WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong circumstantial evidence

  1. Corruption in the health care system: the circumstantial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Joseph; Majoor, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Health care systems are under intense scrutiny, and there is an increasing emphasis on patient safety and quality of care in general. Evidence continues to emerge demonstrating that health systems are performing at sub-optimal levels. The evidence includes the under-use, over-use and mis-use of health care services; new standards asking for respect, dignity, honesty and transparency; the corporatization of health; and the existing inequalities in power and health outcomes. Recommendations for improving health care often refer to increasing the level of collaboration and consultation. These strategies are unlikely to remedy the root causes of our ailing health systems if we accept the circumstantial evidence that suggests the system is rotten.

  2. Circumstantial evidence of life history events in loricate choanoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Østergaard, Jette Buch

    2017-01-01

    Sex is found in all major eukaryotic groups of organisms. It has been known for some time that the choanoflagellates also possess the genes involved in meiosis and a full sexual cycle was also recently accounted for in Salpingoeca rosetta. With reference to the loricate choanoflagellates the curr......Sex is found in all major eukaryotic groups of organisms. It has been known for some time that the choanoflagellates also possess the genes involved in meiosis and a full sexual cycle was also recently accounted for in Salpingoeca rosetta. With reference to the loricate choanoflagellates...... the current status is that only circumstantial evidence, from wild material of Bicosta spinifera, exists in favour of documenting division patterns that go beyond plain asexual division, and that has the potential to represent stages in a sexual life cycle. Here we present further evidence from wild material...... documenting possible morphotype changes that might similarly indicate the existence of complex life cycles. In this particular case, it revolves around the existence of so-called ‘combination loricas’ (i.e. two loricas that occur physically united), representing consistent species combinations from the genera...

  3. Educating jurors about eyewitness testimony in criminal cases with circumstantial and forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Martin A; Murphy, Ryan P; Wise, Richard A; Bussey, Logan; Millett, Cristina; Holfeld, Brett

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the Interview-Identification-Eyewitness factors (I-I-Eye) educational aid could sensitize mock jurors to the quality of eyewitness evidence in criminal cases which also contained circumstantial and forensic evidence. After participants were randomly assigned to read either the I-I-Eye or a control aid, they read a trial transcript containing either strong or weak eyewitness evidence. The police consistently followed scientific interviewing and identification procedures in the strong case, but not in the weak case. In two experiments, the I-I-Eye participants were approximately three times more likely than the control participants to enter guilty verdicts in the strong case than in the weak case. Thus the I-I-Eye educational aid increased participants' sensitivity to the eyewitness evidence. The I-I-Eye method provides a valuable analytical framework for evaluating eyewitness evidence in criminal cases. It may be capable of becoming "a standard feature for criminal cases" with eyewitness evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Shock waves in nuclear matter - proof by circumstantial evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecker, H.; Hofmann, J.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential theoretical tools for the treatment of the dynamics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions are developed. The influence of the nuclear equation of state is studied and the new phenomena connected with phase transitions in nuclear matter (pion condensation) discussed. Furthermore the possibility of a transition from nuclear to quark matter in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions is investigated and exotic phenomena like strongly bound pionic states, limiting temperatures, and exotic nuclei are discussed in this context. (author)

  5. Current evidence on whether perinatal risk factors influence coeliac disease is circumstantial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårild, Karl; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Størdal, Ketil

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is triggered by an interplay of environmental and genetic factors and is one of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases in children, occurring in about 1% of Europeans. Over the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in the role of the perinatal environment in coeliac disease and this review discusses the growing body of literature on coeliac disease and perinatal risk factors. There is still only circumstantial evidence that the perinatal environment influences coeliac disease development. Large-scale cohort studies and emerging scientific concepts, such as epigenetics, may help us establish the role of these environmental factors. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Circumstantial Evidence for a Soft Nuclear Symmetry Energy at Suprasaturation Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhigang; Zhang Ming; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Yong Gaochan

    2009-01-01

    Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent hadronic transport model, it is shown that the recent FOPI data on the π - /π + ratio in central heavy-ion collisions at SIS/GSI energies [Willy Reisdorf et al., Nucl. Phys. A 781, 459 (2007)] provide circumstantial evidence suggesting a rather soft nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ) at ρ≥2ρ 0 compared to the Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall prediction. Some astrophysical implications and the need for further experimental confirmations are discussed

  7. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  8. Bribe-Taking by Bureaucrats: Personal and Circumstantial Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei; Wang, Yijiang

    2008-01-01

    We argue that personal (e.g., age, gender and education) and circumstantial (e.g., bureaucratic rank and sector of employment) factors affect the cost and the benefit of bribe-taking by the bureaucrats. The bureaucrat’s bribe-taking decision is modeled. A unique data set is used to test the predictions of the model. The empirical findings include that education reduces, but power (measured by rank and sector of work) increases, the magnitude of bribe-taking. Age affects bribe-taking in a ...

  9. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Husain

    Full Text Available Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008 and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005 are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  10. Analyzing Advertising Specimen within the Scope of Circumstantial Choices: A Case Study of Airtel® Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the Airtel’s Always On slogan to elucidate alternating choices constructed to build strong relationships with subscribers. The proceeding semiotic paradigms were strategic discourses communicated to dominate some facets of human endeavors serving, perhaps, as signals to operational capacities of Airtel®. Halliday’s concepts of the Paradigmatic Order and Circumstantial facilities of the Transitivity system were applied to seven ads of the Always On to assist in deriving both structural and semantic values from the switching linguistic elements. Tables and a graph provided supports for the analysis as indicators of the recurring components of the analyzed structural choices. The study showed that Always On is synonymous with Airtel in terms of operational consistency. It revealed further that creativity was not limited to the phrases proceeding Always On but that the choice inventions were extended to background images playing supportive roles in the persuasion. The Circumstantial functioned as cause, manner and role with reliable service provisions. The switches provided recipients avenues to generate diverse meaning potential that could naturally stimulate individuals to consumption. The study concluded that the alternating devices did not only fascinate persuasion but also demonstrated systemic creativity of enlightenment.

  11. Starting Strong: Evidence-­Based Early Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Katrin; Beauchat, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Four evidence-based instructional approaches create an essential resource for any early literacy teacher or coach. Improve your teaching practices in all areas of early literacy. Use four proven instructional approaches--standards based, evidenced based, assessment based, and student based--to improve their teaching practice in all areas of early…

  12. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Analysis of Chromosome 18 in Pancreatic Cancer: Strong Evidence for New Tumour Suppressor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu P. Lefter

    2004-04-01

    Conclusion: These data represent strong functional evidence that chromosome 18q encodes strong tumour and metastasis suppressor activity that is able to switch human pancreatic cancer cells to a dormant phenotype.

  14. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat).

  15. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delerue

    Full Text Available The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat.

  16. Car crash and injury among young drivers: contribution of social, circumstantial and car attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, L; Vaez, M

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the independent contribution of individual, car and circumstantial features in severe and fatal car crashes involving young drivers. A prospective longitudinal, register-based cohort study was conducted at national level (in Sweden), in which people born in the years 1970-1972 (n = 334070) were followed up for the period 1988-2000 (aged 16-18 years in 1988) for their first two-car crashes leading to severe or fatal injury. Ten variables descriptive of the driver (sociodemographics), the car (safety level) and the crash have been analysed using multiple logistic regressions for male and female drivers separately, compiling crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. When controlling for other features, none of the variables descriptive of male and female drivers' socio-demographic characteristics impacts significantly on the odds of being severely injured or dying in a car-to-car crash. After adjustment, significant excess risks are observed for speed limits higher than the lowest one, type of crash other than rear end collision and road and light conditions other than favourable (dry and daylight), for both male and female drivers. For males only, cars from all car safety levels have significantly higher odds than those from the safest category. Among male and female young drivers, class differences in the risk of being severely injured in a traffic injury are substantial. Yet, despite this imbalance, crash characteristics (for males and females) and safety level of the vehicle driven (for males) remain the most determinant factors of crash severity. Understanding the social patterning of road traffic injuries is a challenge for public health and it seems that qualitative and quantitative differences in crash exposure offer part of the explanation. Young drivers from all social groups need, however, to be sensitized to the risk factors.

  17. Subgap Two-Photon States in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Evidence for Strong Electron Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, K.; Roberts, A.; Sandhu, A.; Rathore, R.; Shukla, A.; Mazumdar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Strong electron correlation effects in the photophysics of quasi-one-dimensional $\\pi$-conjugated organic systems such as polyenes, polyacetylenes, polydiacetylenes, etc., have been extensively studied. Far less is known on correlation effects in two-dimensional $\\pi$-conjugated systems. Here we present theoretical and experimental evidence for moderate repulsive electron-electron interactions in a number of finite polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules with $D_{6h}$ symmetry. We show that...

  18. Evidence for strong Breit interaction in dielectronic recombination of highly charged heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Kavanagh, Anthony P; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2008-02-22

    Resonant strengths have been measured for dielectronic recombination of Li-like iodine, holmium, and bismuth using an electron beam ion trap. By observing the atomic number dependence of the state-resolved resonant strength, clear experimental evidence has been obtained that the importance of the generalized Breit interaction (GBI) effect on dielectronic recombination increases as the atomic number increases. In particular, it has been shown that the GBI effect is exceptionally strong for the recombination through the resonant state [1s2s(2)2p(1/2)](1).

  19. When a year takes 18 months: evidence for a strong circannual clock in a shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2002-04-01

    During the last three of 20 years kept as a pet, a red knot (Calidris canutus) went through two complete 'circannual' cycles of body mass and plumage. With a record cycle length of 18 months, this individual shorebird provides evidence for an exceptionally strong circannual clock system. The absence of synchronisation to outdoor but visible periodic cues suggests that the constant, socially-induced, day-night environment was of overriding importance. So far, only for songbirds is there firm experimental evidence that annual cycles are orchestrated by an endogenous circannual clock system. In constant environments the circannual cycles of these passerines tend to have periods that are shorter, rather than longer, than a year.

  20. Strongly correlated impurity band superconductivity in diamond: X-ray spectroscopic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baskaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent X-ray absorption study in boron doped diamond, Nakamura et al. have seen a well isolated narrow boron impurity band in non-superconducting samples and an additional narrow band at the chemical potential in a superconducting sample. We interpret the beautiful spectra as evidence for upper Hubbard band of a Mott insulating impurity band and an additional metallic 'mid-gap band' of a conducting 'self-doped' Mott insulator. This supports the basic framework of a recent theory of the present author of strongly correlated impurity band superconductivity (impurity band resonating valence bond, IBRVB theory in a template of a wide-gap insulator, with no direct involvement of valence band states.

  1. UCLA, British astronomers discover wake of planet around nearby star. Strong evidence for solar system like ours

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "An international team of astronomers reports the first strong evidence for the existence of massive planets on wide orbits - like those of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune - around many stars. The new research provides some of the strongest evidence so far that solar systems similar to our own, or even larger, are likely to exist: (1 page).

  2. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  3. Treatment of chronic pain in older people: Evidence-based choice of strong-acting opioids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ojik, Annette L.; Jansen, Paul A. F.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; van Roon, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic malignant and non-malignant pain, opioids are used as strong analgesics. Frail elderly patients often have multiple comorbidities and use multiple medicines, leading to an increased risk of clinically relevant drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Age-related changes

  4. Evidence for selection maintaining MHC diversity in a rodent species despite strong density fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C; Herde, Antje; Mazzoni, Camila J; Eccard, Jana A; Sommer, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variation in population size often leads to reduced genetic diversity limiting the adaptive potential of individual populations. Key genes of adaptive variation are encoded by the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) playing an essential role in parasite resistance. How MHC variation persists in rodent populations that regularly experience population bottlenecks remains an important topic in evolutionary genetics. We analysed the consequences of strong population fluctuations on MHC class II DRB exon 2 diversity in two distant common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in three consecutive years using a high-throughput sequencing approach. In 143 individuals, we detected 25 nucleotide alleles translating into 14 unique amino acid MHC alleles belonging to at least three loci. Thus, the overall allelic diversity and amino acid distance among the remaining MHC alleles, used as a surrogate for the range of pathogenic antigens that can be presented to T-cells, are still remarkably high. Both study populations did not show significant population differentiation between years, but significant differences were found between sites. We concluded that selection processes seem to be strong enough to maintain moderate levels of MHC diversity in our study populations outcompeting genetic drift, as the same MHC alleles were conserved between years. Differences in allele frequencies between populations might be the outcome of different local parasite pressures and/or genetic drift. Further understanding of how pathogens vary across space and time will be crucial to further elucidate the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in cyclic populations.

  5. USE OF BETA-BLOCKERS IN THE PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD: HOW STRONG ARE THE EVIDENCES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Samoylenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the pharmacotherapy in preoperative period is the cornerstone of the concept of risk modification of cardiovascular complications in the perioperative period. Therefore, special attention has recently been focused on the use of beta-blockers in the postoperative period. Nowadays convincing evidence base for the use of this class of drugs in the perioperative period that was the basis for the development of clinical guidelines is accumulated. Moreover, results of large randomized trials of beta-blockers are controversial. This has resulted in significant differences in the classes of recommendations and levels of evidence.Analysis of the results of basic researches and the provisions of recommendations of the international and national professional medical societies on the use of beta-blockers in patients with cardiovascular disease to reduce the risk of cardiac complications in the perioperative period for planned extracardiac surgical procedures is presented.

  6. Long memory volatility of gold price returns: How strong is the evidence from distinct economic cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Sonia R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the long memory behavior in the volatility of gold returns using daily data for the period 1985-2009. We divided the whole sample into eight sub-samples in order to analyze the robustness and consistency of our results during different crisis periods. This constitutes our main contribution. We cover four major world crises, namely, (i) the US stock market crash of 1987; (ii) the Asian financial crisis of 1997; (iii) the World Trade Center terrorist attack of 2001 and finally, (iv) the sub-prime crisis of 2007, in order to investigate how the fractional integrated parameter of the FIGARCH(1, d,1) model evolves over time. Our findings are twofold: (i) there is evidence of long memory in the conditional variance over the whole sample period; (ii) when we consider the sub-sample analysis, the results show mixed evidence. Thus, for the 1985-2003 period the long memory parameter is positive and statistically significant in the pre-crisis sub-samples, and there is no evidence of long memory in the crisis sub-sample periods; however the reverse pattern occurs for the 2005-2009 period. This highlights the unique characteristics of the 2007 sub-prime crisis.

  7. Strong contribution of immigration to local population regulation: evidence from a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Jakober, Hans; Stauber, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations requires knowledge about the variation of the underlying demographic rates and about the reasons for their variability. In geographically open populations, immigration is often necessary to prevent declines, but little is known about whether immigration can contribute to its regulation. We studied the dynamics of a Red-backed Shrike population (Lanius collurio) over 36 years in Germany with a Bayesian integrated population model. We estimated mean and temporal variability of population sizes, productivity, apparent survival, and immigration. We assessed how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population growth to understand the demographic reasons of population change and how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population size to identify possible density-dependent mechanisms. The shrike population varied between 35 and 74 breeding pairs but did not show a significant trend in population size over time (growth rate 1.002 +/- 0.001 [mean +/- SD]). Apparent survival of females (juveniles 0.06 +/- 0.01; adults 0.37 +/- 0.03) was lower than that of males (juveniles 0.10 +/- 0.01; adults 0.44 +/- 0.02). Immigration rates were substantial and higher in females (0.56 +/- 0.02) than in males (0.43 +/- 0.02), and average productivity was 2.76 +/- 0.14. Without immigration, the Red-backed Shrike population would have declined strongly. Immigration was the strongest driver for the number of females while local recruitment was the most important driver for the number of males. Immigration of both sexes and productivity, but not local recruitment and survival, were subject to density dependence. Density-dependent productivity was not effectively regulating the local population but may have contributed to regulate shrike populations at larger spatial scales. These findings suggest that immigration is not only an important component to prevent a geographically open population from decline

  8. Are strong empathizers better mentalizers? Evidence for independence and interaction between the routes of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Böckler, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Parianen Lesemann, Franca H; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Although the processes that underlie sharing others' emotions (empathy) and understanding others' mental states (mentalizing, Theory of Mind) have received increasing attention, it is yet unclear how they relate to each other. For instance, are people who strongly empathize with others also more proficient in mentalizing? And (how) do the neural networks supporting empathy and mentalizing interact? Assessing both functions simultaneously in a large sample (N = 178), we show that people's capacities to empathize and mentalize are independent, both on a behavioral and neural level. Thus, strong empathizers are not necessarily proficient mentalizers, arguing against a general capacity of social understanding. Second, we applied dynamic causal modeling to investigate how the neural networks underlying empathy and mentalizing are orchestrated in naturalistic social settings. Results reveal that in highly emotional situations, empathic sharing can inhibit mentalizing-related activity and thereby harm mentalizing performance. Taken together, our findings speak against a unitary construct of social understanding and suggest flexible interplay of distinct social functions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Experimental evidence for strong stabilizing forces at high functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Francesco; Giometto, Andrea; Seymour, Mathew; Rinaldo, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Unveiling the mechanisms that promote coexistence in biological communities is a fundamental problem in ecology. Stable coexistence of many species is commonly observed in natural communities. Most of these natural communities, however, are composed of species from multiple trophic and functional groups, while theory and experiments on coexistence have been focusing on functionally similar species. Here, we investigated how functional diversity affects the stability of species coexistence and productivity in multispecies communities by characterizing experimentally all pairwise species interactions in a pool of 11 species of eukaryotes (10 protists and one rotifer) belonging to three different functional groups. Species within the same functional group showed stronger competitive interactions compared to among-functional group interactions. This often led to competitive exclusion between species that had higher functional relatedness, but only at low levels of species richness. Communities with higher functional diversity resulted in increased species coexistence and community biomass production. Our experimental findings and the results of a stochastic model tailored to the experimental interaction matrix suggest the emergence of strong stabilizing forces when species from different functional groups interact in a homogeneous environment. By combining theoretical analysis with experiments we could also disentangle the relationship between species richness and functional diversity, showing that functional diversity per se is a crucial driver of productivity and stability in multispecies community.

  10. No evidence for strong cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in a simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellnow, Nikolas; Vizoso, Dita B; Viktorin, Gudrun; Schärer, Lukas

    2017-04-20

    Cytoplasmic sex allocation distorters, which arise from cytonuclear conflict over the optimal investment into male versus female reproductive function, are some of the best-researched examples for genomic conflict. Among hermaphrodites, many such distorters have been found in plants, while, to our knowledge, none have been clearly documented in animals. Here we provide a quantitative test for cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We used a quantitative genetic breeding design, employing pair-wise crosses of 2 × 15 independent inbred lines, to partition the phenotypic variance in several traits (including sex allocation) into its nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Although the nuclear genetic background had a significant effect on all traits analyzed, we found significant cytoplasmic genetic variation only for ovary size, there explaining just 4.1% of the variance. A subsequent statistical power analysis showed that the experimental design had considerable power to detect cytonuclear interactions. We conclude that there were no strong effects of cytonuclear conflict in the studied populations, possibly because the usually compact mitochondrial genomes in animals have a lower evolvability than the large mitochondrial genomes in plants or because the sampled populations currently do not harbor variation at putative distorter and/or the restorer loci.

  11. On the integration of financial markets: How strong is the evidence from five international stock markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Sónia R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the integration of financial markets using data from five international stock markets in the context of globalization. The theoretical basis of this study relies on the price theory and the Law of One Price, which was adjusted to the framework of financial markets. When price levels are nonstationary, cointegration and the error correction model constitute a powerful tool for the empirical examination of market integration. The error correction model provides a fully dynamic framework that allows to separating the long and the short run effects of the integration process. A dataset encompassing the daily stock price series of the PSI 20 (Portugal), IBEX 35 (Spain), FTSE 100 (UK), NIKKEI 225 (Japan) and SP 500 (US) indices from January 4th 1999 to September 19th 2014 is employed. The results highlight that these five stock markets are linked together by just one long-run relationship, although short-run movements are also present, which causes distinct deviations from the long-run equilibrium relationship. Endogeneity prevails in the system as a whole. While market integration in the sense of the Law of One Price holds, pairwise full price transmission has limited evidence. The results therefore show that stock market price movements are highly nonlinear and complex.

  12. Antioxidants and embryo phenotype: is there experimental evidence for strong integration of the antioxidant system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Karadas, Filiz; Colombo, Graziano; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Milzani, Aldo; Donne, Isabella Dalle; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2017-02-15

    Organisms have evolved complex defense systems against oxidative stress. Bird eggs contain maternally derived antioxidants that protect embryos from oxidative damage. The antioxidant system components are thought to be integrated, but few studies have analyzed the covariation between antioxidant concentrations, embryo 'oxidative status' and morphology. In addition, no study has tested the effects of experimental change in yolk antioxidant concentration on other antioxidants, on their reciprocal relationships and on their relationships with embryo oxidative status or growth, which are expected if antioxidants defenses are integrated. In yellow-legged gull ( Larus michahellis ) embryos, we analyzed the covariation between several antioxidants, markers of 'oxidative status' [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), concentration of pro-oxidants (TOS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC)] in the yolk, liver and brain, and morphology. Yolk and liver antioxidant concentrations were positively correlated reciprocally and with embryo size, and positively predicted TAC but not oxidative status. TOS and LPO were positively correlated in the liver, while TAC and LPO were negatively correlated in the brain. Weak relationships existed between antioxidants and TOS, PC and LPO. The effects of antioxidants on oxidative status and morphology were non-synergistic. An experimental physiological increase in yolk vitamin E had very weak effects on the relationships between other antioxidants or oxidative status and vitamin E concentration, the concentration of other antioxidants or oxidative status; the covariation between other antioxidants and oxidative status, and relationships between morphology or oxidative status and other antioxidants, challenging the common wisdom of strong functional relationships among antioxidants, at least for embryos in the wild. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Strong evidence for changing fish reproductive phenology under climate warming on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; He, Dekui; Kennard, Mark J; Ding, Chengzhi; Bunn, Stuart E; Liu, Chunlong; Jia, Yintao; Che, Rongxiao; Chen, Yifeng

    2018-05-01

    Phenological responses to climate change have been widely observed and have profound and lasting effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. However, compared to terrestrial ecosystems, the long-term effects of climate change on species' phenology are poorly understood in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the long-term changes in fish reproductive phenology is essential for predicting population dynamics and for informing management strategies, but is currently hampered by the requirement for intensive field observations and larval identification. In this study, a very low-frequency sampling of juveniles and adults combined with otolith measurements (long axis length of the first annulus; LAFA) of an endemic Tibetan Plateau fish (Gymnocypris selincuoensis) was used to examine changes in reproductive phenology associated with climate changes from the 1970s to 2000s. Assigning individual fish to their appropriate calendar year class was assisted by dendrochronological methods (crossdating). The results demonstrated that LAFA was significantly and positively associated with temperature and growing season length. To separate the effects of temperature and the growing season length on LAFA growth, measurements of larval otoliths from different sites were conducted and revealed that daily increment additions were the main contributor (46.3%), while temperature contributed less (12.0%). Using constructed water-air temperature relationships and historical air temperature records, we found that the reproductive phenology of G. selincuoensis was strongly advanced in the spring during the 1970s and 1990s, while the increased growing season length in the 2000s was mainly due to a delayed onset of winter. The reproductive phenology of G. selincuoensis advanced 2.9 days per decade on average from the 1970s to 2000s, and may have effects on recruitment success and population dynamics of this species and other biota in the ecosystem via the food web. The methods used in this study

  14. SEARCHING FOR COOLING SIGNATURES IN STRONG LENSING GALAXY CLUSTERS: EVIDENCE AGAINST BARYONS SHAPING THE MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN CLUSTER CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Peter K.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; McDonald, Michael; Dahle, Håkon; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Mushotzky, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The process by which the mass density profile of certain galaxy clusters becomes centrally concentrated enough to produce high strong lensing (SL) cross-sections is not well understood. It has been suggested that the baryonic condensation of the intracluster medium (ICM) due to cooling may drag dark matter to the cores and thus steepen the profile. In this work, we search for evidence of ongoing ICM cooling in the first large, well-defined sample of SL selected galaxy clusters in the range 0.1 0.2 and shows no statistically significant deviation from the total cluster population. Specific star formation rates, as traced by the strength of the 4000 Å break, D 4000 , are also consistent with the general cluster population. Finally, we use optical imaging of the SL clusters to measure the angular separation, R arc , between the arc and the center of mass of each lensing cluster in our sample and test for evidence of changing [O II] emission and D 4000 as a function of R arc , a proxy observable for SL cross-sections. D 4000 is constant with all values of R arc , and the [O II] emission fractions show no dependence on R arc for R arc > 10'' and only very marginal evidence of increased weak [O II] emission for systems with R arc < 10''. These results argue against the ability of baryonic cooling associated with cool core activity in the cores of galaxy clusters to strongly modify the underlying dark matter potential, leading to an increase in SL cross-sections

  15. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Holmes, John; Studer, Joseph

    2015-06-29

    There have been reviews on the association between density of alcohol outlets and harm including studies published up to December 2008. Since then the number of publications has increased dramatically. The study reviews the more recent studies with regard to their utility to inform policy. A systematic review found more than 160 relevant studies (published between January 2009 and October 2014). The review focused on: (i) outlet density and assaultive or intimate partner violence; (ii) studies including individual level data; or (iii) 'natural experiments'. Despite overall evidence for an association between density and harm, there is little evidence on causal direction (i.e. whether demand leads to more supply or increased availability increases alcohol use and harm). When outlet types (e.g. bars, supermarkets) are analysed separately, studies are too methodologically diverse and partly contradictory to permit firm conclusions besides those pertaining to high outlet densities in areas such as entertainment districts. Outlet density commonly had little effect on individual-level alcohol use, and the few 'natural experiments' on restricting densities showed little or no effects. Although outlet densities are likely to be positively related to alcohol use and harm, few policy recommendations can be given as effects vary across study areas, outlet types and outlet cluster size. Future studies should examine in detail outlet types, compare different outcomes associated with different strengths of association with alcohol, analyse non-linear effects and compare different methodologies. Purely aggregate-level studies examining total outlet density only should be abandoned. [Gmel G, Holmes J, Studer J. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Formation of Globular Clusters with Internal Abundance Spreads in r -Process Elements: Strong Evidence for Prolonged Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-20

    Several globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy are observed to show internal abundance spreads in r -process elements (e.g., Eu). We propose a new scenario that explains the origin of these GCs (e.g., M5 and M15). In this scenario, stars with no/little abundance variations first form from a massive molecular cloud (MC). After all of the remaining gas of the MC is expelled by numerous supernovae, gas ejected from asymptotic giant branch stars can be accumulated in the central region of the GC to form a high-density intracluster medium (ICM). Merging of neutron stars then occurs to eject r -process elements, which can be efficiently trapped in and subsequently mixed with the ICM. New stars formed from the ICM can have r -process abundances that are quite different from those of earlier generations of stars within the GC. This scenario can explain both (i) why r -process elements can be trapped within GCs and (ii) why GCs with internal abundance spreads in r -process elements do not show [Fe/H] spreads. Our model shows (i) that a large fraction of Eu-rich stars can be seen in Na-enhanced stellar populations of GCs, as observed in M15, and (ii) why most of the Galactic GCs do not exhibit such internal abundance spreads. Our model demonstrates that the observed internal spreads of r -process elements in GCs provide strong evidence for prolonged star formation (∼10{sup 8} yr).

  17. Further evidence for the strong steepening of the median radio spectrum with decreasing intensity of sources selected at 5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalski, J.; Rys, S.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented of a comparison of the spectral indices of radio sources selected at 5 GHz with their 5-GHz intensities which provides further evidence for the strong steepening of the radio spectrum with decreasing flux density. Distributions of spectral index between 5000 and 1400 MHz are compared for radio sources of 5-GHz intensity greater than or equal to 800 mJy of Witzel et al. (1979), sources selected from the S5 installment of the NRAO-Bonn survey with intensity between 250 and 800 mJy, and sources selected from the 4755-MHz survey of Ledden et al. (1980) with intensity between 40 and 250 mJy. As 5-GHz flux density decreases, it is observed that (1) the secondary peak of the spectral index distribution decreases; (2) the main peak of the distribution is shifted to steeper values; and (3) the dispersion systematically decreases. It is pointed out that further optical identifications of faint radio sources at 5 GHz are required to determine whether the observed steepening is due to a decline of quasars, or a variation in quasar spectral properties with increasing distance.

  18. Genetic evidence strongly support an essential role for PfPV1 in intra-erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Chu

    Full Text Available Upon invading the host erythrocyte, the human malaria parasite P. falciparum lives and replicates within a membrane bound compartment referred to as the parasitophorous vacuole. Recently, interest in this compartment and its protein content has grown, due to the important roles these play in parasite egress and protein traffic to the host cell. Surprisingly, the function of many proteins within this compartment has not been experimentally addressed. Here, we study the importance of one of these proteins, termed PfPV1, for intra-erythrocytic parasite survival. Despite numerous attempts to inactivate the gene encoding PfPV1, we were unable to recover deletion mutants. Control experiments verified that the pv1 gene locus was per se open for gene targeting experiments, allowing us to exclude technical limitations in our experimental strategy. Our data provide strong genetic evidence that PfPV1 is essential for survival of blood stage P. falciparum, and further highlight the importance of parasitophorous vacuole proteins in this part of the parasite's life cycle.

  19. The Strong Gravitationally Lensed Herschel Galaxy HLock01: Optical Spectroscopy Reveals a Close Galaxy Merger with Evidence of Inflowing Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Chaves, Rui; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Gavazzi, Raphael; Martínez-Navajas, Paloma I.; Riechers, Dominik; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Clements, David L.; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Ivison, Rob J.; Jiménez-Ángel, Camilo E.; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Oliver, Seb; Omont, Alain; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Yiping; Wardlow, Julie

    2018-02-01

    The submillimeter galaxy (SMG) HERMES J105751.1+573027 (hereafter HLock01) at z = 2.9574 ± 0.0001 is one of the brightest gravitationally lensed sources discovered in the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Apart from the high flux densities in the far-infrared, it is also extremely bright in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), with a total apparent magnitude m UV ≃ 19.7 mag. We report here deep spectroscopic observations with the Gran Telescopio Canarias of the optically bright lensed images of HLock01. Our results suggest that HLock01 is a merger system composed of the Herschel-selected SMG and an optically bright Lyman break-like galaxy (LBG), separated by only 3.3 kpc in projection. While the SMG appears very massive (M * ≃ 5 × 1011 M ⊙), with a highly extinguished stellar component (A V ≃ 4.3 ), the LBG is a young, lower-mass (M * ≃ 1 × 1010 M ⊙), but still luminous (10× {L}UV}* ) satellite galaxy. Detailed analysis of the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) rest-frame UV spectrum of the LBG shows complex kinematics of the gas, exhibiting both blueshifted and redshifted absorption components. While the blueshifted component is associated with strong galactic outflows from the massive stars in the LBG, as is common in most star-forming galaxies, the redshifted component may be associated with gas inflow seen along a favorable sightline to the LBG. We also find evidence of an extended gas reservoir around HLock01 at an impact parameter of 110 kpc, through the detection of C II λλ1334 absorption in the red wing of a bright Lyα emitter at z ≃ 3.327. The data presented here highlight the power of gravitational lensing in high S/N studies to probe deeply into the physics of high-z star-forming galaxies.

  20. Mantle fluids ascent in the regions of strong earthquake sources and large deep fault zones: geochemical evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Sokolova, I.N.

    2005-01-01

    Data on variations of a ratio of the helium isotope content (parameter R= 3 He/ 4 He) near the sources of strong earthquakes and some large fault zones (in the regions of Tien Shan, Mongolia, California, Central Japan and Central Apennines) are being analyzed. It was shown that in many cases R values regularly diminish with the distance from epicenters and large regional faults. This testifies to the ascent of mantle fluids into the earth's crust after strong earthquakes and in some deep fault zones, which are characterized by superhigh permeability and their further migration in horizontal direction. (author)

  1. Stagnation and Storage of Strongly Depleted Melts in Slow-Ultraslow Spreading Oceans: Evidence from the Ligurian Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Guarnieri, Luisa; Padovano, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Our studies of Alpine-Apennine ophiolite massifs (i.e., Lanzo, Voltri, Ligurides, Corsica) show that the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys oceanic basin was a slow-ultraslow spreading basin, characterized by the exposures on the seafloor of mantle peridotites with extreme compositional variability. The large majority of these peridotites are made of depleted spinel harzburgites and plagioclase peridotites. The former are interpreted as reactive peridotites formed by the reactive percolation of under-saturated, strongly trace element depleted asthenospheric melts migrated by porous flow through the mantle lithosphere. The latter are considered as refertilized peridotites formed by peridotite impregnation by percolated silica-saturated, strongly trace element depleted melts. Strongly depleted melts were produced as low-degrees, single melt increments by near fractional melting of the passively upwelling asthenosphere during the rifting stage of the basin. They escaped single melt increment aggregation, migrated isolated through the mantle lithosphere by reactive porous or channeled flow before oceanic opening, and were transformed into silica-saturated derivative liquids that underwent entrapment and stagnation in the shallow mantle lithosphere forming plagioclase-enriched peridotites. Widespread small bodies of strongly depleted gabbro-norites testify for the local coalescence of these derivative liquids. These melts never reached the surface (i.e., the hidden magmatism), since lavas with their composition have never been found in the basin. Subsequently, aggregated MORB melts upwelled within replacive dunite channels (as evidenced by composition of magmatic clinopyroxenes in dunites), intruded at shallow levels as olivine gabbro bodies and extruded as basaltic lavas, to form the crustal rocks of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the oceanic magmatism). Km-scale bodies of MORB olivine gabbros were intruded into the plagioclase-enriched peridotites, which were formed in the

  2. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  3. Reduced ratings of physical and relational aggression for youths with a strong cultural identity: evidence from the Naskapi people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tara; Iarocci, Grace; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Burack, Jacob A

    2011-08-01

    Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strong evidence for a genetic contribution to late-onset Alzheimer's disease mortality: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S K Kauwe

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is an international health concern that has a devastating effect on patients and families. While several genetic risk factors for AD have been identified much of the genetic variance in AD remains unexplained. There are limited published assessments of the familiality of Alzheimer's disease. Here we present the largest genealogy-based analysis of AD to date.We assessed the familiality of AD in The Utah Population Database (UPDB, a population-based resource linking electronic health data repositories for the state with the computerized genealogy of the Utah settlers and their descendants. We searched UPDB for significant familial clustering of AD to evaluate the genetic contribution to disease. We compared the Genealogical Index of Familiality (GIF between AD individuals and randomly selected controls and estimated the Relative Risk (RR for a range of family relationships. Finally, we identified pedigrees with a significant excess of AD deaths.The GIF analysis showed that pairs of individuals dying from AD were significantly more related than expected. This excess of relatedness was observed for both close and distant relationships. RRs for death from AD among relatives of individuals dying from AD were significantly increased for both close and more distant relatives. Multiple pedigrees had a significant excess of AD deaths.These data strongly support a genetic contribution to the observed clustering of individuals dying from AD. This report is the first large population-based assessment of the familiality of AD mortality and provides the only reported estimates of relative risk of AD mortality in extended relatives to date. The high-risk pedigrees identified show a true excess of AD mortality (not just multiple cases and are greater in depth and width than published AD pedigrees. The presence of these high-risk pedigrees strongly supports the possibility of rare predisposition variants not yet identified.

  5. The SNARC effect in the processing of second-language number words: further evidence for strong lexico-semantic connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brauwer, Jolien; Duyck, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc

    2008-03-01

    We present new evidence that word translation involves semantic mediation. It has been shown that participants react faster to small numbers with their left hand and to large numbers with their right hand. This SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect is due to the fact that in Western cultures the semantic number line is oriented from left (small) to right (large). We obtained a SNARC effect when participants had to indicate the parity of second-language (L2) number words, but not when they had to indicate whether L2 number words contained a particular sound. Crucially, the SNARC effect was also obtained in a translation verification task, indicating that this task involved the activation of number magnitude.

  6. EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-ADIABATIC MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN STRONG CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malova, H. V. [Scobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popov, V. Yu.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Zelenyi, L. M. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Delcourt, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Politechnique, CNRS (France); Sharma, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Khabarova, O. V. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    We investigate quasi-adiabatic dynamics of charged particles in strong current sheets (SCSs) in the solar wind, including the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), both theoretically and observationally. A self-consistent hybrid model of an SCS is developed in which ion dynamics is described at the quasi-adiabatic approximation, while the electrons are assumed to be magnetized, and their motion is described in the guiding center approximation. The model shows that the SCS profile is determined by the relative contribution of two currents: (i) the current supported by demagnetized protons that move along open quasi-adiabatic orbits, and (ii) the electron drift current. The simplest modeled SCS is found to be a multi-layered structure that consists of a thin current sheet embedded into a much thicker analog of a plasma sheet. This result is in good agreement with observations of SCSs at ∼1 au. The analysis of fine structure of different SCSs, including the HCS, shows that an SCS represents a narrow current layer (with a thickness of ∼10{sup 4} km) embedded into a wider region of about 10{sup 5} km, independently of the SCS origin. Therefore, multi-scale structuring is very likely an intrinsic feature of SCSs in the solar wind.

  7. Evidence of a Strong Domestication Bottleneck in the Recently Cultivated New Zealand Endemic Root Crop, Arthropodium cirratum (Asparagaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara D Shepherd

    Full Text Available We use chloroplast DNA sequencing to examine aspects of the pre-European Māori cultivation of an endemic New Zealand root crop, Arthropodium cirratum (rengarenga. Researching the early stages of domestication is not possible for the majority of crops, because their cultivation began many thousands of years ago and/or they have been substantially altered by modern breeding methods. We found high levels of genetic variation and structuring characterised the natural distribution of A. cirratum, while the translocated populations only retained low levels of this diversity, indicating a strong bottleneck even at the early stages of this species' cultivation. The high structuring detected at four chloroplast loci within the natural A. cirratum range enabled the putative source(s of the translocated populations to be identified as most likely located in the eastern Bay of Plenty/East Cape region. The high structuring within A. cirratum also has implications for the conservation of genetic diversity within this species, which has undergone recent declines in both its natural and translocated ranges.

  8. Evidence of a Strong Domestication Bottleneck in the Recently Cultivated New Zealand Endemic Root Crop, Arthropodium cirratum (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D; de Lange, Peter J; Cox, Simon; McLenachan, Patricia A; Roskruge, Nick R; Lockhart, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    We use chloroplast DNA sequencing to examine aspects of the pre-European Māori cultivation of an endemic New Zealand root crop, Arthropodium cirratum (rengarenga). Researching the early stages of domestication is not possible for the majority of crops, because their cultivation began many thousands of years ago and/or they have been substantially altered by modern breeding methods. We found high levels of genetic variation and structuring characterised the natural distribution of A. cirratum, while the translocated populations only retained low levels of this diversity, indicating a strong bottleneck even at the early stages of this species' cultivation. The high structuring detected at four chloroplast loci within the natural A. cirratum range enabled the putative source(s) of the translocated populations to be identified as most likely located in the eastern Bay of Plenty/East Cape region. The high structuring within A. cirratum also has implications for the conservation of genetic diversity within this species, which has undergone recent declines in both its natural and translocated ranges.

  9. Arsenic metabolism and one-carbon metabolism at low-moderate arsenic exposure: Evidence from the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda Jones; Gamble, Mary V; Grau-Perez, Maria; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Francesconi, Kevin; Goessler, Walter; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Hall, Meghan; Umans, Jason G; Fretts, Amanda; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-07-01

    B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) can affect arsenic metabolism efficiency in highly arsenic exposed, undernourished populations. We evaluated whether dietary intake of OCM nutrients (including vitamins B2, B6, folate (B9), and B12) was associated with arsenic metabolism in a more nourished population exposed to lower arsenic than previously studied. Dietary intake of OCM nutrients and urine arsenic was evaluated in 405 participants from the Strong Heart Study. Arsenic exposure was measured as the sum of iAs, monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA) in urine. Arsenic metabolism was measured as the individual percentages of each metabolite over their sum (iAs%, MMA%, DMA%). In adjusted models, increasing intake of vitamins B2 and B6 was associated with modest but significant decreases in iAs% and MMA% and increases in DMA%. A significant interaction was found between high folate and B6 with enhanced arsenic metabolism efficiency. Our findings suggest OCM nutrients may influence arsenic metabolism in populations with moderate arsenic exposure. Stronger and independent associations were observed with B2 and B6, vitamins previously understudied in relation to arsenic. Research is needed to evaluate whether targeting B-vitamin intake can serve as a strategy for the prevention of arsenic-related health effects at low-moderate arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong dependence of rain-induced lidar depolarization on the illumination angle: experimental evidence and geometrical-optics interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G; Bissonnette, L R

    2001-09-20

    Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 degrees /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular dependence on the elevation angle. That dependence appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-dependent ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid-solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.

  11. Evidence for carbon flux shortage and strong carbon/nitrogen interactions in pea nodules at early stages of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Loli; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2005-09-01

    Symbiotic N2 fixation in legume nodules declines under a wide range of environmental stresses. A high correlation between N2 fixation decline and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) activity down-regulation has been reported, although it has still to be elucidated whether a causal relationship between SS activity down-regulation and N2 fixation decline can be established. In order to study the likely C/N interactions within nodules and the effects on N2 fixation, pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Sugar snap) were subjected to progressive water stress by withholding irrigation. Under these conditions, nodule SS activity declined concomitantly with apparent nitrogenase activity. The levels of UDP-glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate decreased in water-stressed nodules compared with unstressed nodules. Drought also had a marked effect on nodule concentrations of malate, succinate, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Moreover, a general decline in nodule adenylate content was detected. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was the only enzyme whose activity increased as a result of water deficit, compensating for a possible C/N imbalance and/or supplying NADPH in circumstances that the pentose phosphate pathway was impaired, as suggested by the decline in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity. The overall results show the occurrence of strong C/N interactions in nodules subjected to water stress and support a likely limitation of carbon flux that might be involved in the decline of N2 fixation under drought.

  12. [Use of strong opioids in chronic non-cancer pain in adults. Evidence-based recommendations from the French Society for the Study and Treatment of Pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisset, Xavier; Trouvin, Anne-Priscille; Tran, Viet-Thi; Authier, Nicolas; Vergne-Salle, Pascale; Piano, Virginie; Martinez, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    An urgent need is to improve the efficacy and safety of use of strong opioids in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) through responsible prescription rules supported by scientific evidence. Clinical questions addressing the indication, the benefice, the risk and the precautions were formulated. A task force composed of physicians from several medical specialties involved in managing CNCP was charged to elaborate evidence-based recommendations. A systematic literature search was performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation was applied to evaluate outcomes. We selected 21 meta-analyses and 31 cohort studies for analysis. Fifteen recommendations are provided. Strong opioids are not recommended in fibromyalgia and primary headaches. Strong opioids have been shown to be moderately effective against CNCP due to osteoarthritis of the lower limbs, and for back pain and neuropathic pain. Their introduction is advised only after the failure of first-line treatments, combined with patient care, provided that the patient is made aware of the advantages and risks. It is not advisable to continue strong opioids treatment for longer than three months if no improvement in pain, function or quality of life is observed. It is also recommended not to prescribe doses exceeding 150mg/day morphine equivalent. Misuse risk factors should be investigated before prescription and misuse should be assessed at each renewal. Priority should be given to extended-release forms. It is recommended not to use transmucosal rapid-release forms of fentanyl for the management of CNCP. These recommendations are intended for all doctors needing to prescribe strong opioids in CNCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong evidence for enhanced multiple electron capture from surfaces in 46 MeV/u Pb81+ collisions with thin carbon foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuning, H; Mokler, P H; Liesen, D; Bosch, F; Franzke, B; Krämer, A; Kozhuharov, C; Ludziejewski, T; Ma, X; Nolden, F; Steck, M; Stöhlker, T; Dunford, R W; Kanter, E P; Bednarz, G; Warczak, A; Stachura, Z; Tribedi, L; Kambara, T; Dauvergne, D; Kirsch, R; Cohen, C

    2001-02-05

    Strong evidence has been found for enhanced multiple electron capture into 46 MeV/u Pb81+ with a significant contribution from the entrance surface of thin carbon foils. Capture of up to five electrons has been observed. The multiple electron capture yield is found to increase with decreasing target thickness for thin targets. A simple model describing the data and showing the importance of capture from surfaces is discussed. Further evidence is found for a pronounced asymmetry between electron capture at the entrance and the exit surfaces. Absolute yields for multiple electron capture and projectile ionization are presented. The experimental total cross sections for single capture and ionization agree well with theory.

  14. Brief report on a systematic review of youth violence prevention through media campaigns: Does the limited yield of strong evidence imply methodological challenges or absence of effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Bowman, Brett; McGrath, Chloe; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We present a brief report on a systematic review which identified, assessed and synthesized the existing evidence of the effectiveness of media campaigns in reducing youth violence. Search strategies made use of terms for youth, violence and a range of terms relating to the intervention. An array of academic databases and websites were searched. Although media campaigns to reduce violence are widespread, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. There is little strong evidence to support a direct link between media campaigns and a reduction in youth violence. Several studies measure proxies for violence such as empathy or opinions related to violence, but the link between these measures and violence perpetration is unclear. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that a targeted and context-specific campaign, especially when combined with other measures, can reduce violence. However, such campaigns are less cost-effective to replicate over large populations than generalised campaigns. It is unclear whether the paucity of evidence represents a null effect or methodological challenges with evaluating media campaigns. Future studies need to be carefully planned to accommodate for methodological difficulties as well as to identify the specific elements of campaigns that work, especially in lower and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New Raman method for aqueous solutions: xi-function dispersion evidence for strong F(-)-water H-bonds in aqueous CsF and KF solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrafen, George E

    2005-08-15

    instant case. NaClO4 breaks water-water H-bonds and also gives rise to weak, long (3.0-3.3 A), severely bent (approximately 140 degrees), high-energy, ClO4--water interactions. Fluoride ion scavenges the extremely weak or non-hydrogen-bonded OH groups, thus forming strong, short, linear, low-energy, H-bonds between F- and water. The strength of the F--water H-bond is evident from the fact that the OH-stretching xi-function minimum is centered approximately 200-300 cm-1 below that of ice. The diagnostic feature of the Raman spectrum from F- in water is an intense, long, low-frequency OH-stretching tail extending 800 cm-1 or more below the 3300-cm-1 peak. A similar intense, long, low-frequency Raman tail is produced by the OH- ion, which is known to H-bond very strongly when protons from water are donated to its oxygen atom.

  16. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  17. Unto the third generation: evidence for strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists among first-year medical and psychology students in a nationwide Austrian cohort census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Berger, Nina; Arendasy, Martin E; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Monika; Hutzler, Florian; Kraft, Hans-Georg; Oettl, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Vitouch, Oliver; Voracek, Martin

    2017-05-03

    Medical students present higher numbers of physician relatives than expectable from the total population prevalence of physicians. Evidence for such a familial aggregation effect of physicians has emerged in investigations from the Anglo-American, Scandinavian, and German-speaking areas. In particular, past data from Austria suggest a familial aggregation of the medical, as well as of the psychological and psychotherapeutic, professions among medical and psychology undergraduates alike. Here, we extend prior related studies by examining (1) the extent to which familial aggregation effects apply to the whole nation-wide student census of all relevant (eight) public universities in Austria; (2) whether effects are comparable for medical and psychology students; (3) and whether these effects generalize to relatives of three interrelated health professions (medicine, psychology, and psychotherapy). We investigated the familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists, based on an entire cohort census of first-year medical and psychology students (n = 881 and 920) in Austria with generalized linear mixed models. For both disciplines, we found strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists. As compared with previous results, directionally opposite time trends within disciplines emerged: familial aggregation of physicians among medical students has decreased, whilst familial aggregation of psychologists among psychology students has increased. Further, there were sex-of-relative effects (i.e., more male than female physician relatives), but no substantial sex-of-student effects (i.e., male and female students overall reported similar numbers of relatives for all three professions of interest). In addition, there were age-benefit effects, i.e., students with a relative in the medical or the psychotherapeutic profession were younger than students without, thus suggesting earlier career decisions. The familial

  18. Unto the third generation: evidence for strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists among first-year medical and psychology students in a nationwide Austrian cohort census

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Berger, Nina; Arendasy, Martin E.; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Monika; Hutzler, Florian; Kraft, Hans-Georg; Oettl, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Vitouch, Oliver; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical students present higher numbers of physician relatives than expectable from the total population prevalence of physicians. Evidence for such a familial aggregation effect of physicians has emerged in investigations from the Anglo-American, Scandinavian, and German-speaking areas. In particular, past data from Austria suggest a familial aggregation of the medical, as well as of the psychological and psychotherapeutic, professions among medical and psychology undergraduates a...

  19. The semantic origin of unconscious priming: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence during category congruency priming from strongly and weakly related masked words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Juan J; Kiefer, Markus; Castillo, Alejandro; Megías, Montserrat; Morillas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying masked congruency priming, semantic mechanisms such as semantic activation or non-semantic mechanisms, for example response activation, remain a matter of debate. In order to decide between these alternatives, reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in the present study, while participants performed a semantic categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded either 167 ms (Experiment 1) or 34 ms before (Experiment 2) by briefly presented (33 ms) novel (unpracticed) masked prime words. The primes and targets belonged to different categories (unrelated), or they were either strongly or weakly semantically related category co-exemplars. Behavioral (RT) and electrophysiological masked congruency priming effects were significantly greater for strongly related pairs than for weakly related pairs, indicating a semantic origin of effects. Priming in the latter condition was not statistically reliable. Furthermore, priming effects modulated the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, but not ERPs in the time range of the N200 component, associated with response conflict and visuo-motor response priming. The present results demonstrate that masked congruency priming from novel prime words also depends on semantic processing of the primes and is not exclusively driven by non-semantic mechanisms such as response activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of primary and secondary 26S rRNA structures in two Tetrahymena species: evidence for a strong evolutionary and structural constraint in expansion segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik; Lenaers, G

    1990-01-01

    . These are regions within the common core of secondary structure where expansions have taken place during the evolution of the rRNA of higher eukaryotes. The dispensable nature of some of the expansion segments has been taken as evidence of their non-functionality. However, our data show that a considerable...... selective constraint has operated to preserve the secondary structure of these segments. Especially in the case of the D2 and D8 segments, the presence of a considerable number of compensatory base changes suggests that the secondary structure of these regions is of functional importance. Alternatively...

  1. THE POSITION OF INDIRECT EVIDENCE AS VERIFICATION TOOLS IN THE CARTEL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veri Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (circumstantial evidence, either economic evidence or communication evidence, has been used in cartel cases in many countries such as United States of America, Japan, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, and others. According to Indonesia criminal procedure law, the position of indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as an indication (clue evidence whereas according to Indonesia civil procedure law, indirect (circumstantial evidence is categorized as presumption. Considering the characteristics the antimonopoly law which aims to find material truth, the position of indirect evidence is more properly said to be an indication. Owing to its status as an indication, indirect evidence should be exhibited together with the other direct evidence.   Indirect evidenceatau bukti tidak langsung, baik bukti ekonomi atau bukti komunikasi, telah digunakan dalam kasus-kasus kartel di banyak negara, seperti Amerika Serikat, Jepang, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, dan lain-lain. Menurut hukum acara pidana Indonesia, posisi bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai indikasi (bukti petunjuk, padahal menurut hukum acara perdata Indonesia, bukti tidak langsung dikategorikan sebagai praduga. Mengingat karakteristik hukum anti-monopoli yang bertujuan untuk mencari kebenaran materiil, posisi bukti tidak langsung lebih tepat dikatakan indikasi. Karena statusnya sebagai indikasi, bukti tidak langsung harus dipamerkan bersama dengan bukti langsung lainnya.

  2. Tigers in the Terai: Strong evidence for meta-population dynamics contributing to tiger recovery and conservation in the Terai Arc Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Kanchan; Wikramanayake, Eric; Malla, Sabita; Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Lamichhane, Babu Ram; Subedi, Naresh; Pokharel, Chiranjivi Prasad; Thapa, Gokarna Jung; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Bista, Ashish; Borah, Jimmy; Gupta, Mudit; Maurya, Kamlesh K; Gurung, Ghana Shyam; Jnawali, Shant Raj; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Bhata, Shiv Raj; Koirala, Saroj; Ghose, Dipankar; Vattakaven, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The source populations of tigers are mostly confined to protected areas, which are now becoming isolated. A landscape scale conservation strategy should strive to facilitate dispersal and survival of dispersing tigers by managing habitat corridors that enable tigers to traverse the matrix with minimal conflict. We present evidence for tiger dispersal along transboundary protected areas complexes in the Terai Arc Landscape, a priority tiger landscape in Nepal and India, by comparing camera trap data, and through population models applied to the long term camera trap data sets. The former showed that 11 individual tigers used the corridors that connected the transboundary protected areas. The estimated population growth rates using the minimum observed population size in two protected areas in Nepal, Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta National Park showed that the increases were higher than expected from growth rates due to in situ reproduction alone. These lines of evidence suggests that tigers are recolonizing Nepal's protected areas from India, after a period of population decline, and that the tiger populations in the transboundary protected areas complexes may be maintained as meta-population. Our results demonstrate the importance of adopting a landscape-scale approach to tiger conservation, especially to improve population recovery and long term population persistence.

  3. Comparison of primary and secondary 26S rRNA structures in two Tetrahymena species: evidence for a strong evolutionary and structural constraint in expansion segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik; Lenaers, G

    1990-01-01

    . These are regions within the common core of secondary structure where expansions have taken place during the evolution of the rRNA of higher eukaryotes. The dispensable nature of some of the expansion segments has been taken as evidence of their non-functionality. However, our data show that a considerable......We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 26S large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes for two Tetrahymena species, T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. The inferred rRNA sequences are presented in their most probable secondary structures based on compensatory mutations, energy, and conservation...... selective constraint has operated to preserve the secondary structure of these segments. Especially in the case of the D2 and D8 segments, the presence of a considerable number of compensatory base changes suggests that the secondary structure of these regions is of functional importance. Alternatively...

  4. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  5. Strong linkage of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to sea ice algae-produced carbon: Evidence from stomach content, fatty acid and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbach, Doreen; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Graeve, Martin; Lebreton, Benoit; Lange, Benjamin Allen; David, Carmen; Vortkamp, Martina; Flores, Hauke

    2017-03-01

    The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered an ecological key species, because it reaches high stock biomasses and constitutes an important carbon source for seabirds and marine mammals in high-Arctic ecosystems. Young polar cod (1-2 years) are often associated with the underside of sea ice. To evaluate the impact of changing Arctic sea ice habitats on polar cod, we examined the diet composition and quantified the contribution of ice algae-produced carbon (αIce) to the carbon budget of polar cod. Young polar cod were sampled in the ice-water interface layer in the central Arctic Ocean during late summer 2012. Diets and carbon sources of these fish were examined using 4 approaches: (1) stomach content analysis, (2) fatty acid (FA) analysis, (3) bulk nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and (4) compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of FAs. The ice-associated (sympagic) amphipod Apherusa glacialis dominated the stomach contents by mass, indicating a high importance of sympagic fauna in young polar cod diets. The biomass of food measured in stomachs implied constant feeding at daily rates of ∼1.2% body mass per fish, indicating the potential for positive growth. FA profiles of polar cod indicated that diatoms were the primary carbon source, indirectly obtained via amphipods and copepods. The αIce using bulk isotope data from muscle was estimated to be >90%. In comparison, αIce based on CSIA ranged from 34 to 65%, with the highest estimates from muscle and the lowest from liver tissue. Overall, our results indicate a strong dependency of polar cod on ice-algae produced carbon. This suggests that young polar cod may be particularly vulnerable to changes in the distribution and structure of sea ice habitats. Due to the ecological key role of polar cod, changes at the base of the sea ice-associated food web are likely to affect the higher trophic levels of high-Arctic ecosystems.

  6. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  7. Evidence in criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the three components of the evidence operation: proof premises or evidence in the strict sense, with particular regard to the distinction between evidence declaration and critical/circumstantial evidence; the propositions to be proved, principal or incidental, final or intermediate; the act of proving, connoted by the rule of beyond all reasonable doubt. While the first two terms vary according to the procedural context, the third remains indefectible, since it is incongruous to consider any proposition to be 'proven' while there is a reasonable reason to doubt it. With regard to the distribution of the burden of proof, the structure of the case and its legal qualification, whether substantial or procedural, are decisive. Therefore, it is possible to identify, for each decision alternative, the term 'marked', which conveys the proposition to be proved, and the opposite 'consequential' term, which derives from the failure to reach the proof: for example, with respect to the main object in trial, the term 'marked' is the conviction, the term 'consequential' the acquittal.

  8. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...

  9. CD8 and CD4 epitope predictions in RV144: no strong evidence of a T-cell driven sieve effect in HIV-1 breakthrough sequences from trial participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommaraju, Kalpana; Kijak, Gustavo; Carlson, Jonathan M; Larsen, Brendan B; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Geraghty, Dan E; Deng, Wenjie; Maust, Brandon S; Edlefsen, Paul T; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; deSouza, Mark S; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Rolland, Morgane

    2014-01-01

    The modest protection afforded by the RV144 vaccine offers an opportunity to evaluate its mechanisms of protection. Differences between HIV-1 breakthrough viruses from vaccine and placebo recipients can be attributed to the RV144 vaccine as this was a randomized and double-blinded trial. CD8 and CD4 T cell epitope repertoires were predicted in HIV-1 proteomes from 110 RV144 participants. Predicted Gag epitope repertoires were smaller in vaccine than in placebo recipients (p = 0.019). After comparing participant-derived epitopes to corresponding epitopes in the RV144 vaccine, the proportion of epitopes that could be matched differed depending on the protein conservation (only 36% of epitopes in Env vs 84-91% in Gag/Pol/Nef for CD8 predicted epitopes) or on vaccine insert subtype (55% against CRF01_AE vs 7% against subtype B). To compare predicted epitopes to the vaccine, we analyzed predicted binding affinity and evolutionary distance measurements. Comparisons between the vaccine and placebo arm did not reveal robust evidence for a T cell driven sieve effect, although some differences were noted in Env-V2 (0.022≤p-value≤0.231). The paucity of CD8 T cell responses identified following RV144 vaccination, with no evidence for V2 specificity, considered together both with the association of decreased infection risk in RV 144 participants with V-specific antibody responses and a V2 sieve effect, lead us to hypothesize that this sieve effect was not T cell specific. Overall, our results did not reveal a strong differential impact of vaccine-induced T cell responses among breakthrough infections in RV144 participants.

  10. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  11. Evidence of a Strong Correlation Between Oxygen Nonstoichiometry (d) and Oxygen Uptake Capacities of La1-xSrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3-d oxides (0.1 < Srx < 0.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnone, Edoardo; Kim, Jung Ryoel; Park, Jung Hoon; Park, Seongkyu

    2014-01-01

    The communication provided clear evidence of a strong correlation between the nonstoichiometry oxygen content (d) or oxygen content (3-d) and the maximum oxygen uptake capacity of La 1-x Sr x Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3-d oxides (0.1 < x < 0.4). The results may be considered as a provisional basis for further research, allowing the prediction of the oxygen uptake capacities at low temperature by easy determination of oxygen contents. Recently, there has been a growing interest in utilizing nonstoichiometric La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-d perovskite-type oxide as sorbents for high-temperature production of oxygen-enriched carbon dioxide stream. During the past decades, many studies have been conducted on these solid solutions, and in order to achieve higher oxygen uptake capacities, the La 3+ lanthanide was substituted by bivalent Sr 2+ alkaline-earth ions to decrease the ionicity of the Ln.O bond which could result in an increased number of hole

  12. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  13. How Strong is the Case for Geostationary Hyperspectral Sounders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Liu, Z.; Jensen, S.; Housley, E.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA GIFTS program designed and constructed a flight-ready hyperspectral infrared sounder for geostationary orbit. Efforts are now underway to launch a constellation of similar instruments. Salient characteristics included 4 km spatial resolution at nadir and 0.6 cm-1 spectral resolution in two infrared bands. Observing system experiments have demonstrated the success of assimilated hyperspectral infrared radiances from IASI and AIRS in improving weather forecast skill. These results provide circumstantial evidence that additional observations at higher spatial and temporal resolution would likely improve forecast skill further. However, there is only limited work investigating the magnitude of this skill improvement in the literature. Here we present a systematic program to quantify the additional skill of a constellation of geostationary hyperspectral sounders through observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using the WRF model and the WRFDA data assimilation system. The OSSEs will focus first on high-impact events, such as the forecast for Typhoon Haiyun, but will also address quotidian synoptic forecast skill. The focus will be on short-term forecast skill (additionality can be addressed, but will also consider contingencies, such as the loss of particular elements of the existing system, as well as the degree to which a stand-alone system of hyperspectral sounds would be able to successfully initialize a regional forecast model. A variety of settings, tropical and extratropical, marine and continental will be considered.

  14. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Developmentstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    threats and personal stress. So far, the evidence-based findings on human resource development (HRD) seem not to match these huge challenges. The aim of this study is to identify cost-effective means of mental training to recover sufficiently from the present bias to enable more sustainable decisions...... making as required to meet the global challenges in study as confirmed by an intercultural neuroeconomic comparative study between Asian and Western cultures. However, a cultural barrier in the Western cultural tradition against meditative introversion has to be overcome to improve the time horizon...... meditation, Harvard relaxation procedure, ACEM meditation and Autogenic training. IV. Broad health effects of regular medical meditation are evidenced by RCT and even reviews/meta-analysis in more medical meditation settings: Recovery from basal anxiety Stabilization of plasma cortisol Independence...

  15. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  16. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  17. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  18. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  19. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  20. <strong>>Synchronisation of glycolytic oscillations in a suspension of human neutrophilsstrong>>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Poulsen, Allan K.; Olsen, Lars Folke

    Neutrophils are known to be able to synchronize their production of superoxide. We show that glycolysis is also synchronized in human neutrophils being in suspension and suggest that oscillations in glycolysis are driving the pulsatile production of superoxide. The synchronising agent remains so...... far unknown, however, much evident points to that it might be hydrogen peroxide or an intermediate in glycolysis....

  1. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  2. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  3. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  4. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  5. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  6. Available studies fail to provide strong evidence of increased risk of diarrhea mortality due to measles in the period 4–26 weeks after measles rash onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca D. Jackson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4–26 weeks following measles rash onset. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, Open Grey and Grey Literature Report databases for relevant literature using broad search terms. Prospective, retrospective and case-control studies in low- and middle-income countries involving children under five wherein relevant evidence were presented were included. Data were extracted from the articles and summarized. Results Fifty abstracts retrieved through the database searches met the initial screening criteria. Twelve additional documents were identified by review of the references of the documents found in the initial searches. Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan. Some measles vaccine effectiveness studies show lower diarrhea morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated. However, children who received vaccine may have differed in important ways from children who did not, such as health service utilization. Additionally, cohort studies following unvaccinated children showed no difference in diarrhea morbidity and mortality between cases and controls more than 4 weeks after measles rash onset. One study showed some evidence that severe measles may predispose children to gastroenteritis, but was not able to show a corresponding increase in

  7. Available studies fail to provide strong evidence of increased risk of diarrhea mortality due to measles in the period 4-26 weeks after measles rash onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-07

    Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Open Grey and Grey Literature Report databases for relevant literature using broad search terms. Prospective, retrospective and case-control studies in low- and middle-income countries involving children under five wherein relevant evidence were presented were included. Data were extracted from the articles and summarized. Fifty abstracts retrieved through the database searches met the initial screening criteria. Twelve additional documents were identified by review of the references of the documents found in the initial searches. Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan. Some measles vaccine effectiveness studies show lower diarrhea morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated. However, children who received vaccine may have differed in important ways from children who did not, such as health service utilization. Additionally, cohort studies following unvaccinated children showed no difference in diarrhea morbidity and mortality between cases and controls more than 4 weeks after measles rash onset. One study showed some evidence that severe measles may predispose children to gastroenteritis, but was not able to show a corresponding increase in the risk of diarrhea mortality. The available evidence

  8. Evidence for acceleration of outer zone electrons to relativistic energies by whistler mode chorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Meredith

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We use plasma wave and electron data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by gyroresonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. In particular, we examine the temporal evolution of the spectral response of the electrons and the waves during the 9 October 1990 geomagnetic storm. The observed hardening of the electron energy spectra over about 3 days in the recovery phase is coincident with prolonged substorm activity, as monitored by the AE index and enhanced levels of whistler mode chorus waves. The observed spectral hardening is observed to take place over a range of energies appropriate to the resonant energies associated with Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance, as supported by the construction of realistic resonance curves and resonant diffusion surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the observed spectral hardening is not consistent with energy-independent radial diffusion models. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence for a local stochastic acceleration mechanism, involving the energisation of a seed population of electrons with energies of the order of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies, driven by wave-particle interactions involving whistler mode chorus. The results suggest that this mechanism contributes to the reformation of the relativistic outer zone population during geomagnetic storms, and is most effective when the recovery phase is characterised by prolonged substorm activity. An additional significant result of this paper is that we demonstrate that the lower energy part of the storm-time electron distribution is in steady-state balance, in accordance with the Kennel and Petschek (1966 theory of limited stably-trapped particle fluxes.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms, energetic particles, trapped – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  9. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  10. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  11. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  12. s-ICAM-1 and s-VCAM-1 in healthy men are strongly associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, becoming evident in the postprandial response to a lipid-rich meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the postprandial state for the early stages of atherogenesis is increasingly acknowledged. We conducted assessment of association between postprandial triglycerides, insulin and glucose after ingestion of a standardized lipid-rich test meal, and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAM in young healthy subjects. Methods Metabolic parameters and sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured before and hourly until 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid-rich meal in 30 healthy young men with fasting triglycerides 260 mg/dl. Levels of CAM were compared in HR and NR, and correlation with postprandial triglyceride, insulin and glucose response was assessed. Results Fasting sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in HR as compared to NR (p = 0.046, p = 0.03. For sE-selectin there was such a trend (p = 0.05. There was a strong positive and independent correlation between sICAM-1 and postprandial insulin maxima (r = 0.70, p Conclusion This independent association of postprandial triglycerides with sICAM-1 may indicate a particular impact of postprandial lipid metabolism on endothelial reaction.

  13. Feces derived allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae reared on dried dog food and evidence of the strong nutritional interaction between the mite and Bacillus cereus producing protease bacillolysins and exo-chitinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eErban

    2016-02-01

    with the mite in balance to be beneficial for the mite. The mite-B. cereus symbiosis can be beneficial-suppressive at some level. The results increase the veterinary and medical importance of the allergens detected in feces. The B. cereus enzymes/toxins are important components of mite allergens. The strong symbiotic association of T. putrescentiae with B. cereus in dry dog food was indicated.

  14. <strong>Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... for patients or for persons with pre-conditions of diseases like pre-hypertension and pre-diabetes and for the most vulnerable parts of the populations....

  15. Quorum sensing inhibitors: how strong is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Because of its promising effect as an alternative to antibiotics, quorum sensing disruption is an intensively studied field, and there are many studies that describe the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of natural and synthetic compounds. In this opinion article, we present an overview of recent literature with respect to quorum sensing inhibitors. Most of this research is based on experiments with quorum sensing signal molecule reporter strains. However, these experiments are prone to bias due to other effects compounds may have on reporter strains. We argue that researchers should perform adequate control experiments and should carefully assess toxicity of the compounds in the bacterial species they are working with in order to confirm that what they observe really is quorum sensing inhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong evidence for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in (quenched) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Gibbs, P.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    We calculate the chiral condensate for all quark masses using Kogut-Susskind fermions in lattice-regularized quenched QCD. The large volume behaviour of at small quark masses demonstrates that the explicit U(1) chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. We perform the calculation for β = 5.1 to 5.9 and find very good continuum renormalization group behaviour. We infer that the spontaneous breaking we observe belongs to continuum QCD. This constitutes the first unambiguous demonstration of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in continuum quenched QCD. (orig.)

  17. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  18. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  19. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  1. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  2. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  3. Strong reciprocity is not uncommon in the "wild".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, W G

    2012-02-01

    Guala is right to draw attention to the difficulty of extrapolating from the experimental evidence for weak or strong reciprocity to what is observed in the "wild." However, there may be more strong reciprocity in real-world communities than he allows for, as strikingly illustrated in the example of the Mafia.

  4. Strong Josephson Coupling in Planar Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Takane, Yositake; Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Hu-Jong

    A recent breakthrough of processing graphene, employing encapsulation by hexagonal boron nitride layers (BGB structure), allows realizing the ballistic carrier transport in graphene. Thereafter, ballistic Josephson coupling has been studied by closely edge-contacted BGB structure with two superconducting electrodes. Here, we report on the strong Josephson coupling with planar graphene junction in truly short and ballistic regime. Our device showed high transmission probability and the junction critical current (IC) oscillating for sweeping the gate voltage along with the normal conductance oscillation (Fabry-Perot oscillations), providing a direct evidence for the ballistic nature of the junction pair current. We also observed the convex-upward shape of decreasing critical currents with increasing temperature, canonical properties of the short Josephson coupling. By fitting these curves into theoretical models, we demonstrate the strong Josephson coupling in our devices, which is also supported by the exceptionally large value of ICRN ( 2 Δ / e RNis the normal resistance).

  5. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  6. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  7. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  8. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  9. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  10. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  11. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  12. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  13. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  14. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  15. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  16. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  17. Evidence of a Strong Correlation Between Oxygen Nonstoichiometry (d) and Oxygen Uptake Capacities of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-d} oxides (0.1 < Sr{sub x} < 0.4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnone, Edoardo; Kim, Jung Ryoel; Park, Jung Hoon [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seongkyu [KOFIRST R and D Center, Icheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The communication provided clear evidence of a strong correlation between the nonstoichiometry oxygen content (d) or oxygen content (3-d) and the maximum oxygen uptake capacity of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-d} oxides (0.1 < x < 0.4). The results may be considered as a provisional basis for further research, allowing the prediction of the oxygen uptake capacities at low temperature by easy determination of oxygen contents. Recently, there has been a growing interest in utilizing nonstoichiometric La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-d} perovskite-type oxide as sorbents for high-temperature production of oxygen-enriched carbon dioxide stream. During the past decades, many studies have been conducted on these solid solutions, and in order to achieve higher oxygen uptake capacities, the La{sup 3+} lanthanide was substituted by bivalent Sr{sup 2+} alkaline-earth ions to decrease the ionicity of the Ln.O bond which could result in an increased number of hole.

  18. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  19. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  20. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  1. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  2. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  3. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  4. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  5. Suspects and evidence: a review of the causes of extirpation and decline in freshwater mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of biodiversity requires reliable evidence of the causes of extirpation. Using freshwater mussels as an example, we performed the first-ever systematic assessment of the evidence for endangerment of any group of organisms. We surveyed articles publishing conclusions about the cause of local extirpation by assessing the quality of evidence on an objective scale. We found that only 48% of studies presented plausible links between extirpation and causes. Analyses lacked resolution since more than 75% of all studies considered (n = 124 suggested multiple causes of extirpation. Studies performed over large areas and those presenting less evidence postulated the most causes. Despite the frequently weak evidence, there was substantial agreement on the identity of causes; the most frequent was habitat destruction or alteration but many others were postulated. Although mussel extirpation is undoubtedly real, the evidence could be stronger. In these animals and others, evidence of the causes of extirpation has often been circumstantial. We present a systematic approach ecologists can use to strengthen the evidence concerning the causes of extirpation. We also reflect on the link between the strength of evidence and research funding priorities.

  6. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  7. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown......One of the most intriguing recent results in physics is the growing evidence that an unknown energy field and an unknown kind of matter are the major components of the Universe (70% and 30%, respectively; see e.g. Riess et al. 1998, Spergel et al. 2007). Understanding and estimating the precise...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies...

  8. Further evidence of long distance airborne transmission of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Mortensen, S.; Bøtner, Anette

    1993-01-01

    In spite of the eradication of Aujeszky's disease in Denmark a single outbreak was recorded in December 1988 and another severe epizootic took place during the winter and spring of 1989/90. The epizootic occurred in nearly the same areas as the preceding epizootic during the winter of 1987....../88. Identification of the strains of virus involved eliminated the possibility that the latest epizootic was due to the persistence of virus in the pig population. Furthermore, as during the preceding epizootic, initial recordings of the new strains were found to coincide with periods with southerly winds....... It was concluded from circumstantial evidence that the concurrent introductions of virus to several farms played a major role during the epizootic....

  9. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  10. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  11. NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Tou, H.; Zheng, G.-q.; Ishida, K.; Asayama, K.; Kobayashi, T. C.; Kohda, A.; Takeshita, N.; Amaya, K.; Onuki, Y.; Geibel, G.; Schank, C.; Steglich, F.

    1995-02-01

    Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu 2X 2 (X = Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM 2Al 3 (M = Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu 2X 2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu 2Ge 2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6 GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to tha CeCu 2Si 2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7 T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu 2.05Si 2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7 T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd 2Al 3 with a record high- Tc of 2 K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/ T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13 K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties.

  12. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  13. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  14. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  15. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  16. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  17. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  18. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  19. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  20. Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Praygod, George Amani

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment. METHODS: A total of 1250 Tanzanian TB patients were...

  1. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  2. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  3. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  4. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  5. The Role of Forensic Botany in Solving a Case: Scientific Evidence on the Falsification of a Crime Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2018-05-01

    Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed. Botanical analysis showed some samples of Xanthium spinosum, thus leading to the discovery of the falsification of the crime scene although the location of the true crime scene remained a mystery. The botanical analysis, along with circumstantial data and autopsy findings, led to the discovery of the real crime scene and became crucial as part of the legal evidence regarding the falsity of the statements made to investigators. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Starting Strong: Feasibility of an Indicated Prevention Programme during the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Baker, Bruce L.; Taylor, Heather

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health services are a promising context for evidence-based interventions to promote early socio-emotional development, yet implementation presents significant challenges. This paper describes the rationale, content and format of a school-based intervention, Starting Strong in Kindergarten (Starting Strong). Starting Strong is a…

  7. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  9. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  10. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  11. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Noise Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali M.

    Strongly correlated materials are an interesting class of materials, thanks to the novel electronic and magnetic phenomena they exhibit as a result of the interplay of various degrees of freedom. This gives rise to an array of potential applications, from Mott-FET to magnetic storage. Many experimental probes have been used to study phase transitions in strongly correlated oxides. Among these, resistance noise spectroscopy, together with conventional transport measurements, provides a unique viewpoint to understand the microscopic dynamics near the phase transitions in these oxides. In this thesis, utilizing noise spectroscopy and transport measurements, four different strongly correlated materials were studied: (1) neodymium nickel oxide (NdNiO 3) ultrathin films, (2) vanadium dioxide (VO2) microribbons, (3) copper vanadium bronze (CuxV2O 5) microribbons and (4) niobium triselenide (NbSe3) microribbons. Ultra thin films of rare-earth nickelates exhibit several temperature-driven phase transitions. In this thesis, we studied the metal-insulator and Neel transitions in a series of NdNiO3 films with different lattice mismatches. Upon colling down, the metal-insulator phase transition is accompanied by a structural (orthorohombic to monoclinic) and magnetic (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic) transitions as well, making the problem more interesting and complex at the same time. The noise is of the 1/f type and is Gaussian in the high temperature phase, however deviations are seen in the low temperature phases. Below the metal-insulator transition, noise magnitude increases by orders of magnitude: a sign of inhomogeneous electrical conduction as result of phase separation. This is further assured by the non-Gaussian noise signature. At very low temperatures (T thesis, we tried to answer this question by utilizing three different tuning parameters: temperature, voltage bias and strain. Our results point to an unusual noise behavior in the high-temperature metallic phase

  13. Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2013-07-05

    In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.

  14. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  15. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  16. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic...

  17. An evidence perspective on topical relevance types and its implications for exploratory and task-based retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The concept of relevance lies at the heart of intellectual access and information retrieval, indeed of reasoning and communication in general; in turn, topical relevance lies at the heart of relevance. The common view of topical relevance is limited to topic matching, resulting in information retrieval systems' failure to detect more complex topical connections which are needed to respond to diversified user situations and tasks. Method. Based on the role a piece of information plays in the overall structure of an argument, we have identified four topical relevance types: Direct, Indirect (circumstantial, Context, and Comparison. In the process of creating a speech retrieval test collection, graduate history students made 27,000 topical relevance assessments between Holocaust survivor interview segments and real user topics, using the four relevance types, each on a scale of 0 to 4. They recorded justifications for their assessments and kept detailed Topic Notes. Analysis. We analysed these relevance assessments using a grounded theory approach to arrive at a finer classification of topical relevance types. Results. For example, indirect relevance(a piece of information is connected to the topic indirectly through inference, circumstantial evidence was refined to Generic Indirect Relevance, Backward Inference (abduction, Forward Inference (deduction, and Inference from Cases (induction, with each subtype being further illustrated and explicated by examples. Conclusion. Each of these refined types of topical relevance plays a special role in reasoning, making a conclusive argument, or performing a task. Incorporating them into information retrieval systems allows users more flexibility and a better focus on their tasks. They can also be used in teaching reasoning skills.

  18. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  19. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  20. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  1. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  2. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  3. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  4. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ► There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ► Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ► Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ► Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up

  5. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca

    2013-04-15

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ► There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ► Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ► Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ► Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

  6. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  7. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  8. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  9. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  10. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  11. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  12. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  13. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  14. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  15. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  16. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  17. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  18. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  19. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  20. Emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eRobbins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong reciprocity is considered here as the propensity to sacrifice resources to be kind or to punish in response to prior acts, a behavior not simply reducible to self-interest and a likely force behind human cooperation and sociality. The aim was to capture emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny. Three- and five-year-old middle class American children (N=162 were tested in a simple, multiple round, three-way sharing game involving the child, a generous puppet, and a stingy puppet. At the end of the game, the child was offered an opportunity to sacrifice some of her personal gains to punish one of the puppets. By three years, American children demonstrate a willingness to engage in costly punishment. However, only five-year-olds show some evidence of strong reciprocity by orienting their punishment systematically toward the stingy puppet. Further analyses and 3 additional control conditions demonstrate that such propensity is not simply reducible to a straight imitation, or b inequity aversion. To assess the relative universality of such development, a group of five- to six-year-old children from rural Samoa (N=14 were tested and compared to age and gender matched American children. Samoan children did not manifest the same propensity toward strong reciprocity. The results are interpreted as pointing to 1 the developmental emergence of an ethical stance between three and five years of age, and 2 that the expression of such stance by young children could depend on culture.

  1. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  2. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  3. Book Review: Interpretations of South-South cooperation: structural changes or circumstantial dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ayllón Pino

    2016-01-01

    Lechini, Gladys y Giaccaglia, Clarisa (eds.). Poderes emergentes y Cooperación Sur-Sur. Perspectivas desde el Sur Global. UNR Editora/PRECSUR, 2016, 250 págs. Soares de Lima, Maria Regina; Milani, Carlos R.S.; Echart Muñoz, Enara (eds.). Cooperación Sur-Sur, política exterior y modelos de desarrollo en América Latina. CLACSO, 2016, 263 págs. Santander, Guillermo. Identidades e intereses en la cooperación Sur-Sur. Los casos de Chile, Venezuela y Brasil. Los libros de la Catarata,...

  4. The 1994-2001 eruptive period at Rabaul, Papua New Guinea: Petrological and geochemical evidence for basalt injections into a shallow dacite magma reservoir, and significant SO2 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patia, H.; Eggins, S. M.; Arculus, R. J.; McKee, C. O.; Johnson, R. W.; Bradney, A.

    2017-10-01

    The eruptions that began at Rabaul Caldera on 19 September 1994 had two focal points, the vents Tavurvur and Vulcan, located 6 km apart on opposing sides of the caldera. Vulcan eruptives define a tight cluster of dacite compositions, whereas Tavurvur eruptives span an array from equivalent dacite compositions to mafic andesites. The eruption of geochemically and mineralogically identical dacites from both vents indicates sourcing from the same magma reservoir. This, together with previously reported H2O-CO2 volatile contents of dacite melt inclusions, a caldera-wide seismic low-velocity zone, and a seismically active caldera ring fault structure are consistent with the presence at 3-6 km depth of an extensive, tabular dacitic magma body having volume of about 15-150 km3. The Tavurvur andesites form a linear compositional array and have strongly bimodal phenocryst assemblages that reflect dacite hybridisation with a mafic basalt. The moderately large volume SO2 flux documented in the Tavurvur volcanic plume (and negligible SO2 flux in the Vulcan plume) combined with high dissolved S contents of basaltic melt inclusions trapped in olivine of Tavurvur eruptives, indicate that the amount of degassed basaltic magma was 0.1 km3 and suggest that the injection of this magma was confined to the Tavurvur-side (eastern to northeastern sector) of the caldera. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the eruption was triggered and evolved in response to a series of basaltic magma injections that may have commenced in 1971 and continued up until at least the start of the 1994 eruptions. The presence of zoned plagioclase phenocrysts reflecting older basalt-dacite interaction events (i.e. anorthite cores overgrown with thick andesine rims), evaluation of limited available data for the products of previous eruptions in 1878 and 1937-1943, and the episodic occurrence of major intra-caldera seismo-deformational events indicates that the shallow magma system at Rabaul Caldera is

  5. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  6. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  7. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  8. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  9. Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...

  10. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  11. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  12. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  13. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.

  14. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  15. Strong boundedness of analytic functions in tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain classes of analytic functions in tube domains TC=ℝn+iC in n-dimensional complex space, where C is an open connected cone in ℝn, are studied. We show that the functions have a boundedness property in the strong topology of the space of tempered distributions g′. We further give a direct proof that each analytic function attains the Fourier transform of its spectral function as distributional boundary value in the strong (and weak topology of g′.

  16. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  17. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.

  18. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  1. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  2. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  3. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probes like photons, pions or protons or the heated and compressed hadronic matter generated in a heavy-ion collision. Leaving any nuclear medium without strong final-state interactions, dileptons are the optimum decay channel as they avoid any final-state distortion of the 4- momenta of the decay products entering eq.

  4. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of hadrons in strongly interacting matter provide a link between quantum chromodynamics in the ... Top: Spectral function of the ρ-meson at normal nuclear matter density as a function of mass and ... directly but folded with the branching ratio ΓV →p1+p2 /Γtot into the specific final channel one is investigating.

  5. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  6. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  7. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  8. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  9. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  10. Morphological modelling of strongly curved islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, D.; Den Heijer, C.; Van Thiel De Vries, J.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Land reclamations and island coasts often involve strongly curved shorelines, which are challenging to be properly modeled by numerical morphological models. Evaluation of the long term development of these types of coasts as well as their response to storm conditions requires proper representation

  11. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...

  12. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  13. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esberg, J.; Kirsebom, K.; Knudsen, H.; Thomsen, H.D.; Uggerhøj, E.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Sona, P.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ketel, T.J.; Ditzdar, A.; Dalton, M.M.; Ballestrero, S.; Connell, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single

  14. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  15. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  16. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  17. Controlling Josephson dynamics by strong microwave fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesca, B.; Savel'ev, E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We observe several sharp changes in the slope of the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of thin-film ramp-edge Josephson junctions between YBa2Cu3O7−delta and Nb when applying strong microwave fields. Such behavior indicates an intriguing Josephson dynamics associated with the switching from a

  18. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model ...

  19. Weak and strong nonlinearities in magnetic bearings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 7 (2004), s. 779-795 ISSN 0094-114X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471; GA AV ČR IBS2076301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : weak nonlinearitiy * strong nonlinearity * magnetics bearings Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004

  20. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  1. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  2. A Note on Strongly Dense Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2015), s. 721-730 ISSN 2199-675X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : strongly dense matrix * Boolean matrix * nonnegative matrix * idempotent matrix * intrinsic product * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Strongly 2-connected orientations of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a graph admits a strongly 2-connected orientation if and only if it is 4-edge-connected, and every vertex-deleted subgraph is 2-edge-connected. In particular, every 4-connected graph has such an orientation while no cubic 3-connected graph has such an orientation....

  4. The Shape of Strongly Disturbed Dayside Magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dmitriev Alla V. Suvorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During strong geomagnetic disturbances, the Earth¡¦s magnetosphere exhibits unusual and nonlinear interaction with the incident flow of magnetized solar wind plasma. Global Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD modeling of the magnetosphere predicts that the storm-time effects at the magnetopause result from the abnormal plasma transport and/or extremely strong field aligned currents. In-situ observations of the magnetospheric boundary, magnetopause, by Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES allowed us to find experimentally such effects as a saturation of the dayside reconnection, unusual bluntness and prominent duskward skewing of the nose magnetopause. The saturation and duskward skewing were attributed to the storm-time magnetopause formation under strong southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. The unusual bluntness was observed during both high solar wind pressure and strong southward IMF. We suggest that these phenomena are caused by a substantial contribution of the cross-tail current magnetic field and the hot magnetospheric plasma from the asymmetrical ring current into the pressure balance at the dayside magnetopause.

  5. First evidence of bryophyte diaspores in the plumage of transequatorial migrant birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lily R; Behling, Emily; Gousse, Hannah; Qian, Emily; Elphick, Chris S; Lamarre, Jean-François; Bêty, Joël; Liebezeit, Joe; Rozzi, Ricardo; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between transequatorial migratory bird routes and bipolar biogeographic disjunctions in bryophytes suggest that disjunctions between northern and southern high latitude regions may result from bird-mediated dispersal; supporting evidence is, however, exclusively circumstantial. Birds disperse plant units (diaspores) internally via ingestion (endozoochory) or externally by the attachment of diaspores to the body (ectozoochory). Endozoochory is known to be the primary means of bird-mediated dispersal for seeds and invertebrates at local, regional, and continental scales. Data supporting the role of bird-mediated endozoochory or ectozoochory in the long distance dispersal of bryophytes remain sparse, however, despite the large number of bryophytes displaying bipolar disjunctions. To determine if transequatorial migrant shorebirds may play a role in the ectozoochory of bryophyte diaspores, we developed a method for screening feathers of wild birds. We provide the first evidence of microscopic bryophyte diaspores, as well as those from non-bryophyte lineages, embedded in the plumage of long distance transequatorial migrant birds captured in their arctic breeding grounds. The number of diaspores recovered suggests that entire migratory populations may be departing their northern breeding grounds laden with potentially viable plant parts and that they could thereby play significant roles in bipolar range expansions of lineages previously ignored in the migrant bird dispersal literature.

  6. First evidence of bryophyte diaspores in the plumage of transequatorial migrant birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily R. Lewis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between transequatorial migratory bird routes and bipolar biogeographic disjunctions in bryophytes suggest that disjunctions between northern and southern high latitude regions may result from bird-mediated dispersal; supporting evidence is, however, exclusively circumstantial. Birds disperse plant units (diaspores internally via ingestion (endozoochory or externally by the attachment of diaspores to the body (ectozoochory. Endozoochory is known to be the primary means of bird-mediated dispersal for seeds and invertebrates at local, regional, and continental scales. Data supporting the role of bird-mediated endozoochory or ectozoochory in the long distance dispersal of bryophytes remain sparse, however, despite the large number of bryophytes displaying bipolar disjunctions. To determine if transequatorial migrant shorebirds may play a role in the ectozoochory of bryophyte diaspores, we developed a method for screening feathers of wild birds. We provide the first evidence of microscopic bryophyte diaspores, as well as those from non-bryophyte lineages, embedded in the plumage of long distance transequatorial migrant birds captured in their arctic breeding grounds. The number of diaspores recovered suggests that entire migratory populations may be departing their northern breeding grounds laden with potentially viable plant parts and that they could thereby play significant roles in bipolar range expansions of lineages previously ignored in the migrant bird dispersal literature.

  7. Immaterial Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov N. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated in the article that some of the objects which either could serve as instruments of a crime for criminal actions, or they were obtained through the commission of a crime, are immaterial objects, and they may be conditionally designated as evidence. The author relates to immaterial evidence physical fields, radiation, undocumented information, computer programs, property rights, intangible benefits, heat and electric power, and information processes.

  8. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  9. Deposit Insurance and Risk Shifting in a Strong Regulatory Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Justesen, Lene Gilje

    This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set of regulat......This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set...... of regulations. The ownership structure in savings banks implies that they have no incentive to increase risk after the implementation of a deposit insurance scheme whereas commercial banks have. Also, at the time of introduction, Denmark had high capital requirements and a strict closure policy. Using...... a difference-in-difference framework we show that commercial banks did not increase their risk compared to savings banks when deposit insurance was introduced. The results also hold for large commercial banks, indicating that the systemic risk did not increase either. Thus for a system with high capital...

  10. Strong saturable absorption of black titanium oxide nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Fang; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear optical materials with strong saturable absorption (SA) properties play an essential role in passive mode-locking generation of ultrafast lasers. Here we report black TiO2-x nanoparticles are promising candidate for such an application. Black TiO2-x nanoparticles are synthesized by using cathodic plasma electrolysis, and nanoparticle films are deposited on optical glass plates via natural sedimentation and post annealing. Characterization of the samples with TEM, SEM, XRD and XPS reveal that nanoparticles have diameters of 8-70 nm, and are in polycrystalline structure and co-existence of anatase, rutile and abundant oxygen-deficient phases. Optical transmittance and reflectance measurements with a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer evidence an excellent wide-spectral optical absorption property. The nonlinear optical properties of the samples were measured by using open-aperture Z-scan technique with picosecond 532-nm laser, and verified by direct transmission measurements using nanosecond 1064-nm laser. Strong SA behavior was detected, and the nonlinear absorption coefficient is as high as β = - 4.9 × 10-8 m/W, at least two orders larger than most previous reports on ordinary TiO2. The strong SA behaviors are ascribed to the existence of plenty surface states and defect states within bandgap, and the relaxation rates of electrons from upper energy levels to lower ones are much slower than excitation rates.

  11. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results on the light vector mesons ρ, , and , are summarized and compared. Almost all experiments report a softening of the spectral functions with increases in width depending on the density and temperature of the hadronic environment. No evidence for mass shifts is found in majority of the experiments. Remaining ...

  12. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  13. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  14. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  15. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  16. Strong gauge boson scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rindani, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the standard model with electroweak symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism, electroweak gauge-boson scattering amplitudes are large if the Higgs boson is heavy, and electroweak gauge interactions become strong. In theories with electroweak symmetry breaking through alternative mechanisms, there could be a strongly interacting gauge sector, possibly with resonances in an accessible energy region. In general, the scattering of longitudinally polarized massive gauge bosons can give information on the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At energies below the symmetry breaking scale, the equivalence theorem relates the scattering amplitudes to those of the "would-be" Goldstone modes. In the absence of Higgs bosons, unitarity would be restored by some new physics which can be studied through WW scattering. Some representatives models are discussed. Isolating WW scattering at a hadron collider from other contributions involving W emission from parton lines needs a good understanding of the backgrou...

  17. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K

    2018-03-09

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  19. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  20. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  1. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...

  2. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  3. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  4. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...

  5. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  6. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  7. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  8. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  9. SUSY strong production (leptonic) with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most motivated scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. This article summarizes recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at LHC, which target supersymmetric particles produced by strong interaction in events with leptonic fi nal states. No signi ficant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed and exclusion limits have been set on squark and gluino masses in various scenarios.

  10. Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  12. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Strong-Q-sequences and small d

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounský, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2012), s. 2942-2946 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Katowice problem * strong-Q-sequence * dominating number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002222

  14. Superbainite. A novel very strong bainitic microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Caballero, E. G.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2005-01-01

    In this work very recent results are how that reveals the possibility of obtaining bainite by isothermal transformation at very low temperatures, of about 150 degree centigree, in high carbon high silicon steels. The microstructure thus obtained is a mixture of fine plates of bainite ferrite (20-40 nm thickness) and thin films of carbon enriched austenite. These microstructures are very hard (600 HV) and strong (2.5 GPa). (Author) 18 refs

  15. Strong decays of nonstrange q3 baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Iachello, F.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    We study strong decays of nonstrange baryons by making use of the algebraic approach to hadron structure. Within this framework we derive closed expressions for decay widths in an elementary-meson emission model and use these to analyze the experimental data for N * →N+π, N * →Δ+π, N * →N+η, Δ * →N+π, Δ * →Δ+π, and Δ * →Δ+η decays. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  17. Evidence-Based Reform in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Education policies should support the use of programs and practices with strong evidence of effectiveness. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) contains evidence standards and incentives to use programs that meet them. This provides a great opportunity for evidence to play a stronger role in decisions about education programs and practices.…

  18. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-12-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  19. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  20. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  1. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  2. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  3. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  4. 77 FR 16131 - Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Order 13602 of March 15, 2012 Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities By... enable them to develop and implement economic strategies to become more competitive, sustainable, and inclusive, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Cities, towns, and regions across our Nation...

  5. Emerging Signs of Strong Reciprocity in Human Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Erin; Rochat, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strong reciprocity is considered here as the propensity to sacrifice resources to be kind or to punish in response to prior acts, a behavior not simply reducible to self-interest and a likely force behind human cooperation and sociality. The aim was to capture emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny and across highly contrasted cultures. Three- and 5-year-old middle class American children (N = 162) were tested in a simple, multiple round, three-way sharing game involving the child, a generous puppet, and a stingy puppet. At the end of the game, the child was offered an opportunity to sacrifice some of her personal gains to punish one of the puppets. By 3 years, American children demonstrate a willingness to engage in costly punishment. However, only 5-year-olds show some evidence of strong reciprocity by orienting their punishment systematically toward the stingy puppet. Further analyses and three additional control conditions demonstrate that such propensity is not simply reducible to (a) straight imitation, or (b) inequity aversion. To assess the relative universality of such development, a group of 5- to 6-year-old children from rural Samoa (N = 14) were tested and compared to age and gender-matched American children. Samoan children did not manifest the same propensity toward strong reciprocity. The results are interpreted as pointing to (1) the developmental emergence of an ethical stance between 3 and 5 years of age, and (2) that the expression of such stance by young children could depend on culture. PMID:22194730

  6. Renormalization in theories with strong vector forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.

    1991-01-01

    There are not many field theories in four dimensions that have sensible ultraviolet and interesting (non-trivial) infrared behavior. At present, asymptotically free theories seem to have deserved their legitimacy and there is a strong prejudice that they might be the only ones to have such a distinction. This belief stems mostly from the fact that most of the knowledge of field theory in four dimensions comes from perturbation theory. However, nonperturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that are perturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that perturbatively inaccessible. The lack of asymptotic freedom implies that the coupling constant grows at short distances and perturbation theory breaks down. Thus, in such theories, ultraviolet behavior requires nonperturbative treatment. Recently, the interest in strongly coupled gauge theories has been revived. In particularly, four dimensional quantum electrodynamics has received considerable attention. This was motivated by the discovery of an ultraviolet stable fixed point at strong couplings. If this fixed point would turn out to be non-gaussian, then QED would be the first nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory in four dimensions. The importance of such a result would be twofold. First, the old question of the existence of QED could be settled. Of course, this would be the case provided that the low energy limit of the theory actually describes photons and electrons; apriori, there is no reason to assume this. Second, the discovery of a nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory would be of great paradigmatic value. The theories which quenched QED resembles the most are nonabelian gauge theories with many flavors with beta-function positive or vanishing at weak couplings. These theories are at present considered as viable candidates for technicolor unification schemes

  7. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB∼m 2 π ∼ 0.02 GeV 2 at the RHIC and eB∼ 15m 2 π ∼ 0.3 GeV 2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B 0 and D 0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  8. Strong signatures of right-handed compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sanz, Veronica [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Vries, Maikel de; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, that are motivated by flavor physics, one expects large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupled to light quarks. We study experimental strong signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC, and constrain the parameter space of these models with recent results by ATLAS and CMS. We show that the LHC sensitivity could be significantly improved if dedicated searches were performed, in particular in multi-jet signals.

  9. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  10. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  11. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  12. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  13. Wormhole effect in a strong topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G.; Guo, H.-M.; Franz, M.

    2010-07-01

    An infinitely thin solenoid carrying magnetic flux Φ (a “Dirac string”) inserted into an ordinary band insulator has no significant effect on the spectrum of electrons. In a strong topological insulator, remarkably, such a solenoid carries protected gapless one-dimensional fermionic modes when Φ=hc/2e . These modes are spin-filtered and represent a distinct bulk manifestation of the topologically nontrivial insulator. We establish this “wormhole” effect by both general qualitative considerations and by numerical calculations within a minimal lattice model. We also discuss the possibility of experimental observation of a closely related effect in artificially engineered nanostructures.

  14. Strong piezoelectricity in bioinspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, Andrei; Amdursky, Nadav; Bdikin, Igor; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2010-02-23

    We show anomalously strong shear piezoelectric activity in self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes (PNTs), indicating electric polarization directed along the tube axis. Comparison with well-known piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and lateral signal calibration yields sufficiently high effective piezoelectric coefficient values of at least 60 pm/V (shear response for tubes of approximately 200 nm in diameter). PNTs demonstrate linear deformation without irreversible degradation in a broad range of driving voltages. The results open up a wide avenue for developing new generations of "green" piezoelectric materials and piezonanodevices based on bioactive tubular nanostructures potentially compatible with human tissue.

  15. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  16. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  17. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  18. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.

    1981-05-01

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  19. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  20. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

  1. Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Ram Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.

  2. The Athens Acropolis Strong Motion Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, I. S.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Melis, N. S.; Boukouras, K.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, extensive restoration works through a dedicated "Acropolis Restoration Service" (YSMA) take place in the Acropolis, the greatest sanctuary of ancient Athens. Since 2008, a permanent strong motion array was deployed by the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens (NOA-IG) in collaboration with YSMA. Free field installations were decided at sites showing various characteristics, aiming to investigate differences in geotechnical properties as well as the structure response of Parthenon itself. The installation phase is presented, with the techniques used to overcome difficulties (i.e. extreme weather conditions, power and communication limitations, restoration works and visitors) and the special care taken for the specific archaeological site. Furthermore, indicative examples of seismic events recorded by the array are analyzed and the complexity of the hill and the monument is made apparent. Among them, the long distance events of Tohoku, Japan 2010 and Van, Turkey 2011, some regional moderate earthquakes in Greece and some weak earthquakes from the vicinity. Continuous ambient noise monitoring using PQLX software gives some first indicative results, showing a variety of characteristics at installation sites. Finally, further developments and future steps are presented such as: the extension of the array, the integration of seismic data within the GIS platform of YSMA at the site and the use of strong motion records, in conjunction with data from other monitoring systems operating in Acropolis for the study of specific monuments.

  3. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron-positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  4. Strong Double Higgs Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto; Moretti, Mauro; Piccinini, Fulvio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    The hierarchy problem and the electroweak data, together, provide a plausible motivation for considering a light Higgs emerging as a pseudo-Goldstone boson from a strongly-coupled sector. In that scenario, the rates for Higgs production and decay differ significantly from those in the Standard Model. However, one genuine strong coupling signature is the growth with energy of the scattering amplitudes among the Goldstone bosons, the longitudinally polarized vector bosons as well as the Higgs boson itself. The rate for double Higgs production in vector boson fusion is thus enhanced with respect to its negligible rate in the SM. We study that reaction in pp collisions, where the production of two Higgs bosons at high pT is associated with the emission of two forward jets. We concentrate on the decay mode hh -> WW^(*)WW^(*) and study the semi-leptonic decay chains of the W's with 2, 3 or 4 leptons in the final states. While the 3 lepton final states are the most relevant and can lead to a 3 sigma signal significa...

  5. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  6. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  7. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  8. Evidence for a Multiphase ISM in Early Type Galaxies and Elliptical Galaxies with Strong Radio Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Woo

    1997-01-01

    We have observed NGC 1316 (Fornax A) with the ROSAT HRI. In this paper, we present the results of these observations and we complement them with the spectral analysis of the archival PSPC data. The spectral properties suggest the presence of a significant component of thermal X-ray emission (greater than 60%), amounting to approx. 10(exp 9) solar mass of hot ISM. Within 3 feet from the nucleus of NGC 1316, the HRI X-ray surface brightness falls as r(exp -2) following the stellar light. In the inner approx. 30 inch., however, the X-ray surface brightness is significantly elongated, contrary to the distribution of stellar light, which is significantly rounder within 10 inch. This again argues for a non-stellar origin of the X-ray emission. This flattened X-ray feature is suggestive of either the disk-like geometry of a rotating cooling flow and/or the presence of extended, elongated dark matter. By comparing the morphology of the X-ray emission with the distribution of optical dust patches, we find that the X-ray emission is significantly reduced at the locations where the dust patches are more pronounced, indicating that at least some of the X-ray photons are absorbed by the cold ISM. We also compare the distribution of the hot and cold ISM with that of the ionized gas, using recently obtained H(sub alpha) CCD data. We find that the ionized gas is distributed roughly along the dust patches and follows the large scale X-ray distribution at r greater than 1 foot from the nucleus. However, there is no one-to-one correspondence between ionized gas and hot gas. Both morphological relations and kinematics suggest different origins for hot and cold ISM. The radio jets in projection appear to pass perpendicularly through the central X-ray ellipsoid. Comparison of thermal and radio pressures suggests that the radio jets are confined by the surrounding hot gaseous medium.

  9. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam –1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ☉ . These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M ☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  10. No Evidence for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters: Strong Constraints from the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-05-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam-1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ⊙. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs >~ 1000 M ⊙ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  11. A systematic review of drug treatment of vulvodynia: evidence of a strong placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella Pereira, Glaucia Miranda; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Nogueira Reis, Zilma Silveira; de Castro Monteiro, Marilene Vale

    2018-03-23

    Vulvodynia is the most common type of chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia in premenopausal women. The effect of drugs for the treatment of vulvodynia remains poorly discussed. To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled studies which assess medications used to treat vulvar pain in vulvodynia. Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EBSCO Academic, LILACS and MEDLINE were searched from 1985 to September 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing any kind of medication for vulvodynia treatment with placebo or with another medication in adult patients were included. The two investigators independently conducted data extraction. The synthesis was provided by the pain reduction index. Study quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention and analysis of publication bias was conducted. Five studies were included in qualitative synthesis with a number of the participants varied from 30 to 133 among the eligible studies resulting 297. The pain reduction rates of patients with vulvodynia assessed by Q-tipped Cotton Test and visual analogue scale varied between studies. Placebo was shown to be as effective as any medication. There is a need for further studies evaluating topical monotherapy for the treatment of vulvodynia, since they are the main drugs used in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence for responses in water chemistry and macroinvertebrates in a strongly acidified mountain stream

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, F.; Horecký, J.; Senoo, T.; Kamasová, L.; Lamačová, Anna; Tátosová, J.; Hardekopf, D. W.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 9 (2017), s. 1049-1058 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:86652079 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : acidified mountain stream * macroinvertebrates * logging * hydrological patterns * recovery Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  13. No strong evidence for lateralisation of word reading and face recognition deficits following posterior brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbet; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition and word reading are thought to be mediated by relatively independent cognitive systems lateralized to the right and left hemisphere respectively. In this case, we should expect a higher incidence of face recognition problems in patients with right hemisphere injury and a higher...... incidence of reading problems in patients with left hemisphere injury. We tested this hypothesis in a group of 31 patients with unilateral right or left hemisphere infarcts in the territory of the posterior cerebral arteries. In most domains tested (e.g., visual attention, object recognition, visuo......-construction, motion perception), we found that both patient groups performed significantly worse than a matched control group. In particular we found a significant number of face recognition deficits in patients with left hemisphere injury and a significant number of patients with word reading deficits following...

  14. Evidence for strong genetic structure in European populations of the little owl Athene noctua

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pellegrino, I.; Negri, A.; Boano, G.; Cucco, M.; Kristensen, T. N.; Pertoldi, C.; Randi, E.; Šálek, Martin; Mucci, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2015), s. 462-475 ISSN 0908-8857 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : postglacial range expansion * microsatellite DNA markers * multilocus genotype data * mitochondrial-DNA * glacial refugia * hybride zones * phenotypic divergence * Pleistocene refugia * woodpecker complex * climate change Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.192, year: 2015

  15. Strong electron-phonon interaction in the high-Tc superconductors: Evidence from the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.; Porter, C.D.; Tanner, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    We show that low-frequency structure in the infrared reflectance of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 results from the electron-phonon interaction. Characteristic antiresonant line shapes are seen in the phonon region of the spectrum and the frequency-dependent scattering rate of the mid-infrared electronic continuum has peaks at 150 cm -1 (19 meV) and at 360 cm -1 (45 meV) in good agreement with phonon density-of-states peaks in neutron time-of-flight spectra that develop in superconducting samples. The interaction between the phonons and the charge carriers can be understood in terms of a charged-phonon model

  16. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  17. Strong evidence for selection for larger brood size in a great tit population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, JM; Sanz, JJ

    We measured the selection pressure on brood size in a recently established population of great tits (Parus major L.) in the northern Netherlands by manipulating brood size in three years (1995: n = 51, 1997: n = 66, 1998: n = 51), and we estimated fitness consequences in terms of local survival of

  18. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  19. De Novo Coding Variants Are Strongly Associated with Tourette Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; Fernandez, Thomas V; Yu, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    damaging missense) are overrepresented in probands (RR 1.37, p = 0.003). We identify four likely risk genes with multiple de novo damaging variants in unrelated probands: WWC1 (WW and C2 domain containing 1), CELSR3 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3), NIPBL (Nipped-B-like), and FN1...... trios from the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium on Genetics (511 total). We observe strong and consistent evidence for the contribution of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants (rate ratio [RR] 2.32, p = 0.002). Additionally, de novo damaging variants (LGD and probably...... (fibronectin 1). Overall, we estimate that de novo damaging variants in approximately 400 genes contribute risk in 12% of clinical cases. VIDEO ABSTRACT....

  20. Strong enhancement of magnetic anisotropy energy in alloyed nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negulyaev, Nikolay; Niebergall, Larissa; Stepanyuk, Valeri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Juarez Reyes, Lucila; Pastor, Gustavo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Kassel, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Dorantes-Davila, Jesus [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    One-dimensional atomic structures (monatomic wires and chains) are believed to be likely candidates for creation of nanostructures with large atomic orbital moments and hence with giant magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) per atom. We investigate the possibility of tuning the MAE of 3d transition metal monowires alloyed with 5d elements (Ir, Pt). Our ab initio studies give clear evidence that in mixed 3d-5d atomic wires MAE is one and even two orders of magnitude more than in pure wires constructed of the corresponding 5d and 3d elements, respectively. Mechanisms responsible for the formation of such a strong MAE are revealed. The interplay between the structure of a monowire and its MAE is demonstrated. The contribution of both types of species (3d and 5d) into the MAE is discussed.

  1. A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, S R; Howell, D Andrew; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Valenti, Stefano; Johansson, J; Amanullah, R; Goobar, A; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Horesh, Assaf; Sagiv, Ilan; Cenko, S Bradley; Nugent, Peter E; Arcavi, Iair; Surace, Jason; Woźniak, P R; Moody, Daniela I; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Bue, Brian D; Gehrels, Neil

    2015-05-21

    Type Ia supernovae are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances, the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious. One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion. Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star, and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

  2. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  3. Convex Modeling of Interactions with Strong Heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Asad; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the task of fitting a regression model involving interactions among a potentially large set of covariates, in which we wish to enforce strong heredity. We propose FAMILY, a very general framework for this task. Our proposal is a generalization of several existing methods, such as VANISH [Radchenko and James, 2010], hierNet [Bien et al., 2013], the all-pairs lasso, and the lasso using only main effects. It can be formulated as the solution to a convex optimization problem, which we solve using an efficient alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. This algorithm has guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, can be easily specialized to any convex penalty function of interest, and allows for a straightforward extension to the setting of generalized linear models. We derive an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of FAMILY, and explore its performance in a simulation study and on an HIV sequence data set.

  4. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k......-3/2 for the potential fluctuations in the production, coupling and inertia subranges, respectively. The coefficient of Bohm diffusion is reproduced, and its role in electrostatic coupling is derived. Comparison is made with measured power laws reported in the literature, from Q-devices, hot...

  5. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  6. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDAŞ Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy

  7. Strongly coupled band in 140Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, Kπ = 8 - isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in 128 Xe, 130 Ba, 132 Ce, 134 Nd, 136 Sm, and 138 Gd[. In 140 Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an Iπ = 8 - state. This could be the first case of a Kπ = 8 - state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the Kπ = 8 - isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The 140 Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in 140 Gd

  8. Thomson scattering in strong external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, S.; Ehlotzky, F.

    1992-09-01

    In the present paper we shall investigate relativistic Thomson scattering in two external fields. A free classical electron will be embedded in a strong, constant and homogeneous magnetic field and in a powerful electromagnetic field. Both fields will be considered in the Redmond configuration, in which case the electromagnetic wave is circularly polarized and propagates in the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. The electron will be allowed to have arbitrary initial conditions and the electromagnetic wave will be switched on either suddenly or adiabatically. We shall present the exact solution of the Lorentz equation of motion in the above external field configuration and we shall evaluate the spectrum and cross sections of the scattered radiation. In particular, we shall consider scattering close to resonance and we shall compare our results with the findings of earlier work.

  9. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N c arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma

  10. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  11. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  12. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...

  13. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  14. Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ch’ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.

  15. The new <Strong Italian Earthquakes>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valensise

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new catalogue of strong ltalian earthquakes that the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in collaboration with SGA, has recently made available to the international scientific community and to the general public. The new catalogue differs from previous efforts in that for each event the usual seismic parameters are complemented by a list of intensity rated localities, a complete list of relevant references, a series of synoptic comments describing different aspects of the earthquake phenomenology. and in most cases even the text of the original written sources. The printed part of the catalogue has been published as a special monograph which contains also a computer version of the full database in the form of a CD-ROM. The software package includes a computer program for retrieving, selecting and displaying the catalogue data.

  16. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  17. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  18. Is It Possible to Predict Strong Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Y. S.; Ryabinin, G. V.; Solovyeva, A. B.; Timashev, S. F.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of earthquake prediction is one of the key open questions in modern geophysics. We propose an approach based on the analysis of common short-term candidate precursors (2 weeks to 3 months prior to strong earthquake) with the subsequent processing of brain activity signals generated in specific types of rats (kept in laboratory settings) who reportedly sense an impending earthquake a few days prior to the event. We illustrate the identification of short-term precursors using the groundwater sodium-ion concentration data in the time frame from 2010 to 2014 (a major earthquake occurred on 28 February 2013) recorded at two different sites in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The candidate precursors are observed as synchronized peaks in the nonstationarity factors, introduced within the flicker-noise spectroscopy framework for signal processing, for the high-frequency component of both time series. These peaks correspond to the local reorganizations of the underlying geophysical system that are believed to precede strong earthquakes. The rodent brain activity signals are selected as potential "immediate" (up to 2 weeks) deterministic precursors because of the recent scientific reports confirming that rodents sense imminent earthquakes and the population-genetic model of K irshvink (Soc Am 90, 312-323, 2000) showing how a reliable genetic seismic escape response system may have developed over the period of several hundred million years in certain animals. The use of brain activity signals, such as electroencephalograms, in contrast to conventional abnormal animal behavior observations, enables one to apply the standard "input-sensor-response" approach to determine what input signals trigger specific seismic escape brain activity responses.

  19. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  20. Strong Effect of Azodye Layer Thickness on RM-Stabilized Photoalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-21

    Strong Effect of Azodye Layer Thickness on RM-Stabilized Photoalignment Colin McGinty*, Valerie Finnemeyer**, Robert Reich**, Harry Clark...vertical alignment on these substrates. For the thinner BY layers, we do not see this strong evidence of out of plane reorientation. The out of...In this report we show the surprising effect that thin azodye layers demonstrate improved stability over those that are thicker. Figure 6

  1. Mismeasurement and the resonance of strong confounders: uncorrelated errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J R; Hastrup, J L

    1996-05-15

    Greenland first documented (Am J Epidemiol 1980; 112:564-9) that error in the measurement of a confounder could resonate--that it could bias estimates of other study variables, and that the bias could persist even with statistical adjustment for the confounder as measured. An important question is raised by this finding: can such bias be more than trivial within the bounds of realistic data configurations? The authors examine several situations involving dichotomous and continuous data in which a confounder and a null variable are measured with error, and they assess the extent of resultant bias in estimates of the effect of the null variable. They show that, with continuous variables, measurement error amounting to 40% of observed variance in the confounder could cause the observed impact of the null study variable to appear to alter risk by as much as 30%. Similarly, they show, with dichotomous independent variables, that 15% measurement error in the form of misclassification could lead the null study variable to appear to alter risk by as much as 50%. Such bias would result only from strong confounding. Measurement error would obscure the evidence that strong confounding is a likely problem. These results support the need for every epidemiologic inquiry to include evaluations of measurement error in each variable considered.

  2. Strong Generative Capacity and the Empirical Base of Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Ott

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This Perspective traces the evolution of certain central notions in the theory of Generative Grammar (GG. The founding documents of the field suggested a relation between the grammar, construed as recursively enumerating an infinite set of sentences, and the idealized native speaker that was essentially equivalent to the relation between a formal language (a set of well-formed formulas and an automaton that recognizes strings as belonging to the language or not. But this early view was later abandoned, when the focus of the field shifted to the grammar's strong generative capacity as recursive generation of hierarchically structured objects as opposed to strings. The grammar is now no longer seen as specifying a set of well-formed expressions and in fact necessarily constructs expressions of any degree of intuitive “acceptability.” The field of GG, however, has not sufficiently acknowledged the significance of this shift in perspective, as evidenced by the fact that (informal and experimentally-controlled observations about string acceptability continue to be treated as bona fide data and generalizations for the theory of GG. The focus on strong generative capacity, it is argued, requires a new discussion of what constitutes valid empirical evidence for GG beyond observations pertaining to weak generation.

  3. Strong hydrological control on nutrient cycling of subtropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Chang, C. T.; Huang, J. C.; Wang, L.; Lin, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    Forest nutrient cycling is strongly controlled by both biological and hydrological factors. However, based on a close examination of earlier reports, we highlight the role of hydrological control on nutrient cycling at a global scale and is more important at humid tropical and subtropical forests. we analyzed the nutrient budget of precipitation input and stream water output from 1994 to 2013 in a subtropical forest in Taiwan and conducted a data synthesis using results from 32 forests across the globe. The results revealed that monthly input and output of ions were positively correlated with water quantity, indicating hydrological control on nutrient cycling. Hydrological control is also evident from the greater ions export via stream water during the warm and wet growing season. The synthesis also illustrates that strong hydrological control leads to lower nitrogen retention and greater net loss of base cations in humid regions, particularly in the humid tropical and subtropical forests. Our result is of great significance in an era of global climate change because climate change could directly affect ecosystem nutrient cycling particularly in the tropics through changes in patterns of precipitation regime.

  4. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The

  5. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  6. Strong Correlation Physics in Aromatic Hydrocarbon Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Massimo; Giovannetti, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    We show, by means of ab-initio calculations, that electron-electron correlations play an important role in doped aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors, including potassium doped picene with Tc= 18K [1], coronene and phenanthrene [2]. For the case of picene the inclusion of exchange interactions by means of hybrid functionals reproduces the correct gap for the undoped compound and predicts an antiferromagnetic state for x=3, where superconductivity has been observed [3]. The latter finding is compatible with a sizable value of the correlation strength. The differences between the different compounds are analyzed and results of Dynamical Mean-Field Theory including both correlation effects and electron-phonon interactions are presented. Finally we discuss the consequences of strong correlations in an organic superconductor in relation to the properties of Cs3C60, in which electron correlations drive an antiferromagnetic state [4] but also lead to an enhancement of superconductivity [5]. 1. R. Mitsuhashi et al. Nature 464, 76 (2010)2. X.F. Wang et al, Nat. Comm. 2, 507 (2011)3. G. Giovannetti and M. Capone, Phys. Rev. B 83, 134508 (2011)4. Y. Takabayashi et al., Science 323, 1585 (2009)5. M. Capone et al. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 943 (2009

  7. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  8. Quasinormal Modes and Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Costa, João L.; Destounis, Kyriakos; Hintz, Peter; Jansen, Aron

    2018-01-01

    The fate of Cauchy horizons, such as those found inside charged black holes, is intrinsically connected to the decay of small perturbations exterior to the event horizon. As such, the validity of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture is tied to how effectively the exterior damps fluctuations. Here, we study massless scalar fields in the exterior of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. Their decay rates are governed by quasinormal modes of the black hole. We identify three families of modes in these spacetimes: one directly linked to the photon sphere, well described by standard WKB-type tools; another family whose existence and time scale is closely related to the de Sitter horizon; finally, a third family which dominates for near-extremally charged black holes and which is also present in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The last two families of modes seem to have gone unnoticed in the literature. We give a detailed description of linear scalar perturbations of such black holes, and conjecture that SCC is violated in the near extremal regime.

  9. Strong coupling from the Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Joseph A.

    2006-10-01

    It was recently observed that the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model reproduces the known part of the perturbative spectrum of planar {\\cal N}=4 super Yang Mills in the SU(2) sector. Assuming that this identification is valid beyond perturbation theory, we investigate the behaviour of this spectrum as the 't Hooft parameter λ becomes large. We show that the full dimension Δ of the Konishi superpartner is the solution of a sixth-order polynomial while Δ for a bare dimension 5 operator is the solution of a cubic. In both cases, the equations can be solved easily as a series expansion for both small and large λ and the equations can be inverted to express λ as an explicit function of Δ. We then consider more general operators and show how Δ depends on λ in the strong coupling limit. We are also able to distinguish those states in the Hubbard model which correspond to the gauge-invariant operators for all values of λ. Finally, we compare our results with known results for strings on AdS5 × S5, where we find agreement for a range of R-charges.

  10. Strongly coupled band in {sup 140}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in {sup 128}Xe, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 134}Nd, {sup 136}Sm, and {sup 138}Gd[. In {sup 140}Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an I{pi} = 8{sup -} state. This could be the first case of a K{pi} = 8{sup -} state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The {sup 140}Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in {sup 140}Gd.

  11. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  12. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  14. Strongly correlated superconductivity and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Doped Mott insulators and doped charge-transfer insulators describe classes of materials that can exhibit unconventional superconducting ground states. Examples include the cuprates and the layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family. I present results obtained from plaquette cellular dynamical mean-field theory. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo evaluation of the hybridization expansion allows one to study the models in the large interaction limit where quasiparticles can disappear. The normal state which is unstable to the superconducting state exhibits a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal phase. That transition is the finite-doping extension of the metal-insulator transition obtained at half-filling. This transition serves as an organizing principle for the normal and superconducting states of both cuprates and doped organic superconductors. In the less strongly correlated limit, these methods also describe the more conventional case where the superconducting dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Sponsored by NSERC RGPIN-2014-04584, CIFAR, Research Chair in the Theory of Quantum Materials.

  15. Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, F.

    1993-12-07

    Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric (LCP) compositions of matter are described. LCP backbones are combined with liquid crystalline (LC) side chains in a manner which maximizes molecular ordering through interdigitation of the side chains, thereby yielding materials which are predicted to have superior mechanical properties over existing LCPs. The theoretical design of LCPs having such characteristics includes consideration of the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and in the side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of the spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in sub-molecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone to which they are attached, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and the side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and the side chains for easy alignment. 27 figures.

  16. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  17. Toward a Strongly Interacting Scalar Higgs Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.; El-Houssieny, M.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory. Rather than the corresponding Hermitian theory and due to the asymptotic freedom property of the theory, the vacuum energy does not blow up for large energy scales which is a good sign to solve the hierarchy problem when using this model to break the U(1)xSU(2) symmetry in the standard model. The theory is strongly interacting and in fact, all the dimensionful parameters in the theory like mass and energy are finite even for very high energy scales. Moreover, relative to the vacuum energy for the Hermitian φ 4 theory, the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 theory is tiny, which is a good sign toward the solution of the cosmological constant problem. Remarkably, these features of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory make it very plausible to be employed as a Higgs mechanism in the standard model instead of the problematic Hermitian Higgs mechanism

  18. Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.

  19. Topological friction strongly affects viral DNA ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, Davide; Micheletti, Cristian; Orlandini, Enzo; Sumners, De Witt

    2013-12-10

    Bacteriophages initiate infection by releasing their double-stranded DNA into the cytosol of their bacterial host. However, what controls and sets the timescales of DNA ejection? Here we provide evidence from stochastic simulations which shows that the topology and organization of DNA packed inside the capsid plays a key role in determining these properties. Even with similar osmotic pressure pushing out the DNA, we find that spatially ordered DNA spools have a much lower effective friction than disordered entangled states. Such spools are only found when the tendency of nearby DNA strands to align locally is accounted for. This topological or conformational friction also depends on DNA knot type in the packing geometry and slows down or arrests the ejection of twist knots and very complex knots. We also find that the family of (2, 2k+1) torus knots unravel gradually by simplifying their topology in a stepwise fashion. Finally, an analysis of DNA trajectories inside the capsid shows that the knots formed throughout the ejection process mirror those found in gel electrophoresis experiments for viral DNA molecules extracted from the capsids.

  20. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Document Server

    Uggerhoj, U I; Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Lund, M; Møller, S P; Sørensen, A H; Thomsen, A H; Uggerhøj, U I; Geissel, H; Scheidenberger, C; Weick, H; Winfield, J; Sona, P; Connell S; Ballestrero, S; Ketel, T; Dizdar, A; Mangiarotti, A

    2009-01-01

    As an addendum to the NA63 proposal cite{Ande05}, we propose to measure 1) the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect in low-$Z$ targets, 2) Magnetic suppression of incoherent bremsstrahlung resulting from exposure to an external field during the emission event, and 3) the bremsstrahlung emission from relativistic ($gamma=170$), fully stripped Pb nuclei penetrating various amorphous targets. Concerning the LPM effect, both the 'traditional' Migdal approach and the modern treatment by Baier and Katkov display inaccuracies, i.e. a possible lack of applicability in low-$Z$ targets. Moreover, the LPM effect has been shown to have a significant impact on giant air showers for energies in the EeV range - evidently processes in a low-$Z$ material. A measurement of magnetic suppression is demanding in terms of necessary accuracy (an expected $lesssim$15% effect), but would prove the existence of a basic interplay between coherent and incoherent processes, also believed to be significant in beamstrahlung emission. For...

  1. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or

  2. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  3. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  4. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  5. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  6. Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.

  7. ''Strong gammas''. List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides. Documentation of the PC diskette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, T.; Narita, T.; Kitao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The PC diskette containing the ''List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides'' as published by T. Narita et al. in the report JAERI-M-94-059, March 1994, is described. The diskette is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  8. Strong Feller solutions to SPDEďs are strong Feller in the weak topology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 2 (2001), s. 111-129 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/1454 Keywords : strong Feller property% stochastic parabolic equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001

  9. Strong-field ionization of polar molecules: Stark-shift-corrected strong-field approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Martiny, Christian P. J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We extend the molecular strong-field approximation for ionization, in the tunneling limit, to include systematically the linear and quadratic static Stark shifts of the ionizing molecular orbital. This approach, simple to implement, is capable of describing the essential physics of the process of...

  10. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient

  11. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance

  12. Strong Equatorial Seasonality during Early Eocene greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arpita; Sarkar, Anindya

    2017-04-01

    A warm greenhouse climate, punctuated by a series of rapid warming events (known as hyperthermals), is characteristic of the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene period. Rapid addition of 13C depleted carbon to the exogenic carbon cycle, in an otherwise overall higher atmospheric CO2 level, is thought to set off the hyperthermal events. For understanding the fate of ongoing global warming and response of the climate system and biota, researchers for past few decades are paying more attention to comprehend this climatic enigma. Existing proxies from the most distinct hyperthermal event i.e., PETM indicate that the mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) was comparatively higher (by ˜8 ˚ C) at high latitude and to a lesser extent towards the equator. Apart from the prominent hyperthermal events the rest of the Early Eocene was significantly warmer and thought to be more equable compare to present. Terrestrial proxy records from the mid-latitude regions indicated that the Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Minimum Winter Temperature (MWT) was high, thus reducing the seasonality or difference between MWT and Maximum Summer Temperature (MST). In absence of proxy data from the low latitude region, a ≥40 ˚ C summer temperature was predicted assuming a mild Eocene temperature gradient of ˜0.4 ˚ C/ ˚ latitude and mid-latitude temperature data. Even question was raised about the existence of the tropical rain forest in such climatic extreme. Recent pollen census data, on contrary, suggest proliferation of the tropical rain forest during this climatic extreme. Important in this context is that there is a very few direct evidence of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene MAT and seasonality data from the low latitude/equatorial regions. To resolve this issue, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of larger benthic foraminifera (Nummulites burdigalensis) were measured in laser based carbonate device attached with the Delta V advantage continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer

  13. Observation of strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast particles from high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Loehner, H.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Warwick, A.; Wieman, H.

    1984-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast fragments in nuclear collisions in the energy interval of 0.4 to 1 GeV per nucleon. The asymmetry gets stronger when incident energy and impact parameter decrease. The results on the A dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry are also presented. (orig.)

  14. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  15. Strong earthquakes can be predicted: a multidisciplinary method for strong earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Li

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The imminent prediction on a group of strong earthquakes that occurred in Xinjiang, China in April 1997 is introduced in detail. The prediction was made on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the results obtained by multiple innovative methods including measurements of crustal stress, observation of infrasonic wave in an ultra low frequency range, and recording of abnormal behavior of certain animals. Other successful examples of prediction are also enumerated. The statistics shows that above 40% of 20 total predictions jointly presented by J. Z. Li, Z. Q. Ren and others since 1995 can be regarded as effective. With the above methods, precursors of almost every strong earthquake around the world that occurred in recent years were recorded in our laboratory. However, the physical mechanisms of the observed precursors are yet impossible to explain at this stage.

  16. Strong Convergence for Hybrid Implicit S-Iteration Scheme of Nonexpansive and Strongly Pseudocontractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let K be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Banach space E, let S:K→K be nonexpansive, and let  T:K→K be Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings such that p∈FS∩FT=x∈K:Sx=Tx=x and x-Sy≤Sx-Sy and x-Ty≤Tx-Ty for all x, y∈K. Let βn be a sequence in 0, 1 satisfying (i ∑n=1∞βn=∞; (ii limn→∞⁡βn=0. For arbitrary x0∈K, let xn be a sequence iteratively defined by xn=Syn, yn=1-βnxn-1+βnTxn, n≥1. Then the sequence xn converges strongly to a common fixed point p of S and T.

  17. Inhomogeneities in a strongly correlated d-wave superconductors in the limit of strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The complex interplay of the strong correlations and impurities in a high temperature superconductor is analyzed within a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, augmented with Gutzwiller approximation for taking care of the strong electronic repulsion. The inclusion of such correlations is found to play a crucial role in reducing inhomogeneities in both qualitative and quantitative manner. This difference is comprehended by investigating the underlying one-particle ``normal states'' that includes the order parameters in the Hartree and Fock channels in the absence of superconductivity. This amounts to the renormalization of disorder both on the lattice sites and also on links. These two components of disorder turn out to be spatially anti-correlated through self-consistency. Interestingly, a simple pairing theory in terms of these normal states is found to describe the complex behaviors of dirty cuprates with reasonable accuracy. However, this framework needs modifications in the limit where disorder strengths are comparable to the band width. We will discuss appropriate updates in the formalism to describe physics of inhomogeneities with strong disorder.

  18. Processes of Individualization in the Presence of Strong Collective Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasov, Petar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary societies people try to build an individualized approach through life, while the collective identity coercions starts to pale. This ratio consists of many aspects like the intensity of the existing collective identities, the consistency of transmission of the parent’s way of living to their children and the individual choices that are available for the young people in the specific social context. In Macedonian society there are some modern processes concerning the development of stronger personal identities of the youth, and their attempts to change the way of living comparing the way their parents did. Having in mind that in Macedonia live citizens that are members of different cultural and ethnic groups the analysis will show even local differences elaborating these phenomena. There are indications that there is some fluctuation towards bigger individualization among youth and the evidence that the young people still lives their parent’s collective identities. The target group of the research is the student population, in the study that was done on the sample of 707 respondents, chosen by quotas, from the six universities in the country. The main thesis is that the students are still “overshadowed of the successes” of their parents past social experience, that is strongly connected with the collective nature of their identities. The main research questions are the state of the collective identities, the relation between the parents and the student’s collective identification, and the evidence of stronger development of the self-confidence among students.

  19. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-01-01

    black hole, but in general a non-negligible amount may form an accretion disk around the merger remnant. Depending on the initial eccentricity, we find that a disk of substantial mass is left behind. We give strong evidence that the disk masses for a considerable range of eccentricities are generically large enough to power a short gamma-ray burst. Furthermore we find strong tidal interactions, when the neutron stars orbit close to each other, exerting a strong perturbation on the internal dynamics of the stars. We demonstrate that this effect modifies the gravitational waveform in a characteristic way. Our results emphasize the potential of gravitational waves from eccentric neutron star binaries to constrain models for the unknown equation of state of the neutron star material.

  20. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-09-27

    to the black hole, but in general a non-negligible amount may form an accretion disk around the merger remnant. Depending on the initial eccentricity, we find that a disk of substantial mass is left behind. We give strong evidence that the disk masses for a considerable range of eccentricities are generically large enough to power a short gamma-ray burst. Furthermore we find strong tidal interactions, when the neutron stars orbit close to each other, exerting a strong perturbation on the internal dynamics of the stars. We demonstrate that this effect modifies the gravitational waveform in a characteristic way. Our results emphasize the potential of gravitational waves from eccentric neutron star binaries to constrain models for the unknown equation of state of the neutron star material.

  1. Strong genetic overlap between executive functions and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Church, Jessica A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2016-09-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7 to 15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Strong Genetic Overlap Between Executive Functions and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E.; Mann, Frank D.; Briley, Daniel A.; Church, Jessica A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision-making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7-15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically-mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. PMID:27359131

  3. Presence of strong harmonics during visual entrainment: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2012-09-01

    Visual neurons are known to synchronize their firing with stimuli that flicker at a constant rate (e.g. 12Hz). These so-called visual steady-state responses (VSSR) are a well-studied phenomenon, yet the underlying mechanisms are widely disagreed upon. Furthermore, there is limited evidence that visual neurons may simultaneously synchronize at harmonics of the stimulation frequency. We utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine synchronization at harmonics of the visual stimulation frequency (18Hz). MEG data were analyzed for event-related-synchronization (ERS) at the fundamental frequency, 36, 54, and 72Hz. We found strong ERS in all bands. Only 31% of participants showed maximum entrainment at the fundamental; others showed stronger entrainment at either 36 or 54Hz. The cortical foci of these responses indicated that the harmonics involved cortices that were partially distinct from the fundamental. These findings suggest that spatially-overlapping subpopulations of neurons are simultaneously entrained at different harmonics of the stimulus frequency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The strong situation: a potential impediment to studying the psychobiology and pharmacology of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissek, Shmuel; Pine, Daniel S; Grillon, Christian

    2006-06-01

    The strong situation, as formulated by social psychologists, refers to an experimental condition offering unambiguous stimuli predicting or constituting hedonically strong events that uniformly guide response sets across individuals. In relation to fear and anxiety, the strong situation results from the unambiguous threat of an imminent and dangerous stimulus that evokes the adaptive fear response among anxiety patients and healthy controls alike. The current paper describes evidence that weakening the experimental situation through reducing the certainty, temporal proximity, and/or potency of the aversive stimulus may facilitate the emergence of patient-control differences in psychobiological measures of anxious arousal. Additionally, weak situations may be useful for testing the clinical utility of anxiolytic agents, given that pharmacological treatments of anxiety disorders are not intended to reduce the adaptive, normative response likely evoked by strong threat situations.

  5. Corruption and Education: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Dridi

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is widely believed to be detrimental to economic performance. However, little empirical evidence has been presented to assess its consequences on education.Using various education indicators, this paper aims to examine the effects of corruption on education both from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. The cross - country regression analysis shows a strong link between corruption and secondary school enrollment rates, but the relationship between corruption and education ...

  6. Strong Stackelberg reasoning in symmetric games: An experimental replication and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony D. Pulford

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In common interest games in which players are motivated to coordinate their strategies to achieve a jointly optimal outcome, orthodox game theory provides no general reason or justification for choosing the required strategies. In the simplest cases, where the optimal strategies are intuitively obvious, human decision makers generally coordinate without difficulty, but how they achieve this is poorly understood. Most theories seeking to explain strategic coordination have limited applicability, or require changes to the game specification, or introduce implausible assumptions or radical departures from fundamental game-theoretic assumptions. The theory of strong Stackelberg reasoning, according to which players choose strategies that would maximize their own payoffs if their co-players could invariably anticipate any strategy and respond with a best reply to it, avoids these problems and explains strategic coordination in all dyadic common interest games. Previous experimental evidence has provided evidence for strong Stackelberg reasoning in asymmetric games. Here we report evidence from two experiments consistent with players being influenced by strong Stackelberg reasoning in a wide variety of symmetric 3 × 3 games but tending to revert to other choice criteria when strong Stackelberg reasoning generates small payoffs.

  7. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., 2010. ADDRESSES: 2010 Strong Tether Challenge will be conducted at the 2010 Space Elevator Conference... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is...

  8. Wave Breaking Phenomenon for DGH Equation with Strong Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is mainly concerned with the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm (DGH equation with strong dissipative term. We establish some sufficient conditions to guarantee finite time blow-up of strong solutions.

  9. Chronological overlap between humans and megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia New Guinea): A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Judith; Fillios, Melanie; Wroe, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    Over 60 faunal species disappeared from the Australian continent during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Most of these animals were large to gigantic marsupials, birds and reptiles. A terminal extinction date of 46.4 kyr has been proposed for the megafauna, with all sites containing younger fossil megafauna dismissed by some researchers because of questions over stratigraphic integrity or chronologies. The timing of the extinctions is argued to be broadly coincident with estimates of first colonization of the continent by modern humans, and explanatory extinction models involving humans have subsequently gained currency. However there is considerable evidence to suggest that in some parts of the continent, people and some species of megafauna may have co-existed well beyond 46.4 kyr. In other places, such as Tasmania and the north of the continent, there is no known record of a human-megafauna temporal overlap. A review of the available evidence indicates that only 13 species of megafauna were extant on human arrival in Australia. The archaeology of this period indicates that rather than a focus on big game hunting or 'firestick farming', it was characterized by regional variability in subsistence strategies consistent with the range of environmental zones. At the present time there is no substantive argument for a terminal extinction date of 46.4 kyr, the current evidence indicating that there is no specific time period that correlates to any single mass extinction event. On the basis of available evidence arguments for either human or climatic causation are entirely circumstantial and implicitly require acceptance of many unproven assumptions. Claims to have eliminated climate as a primary driver are premature and the recent focus on delivering 'proof' of human causation in Pleistocene faunal extinctions diverts attention from achieving a better understanding of the differential impacts of climate change and short term climatic flux in a land of environmental

  10. <strong>ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVEDFOOD SECURITY IN AFRICAstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Ssekyewa, Charles; Halberg, Niels

    Organic farming offers a way to increase productivity, and improve food security and livelihood for African smallholder farmers, given that agro-ecological methods are properly and appropriately implemented, and that trade, consumption patterns and policies enable a fair development of food systems...... of this report were discussed and the experience among the approx. 150 participants from throughout Africa strongly supported the conclusions. The following points were highlighted: - Organic farming should be used as a strategy for community development and a sustainable food system for improved family food...... security. - Organic farming and management is very knowledge intensive, and education as well as access to knowledge is crucial. Many small-scale farmers are illiterate. Capacity building as a social process which support the local communities and create valuable networks. - Gender issues must be addressed...

  11. UpToDate adherence to GRADE criteria for strong recommendations: an analytical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Merglen, Arnaud; Heen, Anja Fog; Kristiansen, Annette; Neumann, Ignacio; Brito, Juan P; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Alexander, Paul E; Rind, David M; Vandvik, Per O; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-11-16

    UpToDate is widely used by clinicians worldwide and includes more than 9400 recommendations that apply the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. GRADE guidance warns against strong recommendations when certainty of the evidence is low or very low (discordant recommendations) but has identified five paradigmatic situations in which discordant recommendations may be justified. Our objective was to document the strength of recommendations in UpToDate and assess the frequency and appropriateness of discordant recommendations. Analytical survey of all recommendations in UpToDate. We identified all GRADE recommendations in UpToDate and examined their strength (strong or weak) and certainty of the evidence (high, moderate or low certainty). We identified all discordant recommendations as of January 2015, and pairs of reviewers independently classified them either into one of the five appropriate paradigms or into one of three categories inconsistent with GRADE guidance, based on the evidence presented in UpToDate. UpToDate included 9451 GRADE recommendations, of which 6501 (68.8%) were formulated as weak recommendations and 2950 (31.2%) as strong. Among the strong, 844 (28.6%) were based on high certainty in effect estimates, 1740 (59.0%) on moderate certainty and 366 (12.4%) on low certainty. Of the 349 discordant recommendations 204 (58.5%) were judged appropriately (consistent with one of the five paradigms); we classified 47 (13.5%) as good practice statements; 38 (10.9%) misclassified the evidence as low certainty when it was at least moderate and 60 (17.2%) warranted a weak rather than a strong recommendation. The proportion of discordant recommendations in UpToDate is small (3.7% of all recommendations) and the proportion that is truly problematic (strong recommendations that would best have been weak) is very small (0.6%). Clinicians should nevertheless be cautious and look for clear explanations-in UpToDate and

  12. On generalized fuzzy strongly semiclosed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bedre Ozbakir

    2002-01-01

    semiclosed, generalized fuzzy almost-strongly semiclosed, generalized fuzzy strongly closed, and generalized fuzzy almost-strongly closed sets. In the light of these definitions, we also define some generalizations of fuzzy continuous functions and discuss the relations between these new classes of functions and other fuzzy continuous functions.

  13. Heavy quark mass effects and improved tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.N. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); SLD Collaboration

    1998-08-01

    A review is given of latest results on tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions. Heavy quark mass effects are evident in the data and are now taken into account at next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The strong-coupling ratios {alpha}{sub s}{sup b}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup c}/{alpha}{sub s}{sup uds} are found to be consistent with unity. Determinations of the b-quark mass m{sub b} (M{sub Z}) are discussed.

  14. Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-16

    We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.

  15. <strong>Research in rehabilitation treatment for patients with severe traumatic Brain Injurystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine

    2010-01-01

      The therapeutic rehabilitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a limited evidence-based foundation. The current rehabilitation approaches have been developed mainly through clinical practice. They often consist of many components that are defined in incomplete ways, making...... it difficult if not impossible to investigate treatment outcome. This thesis has dealt with one of the widely used rehabilitation approaches used for, among others, swallowing difficulties: Facial Oral Tract Therapy (FOTT) ©. The studies in this thesis show that swallowing difficulties often occur in patients...... with severe TBI admitted for subacute rehabilitation (93%), pneumonia was found in 12%. The many components of FOTT are defined in a treatment manual; we developed and tested a method that can measure whether therapist uses FOTT appropriately. In addition, we developed and validated a FOTT clinical evaluation...

  16. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M; Svendsen, M T; Habel, L A; Friedman, G D; Friis, S

    2017-10-01

    The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. To study the association between use of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined potential confounders obtained from demographic, prescription and patient registries. Ever-use of hydrochlorothiazide was associated with an adjusted OR for SCC lip cancer of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.6), increasing to 3.9 (95%CI: 3.0-4.9) for high use (≥25 000 mg). There was a clear dose-response effect (P hydrochlorothiazide (≥100 000 mg) presenting an OR of 7.7 (95%CI: 5.7-10.5). No association with lip cancer was seen with use of other diuretics or nondiuretic antihypertensives. Assuming causality, we estimated that 11% of the SCC lip cancer cases could be attributed to hydrochlorothiazide use. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with an increased risk of lip cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  17. Rare quantum metastable states in the strongly dispersive Jaynes-Cummings oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrogordatos, Th; Barratt, F; Asari, U; Szafulski, P; Ginossar, Eran; Szymanska, M

    2018-01-01

    We present evidence of metastable rare quantum- uctuation switching for the driven dissipative Jaynes-Cummings (JC) oscillator coupled to a zero-temperature bath in the strongly dispersive regime. We show that single-atom complex amplitude bistability is accompanied by the appearance of a low-amplitude long-lived transient state, hereinafter called `dark state', having a distribution with quasi-Poissonian statistics both for the coupled qubit and cavity mode. We find that the ...

  18. Determination of nuclear friction in strongly damped reactions from prescission neutron multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Siwek-Wilczynska, K. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Verneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The neutron multiplicities in non-fusion reactions have been calculated in the frame of classical equation of motion with friction (Lagrange-Rayleigh equations) The calculated data were compared with the reported neutron multiplicities data. The results shown an evidence of the onset of a strong two-body dissipation at unexpected low temperatures, already at about 2 MeV. 3 refs, 1 fig.

  19. Ideal gas behavior of a strongly-coupled complex (dusty) plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Oxtoby, Neil P.; Griffith, Elias J.; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F.; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.

  20. Sharp correlations in the ARPES spectra of strongly disordered topological boundary modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ringel, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    Data from angle resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) often serves as a smoking-gun evidence for the existence of topological materials. It provides the energy dispersion curves of the topological boundary modes which characterize these phases. Unfortunately this method requires a sufficiently regular boundary such that these boundary modes remain sharp in momentum space. Here the seemingly random data obtained from performing ARPES on strongly disordered topological insulators and Wey...

  1. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  2. Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Matthias

    2014-09-11

    The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.

  3. QCD : the theory of strong interactions Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), predicts that the strong interaction is transmitted by the exchange of particles called gluons. Unlike the messengers of electromagnetism photons, which are electrically neutral - gluons carry a strong charge associated with the interaction they mediate. QCD predicts that the strength of the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes weaker at higher energies. LEP has measured the evolution of the strong coupling constant up to energies of 200 GeV and has confirmed this prediction.

  4. QCD : the theory of strong interactions Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD),predicts that the strong interac- tion is transmitted by the exchange of particles called glu- ons.Unlike the messengers of electromagnetism -pho- tons,which are electrically neutral -gluons carry a strong charge associated with the interaction they mediate. QCD predicts that the strength of the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes weaker at higher energies.LEP has measured the evolution of the strong coupling constant up to energies of 200 GeV and has confirmed this prediction.

  5. Further evidence for GHB naturally occurring in common non-alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon P; Fais, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    GHB has been implicated in many cases of suspected surreptitious administration with the purpose of increasing victim vulnerability to sexual assault. Low amounts of endogenous (or naturally occurring) GHB, which do not reach pharmacologically active levels, have been detected in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Due to the continued requirement to obtain data on the presence of endogenous GHB in various beverage types, GHB concentrations were measured in a series of non-alcoholic beverages. Tonic water and lemon flavoured tonic water beverages were analysed at 0, 24 and 96h after the bottle opening using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) on an Agilent 6890/7000C Triple Quadrupole. GHB was detected in all beverages at very low amounts ranging from 89 to 145ng/mL (0.089-0.145mg/L) and did not demonstrate a general trend of variation for concentration along the tested time span (96h). The presented data provide additional evidence for the endogenous nature of GHB in non-alcoholic beverages at very low concentrations, which are many orders of magnitude lower than those described to produce any pharmacological effect on the subject. However, when considering a case of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault, a low level of GHB detected in a drink may be related both to a surreptitiously GHB administration with subsequent dilution for concealment or to the presence of endogenous GHB. On this basis, a comprehensive analysis of all the available information, including circumstantial data demonstrating possible attempts to conceal GHB administration and an assessment of levels of endogenous GHB in the suspected beverage type, is of the utmost importance for a proper interpretation of the toxicological results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trade and Turnover: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Davidson; Steven Matusz

    2005-01-01

    Is the pattern of trade correlated with cross-sector differences in job turnover? Theoretically, external shocks feed through to changes in domestic employment and cross-sector differences in turnover give rise to compensating wage differentials, which feed through to output prices. Using two different data sets on turnover, we find strong evidence that normalized US net exports by sector are negatively correlated with job destruction and worker separation rates. Weaker evidence suggests a po...

  7. Characteristics of global strong earthquakes and their implications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    the Global/Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalogue, the characteristics of global strong earthquakes and the. 18 present-day stress pattern were analyzed based on these data. The majority of global strong earthquakes are located around. 19 plate boundaries, shallow-focus, and thrust faulting (TF) regime.

  8. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...

  9. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  10. inverse correction of fourier transforms for one-dimensional strongly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hsin Ying-Fei

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... As it is widely used in periodic lattice design theory and is particularly useful in aperiodic lattice design [12,13], the accuracy of the FT algorithm under strong scattering conditions is the focus of this paper. We propose an inverse correction approach for the inaccurate FT algorithm in strongly scattering ...

  11. Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pellegrino and Santos [10] raise the question whether there are true inclusion results for the class of strongly multiple summing operators. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the results proven in [16] for multiple summing operators can be adapted to obtain similar results for strongly multiple summing operators ...

  12. Strong-Superstrong Transition in Glass Transition of Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Wang; Hong-Yan, Peng; Xiao-Yu, Xu; Bao-Ling, Chen; Chun-Lei, Wu; Min-Hua, Sun

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic fragility of bulk metallic glass (BMG) of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 alloy is studied by three-point beam bending methods. The fragility parameter mfor Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG is calculated to be 24.5 at high temperature, which means that the liquid is a 'strong' liquid, while to be 13.4 at low temperature which means that the liquid is a 'super-strong' liquid. The dynamical behavior of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG in the supercooled region undergoes a strong to super-strong transition. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a strong-to-superstrong transition is found in the metallic glass. Using small angle x-ray scattering experiments, we find that this transition is assumed to be related to a phase separation process in supercooled liquid. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  13. Electrodynamics of a hydrogenlike atom in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskij, V.A.; Perel'man, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    The quasienergy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in strong electromagnetic radiation is studied, the luminescence of the atom under these conditions is considered. It is shown that in a strong field the atom, being even in the ground state, radiates a spectrum of frequencies corresponding to transitions from the ground state into excited states, the strong field photons being involved. The intensity of such a luminescence is basically a non-linear function of the strong field. The exposure of the atom to two strong electromagnetic fields Ω and ω (Ω>>ω) is considered, the Ω coinciding with one of the natural frquencies of the atom. The effct of modulation of the resonance shift for an atomic level by the ω-field strength is predicted. The dependence of Ω-absorption in the ω-field on the statistic properties of the latter is investigated. (author)

  14. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  15. FROM CONVENIENT HIBERNATION TO CIRCUMSTANTIAL DESPERATION: HATE SPEECH, PARTY POLITICAL COMMUNICATION AND THE NIGERIA’S 2015 GENERAL ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Omilusi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Until a few months to the 2015 general elections, many political parties that have conveniently hibernated for a better part of their existence, perhaps owing to lack of proper organizational structure or support base, uncoordinated programmes or were registered because of pecuniary gains or admittance of anticipated poor electoral outing, suddenly began to jostle for political space. The main opposition party and the ruling party were either perfecting a merger processes or engulfed in internal wrangling such that communication with the electorate on fundamental issues became inconsequential. In fact, the two dominant parties, the Peoples Democratic Party and All Progressive Congress only produced their presidential candidates less than five months to the election; and the electoral campaign assumed desperate contestation in a climate of prejudice and intolerance. Hate speeches and violence were the hallmarks of their electoral campaigns. The 2015 general elections therefore, offer a unique context to interrogate the place of party political communication in an emerging democracy and specifically how hate campaigns among political gladiators/contending parties could generate violence, and if not tamed, derail democratic consolidation. This essay affirms that hate speech is not only inspired by some social circumstances but also part of a general democratic process. It attests to the fact that Nigerian politicians have become more desperate and daring in taking and retaining political power; and more intolerant of opposition, criticism and efforts at replacing them. Relying extensively on secondary sources with the aid of descriptive and narrative tools, this essay concludes that the political culture of a country determines the behavior and attitude of the population towards the political system and that democratic transition from one administration to another, particularly in emerging democracies, has often been accompanied by violence promoted by desires of the political party in power to consolidate their grips on power and by opposition parties interest to capture same.

  16. Endangerment of cultural heritage sites by strong rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Thomas; Fischer, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Due to climate change extreme weather conditions become more and more frequent in the last years. Especially in Germany nearly every year a large flood event happens. Most of these events are caused by strong rain. There are at most two causes for these floodings: The first is locally strong rain in the area of damage, the second happens at damage sites located near confluxes and strong rain in the upper stream areas of the joining rivers. The amount of damage is often strongly correlated with unreasonable designation of new construction in such endangered regions. Our presented study is based on an earlier project together with a German insurance company. In this project we analyzed correlations of geographical settings with the insurance data of flood damages over ten years. The result of this study was a strong relation of the terrain with the amount and the probability of damages. Further investigations allow us to derive a system for estimating potential endangerment due to strong rain just from suitable digital terrain models (DTMs). In the presented study we apply this method to different types of cultural heritage (CH) sites in Germany and other parts of the world to detect which type of CH sites were build with potential endangerment of strong rain events in mind and which ones are prone to such events.

  17. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  18. Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao

    2014-10-01

    A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.

  19. Making operations on standard-library containers strongly exception safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    An operation on an element container is said to provide a strong guarantee of exception safety if, in case an exception is thrown, the operation leaves the container in the state in which it was before the operation. In this paper, we explore how to adjust operations on C++ standard......-library containers to provide the strong guarantee of exception safety, instead of the default guarantee, without violating the stringent performance requirements specified in the C++ standard. In particular, we show that every strongly exception-safe operation on dynamic arrays and ordered dictionaries is only...

  20. Strong convergence of modified Ishikawa iterations for nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we prove a strong convergence theorem of modified Ishikawa iterations for relatively asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Banach space. Our results extend and improve the recent results by Nakajo, Takahashi, Kim, X u , Matsushita and some others.

  1. Strong anti-radiation research of nuclear monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Zhang Songshou

    2002-01-01

    Strong anti-radiation research of nuclear monitoring instrument is a main question for study. The author introduces the research circumstance. The text recounts the important cause and adoptable measures

  2. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . © Indian Academy of Sciences. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier series. BOGDAN SZAL. Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics,. University of Zielona Góra, 65-516 Zielona Góra, ul.

  3. Strong Convergence of Modified Ishikawa Iterations for Nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we prove a strong convergence theorem of modified Ishikawa iterations for relatively asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Banach space. Our results extend and improve the recent results by Nakajo, Takahashi, Kim, X u , Matsushita and some others.

  4. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-06-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle α˜1/γ. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  5. Development of strongly coupled FSI technology involving thin walled structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Suliman, Ridhwaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available the most desirable results and is coupled with an in-house fluid-flow solver. The developed technology is evaluated on representative strongly coupled fluid-structure interaction test problems....

  6. Rhie-Chow interpolation in strong centrifugal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    Rhie-Chow interpolation formulas are derived from the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. These formulas are generalized to gas dynamics in strong centrifugal fields (as high as 106 g) occurring in gas centrifuges.

  7. Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.

  8. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Eidelman, S. [SB RAS, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Foka, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gardner, S. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Kronfeld, A.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States); Alford, M.G.; Schwenzer, K. [Washington University, Department of Physics, St Louis, MO (United States); Alkofer, R. [University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Butenschoen, M. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Wien (Austria); Cohen, T.D. [University of Maryland, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Erdmenger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Fabbietti, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Faber, M.; Hoellwieser, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Goity, J.L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Ketzer, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lin, H.W. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Llanes-Estrada, F.J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Department Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain); Meyer, H.B.; Wittig, H.; Hippel, G.M. von [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Pakhlov, P.; Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Pallante, E.; Papadodimas, K. [University of Groningen, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Groningen (Netherlands); Sazdjian, H. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Schmitt, A. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States); Vuorinen, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Arnold, P. [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Christakoglou, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Nezza, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Frascati (Italy); Fodor, Z. [Wuppertal University, Wuppertal (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Janik, M.A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Kalweit, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Keane, D. [Kent State University, Department of Physics, Kent, OH (United States); Kiritsis, E. [University of Crete, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, Sorbonne Paris-Cite (France); CERN, Theory Group, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mizuk, R. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Physical Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Odyniec, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pich, A. [Universitat de Valencia, CSIC, IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Pittau, R. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Qiu, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook University, C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ricciardi, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Salgado, C.A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas y IGFAE, Galicia (ES); Stefanis, N.G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (DE); Zakharov, V.I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (DE); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (RU); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (RU)

    2014-10-15

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments. (orig.)

  9. Nanorheology of strongly confined molecular fluids : a compter simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manias, Evangelos D.

    1995-01-01

    The method of Molecular Dynamics (MD) computer simulations is employed to study ultra thin films of oligomer fluids, confined in spaces comparable to their molecular dimensions and subjected to (very) strong flows. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Prospects for strong interaction physics at ISABELLE. [Seven papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, D P; Trueman, T L

    1977-01-01

    Seven papers are presented resulting from a conference intended to stimulate thinking about how ISABELLE could be used for studying strong interactions. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (PMA)

  11. Strong profiling is not mathematically optimal for discovering rare malfeasors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a large population of individuals labeled j = 1,2,...,N, governments attempt to find the rare malfeasor j = j, (terrorist, for example) by making use of priors p{sub j} that estimate the probability of individual j being a malfeasor. Societal resources for secondary random screening such as airport search or police investigation are concentrated against individuals with the largest priors. They may call this 'strong profiling' if the concentration is at least proportional to p{sub j} for the largest values. Strong profiling often results in higher probability, but otherwise innocent, individuals being repeatedly subjected to screening. They show here that, entirely apart from considerations of social policy, strong profiling is not mathematically optimal at finding malfeasors. Even if prior probabilities were accurate, their optimal use would be only as roughly the geometric mean between a strong profiling and a completely uniform sampling of the population.

  12. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of strong motion networks and accelerometric data in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, L.; Clinton, J. F.; Akkar, S.; Sleeman, R.; Van Eck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts for an organized collection of strong motion data in Europe started during the Fourth Framework Program granted by the European Union, with the first release of the European Strong Motion database. Subsequently other attempts were made, but the initiatives were carried out within a project by a single or few institutions, often isolated from data providers. During the Seventh Framework Program, in the context of the project NERA, parallel to the establishment of infrastructures, major efforts were devoted on the improvement of networking among strong-motion data providers in the broader European countries. Two major infrastructures for storing and disseminating accelerometric data and metadata were built: a. The Rapid-Raw Strong Motion (RRSM) database that automatically delivers strong motion products in near-real time. The system collects and uses all relevant, unrestricted waveform data from the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) within minutes after an earthquake (M>=3.5) in the European- Mediterranean region. The RRSM web interface is available at http://orfeusdev.knmi.nl:8080/opencms/rrsm b. A prototype of strong-motion database (Engineering Strong Motion database, ESM) that contains an initial core formed by the accelerograms recorded by Italian and Turkish strong-motion data providers. ESM is structured to contain not only the data available in EIDA but also off-line data; earthquake and strong-motion metadata contain more detailed information than the corresponding metadata in RRSM. A Working Group (WG5 - acceleration and strong motion data), operating under ORFEUS, has been created to build the basis for the sustainable integrated pan-European accelerometric data distribution. The responsibilities and duties of the WG5 are envisaged as follows: 1. Setting rules for data dissemination; 2. Establishing MoU's with data providers; 3. Collaborating with the European project EPOS for the preparation of projects; 4. Contacting similar

  14. Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B

  15. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, and find the same angular distribution of radiated power, up to an overall prefactor. In both regimes, the angular distribution is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circula...

  16. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  17. Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...

  18. Solvability of Extended General Strongly Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh Thakur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of extended general strongly mixed variational inequalities is introduced and studied in Hilbert spaces. An existence theorem of solution is established and using resolvent operator technique, a new iterative algorithm for solving the extended general strongly mixed variational inequality is suggested. A convergence result for the iterative sequence generated by the new algorithm is also established.

  19. On a strong law of large numbers for monotone measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Ouyang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 4 (2013), s. 1213-1218 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : capacity * Choquet integral * strong law of large numbers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-on a strong law of large numbers for monotone measures.pdf

  20. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  1. Strong solutions of semilinear stochastic partial differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 757-778 ISSN 1021-9722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic partial differential equations * strongly elliptic differential operator * strongly continuous semigroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.971, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/hofmanova-0393085.pdf

  2. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current between Taipei and Tokyo at an average speed of 12 knots. Effective use of these strong currents can yield huge savings considering that a...and the top five importers are China, United States, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. Overall, strong economic activities take place in the Asian Pacific...ship routers. On the route of the KC region between Tokyo and Taipei (∼ 1100 nm), ships can save 2–6% fuel with sailing speeds of around 12 knots

  3. Strongly-Interacting Fermi Gases in Reduced Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    superconductivity), nuclear physics (nuclear matter), high - energy physics (effective theories of the strong interactions ), astrophysics (compact stellar objects...strongly- interacting Fermi gases confined in a standing- wave CO2 laser trap. This trap produces a periodic quasi-two-dimensional pancake geometry...predictions of the phase diagram and high temperature superfluidity. Our recent measurements reveal that pairing energy and cloud profiles can be

  4. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  5. In Situ Partial Melt on Venus: Evidence for Ancient Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, V. L.

    2003-03-01

    Shield terrain comprises countless tiny lava flows that coalesced to form an ultra-thin discontinuous regionally extensive mechanically strong layer; lava represents point-source crustal partial melt and may provide evidence for ancient Venus water.

  6. Europe's strong primary care systems are linked to better population health but also to higher health spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health

  7. Europe's strong primary care systems are linked to better population health but also to higher health spending.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health

  8. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  9. New evidence of animal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is

  10. Optical investigation of the strong spin-orbit-coupled magnetic semimetal YbMnBi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipanjan; Cheng, Bing; Yaresko, Alexander; Gibson, Quinn D.; Cava, R. J.; Armitage, N. P.

    2017-08-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) can result in ground states with nontrivial topological properties. The situation is even richer in magnetic systems where the magnetic ordering can potentially have strong influence over the electronic band structure. The class of A MnBi2 (A = Sr, Ca) compounds are important in this context as they are known to host massive Dirac fermions with strongly anisotropic dispersion, which is believed to be due to the interplay between strong SOC and magnetic degrees of freedom. We report the optical conductivity of YbMnBi2, a newly discovered member of this family and a proposed Weyl semimetal (WSM) candidate with broken time reversal symmetry. Together with density functional theory (DFT) band-structure calculations, we show that the complex conductivity can be interpreted as the sum of an intraband Drude response and interband transitions. We argue that the canting of the magnetic moments that has been proposed to be essential for the realization of the WSM in an otherwise antiferromagnetically ordered system is not necessary to explain the optical conductivity. We believe our data is explained qualitatively by the uncanted magnetic structure with a small offset of the chemical potential from strict stochiometry. We find no definitive evidence of a bulk Weyl nodes. Instead, we see signatures of a gapped Dirac dispersion, common in other members of A MnBi2 family or compounds with similar 2D network of Bi atoms. We speculate that the evidence for a WSM seen in ARPES arises through a surface magnetic phase. Such an assumption reconciles all known experimental data.

  11. Strong Gravitational Lensing in a Brane-World Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GuoPing; Cao, Biao; Feng, Zhongwen; Zu, Xiaotao

    2015-09-01

    Adopting the strong field limit approach, we investigated the strong gravitational lensing in a Brane-World black hole, which means that the strong field limit coefficients and the deflection angle in this gravitational field are obtained. With this result, it can be said with certainly that the strong gravitational lensing is related to the metric of gravitational fields closely, the cosmology parameter α and the dark matter parameter β come from the Brane-World black hole exerts a great influence on it. Comparing with the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime and the Schwarzschild-XCMD spacetime, the parameters α, β of black holes have the similar effects on the gravitational lensing. In some way, we infer that the real gravitational fields in our universe can be described by this metric, so the results of the strong gravitational lensing in this spacetime will be more reasonable for us to observe. Finally, it has to be noticed that the influence which the parameters α, β exerted on the main observable quantities of this gravitational field is discussed.

  12. Strong Purifying Selection at Synonymous Sites in D. melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, David S.; Messer, Philipp W.; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated. PMID:23737754

  13. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir

    1990-01-01

    This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc­ ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater­ gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom­ ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso­ lution laser spectroscop...

  15. A k-Bounded Symbolic Execution for Checking Strong Heap Properties of Open Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jooyong; Deng, Xianghua; Bogor, Robby

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Kiasan, a bounded technique to reason about open systems based on a path sensitive, relatively sound and complete symbolic execution instead of the usual compositional reasoning through weakest precondition calculation that summarizes all execution paths. Kiasan is able to check...... strong heap properties, and it is fully automatic and flexible in terms of its cost and the guarantees it provides. It allows a user-adjustable mixed compositional/non-compositional reasoning and naturally produces error traces as fault evidence. We implemented Kiasan using the Bogor model checking...

  16. Hybrid Glasses from Strong and Fragile Metal-Organic Framework Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Tan, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    amorphization and melting has so far not been investigated. Here we show how heating MOFs of zeolitic topology first results in a low density ‘perfect’ glass, similar to those formed in ice, silicon and disaccharides. This order–order transition leads to a super-strong liquid of low fragility that dynamically...... controls collapse, before a subsequent order–disorder transition, which creates a more fragile high-density liquid. After crystallization to a dense phase, which can be remelted, subsequent quenching results in a bulk glass, virtually identical to the high-density phase. We provide evidence that the wide...

  17. Integrated electronic transport and thermometry at milliKelvin temperatures and in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Kumar, A; Manfra, M J; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Csáthy, G A

    2011-05-01

    We fabricated a He-3 immersion cell for transport measurements of semiconductor nanostructures at ultra low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields. We have a new scheme of field-independent thermometry based on quartz tuning fork Helium-3 viscometry which monitors the local temperature of the sample's environment in real time. The operation and measurement circuitry of the quartz viscometer is described in detail. We provide evidence that the temperature of two-dimensional electron gas confined to a GaAs quantum well follows the temperature of the quartz viscometer down to 4 mK.

  18. Viscosity in strongly interacting quantum field theories from black hole physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, P K; Son, D T; Starinets, A O

    2005-03-25

    The ratio of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy can be used to characterize how close a given fluid is to being perfect. Using string theory methods, we show that this ratio is equal to a universal value of variant Planck's over 2pi/4pik(B) for a large class of strongly interacting quantum field theories whose dual description involves black holes in anti-de Sitter space. We provide evidence that this value may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole horizons are dual to the most ideal fluids.

  19. Ultrafast control of strong light–matter coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Panna, Dmitry; Whittaker, David M.; Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Hayat, Alex

    2018-01-01

    We dynamically modulate strong light–matter coupling in a GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity using intense ultrashort laser pulses tuned below the interband exciton energy, which induce a transient Stark shift of the cavity polaritons. For 225-fs pulses, shorter than the cavity Rabi cycle period of 1000 fs, this shift decouples excitons and cavity photons for the duration of the pulse, interrupting the periodic energy exchange between photonic and electronic states. For 1500-fs pulses, longer than the Rabi cycle period, however, the Stark shift does not affect the strong coupling. The two regimes are marked by distinctly different line shapes in ultrafast reflectivity measurements—regardless of the Stark field intensity. The crossover marks the transition from adiabatic to diabatic switching of strong light–matter coupling.

  20. Strong localization of photonics in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y H; Tsao, C W; Chen, C H; Hsueh, W J

    2015-01-01

    Strong localization from the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances that occur in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices is presented in this study. When compared with traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices, the middle space is a variant rather than an invariant half-wavelength thickness for each resonance with different orders. In addition, the electric fields of the resonances may be located on both sides of the space layer in the superlattice, which is in contrast to those in a traditional Fabry–Pérot resonator. The electric field of the resonances is strongly localized as the generation order increases. Moreover, the group delays of these peaks increase with generation order. More strongly localized modes can be found from the symmetric Fibonacci superlattices than from the traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, which makes the proposed structure an attractive alternative to a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  1. A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...

  2. Approximation of fixed points of strongly pseudo-contractive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1991-10-01

    Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Let T:K→K be a continuous strongly pseudocontractive mapping of K into itself. Let {c n } n=1 ∞ be a real sequence satisfying: (i) 0 n n=1 ∞ c n =∞; and (iii) Σ n=1 ∞ c n b(c n ) n } n=1 ∞ generated by x 1 is an element of K. x n+1 =(1-c n )x n +c n Tx n , n≥1, converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when T is Lipschitzian and strongly pseudocontractive. (author). 28 refs

  3. Atomic and Free Electrons in a Strong Light Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Mikhail V.

    1998-02-01

    This book presents and describes a series of unusual and striking strong-field phenomena concerning atoms and free electrons. Some of these phenomena are: multiphoton stimulated Bremsstrahlung, free-electron lasers, ave-packet physics, above-threshold ionization, and strong-field stabilization in Rydberg atoms. The theoretical foundations and causes of the phenomena are described in detail, with all the approximations and derivations discussed. All the known and relevant experiments are described oo, and their results are compared with those of the existing theoretical models. An extensive general theoretical introduction gives a good basis for subsequent parts of the book and is an independent and self-sufficient description of the most efficient theoretical methods of the strong-field and multiphoton physics. This book can serve as a textbook for graduate students

  4. Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert

    2018-03-01

    Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.

  5. Strong-Weak CP Hierarchy from Non-Renormalization Theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, Gudrun

    2002-01-28

    We point out that the hierarchy between the measured values of the CKM phase and the strong CP phase has a natural origin in supersymmetry with spontaneous CP violation and low energy supersymmetry breaking. The underlying reason is simple and elegant: in supersymmetry the strong CP phase is protected by an exact non-renormalization theorem while the CKM phase is not. We present explicit examples of models which exploit this fact and discuss corrections to the non-renormalization theorem in the presence of supersymmetry breaking. This framework for solving the strong CP problem has generic predictions for the superpartner spectrum, for CP and flavor violation, and predicts a preferred range of values for electric dipole moments.

  6. Ishikawa iteration process for nonlinear Lipschitz strongly accretive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1994-05-01

    Let E=L p , p≥2 and let T:E→ E be a Lipschitzian and strongly accretive mapping. Let S:E → E be defined by Sx=f-Tx+x. It is proved that under suitable conditions on the real sequences {α n } ∞ n=0 and {β n } ∞ n=0 , the iteration process, x 0 is an element of E, x n+1 =(1-α n ) x n +α n S[(1-β n ) x n +β n Sx n ], n≥0, converges strongly to the unique solution of Tx=f. A related result deals with the iterative approximation of fixed points for Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings in E. A consequence of our results gives an affirmative answer to a problem posed by one of the authors in 1990. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 151, 2 (1990) p. 460). (author). 36 refs

  7. Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field

  8. Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.

  9. Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Krausz, Ferenc; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.

    2018-04-01

    The advent of visible-infrared laser pulses carrying a substantial fraction of their energy in a single field oscillation cycle has opened a new era in the experimental investigation of ultrafast processes in semiconductors and dielectrics (bulk as well as nanostructured), motivated by the quest for the ultimate frontiers of electron-based signal metrology and processing. Exploring ways to approach those frontiers requires insight into the physics underlying the interaction of strong high-frequency (optical) fields with electrons moving in periodic potentials. This Colloquium aims at providing this insight. Introduction to the foundations of strong-field phenomena defines and compares regimes of field-matter interaction in periodic systems, including (perfect) crystals as well as optical and semiconductor superlattices, followed by a review of recent experimental advances in the study of strong-field dynamics in crystals and nanostructures. Avenues toward measuring and controlling electronic processes up to petahertz frequencies are discussed.

  10. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  11. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  12. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  13. Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of 41 K induces a significant loss of coherence in 87 Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices

  14. Finding strongly interacting symmetry breaking at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.

    1989-02-01

    Pairs of gauge bosons, W and Z, are a probe of the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, since the numbers of two gauge boson events are much larger in strongly coupled models than weak. The doubly charged channels W + W + and W/sup /minus//W/sup/minus// are cleanest, since they do not suffer from q/bar q/ or gg fusion backgrounds. The like-charged gauge boson events are observable only if the symmetry breaking sector is strongly interacting. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning.

  16. Explicit strong stability preserving multistep Runge–Kutta methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bresten, Christopher

    2015-10-15

    High-order spatial discretizations of hyperbolic PDEs are often designed to have strong stability properties, such as monotonicity. We study explicit multistep Runge-Kutta strong stability preserving (SSP) time integration methods for use with such discretizations. We prove an upper bound on the SSP coefficient of explicit multistep Runge-Kutta methods of order two and above. Numerical optimization is used to find optimized explicit methods of up to five steps, eight stages, and tenth order. These methods are tested on the linear advection and nonlinear Buckley-Leverett equations, and the results for the observed total variation diminishing and/or positivity preserving time-step are presented.

  17. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.

    1988-03-01

    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  18. Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popruzhenko, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how the strong-field approximation, widely used for description of multiphoton and tunneling ionization, can be extended to analyse the excitation of bound states in intense low-frequency laser pulses. The proposed theory is based on the formalism of quantum trajectories and fills the gap between the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and classical simulations. In particular, it allows identifying non-adiabatic and interference effects in strong-field excitation of Rydberg states.

  19. Vortex-lattice states at strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akera, H.; MacDonald, A.H.; Girvin, S.M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Norman, M.R. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (USA))

    1991-10-21

    At strong magnetic fields, Landau quantization invalidates the semiclassical approximations which underly the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory of the mixed states of type-II superconductors. We have solved the {ital microscopic} mean-field equations for the case of a two-dimensional electron system in the strong magnetic-field limit. For delta-function attractive interactions there exist {ital n}+1 pairing channels in the {ital n}th Landau level. For {ital n}{gt}0, two channels share the maximum {ital T}{sub {ital c}}, and the order parameter differs markedly from expectations based on GL theory.

  20. Atomic and free electrons in a strong light field

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, Mikhail V

    1997-01-01

    This book presents and describes a series of unusual and striking strong-field phenomena concerning atoms and free electrons. Some of these phenomena are: multiphoton stimulated bremsstrahlung, free-electron lasers, wave-packet physics, above-threshold ionization, and strong-field stabilization in Rydberg atoms. The theoretical foundations and causes of the phenomena are described in detail, with all the approximations and derivations discussed. All the known and relevant experiments are described too, and their results are compared with those of the existing theoretical models.An extensive ge

  1. Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Lun Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.

  2. The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boito, Diogo; Golterman, Maarten; Jamin, Matthias; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    We review our recent determination of the strong coupling αs from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that αs (mτ2)= 0.325 ± 0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and αs (mτ2)= 0.347 ± 0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.

  3. The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boito, Diogo [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Golterman, Maarten [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Jamin, Matthias [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Maltman, Kim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON Canada M3J 1P3 (Canada); CSSM, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Osborne, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Peris, Santiago [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    We review our recent determination of the strong coupling α{sub s} from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.325±0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.347±0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.

  4. Driven transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    The linear dispersion properties of transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma are experimentally studied in a DC discharge device by exciting them in a controlled manner with a variable frequency external source. The dusty plasma is maintained in the strongly coupled fluid regime with (1 c ) where Γ is the Coulomb coupling parameter and Γ c is the crystallization limit. A dispersion relation for the transverse waves is experimentally obtained over a frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz and found to show good agreement with viscoelastic theoretical results

  5. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established....... This article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....

  6. Standardized mortality in eating disorders--a quantitative summary of previously published and new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Møller-Madsen, S.; Isager, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Ten eating disorder (ED) populations were reviewed using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) presenting new evidence for several studies. In eight of the ten samples, strong evidence (in one sample weak evidence and in one sample no evidence) supports an hypothesis of elevated SMR. We found...

  7. Standardized mortality in eating disorders--a quantitative summary of previously published and new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Møller-Madsen, S.; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Ten eating disorder (ED) populations were reviewed using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) presenting new evidence for several studies. In eight of the ten samples, strong evidence (in one sample weak evidence and in one sample no evidence) supports an hypothesis of elevated SMR. We found...

  8. Broadband Adoption and Poverty: Evidence and New Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Broadband Adoption and Poverty: Evidence and New Research Directions from Latin America. Development luminaries like Jeffrey Sachs and Muhammad Yunus espouse the importance of broadband networks for promoting development. But where's the evidence to support the theory? Despite a strong national and ...

  9. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  10. Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.

  11. Quark imprisonment as the origin of strong interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1974-01-01

    A formal scheme is suggested in which the only dynamical ingredients are weak and electro-magnetic interactions with quarks and leptons treated on the same footing. Strong interactions are generated by the requirement that quarks do not appear physically. (7 refs).

  12. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using strong base electrolyte ... Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed that the CuO ..... Hydrogen bub- bles play a key role in generation of sparks and metal removal in the electrochemical discharge process. Flower-like morphology could be attained with both the.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by electrochemical discharge process using strong base electrolytes. The experiments were carried out separately using NaOH and KOH electrolytes.The mass output rate and the crystal size were obtained with variation of the rotation speed of ...

  14. Strong typing of object-oriented languages revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Magnusson, Boris; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relation between subtyping and subclassing and their influence on programming language design. Traditionally subclassing as introduced by Simula has also been used for defining a hierarchical type system. The type system of a language can be characterized as strong...

  15. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...

  16. The predominance of strong initial syllables in the English vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Carter, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of human speech processing have provided evidece for a segmentation strategy in the perception of continuous speech, whereby a word boundary is postulated, and a lexical access procedure initiated, at each metrically strong syllable. The likely success of this strategy was here estimated

  17. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and extended to ...

  18. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  19. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  20. Interaction of neutral particles with strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s the experimentally available field strengths have continuously increased. The current peak intensity record is 2 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} and next generation facilities such as ELI, HiPER and XCELS plan to reach even intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. Thus, modern laser facilities are a clean source for very strong external electromagnetic fields and promise new and interesting high-energy physics experiments. In particular, strong laser fields could be used to test non-linear effects in quantum field theory. Earlier we have investigated how radiative corrections modify the coupling of a charged particle inside a strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field. However, a charged particle couples already at tree level to electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, we have now analyzed how the coupling between neutral particles and radiation is affected by a very strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field, when loop corrections are taken into account. In particular, the case of neutrinos is discussed.

  1. Intensities and strong interaction attenuation of kaonic x-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Backenstoss, Gerhard; Koch, H; Povel, H P; Schwitter, A; Tauscher, Ludwig

    1974-01-01

    Relative intensities of numerous kaonic X-ray transitions have been measured for the elements C, P, S, and Cl, from which level widths due to the strong K-nucleus absorption have been determined. From these and earlier published data, optical potential parameters have been derived and possible consequences on the nuclear matter distribution are discussed. (10 refs).

  2. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing only odd functions and a set of functions defined via the strong means of Fourier series of odd continuous functions. We establish an improvement of a recent theorem of Le and Zhou [Math. Inequal. Appl. 11(4) (2008) 749–756] which is a generalization of Tikhonov's results [Anal. Math. 31 (2005) 183–194]. We also ...

  3. 76 FR 41526 - Centennial Challenges 2011 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    .... 2451 (314)(d). The 2011 Strong Tether Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may... prize competitors must (1) Register and comply with all requirements in the rules and team agreement; (2... the United States, and in the case of an individual, whether participating singly or in a group, shall...

  4. Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and strongly multiple summing operators under the assumption that the range has finite cotype. Keywords. .... multiple (q, p)-summing, if there exists a constant C ≥ 0 such that for every choice of systems (x j i j )1≤i j ≤m j ...... Ideals and their Applications in Theoretical Physics (1983) (Leipzig: Teubner-Texte) pp. 185–199.

  5. The strong law of large numbers for random quadratic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T

    1996-01-01

    The paper establishes strong laws of large numbers for the quadratic forms [GRAPHICS] and the bilinear forms [GRAPHICS] where X = (X(n)) is a sequence of independent random variables and Y = (Y-n) is an independent copy of it. In the case of independent identically distributed symmetric p-stable

  6. Charge frustration and quantum criticality for strongly correlated fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijse, L.; Halverson, J.; Fendley, P.; Schoutens, K.

    2008-01-01

    We study a model of strongly correlated electrons on the square lattice which exhibits charge frustration and quantum critical behavior. The potential is tuned to make the interactions supersymmetric. We establish a rigorous mathematical result which relates quantum ground states to certain tiling

  7. Strong convective and shock wave behaviour in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.; Davis, J.; Boris, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A model has been developed to study the gasdynamics of a flare region heated by a stream of energetic electrons. It is shown that the energy deposition can introduce strong chromospheric dynamical effects. As a result of fluid motion into rarified regions, there is considerable redistribution of mass causing a profound influence on the emitted line radiation. (author)

  8. Competition increases in the face of strong regional ties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoetgen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The current fuel market exhibits a large surplus production capacity and is strongly influenced by regional ties, with imports of fabricated fuel serving to supplement domestic production or to keep domestic vendors competitive. In the future, the market is set to become increasingly competitive, especially in Europe and the United States. (author)

  9. A dearth of dark matter in strong gravitational lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R. H.

    I show that the lensing masses of the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera Surveys sample of strong gravitational lenses are consistent with the stellar masses determined from population synthesis models using the Salpeter initial mass function. This is true in the context of both General Relativity and

  10. Discriminative deep inelastic tests of strong interaction field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Reya, E.

    1979-02-01

    It is demonstrated that recent measurements of ∫ 0 1 F 2 (x, Q 2 )dx eliminate already all strong interaction field theories except QCD. A detailed study of scaling violations of F 2 (x, Q 2 ) in QCD shows their insensitivity to the gluon content of the hadron at presently measured values of Q 2 . (orig.) [de

  11. Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2018-04-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.

  12. Carbon nanotube yarns as strong flexible conductive capacitive electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Gebben, B.; Otto, M.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, consisting of 23 µm diameter CNT filaments, can be used as capacitive electrodes that are long, flexible, conductive and strong, for applications in energy and electrochemical water treatment. We measure the charge storage capacity as function of salt concentration, and

  13. Strong density of a class of simple operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, S.; Mohammad, N.

    1991-08-01

    An algebra of simple operators has been shown to be strongly dense in the algebra of all bounded linear operators on function spaces of a compact (not necessarily abelian) group. Further, it is proved that the same result is also true for L 2 (G) if G is a locally compact (not necessarily compact) abelian group. (author). 6 refs

  14. Education in the Learning Economy: a European perspective<strong/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Rasmussen, Palle; Lorenz, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge-based and the learning economy perspectives have in common that they point to an inherent tendency toward a polarisation in labour markets between people with strong and people with weak educational foundation. On this background we discuss how a movement toward mode 2 learning may...

  15. Certain relativistic effects due to strong electromagnetic fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, N.L.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the propagation of a strong electromagnetic wave in an electron plasma can lead to a generation of a constant electron current along the direction of propagation and to a large increase in the average electron density. (Auth.)

  16. Graphene Plasmonics: Guiding, Excitation and Strong SERS Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Propagation of graphene plasmons in nanoribbon waveguides is numerically investigated and excitation of the graphene plasmons in a continuous graphene monolayer is experimentally demonstrated. Interaction between a graphene monolayer with metallic nanostructures is further experimentally studied......, and strong SERS enhancement for the graphene monolayer is observed with the aid of metallic nanostructures....

  17. Non-LTE profiles of strong solar lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, T. J.; Beebe, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    The complete linearization method is applied to the formation of strong lines in the solar atmosphere. Transitions in Na(I), Mg(I), Ca(I), Mg(II), and Ca(II) are computed with a standard atmosphere and microturbulent velocity model. The computed profiles are compared to observations at disk center.

  18. Numerical experiments on 2D strongly coupled complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Lujing; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2010-01-01

    The Brownian Dynamics simulation method is briefly reviewed at first and then applied to study some non-equilibrium phenomena in strongly coupled complex plasmas, such as heat transfer processes, shock wave excitation/propagation and particle trapping, by directly mimicking the real experiments.

  19. Moderately strong pump-induced ultrafast dynamics in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.F. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhang, Yizhu, E-mail: zhangyz@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yan, T.-M., E-mail: yantm@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Z.Y. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); Jiang, Y.H., E-mail: jiangyh@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China)

    2016-09-12

    Graphical abstract: Moderately strong pump pulse is applied to the transient absorption spectrum. The pump and dump processes (resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering) finished in one single pump pulse in moderately strong regime make the observation of high-lying excited state dynamics possible. - Highlights: • The pulse intensity in transient absorption spectrum are experimentally studied. • The higher nonlinear susceptibility responses are observed. • The resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. • New dynamics information in strong pump field. - Abstract: The transient transmittance spectra of laser dye IR144 in methanol were investigated experimentally in the moderately strong pump-probe field. Observed emission spectra in the red edge of the incident-field bandwidth, created by resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (RISRS), display significant nonlinear intensity dependence as the pulse intensity increases. Dynamic perspectives of RISRS spectra can be understood well in a wavepacket picture. The excitation of high vibrational levels in the ground electronic state leading to the redshift of emissions presents high dependence of the pump-pulse intensity and ultrafast dynamical features, mapping the spatial overlap and separation of ground and excited wave functions and resolving the ultrafast vibrational relaxation in the femtosecond regime.

  20. Strongly interacting mesoscopic systems of anyons in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the fractional statistical properties of so-called anyonic particles, we present exact solutions for up to six strongly interacting particles in one-dimensional confinement that interpolate the usual bosonic and fermionic limits. Specifically, we consider two-component mixtures of anyons...