immunity, using examples from genetics and molecular biology. Special attention is given to testing for genetic susceptibility to infection and genetic engineering of resistance.

  8. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Andreeva, Kalina; Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies.

  9. Conditional Clemency after the Golpe de Melo of 1854: Constitutionalism and Tradition in Early Republican Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Rosenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines indultos after the Golpe de Melo of 1854. While the government hoped that these acts of clemency would erase all traces of the rebellion, a flood of appeals for indultos ensured that the post-war reckoning went on longer than the war itself. Drawing on archival and published material documenting this phenomenon, the article documents post-war politics in New Granada. The tension between popular ideals concerning pardonable behavior and the dispassionate constitutionalism promoted by the government documents the limits of the early republican project.

  10. Is there an institutional structure conducive to judicial independence? An overview of ruling constitutions in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Magalhães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available What determines the nature of judicial review and the way it operates in the new democracies? Institutional factors seem to impact the independence and power of courts and therefore are often used to explain their behavior. Mechanisms such as composition of the courts, jurisdiction, and selection of members of the term commonly listed in detail in constitutional texts, signaling that the autonomy of the courts is traditionally a desirable ideal for constituents. This article aims to analyze how certain characteristics may be crucial in promoting judicial independence and ultimately determine which are present in the constitutional courts in Latin America.

  11. Expression analysis of the 35S CaMV promoter and its derivatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, many studies have demonstrated the constitutive nature of this promoter, some reports have suggested varied expression levels in different parts of the plant. Therefore, our aim was to study the activity of the CaMV 35S promoter in the hairy root system. The CaMV 35S promoter, the duplicate CaMV 35S promoter ...

  12. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  13. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  14. One of My Favorite Judges: Constitutional Interpretation, Democracy and Antonin Scalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author explains why Antonin Scalia was one of his favourite judges. It starts by excerpting some of Justice Scalia’s most biting and funny comments, both from judicial and extra-judicial sources. Then it explains the attractions of an originalist approach to constitutional interpretation, though arguing that the intentionalist strain is preferable to Scalia’s ‘original public meaning’ or ‘new originalism’ approach. Finally, it argues that within the confines of a constitutional structure with an entrenched bill of rights, Scalia was a strong proponent of democratic decision-making to resolve key social policy decisions, unlike many other top judges.

  15. High constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor--identification of a potent inverse agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Cygankiewicz, Adam; Jensen, Tine Halkjaer

    2003-01-01

    Ghrelin is a GH-releasing peptide that also has an important role as an orexigenic hormone-stimulating food intake. By measuring inositol phosphate turnover or by using a reporter assay for transcriptional activity controlled by cAMP-responsive elements, the ghrelin receptor showed strong, ligand......-independent signaling in transfected COS-7 or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ghrelin and a number of the known nonpeptide GH secretagogues acted as agonists stimulating inositol phosphate turnover further. In contrast, the low potency ghrelin antagonist, [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-substance P was surprisingly...... found to be a high potency (EC50 = 5.2 nm) full inverse agonist as it decreased the constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor down to that observed in untransfected cells. The homologous motilin receptor functioned as a negative control as it did not display any sign of constitutive activity...

  16. The bovine papillomavirus constitutive enhancer is essential for viral transformation, DNA replication, and the maintenance of latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Pol, S B; Howley, P M

    1992-04-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) has served as the prototype papillomavirus for the study of viral transcription, DNA replication, and latency. However, no cis essential transcription control regions which are necessary for both transformation and replication of BPV-1 or any other papillomavirus have yet been defined. We have found that BPV-1 mutants with deletions in the long control region were defective for transformation and replication, with the essential region in the 5' long control region corresponding to the previously defined BPV-1 constitutive enhancer (S. B. Vande Pol and P. M. Howley, J. Virol. 64:5420-5429, 1990). BPV-1 mutants deleted of the constitutive enhancer could be complemented in trans by the full-length virally encoded E2 transactivator and replication factor (E2TA) and in cis by the simian virus 40 enhancer. The constitutive enhancer induced the production of E2TA by activating all the major viral early promoters upstream of the E2 open reading frame. Complementation experiments using a temperature-sensitive E2TA mutant indicated that the constitutive enhancer was necessary for the maintenance of viral DNA replication within latently infected cells and implied that viral transcription under the regulation of the constitutive enhancer may be controlled during the cell cycle. The constitutive enhancer is a master regulatory control region for establishing and maintaining BPV-1 latency, and its characteristics reveal some analogies with cell type-specific enhancer elements recognized in the human papillomaviruses.

  17. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  18. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  19. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  20. Competition is constitutional: Four fallacies in the argument that transmission access constitutes a taking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotland, S.D. [Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    New transmission regulations may cause a change in property value or property access, however, this alone does not constitute a regulatory taking. In an industry with a long history of regulation and some degree of shared transmission access, the utilities are going to be hard pressed to show that recent open access mandates are in violation of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. In a recent article, John Rowe and Paige Graening of the NEES Companies argued that transmission access is the twentieth century equivalent of {open_quotes}piracy{close_quotes} - forcing utilities to provide transmission access to third parties violates the Taking Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The authors stated that transmission access represents a permanent physical invasion of property - which is unconstitutional without {open_quotes}just compensation.{close_quotes} The same arguments have been raised by Michigan utilities in a pending court challenge to the retail wheeling experiment ordered by the Michigan Public Service Commission. Rowe and Graening complain that {open_quotes}under the Jolly Roger of open competition{close_quotes} regulators will limit utilities to {open_quotes}mere embedded costs,{close_quotes} thereby committing an act of {open_quotes}piracy.{close_quotes} Contrary to Rowe and Graening`s claim, the flag of competition is better represented by the Stars and Stripes, since orders to provide transmission access at the cost of service do not result in a regulatory taking. Four fallacies led NEES down the gangplank: (1) The authors argued that reductions in the value of an investment are necessarily takings. Regulatory impairment of property value is a fact of life. (2) Contrary to NEES, transmission access does not effect a permanent physical invasion of property. (3) NEES claimed that transmission access defeats reasonable investment expectations. (4) NEES relied on case law that affords utilities the opportunity to realize a profit.

  1. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  2. The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct between adolescent consenting children aged under 16 years decriminalised and a moratorium on the reporting duties of doctors and others.

  3. DyNAvectors: dynamic constitutional vectors for adaptive DNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Peptanariu, Dragos; Pinteala, Mariana; Salic, Adrian; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-12-25

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks, based on squalene, PEG and PEI components, reversibly connected to core centers, allow the efficient identification of adaptive vectors for good DNA transfection efficiency and are well tolerated by mammalian cells.

  4. The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: Toward a Constitutional Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, P.

    2012-01-01

    The politics-administration dichotomy is much mentioned and often criticized in the Public Administration literature. The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: Toward a Constitutional Perspective, Second Edition offers a book-length treatment of this classical notion. While public administration

  5. AASERT: Constitutive and Failure Behavior of Granular Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Min

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of this research is to obtain material response data and constitutive characterization for these materials at strain rates of up to 105 S-1, to analyze the evolution of load-carrying...

  6. Mathematical modeling and the two-phase constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The problems raised by the mathematical modeling of two-phase flows are summarized. The models include several kinds of equations, which cannot be discussed independently, such as the balance equations and the constitutive equations. A review of the various two-phase one-dimensional models proposed to date, and of the constitutive equations they imply, is made. These models are either mixture models or two-fluid models. Due to their potentialities, the two-fluid models are discussed in more detail. To avoid contradictions, the form of the constitutive equations involved in two-fluid models must be sufficiently general. A special form of the two-fluid models, which has particular advantages, is proposed. It involves three mixture balance equations, three balance equations for slip and thermal non-equilibriums, and the necessary constitutive equations [fr

  7. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko; Mutoh, Yasushi

    1983-01-01

    A creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X was obtained from available experimental data. A sensitivity analysis of this creep constitutive equation was carried out. As the result, the following were revealed: (i) Variations in creep behavior with creep constitutive equation are not small. (ii) In a simpler stress change pattern, variations in creep behavior are similar to those in the corresponding fundamental creep characteristics (creep strain curve, stress relaxation curve, etc.). (iii) Cumulative creep damage estimated in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-47 from a stress history predicted by ''the standard creep constitutive equation'' which predicts the average behavior of creep strain curve data is not thought to be on the safe side on account of uncertainties in creep damage caused by variations in creep strain curve. (author)

  8. Constitutional Model and Rationality in Judicial Decisions from Proportionality Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, Thiago Alves

    2016-01-01

    In the current legal systems, the content of the Constitutions consists of values that serve to limit state action. The department in charge of the control of this system is, usually, the Judiciary. This choice leads to two major problems, the tension between democracy and constitutionalism and the subjectivity that control. One of the solutions to subjectivity is weighting of principles through the proportionality technique, which aims to give rational decisions. This technique doesn’t elimi...

  9. A simple hysteretic constitutive model for unsaturated flow

    OpenAIRE

    Soldi, Mariangeles; Guarracino, Luis; Jougnot, Damien

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a constitutive model to describe unsaturated flow that considers the hysteresis phenomena. This constitutive model provides simple mathematical expressions for both saturation and hydraulic conductivity curves, and a relationship between permeability and porosity. The model is based on the assumption that the porous media can be represented by a bundle of capillary tubes with throats or "ink-bottles" and a fractal pore size distribution. Under these hypotheses, hyster...

  10. Association and exclusion: the paradox of liberal constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    H.N. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that a central paradox of liberal constitutionalism can be found by closely examining the freedom of association.  Freedom of association includes the right not to associate; thus a regime of individual rights facilitates the creation of marginalized individuals and groups.  These groups then seek social recognition, which liberal constitutionalism cannot easily grant, unless the state itself becomes complicit in discriminatory action.  The existence and protection ...

  11. LEGAL SYSTEM IN BRAZILIAN CONSTITUTIONALISM: PERPLEXITIES REFERRING TO CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Iribure Júnior, Hamilton da Cunha; Guimarães, Henrique Cassalho

    2017-01-01

    The contemporaneous constitutionalism outlines a new manner to conceive and interpret the legal system, considering the alignment of law with society and society with law in order to emancipate the individual in the factual level. This results in the repercussion of humanization purpose in the Constitution of Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988 in civil law, to the extent of approaching it under a new perspective. However, such relationship involves several aspects which cannot be neglected...

  12. A selection of constitutional perspectives on human kidney sales

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    There are thousands of desperate people globally who need a kidney for transplantation. The number of people who require a kidney transplant continues to escalate faster than the number of kidneys available for a transplant. The specific focus of this article is to determine whether the payment of kidney donors could be regarded as constitutionally acceptable or not. To establish the constitutional acceptability of the reimbursement of kidney donors the following rights are analysed: the righ...

  13. Human Rights in Armed Conflicts and Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Maniatis

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of both International Humanitarian Law and anti-piracy International Law on Constitutional Law. International Law is endowed with a rich set of norms on the protection of private individuals in armed conflicts and copes with the diachronic crime of maritime piracy, which may be considered as a private war in the high seas. Constitutional Law has been traditionally geared at two generations of fundamental rights. The paper will aim at a...

  14. The classic: The chemical constitution of respiration ferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, Otto Heinrich

    2010-11-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Otto Heinrich Warburg, The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment. An accompanying biographical sketch of Otto Heinrich Warburg, PhD, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1533-z . The Classic Article is from Warburg O. The chemical constitution of respiration ferment. Science. 1928;68:437-443. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

  15. The Classic: The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment

    OpenAIRE

    Warburg, Otto Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Otto Heinrich Warburg, The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment. An accompanying biographical sketch of Otto Heinrich Warburg, PhD, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1533-z. The Classic Article is from Warburg O. The chemical constitution of respiration ferment. Science. 1928;68:437–443. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

  16. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  17. A continuum mechanics constitutive framework for transverse isotropic soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D.; Jérusalem, A.; Garzon-Hernandez, S.; Zaera, R.; Arias, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a continuum constitutive framework for the mechanical modelling of soft tissues that incorporates strain rate and temperature dependencies as well as the transverse isotropy arising from fibres embedded into a soft matrix is developed. The constitutive formulation is based on a Helmholtz free energy function decoupled into the contribution of a viscous-hyperelastic matrix and the contribution of fibres introducing dispersion dependent transverse isotropy. The proposed framework considers finite deformation kinematics, is thermodynamically consistent and allows for the particularisation of the energy potentials and flow equations of each constitutive branch. In this regard, the approach developed herein provides the basis on which specific constitutive models can be potentially formulated for a wide variety of soft tissues. To illustrate this versatility, the constitutive framework is particularised here for animal and human white matter and skin, for which constitutive models are provided. In both cases, different energy functions are considered: Neo-Hookean, Gent and Ogden. Finally, the ability of the approach at capturing the experimental behaviour of the two soft tissues is confirmed.

  18. Dynamic compressive constitutive relation and shearing instability of metallic neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian; Ma Dongfang; Hou Yanjun; Wu Shanxing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Dynamic constitutive relation of Nd was determined in first compression of SHPB. → Deformation of Nd in multi-compression of SHPB were recorded by high-speed camera. → Constitutive relation of Nd was adjusted in modeling large deformation of Nd. → Results of SDDM investigation of recovered Nd specimens showed shearing fracture. → Shearing instability of Nd was estimated with constitutive relation. - Abstract: Based on static tests on MTS and dynamic tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) during the first loading, this study determined the dynamic compressive constitutive relation of metallic Nd. Based on large deformations of metallic Nd specimens generated by the multi-compressive loadings during SHPB tests, and recorded by a high-speed camera, the results of numerical simulations for SHPB test processes were used to extend the determined constitutive relation from small strain to large strain. The shearing instability strain in dynamic compressive deformations of metallic Nd was estimated with the extended constitutive relation according to the criterion given by Batra and Wei, and was compared with the average strain of recovered specimens.

  19. An anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Calvin M.; Gordon, Ali P.; Ma, Young Wha; Neu, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    When an anisotropic material is subject to creep conditions and a complex state of stress, an anisotropic creep damage behavior is observed. Previous research has focused on the anisotropic creep damage behavior of isotropic materials but few constitutive models have been developed for anisotropic creeping solids. This paper describes the development of a new anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials. An advanced tensorial damage formulation is implemented which includes both material orientation relative to loading and the degree of creep damage anisotropy in the model. A variation of the Norton-power law for secondary creep is implemented which includes the Hill's anisotropic analogy. Experiments are conducted on the directionally-solidified bucket material DS GTD-111. The constitutive model is implemented in a user programmable feature (UPF) in ANSYS FEA software. The ability of the constitutive model to regress to the Kachanov-Rabotnov isotropic tertiary creep damage model is demonstrated through comparison with uniaxial experiments. A parametric study of both material orientation and stress rotation are conducted. Results indicate that creep deformation is modeled accurately; however an improved damage evolution law may be necessary. - Highlights: → The deformation of anisotropic creeping solid is directionally dependent. → Few constitutive models have been developed to deal with anisotropic behavior. → A transversely-isotropic nickel base superalloy, DS GTD-111, is studied. → A vector constitutive model based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formulation is developed. → The new model accurately models deformation at various orientations.

  20. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  1. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  2. Promoting industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayfield, F.

    1986-04-01

    When the first nuclear power programme is decided upon, automatically the country has to initiate in parallel a programme to modify or add to its current industrial structure and resources. The extent of this new industrialisation depends upon many factors which both, the Government and the Industries have to consider. The Government has a vital role which includes the setting up of the background against which the industrial promotion should take place and in many cases may have also to play an active role all along this programme. Equally, the existing industries have an important role so as to achieve the most efficient participation in the nuclear programme. Invariably the industrial promotional programme will incur a certain degree of transfer of technology, the extent depending on the policies adopted. For this technology transfer to take place efficiently, both the donor and the receiver have to recognise each other's legitimate ambitions and fears. The transfer of technology is a process having a high human content and both donor and receiver have to take this into account. This can be further complicated when there is a difference in culture between them. Technology transfer is carried out within a contractual and organisational framework which will identify the donor (licensor) and the receiver (licensee). This framework may take various forms from a simple cooperative agreement, through a joint-venture organisation right to a standard contract between two separate entities. Each arrangement has its advantages and drawbacks and requires investment of different degrees. One of the keys to a successful industrial promotion is having it carried out in a timely fashion which will be parallel with the nuclear power programme. Experience in some countries has shown the problems when the industrialisation is out of phase with the programme whilst in other cases this industrialisation was at a level and scale unjustified. (author)

  3. Stimulated initiation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) gene transcription involves the synergistic action of multiple cis-acting elements in the proximal promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Stephan; Massiha, Abbas; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are inactivated by a dual specificity phosphatase, MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). MKP-1 is transcribed as an immediate early response gene (IEG) following various stimuli. In the pituitary cell line GH4C1, MKP-1 gene transcription is strongly induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as well as by epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a consequence of activated MAPK/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling. Intriguingly, reporter gene analysis with the MKP-1 promoter showed strong basal transcription, but only limited induction by TRH and EGF. Site-directed mutagenesis of the reporter construct combined with band-shift and in vivo studies revealed that part of the constitutive activity of the MKP-1 promoter resides in two GC boxes bound by Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors in the minimal promoter. Basal transcription of transiently transfected luciferase reporter can be initiated by either of the two GC boxes or also by either of the two cAMP/Ca(2+) responsive elements or by the E-box present in the proximal promoter. On the other hand, when analysed by stable transfection, the five responsive elements are acting in synergy to transactivate the MKP-1 proximal promoter. We show in this study that the MKP-1 promoter can function as a constitutive promoter or as a rapid and transient sensor for the activation state of MAPKs/ERKs. This dual mode of transcription initiation may have different consequences for the control of a block to elongation situated in the first exon of the MKP-1 gene, as described previously [Ryser, Tortola, van Haasteren, Muda, Li and Schlegel (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 33319-33327]. PMID:14609431

  4. A Plan for improving the industrial constitution in Korea for the Convention on Climate Change - concentrated on manufacturing CO{sub 2} unit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Yong Kun; Sohn, Yang Hoon; Kim, Seung Woo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Due to the implementation of the Convention on Climate Change in future, a policy plan to prepare for the Convention on Climate Change was promoted to improve constitution of domestic economy practically including foreign negotiation strategies, national energy policy and change in consumption pattern. Based on the CO{sub 2} unit analysis in manufacturing, this study proposed an improvement plan of industrial constitution in Korea to prepare for emission trading system. 31 refs., 30 figs., 68 tabs.

  5. Nuclear phase-out a part of the German Constitution? On the political grammar of constitutional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerditz, Klaus Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    The study examines whether and to what extent the simple legal effected nuclear phase-out could be safeguarded in the Basic Law, which regulatory methods would be available, the advantages and disadvantages of these and how their effects would be assessed. In addition to political and practical consequences, this also includes considerations of democracy and constitutional theory in an overall consideration, which ultimately touches the question of the regulatory function of constitutional changes. [de

  6. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  7. The Viability and Constitutionality of the South African National Register for Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Section 42 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 established a National Register for Sex Offenders where the particulars of all offenders guilty of sexual transgressions against children or mentally-ill persons have to be included, regardless of whether they were found guilty before or after the coming into force of the Act. Although the purpose of the Act clearly is to protect and promote the constitutional rights of victims and society in general, it is apparent that the register may infringe on the rights of sexual offenders. The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South African register will be examined by means of a comparative study with the United States and United Kingdom, where similar registers are already in place. This legislative assessment will also provide answers as to the viability of the South African register. It is argued that South Africa's sex offender registration system may not fulfil the function it was designed for because of misconceptions as well as serious implementation and administrative issues; and that alternative solutions may be more suitable in this regard.

  8. Validation of risk indicators for the constitution of the reader/scribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezian, Janaina de Albuquerque; Freire, Regina Maria

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors for the constitution of the reader/scribe. This is an exploratory study in which a retrospective questionnaire about the child before entering elementary school, based on preliminary indicators for the constitution of the subject reader/scribe, was applied to a population of 293 parents of elementary school students from a public school in São Paulo. The findings were crossed with the diagnostic survey of writing of students from the 1st to the 5th grade and with the evaluation of text production of students from the 3rd to the 5th grade. Data was statistically analyzed. The questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and the analysis of convergent validity presented positive correlation considered valid, statistically significant with the diagnostic survey of writing, that is, the higher the score the better the performance in the survey questionnaire. There was statistically positive correlation between the questionnaire and the performance of the students on text production in cases where parents had complaints regarding the reading and writing of their children. Exploratory factor analysis validated the proposed construct. The questionnaire is easy to apply and inexpensive, and the results showed acceptance by the respondents -- fundamental characteristics of instruments that serve public health and education. The research allowed validating 8 of 15 risk indicators initially proposed for the constitution of the reader/scribe. This validation confers quality to the construct and opens possibilities for its use in health promotion, prevention and rehabilitation in reading, writing and therapy.

  9. Health promotion in context – a reflective-analytical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Lene; Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context m...

  10. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  11. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  12. Evaluation for rheological constitutive relations, using the indentation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei

    1992-01-01

    A simple experimental method of determining the rheological constitutive relations is proposed. The method relies upon an analysis of the frictionless contact of a rigid spherical indenter and the rheological materials. The proposal addresses problems in two fields: rheological constitutive models and contact mechanics. It attempts to evaluate the rheological constitutive relations using an indentation technique. A systematic, optimization-based material parameter/function indentation model is proposed. The identification algorithm is based on a modified Marquardt-Levenberg method. A new integral constitutive equation for viscoelastic materials is derived. The derivation is carried out so that a damage function is included in the model in a relatively convenient form. Inclusion of damage effects makes this constitutive equation considerably more general than the widely accepted K-BKZ integral model. The single-step and double-step stress relaxation indentation experiments on asphalt materials were performed. The K-BKZ, Wagner, and nonlinear Volterra models were evaluated. It is demonstrated that the new integral constitutive model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data. The idea of damage function is introduced not only to have a better fit of data, but the damage (or irreversibility) is observed experimentally. Also, the creep indentation tests on composites were presented. A multiaxial theory of creep deformation for particle-strengthened metal matrix composites (Zhu-Weng Theory) was evaluated. The goal of the proposed research is to develop the indentation technique for use in basic mechanical studies. From the indentation test, material response is measured. The data are used in conjunction with the material parameter identification model to optimally back calculate the constitutive relations.

  13. [Study on the Distribution of Constitutions of Chinese Medicine in Patients with Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Xie, Li-min; Zhang, Zhen-nan; Ke, Xun; Liu, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To observe the distribution of constitution types of Chinese medicine (CM) in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Totally 130 ONFH patients were recruited. Constitution types of CM were identified in all patients. Distribution features of constitution types of CM in ONFH patients were observed. The differences of distribution in gender, age, single or bilateral hips, course of disease, staging, cause, and region were also analyzed. Seventy patients were of complicated constitutions, while 60 patients were of single constitution. Among the 60 single constitution cases, yang-deficiency constitution [18 (13.9%)], damp-heat constitution [10 (7.7%)], blood-stasis constitution [7 (5.4%)], and qi-deficiency constitution [7 (5.4%)] were mainly distributed. Of the complicated constitutions, yang-deficiency dominated constitution occupied the top ratio [30 (23.1%)], followed by blood-stasis dominated constitution [15 (11.5%)], damp-heat dominated constitution [9 (6.9%)]. By putting them together, yang-deficiency constitution occupied the top constitution of CM [48 (36.9%)], followed by blood-stasis constitution [ 22 (16.9%)] and damp-heat constitution [19 (14.6%)]. The aforesaid three constitutions accounted for 68.5% of the total. There were no statistical distribution differences in gender, age, single or bilateral hips, course of disease, staging, or cause. Yang-deficiency constitution, damp-heat constitution, and blood-stasis constitution were liable constitutions of CM in ONFH patients.

  14. Rice tissue-specific promoters and condition-dependent promoters for effective translational application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple food crops for more than half of the world's population. The demand is increasing for food security because of population growth and environmental challenges triggered by climate changes. This scenario has led to more interest in developing crops with greater productivity and sustainability. The process of genetic transformation, a major tool for crop improvement, utilizes promoters as one of its key elements. Those promoters are generally divided into three types: constitutive, spatiotemporal, and condition-dependent. Transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter often leads to reduced plant growth, due to a negative effect of accumulated molecules during cellular functions or energy consumption. To maximize the effect of a transgene on transgenic plants, it is better to use condition-dependent or tissue-specific promoters. However, until now, those types have not been as widely applied in crop biotechnology. In this review, we introduce and discuss four groups of tissue-specific promoters (50 promoters in total) and six groups of condition-dependent promoters (27 promoters). These promoters can be utilized to fine-tune desirable agronomic traits and develop crops with tolerance to various stresses, enhanced nutritional value, and advanced productivity. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Constitution, Civil Society and the Fight Against Radicalism: the Experience of Indonesia and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Widiyanto, Asfa

    2016-01-01

    The German scholar Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde (b. 1930) is reported to have said that “the free secular state lives on premises that it cannot itself guarantee”. These premises include the morality, commitment to public order and the like. In this train of thought, we may say that the constitution is in need of strong civil society so as to maintain the well-being of the state. This article employs documents, observation and interviews to highlight the experience of Indonesia and Austria in m...

  16. Introduction of polycrystal constitutive laws in a finite element code with applications to zirconium forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.; Kaschner, G.C.; Gray, G.T. III

    1998-01-01

    In this work the authors simulate the compressive deformation of heavily textured zirconium sheet using a finite element code with the constitutive response given by a polycrystal self-consistent model. They show that the strong anisotropy of the response can be explained in terms of the texture and the relative activity of prismatic (easy) and pyramidal (hard) slip modes. The simulations capture the yield anisotropy observed for so-called through-thickness and in-plane compression tests in terMs of the loading curves and final specimen geometries

  17. Identification and characterization of the nifH and nifJ promoter regions located on the nif-plasmid pEA3 of Enterobacter agglomerans 333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, R; Singh, M; Klingmüller, W

    1989-05-15

    Small restriction fragments of the plasmid-borne Enterobacter agglomerans 333 nif region were cloned into a promoter probe plasmid as transcriptional fusions with the lacZ gene. Identification of NifA-dependent promoters was accomplished by using a compatible plasmid which constitutively expresses the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifA gene. beta-Galactosidase assays showed strong activation of the cloned E. agglomerans promoters in Escherichia coli by the heterologous K. pneumoniae nifA gene product. The positions of the promoter fragments on the corresponding restriction map were determined by Southern hybridization. As confirmed by sequencing data, the nifH and nifJ promoters are situated at opposite end-points of the nif gene group and their -24 to -12 nucleotide sequences are similar to the consensus sequence of NtrA-dependent promoters. Also, typical NifA-binding motifs are present in both promoters. The agreement of the promoter proximal regions of nifH and nifJ with the corresponding K pneumoniae sequences is about 80%. Also the upstream regions of these genes are in agreement to some extent.

  18. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  19. The "alternative" choice of constitutive exons throughout evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes-exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5' splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing.

  20. CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER, NATIONAL DEFENSE AND CI IL MILITARY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navarro Meza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of its independent life, the several constitutions of Chile have included concepts related ith defence, sovereignty and national security. At the same time, those constitutional texts have recognized the existence of the armed organizations of the State, under the generic name of Public Force and have addressed their relation ith the political authorities, both ith the Executive and Congress. his has not been a permanent process. n the contrary, it has suffered upheavals and bac steps, but the general path has been clear and progressive. For one thing, the norms related to the armed forces have been, in comparative terms, more thoroughly developed than those referring to defence, sovereignty and national security. hen, from the 1833 Constitution, the basic elements of the relations bet een the political authorities and the military have evolved so as to ensure a genuine civilian control over the military, in line ith contemporary theories of civilDmilitary relations. he ay in hich the 1980 Constitution addresses national security and defence and its provisions that recognize the existence of the armed forces, their missions and roles and that regulate the ay in hich they relate to the political authorities, are the result of a progressive development starting ith the Provisional Constitution of 1811 up to present times, and they are completely in line ith current theories about civilDmilitary relations in democracy.