WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong child support

  1. 75 FR 38611 - Child Support Enforcement Program; Intergovernmental Child Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... responsibility for determining in which State tribunal a controlling order determination is made where multiple.../local partnership established to help families by ensuring that parents support their children even when... programs. The complexities of child support enforcement are compounded when parents reside in different...

  2. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    We leverage non-linearities in Danish child support guidelines together with rich administrative data to provide causal estimates of parental behavioral responses to child support obligations. We estimate that among families with formal child support agreements, a 1, 000 DKK ($183) increase in a ...

  3. Supporting your child with weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food if your child does not do his homework. DO NOT punish, tease, or put down children ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  4. Understanding child maltreatment in Hanoi: intimate partner violence, low self-control, and social and child care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed.

  5. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  6. Poverty Transitions among Families Supporting a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Shahtahmasebi, Said; Lancaster, Gillian; Berridge, Damon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about child disability and dynamic aspects of poverty. Method: Analysis of data collected over a 12-month period for families (a) supporting a child with intellectual disability (n = 370), (b) supporting a child with other disability (n = 1,418), and (c) supporting a child with no disability (n = 7,215). Results: When…

  7. Community factors supporting child mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, F

    2001-10-01

    discussion. The first conclusion suggests that research in child development generally, and child mental health specifically, does not incorporate the social ecology of the child is seriously flawed. There is a broad recognition within most sectors of society that the quality of civic engagement is of critical importance to community efforts to improve the health and well-being of children. This is true for all communities and families, regardless of their levels of material wealth and educational achievement. It is also well understood that poverty undermines the well-being and life chances of children. For this reason, the third conclusion requires that intensive, sustained efforts be made to eradicate poverty and reverse the current economic trend toward growing economic disparity. The implications of this knowledge for the practice of child psychiatry are not new ones. In many ways, they advocate for a re-examination of the historical roots of the field as it defined approaches to juvenile justice, school counseling, and early intellectual enrichment for economically disadvantaged preschool children. All these efforts were sensitive to children's social environment, and child psychiatrists viewed their success in taking on the challenges of changing schools, courts, and community and family environments. These challenges hardly have been overcome. The requirements of understanding and evaluating community supports for children are a fundamental component in the training and practice of child psychiatry. To quote the U.S. Surgeon General in a preamble to the recent Report on Child Mental Health: One way to ensure that our health system meets children's mental health needs is to move toward a community based health system that balances health promotion, disease prevention, early detection and universal access.

  8. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  9. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Reports Form 157 - YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  10. Supporting the Grieving Child and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, David J; Demaria, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The death of someone close to a child often has a profound and lifelong effect on the child and results in a range of both short- and long-term reactions. Pediatricians, within a patient-centered medical home, are in an excellent position to provide anticipatory guidance to caregivers and to offer assistance and support to children and families who are grieving. This clinical report offers practical suggestions on how to talk with grieving children to help them better understand what has happened and its implications and to address any misinformation, misinterpretations, or misconceptions. An understanding of guilt, shame, and other common reactions, as well an appreciation of the role of secondary losses and the unique challenges facing children in communities characterized by chronic trauma and cumulative loss, will help the pediatrician to address factors that may impair grieving and children's adjustment and to identify complicated mourning and situations when professional counseling is indicated. Advice on how to support children's participation in funerals and other memorial services and to anticipate and address grief triggers and anniversary reactions is provided so that pediatricians are in a better position to advise caregivers and to offer consultation to schools, early education and child care facilities, and other child congregate care sites. Pediatricians often enter their profession out of a profound desire to minimize the suffering of children and may find it personally challenging when they find themselves in situations in which they are asked to bear witness to the distress of children who are acutely grieving. The importance of professional preparation and self-care is therefore emphasized, and resources are recommended. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Child mortality: preventing future child deaths and optimizing family support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide 6.1 million live-born children under the age of five died from natural and external causes in 2014. According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child appropriate measures should be taken by State Parties to ensure the survival and development of the child to a maximum extent and to

  12. Child Care and Other Support Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Latosha; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. military has come to realize that providing reliable, high-quality child care for service members' children is a key component of combat readiness. As a result, the Department of Defense (DoD) has invested heavily in child care. The DoD now runs what is by far the nation's largest employer-sponsored child-care system, a sprawling network…

  13. Case Studies of Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    at the edge of the park 0 Adler introduces use of color * Adler introduces moving things including a triple tire swing and a Tarzan rope e Adler...Parent-child challenge play where the child tried to extend his or her a- bility to do something like the Tarzan Swing. 0 Infants and very young...Attached to the tree house is the pulley-ride that provides the excitement of feet-off-the-ground transportation and is connected to the Tarzan swing at the

  14. Adsorbate-mediated strong metal-support interactions in oxide-supported Rh catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubu, John C; Zhang, Shuyi; DeRita, Leo; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; Chen, Jingguang G; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-02-01

    The optimization of supported metal catalysts predominantly focuses on engineering the metal site, for which physical insights based on extensive theoretical and experimental contributions have enabled the rational design of active sites. Although it is well known that supports can influence the catalytic properties of metals, insights into how metal-support interactions can be exploited to optimize metal active-site properties are lacking. Here we utilize in situ spectroscopy and microscopy to identify and characterize a support effect in oxide-supported heterogeneous Rh catalysts. This effect is characterized by strongly bound adsorbates (HCO x ) on reducible oxide supports (TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) that induce oxygen-vacancy formation in the support and cause HCO x -functionalized encapsulation of Rh nanoparticles by the support. The encapsulation layer is permeable to reactants, stable under the reaction conditions and strongly influences the catalytic properties of Rh, which enables rational and dynamic tuning of CO 2 -reduction selectivity.

  15. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  16. Child Support, Poverty and Gender Equality in the Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs of the project will include draft model legislation (including child support guidelines) to address the application and enforcement of child support ... The results will be presented at the 2009 Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) ministerial meeting of the social development sector entitled the ...

  17. The Reformed Australian Child Support Scheme: An International Policy Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Describes antecedents, major objectives, and characteristics of Australian child support reforms in context of their introduction into highly discretionary family law system. Draws parallels with Wisconsin Child Support Assurance System. Discusses findings of Australian Institute of Family Studies evaluation which suggests that the scheme has…

  18. An Examination of Parenting the Strong-Willed Child as Bibliotherapy for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex L.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Long, Nicholas; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the "Parenting the Strong-Willed Child" ("PSWC") book as a self-directed program for parents of 3- to 6-year-olds. Fifty-two parents were randomly assigned to "PSWC" or a comparison book, "Touchpoints: Three to Six." Assessments occurred at baseline, postintervention (6 weeks after baseline), and 2-month follow-up. The findings…

  19. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. This report addresses a variety of factors that have reduced play, including a hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families, school systems, and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the balance in children's lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.

  20. Supporting aboriginal knowledge and practice in health care: lessons from a qualitative evaluation of the strong women, strong babies, strong culture program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne; Kildea, Sue; Liddle, Marlene; Cox, Barbara; Paterson, Barbara

    2015-02-05

    The Strong Women, Strong Babies, Strong Culture Program (the Program) evolved from a recognition of the value of Aboriginal knowledge and practice in promoting maternal and child health (MCH) in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Commencing in 1993 it continues to operate today. In 2008, the NT Department of Health commissioned an evaluation to identify enabling factors and barriers to successful implementation of the Program, and to identify potential pathways for future development. In this paper we focus on the evaluation findings related specifically to the role of Aborignal cultural knowledge and practice within the Program. A qualitative evaluation utilised purposive sampling to maximise diversity in program history and Aboriginal culture. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 76 participants were recorded in their preferred language with a registered Interpreter when required. Thematic analysis of data was verified or modified through further discussions with participants and members of the evaluation team. Although the importance of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is widely acknowledged, there has been considerable variation across time and location in the extent to which these cultural dimensions have been included in practice. Factors contributing to this variation are complex and relate to a number of broad themes including: location of control over Program activities; recognition and respect for Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a legitimate component of health care; working in partnership; communication within and beyond the Program; access to transport and working space; and governance and organisational support. We suggest that inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is key to its survival over more than twenty years despite serious challenges. Respect for the legitimacy of Aboriginal knowledge and practice within health

  1. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  2. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  3. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  4. Social support and child protection: Lessons learned and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Getting support when your child has cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    These websites have online support groups, books, advice, and information about dealing with childhood cancer. American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org American Childhood Cancer Organization -- www. ...

  6. Beliefs about Child Support Modification Following Remarriage and Subsequent Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Framed by equity theory, fairness beliefs regarding child support modification to account for the financial impact of remarriage and subsequent childbirth were assessed. Based on a random sample of 407 Kentucky residents using a multiple segment factorial vignette approach, modification was supported by 57% of respondents following remarriage, but…

  7. Promoting Strong ISO 50001 Outcomes with Supportive National Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee, T.; Siciliano, Graziella; de los Reyes, Pamela

    2015-08-04

    The ISO 50001 standard is a key mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency globally. An increasing number of companies are seeking certification, creating the need for personnel that are competent to conduct ISO 50001 certification audits. The growth of ISO 50001 is expected to accelerate as more companies integrate ISO 50001 into their corporate sustainability strategies and supplier requirements. Robust implementation of ISO 50001 represents an important tool for countries with climate change mitigation goals. Because of its dual focus on continual improvement of an organization’s energy management system (EnMS) and its energy performance improvement, ISO 50001 requires skills of both implementers and certification auditors that are not well-supported by current credentials and training. This paper describes an effort to address skill gaps of certification auditors, a critical factor to ensure that ISO 50001 implementations are robust and result in continued energy performance improvement. A collaboration of governments through the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG), formerly under Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP), has formed to build workforce capacity for ISO 50001 certification audits. The EMWG is leading the development of an internationally-relevant certification scheme for ISO 50001 Lead Auditor that meets requirements for ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation and ISO 50003 for defining ISO 50001 Lead Auditor competency. Wider availability of competent ISO 50001 Lead Auditors will ultimately increase the impact and market value of ISO 50001 certification and improve consistency of ISO 50001 certification outcomes by establishing a standardized and high level of knowledge and skills globally.

  8. Suture supported P C IOL in a homocystinuric child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A homocystinuric child presented with a secondary pupillary block glaucoma due to anteriorly subluxated lens. After removal of the subluxated lens, a suture supported posterior chamber IOL was implanted. Postoperative complication of cerebral venous thrombosis following general anaesthesia was managed with high doses of pyridoxine special diet and drugs.

  9. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Child abuse and neglect, social support, and psychopathology in adulthood: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Debbie M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts low levels of social support in middle adulthood and understand whether social support acts to mediate or moderate the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and subsequent outcomes (anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use). Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during the years 1967 through 1971 and a matched control group were followed up and interviewed in adulthood. Social support was assessed at mean age 39.5, and anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use at mean age 41.2. Adjusting for age, sex, and race, individuals with documented histories of child abuse and neglect reported significantly lower levels of social support in adulthood [total (p child abuse and neglect and anxiety and depression in adulthood. Four gender by social support interactions and one three-way [group (abuse/neglect versus control) × tangible social support × gender] interaction moderated levels of anxiety and depression, particularly for males who were more strongly affected by high levels of social support. Social support plays a significant role in mediating and moderating some long term consequences of childhood maltreatment. Efforts to better understand the timing and mechanisms involved in these relationships are needed to guide preventive interventions and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Child passenger safety laws in the United States, 1978-2010: policy diffusion in the absence of strong federal intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin Yung; Anderson, Evan; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion of U.S. state child passenger safety laws, analyzing over-time changes and inter-state differences in all identifiable features of laws that plausibly influence crash-related morbidity and mortality. The observed trend shows many states' continuing efforts to update their laws to be consistent with latest motor vehicle safety recommendations, with each state modifying their laws on average 6 times over the 30-year period. However, there has been a considerable time lag in knowledge diffusion and policy adoption. Even though empirical evidence supporting the protective effect of child restraint devices was available in the early 1970s, laws requiring their use were not adopted by all 50 states until 1986. For laws requiring minors to be seated in rear seats, the first state law adoption did not occur until two decades after the evidence became publicly available. As of 2010, only 12 states explicitly required the use of booster seats, 9 for infant seats and 6 for toddler seats. There is also great variation among states in defining the child population to be covered by the laws, the vehicle operators subject to compliance, and the penalties resulting from non-compliance. Some states cover only up to 4-year-olds while others cover children up to age 17. As of 2010, states have as many as 14 exemptions, such as those for non-residents, non-parents, commercial vehicles, large vehicles, or vehicles without seatbelts. Factors such as the complexity of the state of the science, the changing nature of guidelines (from age to height/weight-related criteria), and the absence of coordinated federal actions are potential explanations for the observed patterns. The resulting uneven policy landscape among states suggests a strong need for improved communication among state legislators, public health researchers, advocates and concerned citizen groups to promote more efficient and effective policymaking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Child Care Centers' Role in Support of Breastfeeding Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Emily; Messer, Abigail L; Spatz, Diane L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate individual child care centers' attitudes and policies related to breastfeeding in two distinct areas in Philadelphia. Little is known about individual centers' approach to breastfeeding despite returning to work being cited as a major barrier to continued breastfeeding. Data were collected by compiling a list of child care centers in the areas of study and conducting telephone surveys of the 166 centers that met inclusion criteria. Surveys were administered using an adapted tool from the New York State Department of Health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 47 of the 166 (28%) of centers completed the survey. Results indicate there is room for improvement in education and training of staff on benefits of breastfeeding and human milk. The majority of centers (95%) surveyed indicated they would not feed an infant anything besides human milk unless specifically stated in a feeding plan. However, only 40% of centers had staff trained about benefits of breastfeeding and how to prepare and store human milk. Results varied between West Philadelphia and Center City. Widespread education of healthcare providers and child care center staff is necessary to ensure adherence to breastfeeding support guidelines and dissemination of accurate information to breastfeeding families. Nurses and other healthcare providers need to be aware of child care as a barrier to breastfeeding and the importance of providing comprehensive education and referral to community resources.

  13. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157 – YR 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  14. [Supporting the Love, Marriage, and Child-Rearing of Persons with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and their families have strong interests and hopes for love, marriage, pregnancy, and child-rearing. These experiences often lead to recovery from schizophrenia. There are many partners with schizophrenia who enjoy fruitful lives even with their disability. However, only some persons can enter into such lives in the real world in Japan and other countries. This leads persons with schizophrenia to develop a discouraged and disappointed attitude, and also causes professionals of mental health to develop indifference or pessimism about these issues. Schizophrenics are thought to have interests in love and sexual behavior just as strong as the general population. I discuss with my patients about these issues and working life early in the course of treatment. Because they lose their chance to learn adult behavior in social lives with peers due to the beginning of schizophrenia, they need an opportunity to participate in a social situation to learn knowledge and skills of dating and related behaviors, and systematic education such as psycho-education and social skills training should be provided. Continuing married life and child-rearing require more support from experts with rich experience and knowledge. Psychiatrists are required to participate in shared decision-making about medication during pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as provide knowledge on the benefits and risks of antipsychotics. Net-working with the family, professionals of child welfare, and the community is necessary to support child-rearing. Urakawa Bethel's House was introduced as a pioneering concept to support love, marriage, and child-rearing. Finally, professionals' negative or indifferent attitudes toward these issues are discussed in the setting of treatment. I hope that professionals of mental health will think about these issues from the standpoints of persons with schizophrenia and their families.

  15. Criteria Based Case Review: The Parent Child Psychological Support Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bujia-Couso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect, Social Support, and Psychopathology in Adulthood: A Prospective Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Debbie M.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts low levels of social support in middle adulthood and understand whether social support acts to mediate or moderate the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and subsequent outcomes (anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use). Method Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0–11) during the years 1967 through 1971 and a matched control group were followed up and interviewed in adulthood. Social support was assessed at mean age 39.5, and anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use at mean age 41.2. Results Adjusting for age, sex, and race, individuals with documented histories of child abuse and neglect reported significantly lower levels of social support in adulthood [total (pchild abuse and neglect and anxiety and depression in adulthood. Four gender by social support interactions and one three-way [group (abuse/neglect versus control) × tangible social support × gender) interaction moderated levels of anxiety and depression, particularly for males who were more strongly affected by high levels of social support. Conclusions Social support plays a significant role in mediating and moderating some long term consequences of childhood maltreatment. Efforts to better understand the timing and mechanisms involved in these relationships are needed to guide preventive interventions and treatment. PMID:23562083

  17. Improving Support Services for Family Child Care through Relationship-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Bibbs, Tonya

    2011-01-01

    Family child care (FCC) providers often experience isolation from other early childhood and child care professionals. Yet, research suggests that providers who network with other providers, engage with community resources, and belong to support groups tend to offer higher quality child care. For example, the Family Child Care Network Impact Study…

  18. 78 FR 6113 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Indigenous Child Health-Strong Communities, Healthy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Child Health Program evaluates and improves the quality and access to care for AI/AN women and children...-wide public policies apply to IHS grants with exception of the Discrimination policy. Requirements for... provide a [[Page 6119

  19. Psychometrics of a Child Report Measure of Maternal Support following Disclosure of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W; Sawyer, Genelle K; Heck, Nicholas C; Zajac, Kristyn; Solomon, David; Self-Brown, Shannon; Danielson, Carla K; Ralston, M Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    The study examined a new child report measure of maternal support following child sexual abuse. One hundred and forty-six mother-child dyads presenting for a forensic evaluation completed assessments including standardized measures of adjustment. Child participants also responded to 32 items considered for inclusion in a new measure, the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report (MSQ-CR). Exploratory factor analysis of the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report resulted in a three factor, 20-item solution: Emotional Support (9 items), Skeptical Preoccupation (5 items), and Protection/Retaliation (6 items). Each factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Construct and concurrent validity of the new measure were supported in comparison to other trauma-specific measures. The Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report demonstrated sound psychometric properties. Future research is needed to determine whether the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report provides a more sensitive approximation of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, relative to measures of global parent-child relations and to contextualize discrepancies between mother and child ratings of maternal support.

  20. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  1. Spectral asymptotics of a strong δ′ interaction supported by a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, Pavel; Jex, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Attractive δ ′ interactions supported by a smooth surface are considered. • Surfaces can be either infinite and asymptotically planar, or compact and closed. • Spectral asymptotics is determined by the geometry of the interaction support. - Abstract: We derive asymptotic expansion for the spectrum of Hamiltonians with a strong attractive δ ′ interaction supported by a smooth surface in R 3 , either infinite and asymptotically planar, or compact and closed. Its second term is found to be determined by a Schrödinger type operator with an effective potential expressed in terms of the interaction support curvatures

  2. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  3. The effect of child support enforcement on abortion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jocelyn E; Jagannathan, Radha; Falchettore, Galo

    2012-01-01

    This project aims to answer a critically important question of public policy: Does effective child support enforcement lead to a change in the incidence of abortion across the United States? Using state-level data collected from 1978–2003 from a variety of sources, we employ fixed effects regression analysis to examine whether financial security as measured by five types of child support enforcement effectiveness impacts abortion outcomes. We find that child support enforcement effectiveness decreases the incidence of abortion as measured by the abortion rate, but not the abortion ratio. Income transfer policies such as child support enforcement can affect certain fertility outcomes such as abortion rates across the states.

  4. Strong Coupling Asymptotics for a Singular Schrodinger Operator with an Interaction Supported by an Open Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Pankrashkin, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-212 ISSN 0360-5302 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Eigenvalue * Schrödinger operator * singular interaction * strong coupling * 35Q40 * 35P15 * 35J10 Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2014

  5. Spectral asymptotics of a strong delta ' interaction supported by a surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Jex, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 378, 30-31 (2014), s. 2091-2095 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : delta ' surface interaction * strong coupling expansion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.683, year: 2014

  6. On eigenvalue asymptotics for strong delta-interactions supported by surfaces with boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittrich, Jaroslav; Exner, Pavel; Kuhn, C.; Pankrashkin, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 97, 1-2 (2016), s. 1-25 ISSN 0921-7134 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : singular Schrodinger operator * delta-interaction * strong coupling * eigenvalue Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2016

  7. Preparation of supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd by the combined strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOONTIDA PONGTHAWORNSAKUN

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... Abstract. TiO2 supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd catalysts were prepared by strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) of Pd followed by electroless deposition (ED) of a second metal with incremental surface coverages of Au or. Cu. High dispersion of small Pd particles on the Pd/TiO2 prepared by SEA led to the ...

  8. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  9. Child Support: States' Implementation of the 1984 Child Support Enforcement Amendments. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This document reports on the states' implementation of the Child Support Enforcement Amendments of 1984. The Child Support Enforcement Program is a federally administered, state run program in which child support agencies locate absent parents, establish paternity, obtain support orders, and enforce support collections with the purpose of reducing…

  10. Strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoting; Wang, Rong Hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Chung Uang [School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-15

    This article investigated the strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are applied. The nonlinear vibration of stiffened plate is reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system by assuming mode shapes. The Multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) and Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (MLP) are used to solve the governing equations of vibration. Numerical examples for stiffened plates with different initial geometric imperfections are presented in order to discuss the influences to the strongly nonlinear free vibration of the stiffened plate. The results showed that: the frequency ratio reduced as the initial geometric imperfections of plate increased, which showed that the increase of the initial geometric imperfections of plate can lead to the decrease of nonlinear effect; by comparing the results calculated by MSLP method, using MS method to study strongly nonlinear vibration can lead to serious mistakes.

  11. The Economic Impact of Child Support Reform on the Poverty Status of Custodial and Noncustodial Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols-Casebolt, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Used data from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the economic impact of child support reform on affected families. Results revealed that, compared to the current child support system, the proposed alternative would reduce poverty for custodial families but would increase poverty for noncustodial families. (Author/NB)

  12. Early Childhood Education and Care Educators Supporting Parent-Child Relationships: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Nolan, Andrea; Bergmeier, Heidi; Hooley, Merrilyn; Olsson, Craig; Cann, Warren; Williams-Smith, Janet; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Building strong relationships between children and parents is vital for children's social and emotional development. A majority of children attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings where they experience a range of relationships (educator-child, educator-parent, parent-child). Educators build relationships with children and…

  13. Office of Child Support and Enforcement (OCSE) State Wage Alerts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The OCSE State Wage Alert is a quarterly match which detects SSI overpayments by identifying unreported wage and unemployment data provided to the Office of Child...

  14. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls

    OpenAIRE

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to...

  15. Supporting the Whole Child through Coordinated Policies, Processes, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sharon D.; Hurley, James; Ahmed, Shannon R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model provides a framework for promoting greater alignment, integration, and collaboration between health and education across the school setting and improving students' cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development. By providing a learning environment that ensures each…

  16. The Impact and Effectiveness of the Child Support Grant in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the first time in South Africa's history, the Constitution compels the state to ensure the progressive realisation of a social security grant. The country's constitution commits the state to developing a comprehensive social security system for all South Africans. This study investigates the impact and effectiveness of the Child ...

  17. Teacher Support as a Buffer between Interparental Conflict and Child Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldnes, Solveig; Koeske, Gary; Sales, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2004, investigated the direct effect of interparental conflict (IPC) about child-raising issues on the social skills of middle-class US children who attended a suburban preschool and the buffering effect of teacher support (n = 170). Findings indicated that greater IPC was associated with poorer child social skills. The…

  18. The Effect of a Child's Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Malhotra, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences in differences, we find that having a daughter (vs. having a son) causes men to reduce their support for traditional gender roles, but a female child has…

  19. The CTSA mentored career development program: supporting the careers of child health investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Carrie L; Higgins, Sarah; Kaskel, Fredrick J; Purucker, Mary; Davis, Jonathan M; Smoyer, William E

    2014-02-01

    Training translational scientists is a priority of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium. 1) Describe the landscape of CTSA Mentored Research Career Development Awards (CDA) and 2) evaluate participation and outcomes of child health investigators in these programs. Survey of the CTSA Child Health Oversight Committee (CC-CHOC) and review of nonresponders' CTSA Websites. Thirty-two of 53 CC-CHOC members (60%) responded and all nonresponder Websites were reviewed. Institutions supported 1,166 CDA positions from 2006 to 2011, with 134 awarded to child health investigators (11.5%). Respondents reported a mean of 29.8 KL2 positions (95% CI 17.5-42.2) during their award period, with a mean of 2.8 (95% CI 1.8-3.8) awarded to child health investigators. The proportion of child health awardees varied from 0% to 50% across institutions. We identified 45 subsequent National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards to the 134 child health investigators (34%). The CTSA program contributes substantially to training the next generation of translational investigators. One-third of child health investigators obtained subsequent NIH awards in the short follow-up period demonstrating success of the CTSA CDA programs. Child health investigators are represented variably across the consortium. Pediatric institutions can partner with the CTSA program to further support training child health investigators. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 34A – 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains annual data on collections received and distributed by State agencies administering the Child Support Enforcement program under title IV-D of...

  1. Harmonic biases in child learners: in support of language universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Newport, Elissa L

    2015-06-01

    A fundamental question for cognitive science concerns the ways in which languages are shaped by the biases of language learners. Recent research using laboratory language learning paradigms, primarily with adults, has shown that structures or rules that are common in the languages of the world are learned or processed more easily than patterns that are rare or unattested. Here we target child learners, investigating a set of biases for word order learning in the noun phrase studied by Culbertson, Smolensky, and Legendre (2012) in college-age adults. We provide the first evidence that child learners exhibit a preference for typologically common harmonic word order patterns-those which preserve the order of the head with respect to its complements-validating the psychological reality of a principle formalized in many different linguistic theories. We also discuss important differences between child and adult learners in terms of both the strength and content of the biases at play during language learning. In particular, the bias favoring harmonic patterns is markedly stronger in children than adults, and children (unlike adults) acquire adjective ordering more readily than numeral ordering. The results point to the importance of investigating learning biases across development in order to understand how these biases may shape the history and structure of natural languages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpreting child sexual abuse: Empathy and offense-supportive cognitions among child sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.S.; Buck, N.M.L.; van Vugt, E.S.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children’s behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by

  3. Maternal Social Support as a Predictor of Mother-Child Stress and Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakos, Harry; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Part of a longitudinal investigation of social support and mothers, this study examined how prenatal maternal social support affected the mother-child relationship in 38 low socioeconomic status mothers and their two-year-olds. Maternal social support correlated positively with level of stimulation provided to children and negatively with level of…

  4. 25 CFR 11.608 - Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody. (a) A decree of dissolution of marriage or of... earliest of the following dates: When an amount equal to one month's support becomes overdue; when the... to recover judgment in an amount equal to such past-paid support or assistance, including costs of...

  5. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada.

  6. 50 How can informal support impact child PTSD symptoms following a psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that

  7. The first year: the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz

    2016-11-01

    To describe the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities face significant challenges during the first year of their child's life which is an important developmental period not previously addressed in the literature. The provision of support by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, during this crucial period can impact on parental well-being and on the health and developmental outcomes of their children. However, parents often feel unsupported. The study used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of eleven children with an intellectual disability in Victoria, Australia, during 2014. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic data analysis. Three key areas of support need were identified to assist parents to provide effective care for their child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life: (1) emotional support as parents adjusted to their role of caring for a child with an intellectual disability; (2) information support as they embarked on a quest for knowledge; and (3) support to facilitate their connection to peer networks. The findings highlighted inconsistent provision of support for parents. This study informs health professionals about how to provide holistic, timely support to parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the first year of life. There is an urgent need to review how nurses and midwives can provide relevant support that is responsive to parents' needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Child maltreatment, bullying in school and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    supportive significant others have developed resilience with a strengthened self. The study confirms that social support for a great many of the young adults reduces the risk of low self-esteem and suicidal ideations even when they have experienced poor parenting with the destructiveness of psychological...... maltreatment and sexual abuse. While being offer for bullying increases the risk of suicidal thoughts and low self-esteem, when accounted for other risk factors....

  9. A survey of child care centers about breastfeeding support in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Sweet, Linda; Newman, Lareen; McIntyre, Ellen

    2013-05-01

    Australia has high rates of breastfeeding initiation, with a consistent decline over the first year. Furthermore, there is a growing trend of maternal employment and rising numbers of children enrolled in different types of child care services, both of which can have a negative impact on breastfeeding. To provide evidence to better inform implementation of breastfeeding-friendly strategies in child care settings, this study examined breastfeeding policy and practice in child care centers in metropolitan Adelaide. The paper reports on a survey sent to 292 child care centers in metropolitan Adelaide in 2010. The survey collected information on center location and type, number of enrolled children under age 2, and number of breastfed babies. The survey also included questions about breastfeeding facilities and support, breastfeeding policies, staff training, and barriers to and recommendations to enhance breastfeeding support in child care centers. Of the 62 completed returned surveys (21% response rate), 43 centers (69.4%) reported that they currently have children who receive breast milk at the center; however, in most centers, the total number of breastfed children was reported to be between 1 and 4; 76% reported that the center was supportive of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months; and 80.6% had statements on breastfeeding as part of their food and nutrition policies or guidelines. Furthermore, 64.5% reported there was no formal or informal training for staff on breastfeeding support, but 50% reported that staff members do provide breastfeeding advice to mothers of children in their center. Despite some strategies in place to support breastfeeding, there are no standards on breastfeeding policies, practices, and training in child care settings. Therefore, the extent and scope of such support depend on parental request and the perceptions and attitudes of child care center staff toward breastfeeding.

  10. How do parents experience support after the death of their child?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, S.; Hoir, M.P. L; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A child’s death is an enormous tragedy for both the parents and other family members. Support for the parents can be important in helping them to cope with the loss of their child. In the Netherlands little is known about parents’ experiences of the support they receive after the death of

  11. The Mediated and Moderated Effects of Family Support on Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked parents' social support to decreased child maltreatment, but questions remain surrounding the mechanisms explaining this association. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this association applies to support provided by family alone (and not friends), and whether it is moderated by the presence of neighborhood violence.…

  12. Supporting Child-Headed Households in South Africa: Whose Best Interests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, D.A. van; Driel, F.T.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This article examines assumptions about the provision of support for children and young people in child-headed households in sub-Saharan Africa. The South African example is used to assess appropriate family- and community-based support and assistance. The South African Children's Act proposes that

  13. Child Maltreatment Severity and Adult Trauma Symptoms: Does Perceived Social Support Play a Buffering Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on

  14. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Why do child-directed interactions support imitative learning in young children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Shneidman

    Full Text Available Child-directed cues support imitation of novel actions at 18 months, but not at two years of age. The current studies explore the mechanisms that underlie the propensity that children have to copy others at 18 months, and how the value of child-directed communication changes over development. We ask if attentional allocation accounts for children's failure to imitate observed actions at 18 months, and their success at two years of age, and we explore the informational value child-directed contexts may provide across ontogeny. Eighteen-month-old (Study 1 and two-year-old (Study 2 children viewed causally non-obvious actions performed by child-directed (Study 1 & 2, observed (Study 1 & 2, or non-interactive (Study 2 actors, and their visual attention and imitative behaviors were assessed. Results demonstrated that child-directed contexts supported imitative learning for 18-month-old children, independent of their effects on proximal attention. However, by two years of age, neither directness nor communication between social partners was a necessary condition for supporting social imitation. These findings suggest that developmental changes in children's propensity to extract information from observation cannot be accounted for by changes in children's interpretation of what counts as child-directed information, and are likely not due to changes in how children allocate attention to observed events.

  16. The family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk of families expecting a baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Geographical proximity and depressive symptoms among adult child caregivers: social support as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengting; Mao, Weiyu; Chi, Iris; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2017-11-21

    This study examined whether geographical proximity is a predictor of depressive symptoms, and whether family and friend support can moderate the relationship between geographical proximity and depressive symptoms. A survey of 557 adult child primary caregivers was conducted in Shanghai, China in 2013. Geographical proximity was measured as a categorical variable: coresidence, short distance (less than 30 minutes' travel time), and long distance (more than 30 minutes' travel time). Family and friend support were assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Center on Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multiple regression analyses and interaction terms were used to test the moderating roles of family and friend support. Adult child caregivers who live more than 30 minutes away from care recipients experienced higher depressive symptoms than coresiding caregivers (β = .114, p < .01). Family support (β = -.408, p < .05) and friend support (β = -.235, p < .05) were protective factors that lessened depressive symptoms for long-distance adult child caregivers. This study adds spatial dimension to caregiving literature and extends stress process theory. These findings have important implications for service planning and social support for adult child caregivers.

  18. Strong mitochondrial DNA support for a Cretaceous origin of modern avian lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson Michael D

    2008-01-01

    speciation events or the K-Pg boundary that could systematically mislead inferences from genetic data. Conclusion The 'rock-clock' gap has been interpreted by some to be a result of the vagaries of molecular genetic divergence time estimates. However, despite measures to explore different forms of uncertainty in several key parameters, we fail to reconcile molecular genetic divergence time estimates with dates taken from the fossil record; instead, we find strong support for an ancient origin of modern bird lineages, with many extant orders and families arising in the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with previous molecular estimates. Although there is ample room for improvement on both sides of the 'rock-clock' divide (e.g. accounting for 'ghost' lineages in the fossil record and developing more realistic models of rate evolution for molecular genetic sequences, the consistent and conspicuous disagreement between these two sources of data more likely reflects a genuine difference between estimated ages of (i stem-group origins and (ii crown-group morphological diversifications, respectively. Further progress on this problem will benefit from greater communication between paleontologists and molecular phylogeneticists in accounting for error in avian lineage age estimates.

  19. Change strategies to protect, promote, and support infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Rigsby, Andrew; Mccoll, Alyson; Sanghvi, Tina; Abrha, Teweldebrhan Hailu; Godana, Andenet; Roy, Sumitro; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Vu, Ha Thi Thu; Sather, Megan; Uddin, Belal

    2013-09-01

    Despite the existence of a strong evidence base for investing in infant and young child feeding (IYCF), sufficiently supported IYCF policies and programs are rare. To develop evidence-based advocacy strategies in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam to enable policy change and to increase investments in and ensure scale-up and sustainability of IYCF programs. Situational analysis, formative and opinion leader research, and stakeholder consultations were used to develop three contextualized advocacy strategies. Data were used to determine how IYCF was perceived and prioritized, identify opinion leaders and partners, identify barriers to and opportunities for strengthening commitment, and select messages, materials, and communication channels. Opinion leader research showed that malnutrition was a concern but not a priority for policy action. Where food security was an issue, poverty reduction strategies rather than IYCF programs were viewed as the solution. Few opinion leaders were aware of the importance of the first 1000 days of life. In addition to policy gaps, awareness and implementation of existing policies were limited. This was often complicated by intragovernment conflicts and perspectives. Advocacy messages needed to be evidence based and delivered by credible champions. Engaging medical associations and the media presented an opportunity rarely leveraged in IYCF advocacy. CONCLUSIONS. Although sociopolitical contexts may vary, awareness of the importance of IYCF is an overarching advocacy challenge. Consequently, investments in IYCF programs and policies lag. Evidence-based advocacy design has a potential for impact on national policies, investments, and commitment to implementation and should be used more widely to inform program design.

  20. Child protection in Italy and Spain: Influence of the family supported society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. del Valle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the historical development of child protection in Spain and Italy shows remarkable common aspects. There has been a strong tradition of using residential care by means of large institutions, mostly run by catholic religious organizations, in both countries, and both have had to face the challenge of changing the tendency of this institutional care to a family based care. On the other hand, both countries share aMediterranean culture where the family has been the main provider of personal and social wellbeing, although the welfare state has achieved a high level of development with large health, education, and socialservices coverage in the last decades. The current financial crisis of these countries is jeopardizing these recently attained advances and again the importance of family support is becoming crucial. The articlereviews the historical development of out-of-home care in both countries and compares foster family and residential care, as well as the main research contributions to these topics in both countries.

  1. The dynamic relationship between cash transfers and child health: can the child support grant in South Africa make a difference to child nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Ramokolo, Vundli; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya

    2016-02-01

    Cash transfer programmes targeting children are considered an effective strategy for addressing child poverty and for improving child health outcomes in developing countries. In South Africa, the Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest cash transfer programme targeting children from poor households. The present paper investigates the association of the duration of CSG receipt with child growth at 2 years in three diverse areas of South Africa. The study analysed data on CSG receipt and anthropometric measurements from children. Predictors of stunting were assessed using a backward regression model. Paarl (peri-urban), Rietvlei (rural) and Umlazi (urban township), South Africa, 2008. Children (n 746), median age 22 months. High rates of stunting were observed in Umlazi (28 %), Rietvlei (20 %) and Paarl (17 %). Duration of CSG receipt had no effect on stunting. HIV exposure (adjusted OR=2·30; 95 % CI 1·31, 4·03) and low birth weight (adjusted=OR 2·01, 95 % CI 1·02, 3·96) were associated with stunting, and maternal education had a protective effect on stunting. Our findings suggest that, despite the presence of the CSG, high rates of stunting among poor children continue unabated in South Africa. We argue that the effect of the CSG on nutritional status may have been eroded by food price inflation and limited progress in the provision of other important interventions and social services.

  2. HIV Status Disclosure through Family-Based Intervention Supports Parenting and Child Mental Health in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2016-01-01

    Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40 households to care as usual. Parenting, family unity, and child mental health during the process of disclosure were studied using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Many of the families had at least one caregiver who had not disclosed their HIV status at baseline. Immediately post-intervention, children reported lower parenting and family unity scores compared with those in the usual-care group. These changes resolved at 3-month follow-up. Qualitative reports from clinical counselor intervention sessions described supported parenting during disclosure. Overall findings suggest adjustments in parenting, family unity, and trust surrounding the disclosure process. Family-based intervention may support parenting and promote child mental health during adjustment to caregiver HIV status disclosure. Further investigation is required to examine the role of family-based intervention in supporting parenting and promoting child mental health in HIV status disclosure.

  3. Correlates of Perceived Social Support in Chinese Adult Child Caregivers of Parent Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuqin; Jones, Patricia S

    2017-10-01

    Prevalence of stroke and traditional filial responsibility involve adult children in caregiving to their parent stroke survivors in China. Support resources are insufficient because of the shrinking size of family and the underdeveloped support system. The aim of this study was to identify the correlates of perceived social support among adult child caregivers of parent stroke survivors in China. A cross-sectional correlational design was used in this study. A nonproportional quota sample of 126 adult child caregivers was recruited from Zhejiang Province, China. Data were collected at either the hospital stroke units or the respondents' homes using structured questionnaires of caregiving dyadic demographics and caregiving characteristics, 14-item Activities of Daily Living, 15-item Mutuality Scale, and 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. SPSS 17.0 was used for analysis. Caregivers' mutuality, education, full employment or being retired, monthly income, having a co-carer, and having a father as the care receiver were significantly positively associated with caregivers' perceived social support. However, mutuality was not significantly associated with caregivers' perceived social support after the other factors were adjusted. Adult child caregivers with higher levels of mutuality, education, or monthly income; who are fully employed or are retired; who have a co-carer; or who are caring for a father perceived more social support. Nursing strategies and social policies need to be directed to enhance caregiver mutuality and support caregiving efforts.

  4. Banking Time in Head Start: Early Efficacy of an Intervention Designed to Promote Supportive Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Katherine C.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This exploratory study encompassed a collaboration to implement and evaluate the early efficacy of Banking Time, a dyadic intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Banking Time is a set of one-on-one meetings between a teacher and a child consisting of child-led play and teacher facilitation…

  5. Understanding action control of parental support behavior for child physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norman; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    Parental support is the critical family-level variable linked to child physical activity (PA), yet the antecedents of support are poorly understood, and its relationship with intention is modest. The purpose of this study was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multiprocess action control (M-PAC), to understand parental support for regular child PA. Mothers (N = 1,253) with children 5-12 years of age completed measures of attitudes, perceived control over support, behavioral regulation tactics (e.g., planning, self-monitoring), and intention to support. Over half (58%) reported on subsequent support behaviors 6 months later. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: (a) nonintenders (26.4%; n = 331), (b) unsuccessful intenders (36.6%; n = 458), and (c) successful intenders (33%; n = 414). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective attitude about support (r = .18), perceived behavioral control over support (r = .55), and behavioral regulation (r = .55) distinguished between all 3 intention-behavior profiles. A disaggregated analysis of specific behavioral regulation tactics showed that most distinguished all 3 profiles, yet planning, information seeking, and monitoring were the critical correlates of the discriminant function. The majority of mothers had positive intentions to support regular child PA, yet over half failed to enact this support. Difficulty of intention translating into support behavior arises from compromised control over support, self-regulation skills, and perceptions that the support experience is unenjoyable. Interventions aimed at strengthening these factors are recommended to improve parental support action control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Parenting, parental mental health, and child functioning in families residing in supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Plowman, Elizabeth J; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George

    2009-07-01

    Long-term homelessness is associated with other psychosocial risk factors (e.g., adult mental illness, substance abuse, and exposure to violence). All of these factors are associated with impairments in parenting effectiveness and child adjustment, but there are very limited data investigating parenting among families who are homeless and highly mobile. In particular, there is no literature examining the relationships among observed parenting, parental mental health, and child adjustment in a supportive housing sample. Data are reported from a multimethod study of 200 children in 127 families residing in supportive housing agencies in a large metro area. Observed parenting and parents' mental health symptoms directly affected children's adjustment. The influence of parenting self-efficacy on children's adjustment was mediated through its impact on observed parenting. However, observed parenting did not mediate the relationship between parental mental health and child adjustment. Implications for research and practice with homeless populations are offered.

  7. Mediating and moderating effects of social support in the study of child abuse and adult physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  9. Effect of social support networks on maternal knowledge of child health in rural Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Prusty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mothers’ knowledge of child health is associated with their children’s well-being, and depends on their educational level and social support networks. In India, literature on social support networks as determinants of maternal knowledge of child health is scarce. This research was aimed to fill this gap, focusing on social determinants of maternal knowledge in rural Odisha, India. Methods: A multistage cluster sampling design was adopted for the present study and 379 mothers (age: M = 28.79, SD ± 4.03 were randomly selected by eight villages. A mixed-method research was used to integrate quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. Results: Chi square test showed that a low level of maternal knowledge was statistically significant associated with the scheduled tribes/caste, a low level of education, the poorest wealth category, and with early marriage and young maternal age at first birth. The presence in own social support networks of high-educated (β = 0.06, P < .001, female (β = 0.04, P < .01 and old-age (β = 0.05, P < .05 people, and healthcare providers (β = 0.01, P < .01 as members was found to be positively related to a high level of maternal knowledge. Surprisingly, the presence of female (β = 2.68, P < .05 and high-educated people (β = 0.59, P < .05, and at least one healthcare provider (β = 0.33, P < .05 as social support networks members was statistically significant associated with a high level of maternal child-health knowledge also in low-educated mothers. Conclusions: Maternal knowledge of child health does not depend only on the levels of mother’s education, but also on the presence of an effective social support network that include female and high-educated people, and healthcare providers as members. Therefore, policymakers should promote social support networks in order to improve maternal knowledge of child health.

  10. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  11. Mourning Child Grief Support Group Curriculum: Preschool Edition. Denny the Duck Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    The Mourning Child Preschool grief support curriculum is intended for use with preschool children who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies, or any setting that serves bereaved children. The curriculum contains lesson plans for…

  12. Mourning Child Grief Support Group Curriculum: Early Childhood Edition, Kindergarten-Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    The Mourning Child Early Childhood grief support curriculum is intended for use with early elementary-aged children, specifically children in kindergarten through grade two, who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies, or any…

  13. Mourning Child Grief Support Group Curriculum: Middle Childhood Edition, Grades 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    The Mourning Child Early Childhood grief support curriculum is intended for use with late elementary and middle school-aged children, specifically children in grades three through six, who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies,…

  14. Family support and the child as health promoting agent in the Arctic - "the Inuit way".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth A; Borup, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the UN's 1990 'Convention on the Right's of the Child' 1990, and the associated definition of health promotion as a community's ability to recognise, define and make decisions on how to create a healthy society, this article describes and analyses how family support networks are conceived and present themselves in perinatal Inuit families. This literature review conducted an initial and secondary search using the keywords and combinations of the keywords: healthy families, health promoting families, resiliency, Arctic, Inuit, Family support, was executed in PubMed, Popline, CSA and CINAHL. The tertiary literature search was then combined with literature gleaned from literature lists, and other relevant articles were selected. Individual members of the family contribute to the health of the family, but the child is often the catalyst for health promotion within the family, not only the siblings to the unborn child, but also the unborn child. Perinatal entities create their own networks that support and develop concepts of family and support systems. Resiliency, kinship and ecocultural process within the family are concomitant to the health of perinatal family and of the children. More research is needed that moves children from being viewed as the receivers of health towards being seen as the promoters of health and an important actor as health promoting agent within the family.

  15. Ecocultural Perspective in Learning Disability: Family Support Resources, Values, Child Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Suzan; Aytac, Berna

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the interaction between familial and cultural factors on child problem behaviors of learning disabled children aged between 7 and 14 within the perspective of ecocultural theory (N = 90). Mothers completed the Family Support Scale, Portrait Values Questionnaire, and Social-Demographical Form, and teachers…

  16. 45 CFR 235.70 - Prompt notice to child support or Medicaid agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicaid agency. (a) A State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act must provide for prompt notice to the State or local child support agency designated pursuant to section 454(3) of the Social... check or warrant is mailed to the family, a deposit is made in a bank for the family, or other similar...

  17. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  18. You and Your Child: Practical Child Development Information from High/Scope for Parents, with Helpful Support Strategies To Use at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nancy

    This document is comprised of 12 issues of a High/Scope newsletter designed to give parents information on child development and to provide suggestions for ways parents can support their preschool child's development at home. Each issue focuses on one aspect of development or learning. The topics for the 12 issues are: (1) dramatic play; (2)…

  19. Family Stability and Child Welfare Involvement among Families Served in Permanent Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Debra J; Henderson, Kathryn A; Greer, Andrew L

    This article examines the effectiveness of supportive housing in fostering family preservation and reunification for homeless families with multiple housing barriers. Results indicate that more thanhalfofthe supportive housing program families who are separated from their families by Child Protective Services prior to entering the program are reunified during the 12-month period after entering housing. The rate of reunification for supportive housing families is significantly higher than the rate for matched families who enter shelters, but not significantly different than the rate experienced by matched families entering public housing. This study provides encouraging evidence that housing for families in the child welfare system, including but necessarily limited to supportive housing, can facilitate the reunification of children.

  20. HIV Status Disclosure through Family-Based Intervention Supports Parenting and Child Mental Health in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Kirk, Catherine M.; Ingabire, Charles; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Godfrey, Kalisa; Brennan, Robert T.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Few evidence-based interventions exist to support parenting and child mental health during the process of caregiver HIV status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa. A secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to examine the role of family-based intervention versus usual social work care (care as usual) in supporting HIV status disclosure within families in Rwanda. Method Approximately 40 households were randomized to family-based intervention and 40...

  1. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Vindevogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.

  2. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Wessells, Michael; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict. PMID:23346023

  3. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  4. Kinematic gait parameters of a child with cerebral palsy: Comparison between different forms of support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Martinello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinematic haracteristics of gait in children with spastic diplegia aided by different forms of support (one crutch, two crutches, and scapular girdle, and thus determine the most appropriate way to train gait in children with spastic diplegia based on biomechanical characteristics. The study subject was a female, nine-year-old child, diagnosed with cerebral palsy of spastic diplegia type. The following instruments were used for clinical evaluation of gross motor function: Gross Motor Function Classification System - GMFCS, Gross Motor Function Measure - GMFM 88, and Modified Ashworth Scale. The child performed five repetitions of gait with each type of support. By kinematic analysis, spatiotemporal and angular variables of hip and knee in the sagittal plane were obtained. The values closest to typical gait were obtained with 2 crutches, followed by support with scapular girdle and one crutch. It was possible to observe that gait with two crutches was the most appropriate form of support, considering the functionality and independence of the child assessed; however, gait supported by scapular girdle may be appropriate for gait training in clinical practice, because it stimulates different spatiotemporal and angular parameters.

  5. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  7. Relation between Functionalization Degree and Activity of Strongly Acidic Polymer Supported Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanková, Libuše; Holub, Ladislav; Jeřábek, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2006), s. 592-598 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : catalysis * polymer supports * resin Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2006

  8. Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children's executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children's attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children's teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children's self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Social Support of Adolescent Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçtürk, Nilüfer; Bilge, Filiz

    2018-01-01

    Sexual revictimization refers to having a history of child sexual abuse and an experience of being assaulted again in adolescence or adulthood. This descriptive study examined perceived social support of nonvictim adolescents and adolescents who had survived single sexual abuse and sexual revictimization. Participants were 210 adolescent girls, all aged between 15 and 18, selected by a convenience sampling method; 70 had survived sexual revictimization, 70 had survived single sexual abuse, and 70 were nonvictims. The Perceived Social Support Scale was administered, and a one-way ANOVA was conducted for data analysis. Perceived social support from the community was lower in the sexual revictimization group than in the single sexual abuse and comparison groups. Family social support did not differ between the sexual revictimization and single sexual abuse groups but was lower in both than in the comparison group. These results indicate that victims of sexual revictimization need social support, and both sexual revictimization and single sexual abuse victims need familial support.

  10. [Social support network and adjustment of minors in residential child care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Eduardo; Dávila, Luz María

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the relationship between the social support network and the personal, social and academic adjustment of minors in residential care is analyzed. The sample consisted of 102 minors who lived in residential care and who completed the Social Support Questionnaire and the TAMAI. The results show that social support from the family, despite its being the greatest provider of support, does not affect the minors' adjustment. Neither does social support from peers affect their adjustment. However, social support from adults outside the family, and mainly their affection, seems to have a positive influence on the minors' adjustment, particularly at school and in social settings. These results are discussed in relation to their implications for the improvement of programs of residential child care.

  11. Inadequate child supervision: The role of alcohol outlet density, parent drinking behaviors, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Kepple, Nancy J

    2014-08-01

    Supervisory neglect, or the failure of a caregiver to appropriately supervise a child, is one of the predominant types of neglectful behaviors, with alcohol use being considered a key antecedent to inadequate supervision of children. The current study builds on previous work by examining the role of parental drinking and alcohol outlet densities while controlling for caregiver and child characteristics. Data were obtained from 3,023 participants via a telephone survey from 50 cities throughout California. The telephone survey included items on neglectful parenting practices, drinking behaviors, and socio-demographic characteristics. Densities of alcohol outlets were measured for each of the 202 zip codes in the study. Multilevel Bernoulli models were used to analyze the relationship between four supervisory neglect parenting practices and individual-level and zip code-level variables. In our study, heavy drinking was only significantly related to one of our four outcome variables (leaving a child where he or she may not be safe). The density of on premise alcohol outlets was positively related to leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. This study demonstrates that discrete relationships exist between alcohol related variables, social support, and specific supervisory neglect subtypes at the ecological and individual levels.

  12. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas: a loyal friend and a strong supporter of tropical medicine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract: Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014. However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969 was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France, Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications, Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine.

  13. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  14. The California Linkages Program: Doorway to Housing Support for Child Welfare-Involved Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrade, Amy; Simon, James David; Fabella, Danna; Castillo, Lolita; Mejia, Cesar; Shuster, David

    2017-09-01

    Housing instability can complicate parents' efforts to provide for their children. Child welfare service agencies have had difficulty adequately serving parents' housing needs due to limited and constrained funding streams. This article integrates the voices of four important stakeholders to illuminate how an innovative model of service system coordination called Linkages addresses housing needs for child welfare-involved parents eligible for public assistance. Facilitated by Linkages, these parents can receive supportive housing services through programs affiliated with the California public assistance program CalWORKs. Personal narratives reflecting the diverse perspectives of stakeholders in the Linkages collaboration-the statewide program director, a child welfare services coordinator, a CalWORKs caseworker, and a parent program participant-shed light on how the collaboration assists parents in attaining case plan goals, and highlights some of the factors facilitating and hindering effective collaboration between the agencies involved. Stakeholders emphasized the value of flexible service approaches, the intensity of the efforts required, the role of advocacy, and the importance of a shared vision between agencies working together to provide housing supports. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  15. Promising Outcomes in Teen Mothers Enrolled in a School-Based Parent Support Program and Child Care Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S.; Swartz, Martha K.; Ryan-Krause, Patricia; Seitz, Victoria; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki; Grey, Margaret; Clemmens, Donna A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study described a cohort of teen mothers and their children attending an urban high school with a parent support program and school-based child care center. Specific aims of the study were to describe maternal characteristics and outcomes, and child developmental and health outcomes. Methods: A volunteer sample of 65 adolescent…

  16. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  17. Improving the retention of child welfare workers by strengthening skills and increasing support for supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Porter, Rebecca L; Preister, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, effective supervision has been found to be critical in the retention of child welfare workers. In 2006 the State of Missouri Children's Division implemented a supervisory strategic plan to concentrate on supervisory training and effectiveness, with the expectation that emphasis on supervision would improve the retention of frontline workers. Using annual responses to the survey of organizational excellence and retention data, this study examines perceptions of child welfare workers and supervisors on three workplace constructs. Analyses support hypotheses that retention of workers improved in the year following the implementation of the supervisory plan, and measures of supervisor effectiveness, team effectiveness, and job satisfaction also increased. Explanations of primary findings are provided and implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  18. Interorganizational relationships among family support organizations and child mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, Mary C; Palinkas, Larry; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Schoonover, Diana; Reutz, Jennifer Rolls; Landsverk, John

    2014-07-01

    This study examined: (1) qualitative aspects of close working relationships between family support organizations and child mental health agencies, including effective and ineffective characteristics of the relationship and aspects that they would change, and (2) the impact of the working relationship upon the family support organization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 directors of family support organizations characterized as having a close working relationship with a child mental health agency. Three main themes emerged regarding the quality of the working relationship: (a) interactional factors, including shared trust, communication, collaboration and service coordination; (b) aspects of the inner context of the family support organization, mental health agency, or both, including alignment of goals and values and perceptions of mental health services; and (c) outer contextual factors external to the organizations, such as financial and county regulations. Responses to the perceived impact of the relationship was divided into two themes: positive impacts (e.g. gained respect, influence and visibility), and negative impacts (e.g. lack of trust). This study lays the foundation for future research to better understand the mechanisms underlying interorganizational relationships in communities among different types of providers to create a more seamless continuum of services for families of children with mental health conditions.

  19. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  20. The Armed Services and Model Employer Status for Child Support Enforcement: A Proposal to Improve Service of Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Alan L

    1996-01-01

    .... The Order directed DoD and other federal agencies to study methods of improving service of process for child support enforcement on their employees and uniformed members, with particular emphasis...

  1. The Oncology Family App: Providing Information and Support for Families Caring for Their Child With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Penelope J; Fielden, Philippa E; Bradford, Natalie K

    The Oncology Family App supports families across the vast state of Queensland, Australia, with easy access to vital information, including management plans for a deteriorating child, patient specific information and other resources. This article describes the development and evaluation of this mobile app. The app was developed and tested in collaboration with parents, caregivers, and clinicians and released in November 2015. This first version featured "Statewide Hospital Contacts," including phone numbers, links to Google maps, and 24-hour emergency contacts with click to call functionality; "When to Call" describing symptoms to look out for in a deteriorating child; "Blood Results Table"; and "Information" listing recommended websites, health care team contacts, appointments, and notes. The app was evaluated through interviews with parents, caregivers and patients and download metrics. Six months after the app release, 68% of the 38 parents and caregivers surveyed had downloaded the app. The most used modules were "Blood Results Table," "When to Call," and "Statewide Hospital Contacts," but families reported using all features available. Families were enthusiastic about the support the app provided and gave useful feedback to direct future development. Using mobile health technology to support families is a novel, but rapidly growing concept. Family and caregiver feedback showed that the Oncology Family App was an efficient and convenient way to provide much needed information. A new version of the app is under development and evaluation of outcomes will be ongoing.

  2. Supporting a child with multiple disabilities to participate in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Niklas; Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Asking a question can be a highly challenging task for a person with multiple disabilities, but questions have not received much attention in research on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Conversation analysis is employed to examine an instance of multiparty interaction where...... a speech and language therapist supports a child with multiple disabilities to ask a question with a communication board. The question is accomplished through a practice where the action is built as a trajectory of interactional steps. Each step is built using ways of involvement that establish different...

  3. Backup support of the mother-child technique: technical considerations for the size of the mother guiding catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Satoshi; Takagi, Ayumu; Saito, Shigeru

    2012-08-01

    We previously proposed a technique called the "mother-child technique" to facilitate stent delivery for complex coronary lesions. This technique is applicable when the backup support of the guiding catheter is insufficient. In this study, we used an in vitro coronary artery tree model to determine the impact of the size of the mother guiding catheter on the backup support of the mother-child guiding system. The backup support was measured for the 4-in-5, 4-in-6, 4-in-7, and 4-in-8 systems as well as for the 5-in-6, 5-in-7, and 5-in-8 systems. Advancement of the child catheter into the coronary artery tree model improved the backup support of the mother-child system. When a 4-Fr child catheter was advanced by 9 cm, the relative increase in the backup support was 174% in the 4-in-5 system; it was 203% in the 4-in-6, and 135% in the 4-in-7 system (P guiding catheter. Thus, the mother-child technique may be most useful for PCIs in which a small guiding catheter is used, such as transradial coronary interventions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The support needs of parents having a child with a chronic kidney disease: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geense, W W; van Gaal, B G I; Knoll, J L; Cornelissen, E A M; van Achterberg, T

    2017-11-01

    Parents of children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a crucial role in the management of their child's disease. The burden on parents is high: they are often exhausted, depressed and experience high levels of stress and a low quality of life, which could have a negative impact on their child's health outcomes. Support aiming at preventing and reducing parental stress is essential. Therefore, it is necessary to have insight in the problems and support needs among these parents. Our aim is to describe parents' support needs regarding the problems they experience in having a child with CKD. Five focus group interviews were conducted with parents of children: (i) with hereditary kidney disease, (ii) with nephrotic syndrome, (iii) with chronic kidney failure, (iv) using dialysis and (v) after renal transplantation. The children were treated at a paediatric nephrology unit in one university hospital in the Netherlands. The data were thematically analysed. Twenty-one parents participated in the focus groups. Parents need more information about their child's CKD and treatment options, and managing their own hobbies and work. Furthermore, parents need emotional support from their partner, family, friends, peers and healthcare professionals to help them cope with the disease of their child. Additionally, parents need practical support to hand over their care and support in transport, financial management and regarding their child at school. Needs regarding balancing their personal life are seldom prioritized by parents as the child's needs are considered more important. Therefore, it is important that healthcare professionals should not only attend to the abilities of parents concerning their child's disease management, but also focus on the parents' abilities in balancing their responsibilities as a caregiver with their own personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Family Assisted Contingency Management within the Context of Evidence-Supported Treatment for Child Neglect and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Plant, Christopher P; Loughran, Travis A; Torres, Anali

    2017-08-01

    Contingency management (CM) has extensively been shown to be effective in reducing substance use disorders, but its effects in reducing child maltreatment have yet to be determined. The current study provides preliminary support for the utilization of an innovative family-assisted CM component in 18 mothers who were referred to an evidence-supported behavioral treatment for concurrent child neglect and drug abuse by Child Protective Service caseworkers. In the examined CM, participants were invited to indicate from a list of common actions incompatible with child neglect (i.e. positive parenting actions), the extent to which these actions had been experienced utilizing a 3-point scale (almost never, sometimes, almost always). For each item that was indicated to be almost never or sometimes experienced, the participants were queried to indicate if the neglect incompatible action should be targeted as a therapeutic goal. Contingencies were subsequently established in which the participants were rewarded by involved family members for their completion of therapeutic goals. At baseline, results indicated that there was a negative association between the number of neglect incompatible parenting actions that were infrequently experienced and child abuse potential. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the number of neglect incompatible actions targeted as therapeutic goals at baseline, but not the number of positive parenting actions experienced infrequently at baseline, predicted reduced child maltreatment potential following treatment. These findings suggest the examined CM may assist evidence supported behavioral treatment specific to child neglect and drug abuse.

  6. Responsibility for child and adolescent's psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Charlotte; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communication as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordinator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibility for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be communicated to participants who are involved in children's and adolescent's sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.

  7. Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, R.S. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nwachuckwu, C. [Department of Paediatrics, Whipps Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pervaiz, A. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, C.; Landes, C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Childrens NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: OffiaA@gosh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

  8. Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, R.S.; Nwachuckwu, C.; Pervaiz, A.; Wallace, C.; Landes, C.; Offiah, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

  9. Adapting Child Care Market Price Surveys to Support State Quality Initiatives. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Kenley

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) require a state's child care market price survey to: (1) be statistically valid and reliable and (2) reflect variations in the cost of child care services by geographic area, type of provider, and age of child. States may use an alternative methodology for setting payment rates--such as…

  10. Phylogenetic reconstruction using four low-copy nuclear loci strongly supports a polyphyletic origin of the genus Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jennifer S; Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Henderson, Ashley; Freeman, Jasmine; Carlise, Michael; Harris, Alex; Willison-Headley, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    Sorghum is an essential grain crop whose evolutionary placement within the Andropogoneae has been the subject of scrutiny for decades. Early studies using cytogenetic and morphological data point to a poly- or paraphyletic origin of the genus; however, acceptance of poly- or paraphyly has been met with resistance. This study aimed to address the species relationships within Sorghum, in addition to the placement of Sorghum within the tribe, using a phylogenetic approach and employing broad taxon sampling. From 16 diverse Sorghum species, eight low-copy nuclear loci were sequenced that are known to play a role in morphological diversity and have been previously used to study evolutionary relationships in grasses. Further, the data for four of these loci were combined with those from 57 members of the Andropogoneae in order to determine the placement of Sorghum within the tribe. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed on multilocus concatenated data matrices. The Sorghum-specific topology provides strong support for two major lineages, in alignment with earlier studies employing chloroplast and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) markers. Clade I is composed of the Eu-, Chaeto- and Heterosorghum, while clade II contains the Stipo- and Parasorghum. When combined with data from the Andropogoneae, Clade II resolves as sister to a clade containing Miscanthus and Saccharum with high posterior probability and bootstrap support, and to the exclusion of Clade I. The results provide compelling evidence for a two-lineage polyphyletic ancestry of Sorghum within the larger Andropogoneae, i.e. the derivation of the two major Sorghum clades from a unique common ancestor. Rejection of monophyly in previous molecular studies is probably due to limited taxon sampling outside of the genus. The clade consisting of Para- and Stiposorghum resolves as sister to Miscanthus and Saccharum with strong node support. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  11. Mapping one strong 'Ohana: using network analysis and GIS to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide coalition to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardazone, Gina; U Sy, Angela; Chik, Ivan; Corlew, Laura Kate

    2014-06-01

    Network analysis and GIS enable the presentation of meaningful data about organizational relationships and community characteristics, respectively. Together, these tools can provide a concrete representation of the ecological context in which coalitions operate, and may help coalitions identify opportunities for growth and enhanced effectiveness. This study uses network analysis and GIS mapping as part of an evaluation of the One Strong 'Ohana (OSO) campaign. The OSO campaign was launched in 2012 via a partnership between the Hawai'i Children's Trust Fund (HCTF) and the Joyful Heart Foundation. The OSO campaign uses a collaborative approach aimed at increasing public awareness of child maltreatment and protective factors that can prevent maltreatment, as well as enhancing the effectiveness of the HCTF Coalition. This study focuses on three elements of the OSO campaign evaluation: (1) Network analysis exploring the relationships between 24 active Coalition member organizations, (2) GIS mapping of responses to a randomized statewide phone survey (n = 1,450) assessing awareness of factors contributing to child maltreatment, and (3) Combined GIS maps and network data, illustrating opportunities for geographically-targeted coalition building and public awareness activities.

  12. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children.

  13. Support System of Health Professionals as Observed in the Project of Home Care For the Child With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronseth, Evangeline; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Data acquired in personal interviews administered to physicians and nurses who participated in the first year of the Home Care for the Child with Cancer project provided descriptions of individual sources of social support. The results reveal a range of supportive mechanisms and networks within varied institutional contexts. (Author)

  14. Changes in parenting and child behavior after the home-start family support program: A 10 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aar, J.V.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Deković, M.; Hoffenaar, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Home-Start is a parenting support program in which mothers experiencing difficulties in family life and parenting, receive weekly support at home from a volunteer. The present study extends the work of Hermanns et al. (2013), by examining self-reported and observed parenting and child

  15. "They laugh when I sing": perceived effects of caregiver social support on child wellbeing among South African caregivers of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Crankshaw, Tamaryn

    2015-01-01

    Social support provided to caregivers of children has been shown to be protective for caregiver health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. However, little work in Southern Africa provides insight on the relationship between caregiver social support and child wellbeing. This report discusses exploratory qualitative findings from a larger mixed methods study, on caregivers' perceptions of the pathways through which received support affects their children's lives. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 adult primary caregivers of children (aged 10-17 years) living in an HIV-endemic resource-constrained urban South African community. Thematic analysis of the data was supported by NVivo. Caregivers perceived the social support they received to positively affect their children's health and behaviour, both directly and through a positive influence on their (the caregivers') mental health, parenting and decision making. Information, advice and encouragement emerged as key types of support explaining perceived effects. Future research should continue to explore pathways explaining the relationship between caregiver social support and child psychosocial wellbeing with similar populations, and quantitatively investigate direct and indirect effects of potential mediating factors. Findings speak both to the importance of psychosocial support for parenting interventions and the potential to strengthen child-focused interventions through the broader family social network.

  16. Family burden, child disability, and the adjustment of mothers caring for children with epilepsy: Role of social support and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jeffrey M; Miller, Paul A

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. Participants included 152, predominantly Caucasian (89.5%), married (78.9%) women (95.4%). Via a web-based interface, mothers completed questionnaires assessing the impact of their child's disability on their family (i.e., severity of their child's disability, family burden, and personal stress), social resources (i.e., perceived social support), coping (i.e., emotion-focused and social support seeking), and adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability were associated with decreased perceived social support, which was then related to higher reported levels of depression and anxiety. Similarly, low levels of perceived social support partially mediated the relation between family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, mothers' perceptions of the severity of their children's disability and family burden were unrelated to their reports of emotion-focused or social support seeking coping. However, their use of emotion-focused and social support seeking behaviors was related to lower levels of depression. Low levels of perceived social support may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the relation between mothers' perceptions of the severity of their child's disability and family burden on their mental health adjustment, such as depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy apple program to support child care centers to alter nutrition and physical activity practices and improve child weight: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Evans, Jane; Chan, Curtis; Tao-Lew, Lisa; Arana, Tito; Arthur, Susan

    2017-12-19

    North Carolina Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) resources improve child body mass index (BMI) when the resources are introduced by nurses to child care providers, and offered with workshops and incentives. In San Francisco, public health and child care agencies partnered to adapt NAP SACC resources into an annual "Healthy Apple" quality improvement program (HAP). This cluster randomized controlled trial pilot-tested integration of the HAP with bi-annual public health screenings by nurses. All child care centers that participated in Child Care Health Program (CCHP) screenings in San Francisco in 2011-2012 were offered routine services plus HAP in 2012-2013 (CCHP + HAP, n = 19) or routine services with delayed HAP in 2014-2015 (CCHP + HAP Delayed, n = 24). Intention-to-treat analyses (robust SE or mixed models) used 4 years of screening data from 12 to 17 CCHP + HAP and 17 to 20 CCHP + HAP Delayed centers, regarding 791 to 945 children ages 2 to 5y, annually. Year-specific, child level models tested if children in CCHP + HAP centers had greater relative odds of exposure to 3 index best practices and smaller Autumn-to-Spring changes in BMI percentile and z-score than children in CCHP + HAP Delayed centers, controlling for age, sex, and Autumn status. Multi-year, child care center level models tested if HAP support modified year-to-year changes (2013-2014 and 2014-2015 vs 2011-2012) in child care center annual mean Autumn-to-Spring BMI changes. In 2011-2012, the CCHP + HAP and CCHP + HAP Delayed centers had similar index practices (public health nursing services was associated with significantly more children exposed to best practices and improvement in child BMI change. The results warrant continued integration of HAP into local public health infrastructure. ISRCTN18857356 (24/04/2015) Retrospectively registered.

  18. Identifying Policy Implications and Future Research Directions Regarding Military Community Support and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforte, Allison M; DeLeon, Patrick H; Engel, Charles C; Ling, Catherine; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2017-05-01

    As former U.S. Army Surgeon General Horoho points out, a large fraction of what determines the health and readiness of our military families does not occur during appointments with professionals, but rather within the "Lifespace-where health really happens...." Indeed, when children of military families experience psychosocial difficulties, such stress impacts the service members' personal well-being and ability to focus at work, impairing their capacity to attend to the mission. As such, the Department of Defense (DoD) has instituted a family readiness system to bolster resiliency within military families, including children, e.g., by linking families with support networks. Bolstering military family resiliency, including the prevention of and effective intervention for child psychosocial problems, is an important issue at all levels of the DoD. Service members, leaders, and policy makers have a vested interest in promoting mission readiness and a healthy force. Research can play an important role in shaping decision-making by consolidating what is currently known and not known about a particular expertise area. To date, there has been no consolidation of research regarding outcomes associated with military community support and the programs that currently exist to bolster child and family resiliency. Given the importance of military families to mission readiness, a review of the relevant research is warranted. This commentary article reviews the literature on community support for military children, provides an overview of currently available resources, discusses concerns with the current provision of support services to military families, and offers recommendations for future research, policy, and implementation of military community support programs. Although there is a dearth of research on available support programs, there appears to be no lack of services available to military families. However, several steps could be taken to make these resources into a

  19. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

  20. Responsibility for child and adolescent’s psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Charlotte; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communication as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordinator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibility for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be communicated to participants who are involved in children’s and adolescent’s sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not. PMID:28119882

  1. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Leaf, Philip J

    2012-11-01

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal prevention strategy currently implemented in >16,000 schools across the United States. SWPBIS intends to reduce students' behavior problems by altering staff behaviors and developing systems and supports to meet children's behavioral needs. The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of SWPBIS. The sample of 12,344 elementary school children was 52.9% male, 45.1% African American, and 46.1% Caucasian. Approximately 49% received free or reduced-priced meals, and 12.9% received special education services at baseline. The trial used a group randomized controlled effectiveness design implemented in 37 elementary schools. Multilevel analyses were conducted on teachers' ratings of children's behavior problems, concentration problems, social-emotional functioning, prosocial behavior, office discipline referrals, and suspensions at 5 time points over the course of 4 school years. The multilevel results indicated significant effects of SWPBIS on children's behavior problems, concentration problems, social-emotional functioning, and prosocial behavior. Children in SWPBIS schools also were 33% less likely to receive an office discipline referral than those in the comparison schools. The effects tended to be strongest among children who were first exposed to SWPBIS in kindergarten. These findings provide support for the hypothesized reduction in behavior problems and improvements in prosocial behavior and effective emotion regulation after training in SWPBIS. The SWPBIS framework appears to be a promising approach for reducing problems and promoting adjustment among elementary school children.

  2. Literature review shows that fathers are still not receiving the support they want and need from Swedish child health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B

    2016-09-01

    Sweden has a reputation for gender equality, and its child health services seek to support both parents. However, this meta-ethnographic analysis of 62 studies from 2000 to 2015 covering prenatal clinics, labour and birth wards, postnatal wards and child health centres found programmes had not been designed around paternal needs. Therefore, despite the policy change nearly 50 years ago to include both parents, fathers were still not fully accepted and supported. To provide fathers in Sweden with greater support throughout the child health field, organisational changes should be considered, as this could provide further beneficial outcomes for children, families and society. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  4. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving parenting in families referred for child maltreatment: a randomized controlled trial examining effects of Project Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David; Norwood, William D; Spiller, Laura; Stephens, Nanette; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah; Ehrensaft, Miriam

    2010-06-01

    Project Support is an intervention designed to decrease coercive patterns of aggressive discipline and increase positive parenting. This research evaluates Project Support in a sample of families reported to Children's Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of physical abuse or neglect; 35 families with a child between 3- and 8-years-old participated. In all families, CPS allowed the children to remain in the family home while the family received services. Families were randomly assigned to receive either Project Support or services as usual, which were provided by CPS or CPS-contracted service providers. To evaluate intervention effects, a multimethod, multi-informant assessment strategy was used that included data from mothers' reports, direct observation of parents' behavior, and review of CPS records for re-referrals for child maltreatment. Families who received Project Support services showed greater decreases than families who received services as usual in the following areas: mothers' perceived inability to manage childrearing responsibilities, mothers' reports of harsh parenting, and observations of ineffective parenting practices. Only 5.9% of families in the Project Support condition had a subsequent referral to CPS for child maltreatment, compared with 27.7% of families in the comparison condition. The results suggest that Project Support may be a promising intervention for reducing child maltreatment among families in which it has occurred. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Hypermasculinity, intimate partner violence, sexual aggression, social support, and child maltreatment risk in urban, heterosexual fathers taking parenting classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.

  7. Support and monitoring of families after child abuse detection based on parental characteristics at the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, H M; Pannebakker, F D; Dechesne, M; Buitendijk, S E; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M

    2015-03-01

    The 'Hague Protocol' enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates what had happened to the families three months after this referral. ED referrals based on parental characteristics (N = 100) in which child abuse was confirmed after investigation by the RCCAN were analysed. Information was collected regarding type of child abuse, reason for reporting, duration of problems prior to the ED referral, previous involvement of support services or other agencies, re-occurrence of the problems and outcome of the RCCAN monitoring according to professionals and the families. Of the 100 referred cases, 68 families were already known to the RCCAN, the police or family support services, prior to the ED referral. Of the 99 cases where information was available, existing support was continued or intensified in 31, a Child Protection Services (CPS) report had to be made in 24, new support was organized for 27 cases and in 17 cases support was not necessary, because the domestic problems were already resolved. Even though the RCCAN is mandated to monitor all referred families after three months, 31 cases which were referred internally were not followed up. Before referral by the ED two thirds of these families were already known to organizations. Monitoring may help provide a better, more sustained service and prevent and resolve domestic problems. A national database could help to link data and to streamline care for victims and families. We recommend a Randomized Controlled Trial to test the effectiveness of this Protocol in combination with the outcomes of the provided family support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Beliefs Associated with Support for Child-Centred Learning Environment among Hong Kong Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sum Kwing; Ling, Elsa Ka-wei; Leung, Suzannie Kit Ying

    2017-01-01

    The physical, social and temporal dimensions of the classroom environment have an important role in children's learning. This study examines the level of support for child-centred learning, and its associated beliefs, that is provided by Hong Kong's pre-service early childhood teachers. Two hundred and seventy-five students from a pre-service…

  9. 45 CFR 264.30 - What procedures exist to ensure cooperation with the child support enforcement requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the child support enforcement requirements? 264.30 Section 264.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OTHER ACCOUNTABILITY PROVISIONS What Specific Rules Apply...

  10. Promoting Child Development through Group-Based Parent Support within a Cash Transfer Program: Experimental Effects on Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Knauer, Heather A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program ("Educación Inicial" - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program ("Prospera," originally 'Oportunidades" and "Progresa"). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in…

  11. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  12. Sketching to Remember: Episodic Free Recall Task Support for Child Witnesses and Victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in episodic free-recall memory performance have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet best practice dictates that child witness/victim interviews commence with a free-recall account. No "tools" exist to support children with ASD to freely recall episodic information. Here, the efficacy of a novel…

  13. The Use of Contempt to Enforce Child-Support Orders in North Carolina. Special Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Trudy Allen; Mason, Janet

    In North Carolina the most common procedure for enforcing civil orders for the payment of child support is a contempt proceeding. The distinctions between civil and criminal contempt include different purposes of the contempt proceedings, different procedures that must be followed, and different consequences of a finding of contempt. Criminal…

  14. Faith, Hope, and Spirituality: SUPPORTING PARENTS WHEN THEIR CHILD HAS A LIFE-LIMITING ILLNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    When a child has a life-limiting illness, parents' goals and strategies for their child's life may need to be drastically altered, especially if early death looms. This article reviews literature and research about how families employ faith, hope, spirituality, and biblical perspectives as their child becomes critically ill and faces death. Suggestions are made for best caring practices for families and children encountering this difficult journey.

  15. Rethinking Child Welfare to Keep Families Safe and Together: Effective Housing-Based Supports to Reduce Child Trauma, Maltreatment Recidivism, and Re-Entry to Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Marny; Sullivan, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of children who are placed in child protective custody have parents with a substance use disorder. This placement occurs despite evidence that the trauma of removal is associated with poor long-term child outcomes. This article describes a collaborative model of a continuum of housing-based clinical and support services for the whole family that has safely reduced foster care placement. An external evaluation of this pilot in Jackson County, Oregon, found significant differences in subsequent maltreatment, foster care re-entry, and family permanency outcomes favoring the treatment group. After initial external grant funds, this program is continuing and expanding across Oregon due to state legislation, and funding and can be a model for other states.

  16. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  17. Reunifying Families, Cutting Costs: Housing-Child Welfare Partnerships for Permanent Supportive Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S.; White, Ruth A.

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of an adequate supply of affordable, quality housing, child welfare agencies are placed in the unenviable position of separating families to protect children from the debilitating effects of homelessness. This article presents recommendations for cost-effective housing-child welfare partnerships that will shift the burden of…

  18. Special Issues in Child Care: Supporting Infants Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ginger L.; Mullins, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children with prenatal drug exposure and/or a caregiver with a substance abuse problem participate in child care centers and homes throughout the United States. Thus, child care providers are in a position to monitor not only the need for physical, cognitive, or behavioral early intervention, but also to collaborate with parents on…

  19. Supporting User Involvement in Child Welfare Work: A Way of Implementing Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Karin; Hyvönen, Ulf; Karlsson, Per-Åke; Larsson, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The article describes and analyses some preliminary working methods for user involvement in child welfare. The models are based on the results of a national project in Sweden where children and young people have been involved as informants. How experiences and viewpoints from children and young people can be a source of knowledge in child welfare…

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Impacts of an Employer-Supported Child Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.

    2011-01-01

    Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…

  1. Pedagogical support of child development in a group on child care «Lesnaya Polyana»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlystova A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article reveals the peculiarities of psycho-pedagogical support for young children, describes the content, methods and techniques, ways of working with parents as part of the parent club.

  2. The effects of a support group on selected psychosocial outcomes of bereaved parents whose child died from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, S P; Ruffin, J; Goon-Johnson, K

    1995-04-01

    Group support for bereaved parents whose child died from cancer has been suggested as a means of helping parents express emotions about their loss and improve their coping. Using a quasi-experimental design, we sought to determine the selected psychosocial effects of participation in a support group for bereaved parents whose child died from cancer. Five bereaved parents completed the Emotions Profile Index, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report before and after the seven group sessions. No statistically significant differences were found. Descriptive data were analyzed from the co-therapists' process log and the participants' evaluation forms. The group process log revealed intense pain and grief over the loss of the child and the parents' conscious struggle to adapt to the present and prepare for the future. The discussions poignantly indicated the great extent to which the child's death had changed their lives. Using the group evaluation form parents reported high satisfaction with the group sessions. Tentative conclusions support the value of such a group in providing a forum for some bereaved parents to ventilate feelings and thoughts and validate the normalcy of their reactions.

  3. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Alzua, Maria Laura; Osbert, Nicolas; Pickering, Amy

    2017-06-20

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health.

  4. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  5. Parenting a Child with a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African American Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines: (1) the impact of having a child with a disability on parents’ mental and physical health among urban-dwelling African Americans and (2) the extent to which positive and negative social interactions with family other than the spouse moderate the impact of child’s disability on parental adaptation. Analyses are based on a probability sample of African Americans living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The analytic sample includes 48 parents of a child with a disability and 144 comp...

  6. Developmental outcome in preschoolers: Interrelations among maternal depression, perceived social support, and child's age of entry into Head Start

    OpenAIRE

    Papero, Anna L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a mediated-moderator model that was developed to explore whether age of entry into a Head Start Program moderated the relationship between maternal depressive symptomology and child cognitive and social outcome. In addition, the mediating role of maternal social support was examined. The study sample included 43 low-income mothers and their pre-school aged children who were enrolled in a large Head Start program in Southwest Virginia. Maternal depressive symptomology wa...

  7. Can teacher-child relationships support human rights to freedom of opinion and expression, education and participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Harrison, Linda J; McLeod, Sharynne; Walker, Sue; Spilt, Jantine L

    2018-02-01

    This study explored how teacher-child relationships change over the early school years, in terms of closeness and conflict, whether these trajectories differ in type and frequency for children with typical development and children with speech and language concern (SLC), and whether the trajectories are associated with school outcomes at 12-13 years. Participants were children, parents and teachers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents identified 2890 children with typical communication and 1442 children with SLC. Teacher-rated teacher-child closeness and conflict were collected biennially over six years. Academic and social-emotional outcomes were reported by teachers and children. Growth mixture modelling was conducted to generate teacher-child relationship trajectories and Wald's chi-square analyses were used to test the association between trajectories and school outcomes at 12-13 years, after controlling for a range of covariates including child's sex, language background, Indigenous status, age and socio-economic position. In both groups, the majority of children had teacher-child relationship trajectories with sustained high closeness and low conflict that predicted positive outcomes at age 12-13, but the SLC group was more at risk of less positive trajectories and poorer school outcomes. Close, less conflicted relationships with teachers may provide a supportive context for later language, literacy and social-emotional development. This study highlights the role of teachers in supporting children in their development of communication and academic skills that will optimise their capacity for freedom of opinions and expression, education and participation, as enshrined in Articles 19, 26 and 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

  8. Challenges in the management of support and care programmes for child-headed households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Sarie P; van Rensburg, Gisela H

    2011-10-01

    The present study reports on data collected in a larger study on 'A situational analysis of child-headed households in South Africa'. The purpose of this study was to explore the management and control of available and required services, resources and safety nets for children in child-headed households. The significance of having a better understanding of the challenges, limitations but importance for government structures to manage and control programmes will enhance the implementation and maintenance of focused and sustainable support structures and programmes which will effectively address the needs of child-headed households. An exploratory and descriptive, quantitative survey was conducted to provide information on government structures at a national level and the nine provinces in South Africa. The population consisted of the Departments of Social Development, Education, Health and Agriculture, at both national and provincial levels. The main findings included a lack of clarity regarding the concept and definition of a child-headed household, lack of empirical data, a diversity of needs and challenges in terms of location and geographical distribution of available infrastructure and support systems; programmes that are not inclusive and integrated; and contradictions in the stipulations and implementation of existing policies and capacity and human resources shortages. It was concluded that the magnitude, uniqueness and complexity of the phenomenon necessitate effective and sound scientific management principles. This is achieved by providing legal clarity of the concept; developing relevant policies and ensuring effective implementation thereof; rigorous monitoring and evaluation based on comprehensive empirical data; and protecting the rights and safety of these children and ensuring an enabling environment for all stakeholders to address needs and challenges. The role of the nurse manager is to ensure a holistic approach to children living in child

  9. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p water quality were not associated with individual household latrine ownership. The relationship between community latrine coverage and child height was strongest among households without a latrine; for these households, each 10% increase in latrine coverage was associated with a 0.031 (p-value = 0.040) increase in height-for-age z-score. In this study, the level of sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health. PMID:28514143

  10. Supporting local planning and budgeting for maternal, neonatal and child health in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Vincente Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsibility for planning and delivery of health services in the Philippines is devolved to the local government level. Given the recognised need to strengthen capacity for local planning and budgeting, we implemented Investment Cases (IC for Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH in three selected sub-national units: two poor, rural provinces and one highly-urbanised city. The IC combines structured problem-solving by local policymakers and planners to identify key health system constraints and strategies to scale-up critical MNCH interventions with a decision-support model to estimate the cost and impact of different scaling-up scenarios. Methods We outline how the initiative was implemented, the aspects that worked well, and the key limitations identified in the sub-national application of this approach. Results Local officials found the structured analysis of health system constraints helpful to identify problems and select locally appropriate strategies. In particular the process was an improvement on standard approaches that focused only on supply-side issues. However, the lack of data available at the local level is a major impediment to planning. While the majority of the strategies recommended by the IC were incorporated into the 2011 plans and budgets in the three study sites, one key strategy in the participating city was subsequently reversed in 2012. Higher level systemic issues are likely to have influenced use of evidence in plans and budgets and implementation of strategies. Conclusions Efforts should be made to improve locally-representative data through routine information systems for planning and monitoring purposes. Even with sound plans and budgets, evidence is only one factor influencing investments in health. Political considerations at a local level and issues related to decentralisation, influence prioritisation and implementation of plans. In addition to the strengthening of capacity at local

  11. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  12. Left ventricular assist device support with a centrifugal pump for 2 months in a 5-kg child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takafumi; Nishimura, Takashi; Murakami, Arata; Itatani, Keiichi; Takaoka, Tetsuhiro; Kitahori, Kazuo; Umeki, Akihide; Takezoe, Toshiko; Kashiwa, Koichi; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru

    2011-09-01

    The mid-term and long-term results of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation for small children are still unsatisfactory. There have been few reports of LVAD implantation for more than a month in children weighing under 5 kg. We report the case of a 4-month-old female infant who survived for 2 months after being diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with extracorporeal centrifugal pump support. In recent years, although pumps designed for small children have been introduced and are used as a bridge to transplantation or recovery, mid-term or long-term mechanical support for small children with heart failure is still difficult. We managed to successfully provide support for a low-body-weight child with a centrifugal pump over a mid-term period. We achieved acceptable control of thrombosis, but eventually the infant died of sepsis. Autopsy revealed no prominent thrombosis in the perfusion cannula, drainage cannula, the pump, or the left ventricle. This is the first case report of LVAD support with the centrifugal pump, ROTAFLOW(®) (Maquet, Rastatt, Germany), for 2 months in a child weighing under 5 kg. Our method may potentially save severe heart failure children who need mid-term LVAD support.

  13. Strong Coupling Asymptotics for Schrödinger Operators with an Interaction Supported by an Open Arc in three Dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Kondej, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 0034-4877 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : singular perturbations * eigenvalue asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2016

  14. Sexualized Minds: Child Sex Offenders Offense-supportive Cognitions and Interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Hempel (Inge)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Child sex offenders (CSOs) tend to justify their sexually abusive behaviour. To clarify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the offending process of CSOs, this thesis aimed to extend the knowledge about CSOs’ problematic attitudes and beliefs about sex with

  15. [The medical and psychological support for the child athletes during different periods of the training cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, N P; Levitskaia, T E; Matveeva, E A; Zaĭtsev, A A; Konovalov, A B; Tren'kaeva, N A; Akimova, K K; Kremeno, S V; Dostovalova, O V; Merzliakova, N V

    2014-01-01

    To study dynamics of the indicators of the hormonal and psychological status as well as psychological features of significance for the sportive performance under conditions of rehabilitative treatment during training and post-training periods in the child athlete engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The study included 42 child athletes at the age from 8 to 15 years engaged in rhythmic gymnastics. The children of the study group (group 1, n=17) received the combined restorative treatment under conditions of regular training while those comprising group 2 group (n=25) were given a similar treatment in the absence of the training load. All athletes underwent clinical and laboratory examination before and after the treatment for the assessment of their psychological status. The study has demonstrated that additional physical activities were responsible for the development of negative changes in the hormonal and psychological spheres of the child athletes. As a result, they experienced the impairment of certain qualities significant for their sportive performance. The rehabilitative measures during different periods of the training cycle promote normalization of all parameters of the hormonal, psychological, and physical status of the child athletes; moreover, they improve the adaptive capacity of the children.

  16. Child maltreatment and breast cancer survivors: social support makes a difference for quality of life, fatigue and cancer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Christopher P; Lindgren, Monica E; Shapiro, Charles L; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2012-03-01

    To identify how child maltreatment is associated with quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors. One hundred and thirty two women who had completed treatment for stage 0-IIIA breast cancer within the past 2 years (except for tamoxifen/aromatase inhibitors) and were at least 2 months post surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy completed questionnaires including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Impact of Events Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) and the Fact-B breast cancer quality of life questionnaire. Women who were abused or neglected as children reported more cancer-related psychological distress, more fatigue and poorer physical, emotional, functional and breast cancer-specific well-being after treatment. These relations were partially explained by the fact that breast cancer survivors reported receiving less support as adults. The findings suggest that child maltreatment is an important predictor of QOL among breast cancer survivors. One reason why this association exists is because those who are maltreated as children report less support as adults. A better understanding of how child maltreatment contributes to breast cancer survivor QOL will help in tailoring and, therefore, enhancing the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving QOL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread.

  18. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jonathan J.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Kitchell, Jim; Pace, Michael L.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ≈20–40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread. PMID:21245299

  19. Genetic evidence strongly support an essential role for PfPV1 in intra-erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Chu

    Full Text Available Upon invading the host erythrocyte, the human malaria parasite P. falciparum lives and replicates within a membrane bound compartment referred to as the parasitophorous vacuole. Recently, interest in this compartment and its protein content has grown, due to the important roles these play in parasite egress and protein traffic to the host cell. Surprisingly, the function of many proteins within this compartment has not been experimentally addressed. Here, we study the importance of one of these proteins, termed PfPV1, for intra-erythrocytic parasite survival. Despite numerous attempts to inactivate the gene encoding PfPV1, we were unable to recover deletion mutants. Control experiments verified that the pv1 gene locus was per se open for gene targeting experiments, allowing us to exclude technical limitations in our experimental strategy. Our data provide strong genetic evidence that PfPV1 is essential for survival of blood stage P. falciparum, and further highlight the importance of parasitophorous vacuole proteins in this part of the parasite's life cycle.

  20. Effects of Using Child Personas in the Development of a Digital Peer Support Service for Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnestål, Pontus; Svedberg, Petra; Lindberg, Susanne; Nygren, Jens M

    2017-05-18

    Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using child personas in the development of a digital peer support service for childhood cancer survivors. The user group's needs and behaviors were characterized based on cohort data and literature, focus group interviews with childhood cancer survivors (n=15, 8-12 years), stakeholder interviews with health care professionals and parents (n=13), user interviews, and observations. Data were interpreted and explained together with childhood cancer survivors (n=5) in three explorative design workshops and a validation workshop with children (n=7). We present findings and insights on how to codesign child personas in the context of developing digital peer support services with childhood cancer survivors. The work resulted in three primary personas that model the behaviors, attitudes, and goals of three user archetypes tailored for developing health-promoting services in this particular use context. Additionally, we also report on the effects of using these personas in the design of a digital peer support service called Give Me a Break. By applying our progressive steps of data collection and analysis, we arrive at authentic child-personas that were successfully used to design and develop health-promoting services for children in vulnerable life stages. The child-personas serve as effective collaboration and communication aids for both internal and external

  1. Parents' experiences of collaborating with professionals in the support of their child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne Lg; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-03-01

    There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. A multiple case study ( n = 4) was conducted. Observations were logged for every contact between professionals and parents during 12 months. The mean number of contacts a month ranged from 1.9 to 16.7 across the cases. Most of the contacts were with the child's direct support persons (85.2%) and exchanging information (35.5%) was the most common function. Issues concerning health (28.4%) were the most common subjects discussed. The majority of the mothers' experiences were positive. Direct support persons play a crucial role; they need to be aware of this role and to be trained to fulfill their role to acknowledge parents as partners.

  2. Questioning the use-value of social relationships: care and support of youths affected by HIV in child-headed households in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Diana; Van Driel, Francien

    2012-10-01

    The opinion that the extended family can fulfil its supportive role in assisting child-headed households continues to exist. How these households encounter support, what this support entails, and how they experience this support is an under-researched subject. Most research literature on this topic emphasises child-headed households' material and financial support. However, although financial support is vital, emotional support to cope with the loss of loved ones, or with loneliness and insecurity, is also much needed, as well as adult assistance in obtaining formal support, such as social welfare grants. Thus, to what extent are child-headed households capable of capitalising on existing (extended) family and community members' care and support? This article addresses this question by exploring the 'use-value' of social relationships among child-headed households in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The coping strategies of the child-headed households are discussed and analysed, indicating the children's interpretations and valuation of social relationships and support, whether this increased their potential access to other resources, and whether this support could be considered sufficient. Despite some exceptions, we argue that support from relatives or neighbours is often ambiguous and of little use-value from the viewpoint of a child-headed household. Insights from these findings might be of interest to those involved in support programmes for these households, including the assignment of an adult mentor - which is based on the assumption that existing networks of extended family and community members will help orphaned and vulnerable children to cope.

  3. A prospective study of the impact of child maltreatment and friend support on psychological distress trajectory: From adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Daigneault, Isabelle; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Auclair, Julie; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Transition into adulthood is a critical developmental period that may be influenced by adverse life events as well as by protective factors. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different forms of child maltreatment experienced prior to age 14 (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence), and of friend support at age 14 on the psychological distress trajectory from age 14 to 24. Participants were 605 adolescents from the general population involved in a 10-year longitudinal study. Psychological distress was evaluated at ages 14, 16, 18 and 24. Child maltreatment prior to 14 years was retrospectively assessed at 14 and 24 years while perception of support from friends was evaluated at age 14. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that psychological distress followed a significant decreasing curvilinear trajectory, with participants reporting fewer distressing psychological symptoms after 18 years. All three forms of child maltreatment, as well as their cumulative effect, predicted more psychological distress over 10 years above and beyond the protective effect of support from friends. Higher support from friends at age 14 was related to lower distress at baseline andover 10 years, beyond the effect of child maltreatment. Self-report nature of all measures, attrition, and measures of child maltreatment forms. Psychological distress decreased during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results also revealed the detrimental impact of child maltreatment and the promotive role of friend support, which underscore the importance of early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Parent–Child Relationships and Parent Psychological Distress: How Do Social Support, Strain, Dissatisfaction, and Equity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with children are important for parents’ psychological well-being, yet limited research addresses whether and how relationships with adult children matter for aging parents’ psychological well-being in mid- to later life. We used four waves of national longitudinal data (Americans’ Changing Lives, N = 1,692) and growth curve models to test how multiple dimensions of the intergenerational relationship—social support, strain, equity, and dissatisfaction—shape mid- to later life parents’ psychological distress over time. Results showed that social support and strain were associated with parents’ distress at baseline but not over time, while relationship equity and dissatisfaction affected change in parents’ psychological distress over time. Findings further showed how the effects of dissatisfaction varied for mothers and fathers. This study adds to an understanding of the social context of aging by drawing attention to how specific dimensions of the parent–child tie matter longitudinally for mid- to later life parents’ psychological distress. PMID:26334963

  5. "A Mixed Blessing": Social Support as a Coping Resource for Parents Who Lost a Child in Terrorist Attacks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yael

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the issue of perceived social support among 40 bereaved parents who have lost a child in a terrorist attack in Israel. The aim is to gain a better understanding of the nature and quality of the formal and informal support that the parents received. The parents were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. The content analysis revealed that alongside the positive aspects, the parents also emphasized the negative side of the encounter with the social environment. The positive aspects included feeling of appreciation for the assistance in the coping process. The negative aspects included a sense of abandonment and distress. The dialectic nature of the domain, together with a recognition of its importance, points to the need to reconcile between the desire on the part of the social environment to assist the bereaved parent on one hand and ways to implement it on the other hand.

  6. Organizational supports used by private child and family serving agencies to facilitate evidence use: a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen

    2017-04-08

    Challenges to evidence use are well documented. Less well understood are the formal supports-e.g., technical infrastructure, inter-organizational relationships-organizations may put in place to help overcome these challenges. This study will identify supports for evidence use currently used by private child and family serving agencies delivering publicly funded behavioral health and/or human services; examine contextual, organizational, and managerial factors associated with use of such supports; and determine how identified supports affect evidence use by staff at multiple levels of the organization. We will use a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, with study activities occurring in two sequential phases: In phase 1, quantitative survey data collected from managers of private child and family serving agencies in six states (CA, IN, KY, MO, PA, and WI) and analyzed using both regression and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will identify organizational supports currently being used to facilitate evidence use and examine the contextual, organizational, and managerial factors associated with the use of such supports. In phase 2, data from phase 1 will be used to select a purposive sample of 12 agencies for in-depth case studies. In those 12 agencies, semi-structured interviews with key informants and managers, focus groups with frontline staff, and document analysis will provide further insight into agencies' motivation for investing in organizational supports for evidence use and the facilitators and barriers encountered in doing so. Semi-structured interviews with managers and focus groups with frontline staff will also assess whether and how identified supports affect evidence use at different levels of the organization (senior executives, middle managers, frontline supervisors, and frontline staff). Within- and between-case analyses supplemented by QCA will identify combinations of factors associated with the highest and lowest levels of staff

  7. Associations among Child Perceptions of Parenting Support, Maternal Parenting Efficacy and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; de Baca, Tomas Cabeza; Jordan, Ashley; Tilley, Elizabeth; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and parents often rely on the support provided by non-parental adults such as extended family members. Expanding conceptualizations of social support beyond traditional nuclear family paradigms to include non-parental adults may be particularly relevant to identifying family strengths among economically disadvantaged and…

  8. Parent gender as a moderator: The relationships between social support, collective efficacy, and child physical abuse in a community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    Social support and collective efficacy are related to child physical abuse. However, little is known about whether these relationships differ for women and men, although mothers and fathers differ in the quantity and quality of time spent with children. This study examined whether the relationship between social support, collective efficacy, and physical abuse is stronger for mothers than fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with parent respondents in 50 California cities (n=3,023). Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results suggest that high levels of emotional support were inversely associated with physical abuse for women and men, although this effect was stronger for women. High levels of companionship support were positively associated with physical abuse for women; however the opposite was true for men. There were no significant interactions between collective efficacy variables and gender. The relationships between some types of social support and physical abuse appear to vary for men and women suggesting possibilities for more targeted intervention. PMID:25520320

  9. Graphene-oxide-supported Pt nanoparticles with high activity and stability for hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Choi, Myong Yong; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-oxide-supported Pt (GO-Pt) nanoparticles were prepared by performing diimide-activated amidation and used in an electrocatalyst for hydrazine electro-oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The physico-chemical properties of the GO-Pt nanoparticles were characterized with various techniques, which revealed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 2.6 nm were densely deposited on the amidated GO due to their strong adhesion. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained and demonstrate that the GO-Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and long-term stability in hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt metal electrodes. These enhanced electrochemical properties are attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area that results from the smaller size and excellent dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles on amidated GO.

  10. Effectiveness of professional training in bereavement care: Survey of Japanese pediatricians supporting families who have lost a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setou, Noriko; Sakaguchi, Yukihiro; Kurokawa, Kayoko; Takada, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of professional training in bereavement care. We mailed a questionnaire to 554 Japanese pediatricians. It asked about demographic characteristics, personal support experiences, professional training, psychological distress, recognition of high risk after a child's death, and eight items relating to awareness in bereavement care. We divided the subjects into two groups based on the presence or absence of professional training and compared them on the basis of each item (χ(2) test), and conducted logistic regression analysis. Of the 239 respondents, 193 (80.8%) had performed bereavement care. The final number included in the analysis was 175, after excluding responses with missing data. A total of 46 respondents (26.3%) had attended bereavement care training. The subjects who had had training were more likely to recognize those at high risk for poor psychological recovery, have information about support groups, have a desire to study bereavement care, and understand the necessity of cooperation with mental health specialists. Many pediatricians had personally provided support for the bereaved. On logistic analysis, it was considered that four factors (recognition of high risk for poor recovery, information about support, desire to study, and cooperation with professionals) were significantly associated with the professional training. There were no significant differences, however, in psychological distress, helplessness, and fatigue. Training programs related to stress management must be improved for pediatricians who feel high levels of psychological distress. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Strengthening policy research on infant and young child feeding: An imperative to support countries in scaling up impact on nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Enabling policy environments for nutrition require require evidence to support best practice and engagement with political and policy contexts, as well as leadership, resourcing, advocacy, and technical support. However, research on nutrition policy contexts is limited. The papers in this special supplement on policy contexts for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in South Asia makes a valuable contribution to understanding the policy landscape and political dynamics in the region and the global literature. Studies included in this special supplement analyzed policy content and stakeholder influence on IYCF in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and assess the role of advocacy in addressing multiple elements of the policy environment. These analyses highlight opportunities to harmonize and manage the demands and interests of multiple actors while strengthening policy to strategically support optimal IYCF as the ultimate goal. They also provide robust examples of research on policy environments and policy change. Further investments in research on policy contexts for nutrition can help to understand and support continued progress towards improved actions for nutrition.

  12. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  13. Grandmother Support, Family Functioning, and Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbarello, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…

  14. Schematic Pedagogy: Supporting One Child's Learning at Home and in a Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Frances; Nutbrown, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify ways in which the learning of very young children can be supported by practitioners developing a schematic pedagogy which focuses on structures of children's thinking. First, we provide a critical overview of relevant literature on schemas and schematic approaches to pedagogy. We then outline an original study undertaken…

  15. How Do Women with an Intellectual Disability Experience the Support of a Doula During Their Pregnancy, Childbirth and After the Birth of Their Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Alison; Stenfert Kroese, Biza; Cox, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing numbers of people with an intellectual disability choosing to become parents, the right support is imperative for effective parenting (Macintyre & Stewart ). The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of parents who received support from Doulas during pregnancy, birth and following the birth of their child. In addition, the experiences of the Doulas who provided the support were investigated. Four women with an intellectual disability who received Doula support were interviewed before and after the birth of their child. Three Doulas were interviewed after the birth about their experiences of supporting women with an intellectual disability. Interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were identified from each interview, before an overall analysis of themes from each support phase was undertaken. Pre-natally, the Doula was considered helpful and a reliable source of information about pregnancy. Each mother perceived Doula support as a means of keeping her child in her care. Post-natally, mothers described a trusting relationship with their Doula, who enabled them to make informed choices. Doulas described how they adapted their work to meet the needs of parents with intellectual disability. Being involved in Child Protection procedures was perceived as stressful and challenging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Supporting a child with multiple disabilities to participate in social interaction: The case of asking a question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Niklas; Sigurd Pilesjö, Maja

    2016-09-09

    Asking a question can be a highly challenging task for a person with multiple disabilities, but questions have not received much attention in research on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Conversation analysis is employed to examine an instance of multiparty interaction where a speech and language therapist supports a child with multiple disabilities to ask a question with a communication board. The question is accomplished through a practice where the action is built as a trajectory of interactional steps. Each step is built using ways of involvement that establish different participation spaces designed to deal with different aspects of asking a question: agreeing on the action type, the speaker and recipient, the content of the question, and then asking the question. The segmentation of a question into discrete steps and participation spaces can be used in intervention to model the construction of a question for AAC users and significant others.

  17. Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of child day centers on college campuses and what it takes to provide safe, successful, and fun places that support students, faculty, and staff needs. Areas addressed include safety and security, class and room size, inclusion of child-size toilets, and interior color schemes. (GR)

  18. Associations between social support, psychological well-being, decision making, empowerment, infant and young child feeding, and nutritional status in Ugandan children ages 0 to 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Scott B; Wu, Michael; Mandel, Maia P; Roberts, Alison C

    2018-01-01

    Maternal capabilities-qualities of mothers that enable them to leverage skills and resources into child health-hold potential influence over mother's adoption of child caring practices, including infant and young child feeding. We developed a survey (n = 195) that assessed the associations of 4 dimensions of maternal capabilities (social support, psychological health, decision making, and empowerment) with mothers' infant and young child feeding practices and children's nutritional status in Uganda. Maternal responses were converted to categorical subscales and an overall index. Scale reliability coefficients were moderate to strong (α range = 0.49 to 0.80). Mothers with higher social support scores were more likely to feed children according to the minimum meal frequency (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.38 [1.10, 1.73]), dietary diversity (OR [95% CI] = 1.56 [1.15, 2.11]), iron rich foods, (OR [95% CI] = 1.47 [1.14, 1.89]), and minimally acceptable diet (OR [95% CI] = 1.55 [1.10, 2.21]) indicators. Empowerment was associated with a greater likelihood of feeding a minimally diverse and acceptable diet. The maternal capabilities index was significantly associated with feeding the minimum number of times per day (OR [95% CI] = 1.29 [1.03, 1.63]), dietary diversity (OR [95% CI] = 1.44 [1.06, 1.94]), and minimally acceptable diet (OR [95% CI] = 1.43 [1.01, 2.01]). Mothers with higher psychological satisfaction were more likely to have a stunted child (OR [95% CI] = 1.31 [1.06, 1.63]). No other associations between the capabilities scales and child growth were significant. Strengthening social support for mothers and expanding overall maternal capabilities hold potential for addressing important underlying determinants of child feeding in the Ugandan context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tuning the Selectivity of Catalytic Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation over Iridium/Cerium Oxide Catalysts with a Strong Metal-Support Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Xu, Yao; Chen, Yifu; Li, Weizhen; Lin, Lili; Li, Mengzhu; Deng, Yuchen; Wang, Xiaoping; Ge, Binghui; Yang, Ce; Yao, Siyu; Xie, Jinglin; Li, Yongwang; Liu, Xi; Ma, Ding

    2017-08-28

    A one-step ligand-free method based on an adsorption-precipitation process was developed to fabricate iridium/cerium oxide (Ir/CeO 2 ) nanocatalysts. Ir species demonstrated a strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) with the CeO 2 substrate. The chemical state of Ir could be finely tuned by altering the loading of the metal. In the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) hydrogenation reaction it was shown that the chemical state of Ir species-induced by a SMSI-has a major impact on the reaction selectivity. Direct evidence is provided indicating that a single-site catalyst is not a prerequisite for inhibition of methanation and sole production of carbon monoxide (CO) in CO 2 hydrogenation. Instead, modulation of the chemical state of metal species by a strong metal-support interaction is more important for regulation of the observed selectivity (metallic Ir particles select for methane while partially oxidized Ir species select for CO production). The study provides insight into heterogeneous catalysts at nano, sub-nano, and atomic scales. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Understanding the implementation and adoption of an information technology intervention to support medicine optimisation in primary care: qualitative study using strong structuration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Mark; Phipps, Denham; Howard, Rachel L; Avery, Anthony; Rodgers, Sarah; Ashcroft, Darren

    2017-05-10

    Using strong structuration theory, we aimed to understand the adoption and implementation of an electronic clinical audit and feedback tool to support medicine optimisation for patients in primary care. This is a qualitative study informed by strong structuration theory. The analysis was thematic, using a template approach. An a priori set of thematic codes, based on strong structuration theory, was developed from the literature and applied to the transcripts. The coding template was then modified through successive readings of the data. Clinical commissioning group in the south of England. Four focus groups and five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 participants purposively sampled from a range of stakeholder groups (general practitioners, pharmacists, patients and commissioners). Using the system could lead to improved medication safety, but use was determined by broad institutional contexts; by the perceptions, dispositions and skills of users; and by the structures embedded within the technology. These included perceptions of the system as new and requiring technical competence and skill; the adoption of the system for information gathering; and interactions and relationships that involved individual, shared or collective use. The dynamics between these external, internal and technological structures affected the adoption and implementation of the system. Successful implementation of information technology interventions for medicine optimisation will depend on a combination of the infrastructure within primary care, social structures embedded in the technology and the conventions, norms and dispositions of those utilising it. Future interventions, using electronic audit and feedback tools to improve medication safety, should consider the complexity of the social and organisational contexts and how internal and external structures can affect the use of the technology in order to support effective implementation. © Article author(s) (or their

  1. Social support within a mother and child group: An ethnographic study situated in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather

    2013-06-01

    Social support has been associated with positive outcomes regarding the mothering experience, and professional interventions have therefore been developed in formal settings to promote this. An ethnographic approach was used to consider the subjective experiences of mothers attending a professionally-facilitated group for parents and children aged 0-4 years, focusing on relationships within the group and their importance within existing social networks. Qualitative data were collected from seven participants using interviews and participant observation. These were analyzed by the constant comparison method into codes, categories, and themes. Three themes emerged: past history, being a mother, and function of the group. To ensure mothers and children benefit from such groups, nurses who participate in developing and leading community interventions for mothers and their children need to be aware of the importance of maternal identity and the factors that can impact the relationships between mothers within group settings. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Development and preliminary evaluation of the Child Feeding Guide website and app: A tool to support caregivers with promoting healthy eating in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haycraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fussy eating in young children is very common, with at least 50% of parents reporting having a fussy child. Eating behaviours established early in life tend to remain throughout childhood and into adulthood, so ensuring that children develop healthy eating behaviours from their earliest years is vital. Fussy children often refuse to eat healthy foods, like fruit and vegetables, but favour high-calorie foods instead. Diets low in fruit and vegetables have been linked to a number of preventable health conditions, such as diabetes and cancers, as well as to overweight and obesity. Fussy child eating behaviours can also cause anxiety and stress in caregivers, which can perpetuate the problem. Despite an abundance of available support for introducing complementary foods, practical advice about child feeding once weaning has occurred is lacking. Moreover, caregivers find available resources about feeding young children and promoting healthy eating to be “too basic” and have called for evidence-based, credible resources to help them manage children’s difficult or fussy eating behaviours. Empowering caregivers to effectively manage fussy eating behaviours and improve health in their children will likely prevent these eating behaviours from becoming engrained and reduce the number of children eating unhealthy or limited diets. Aim: To address the lack of child feeding support for caregivers by developing an evidence-based, credible and accessible support resource to promote healthy eating habits in young children and healthy feeding practices in caregivers. Method: Following a review of the literature and consultation with caregivers, the Child Feeding Guide was developed. The Child Feeding Guide is a website and free mobile app which offers information, advice and tools to help caregivers manage fussy eating behaviours. An online format was used to ensure the Child Feeding Guide is accessible and that a diverse range of caregivers can

  3. Strong support for relocation to other work tasks: A cross-sectional study of attitudes to sickness insurance regulations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, G; Holmgren, K; Rohdén, H

    2015-01-01

    Profound changes are taking place in the Swedish welfare state. The general population's attitudes are important insofar changes will be perceived as fair and effective to become implemented. The aim was to study attitudes to the strictness of the sick-leave rules, relocation to other work tasks after 3 months of sick leave and applications for new jobs after 6 months of sick leave. Eligible for this questionnaire study were 1,140 individuals aged 19 to 64 years. Their attitudes were analyzed in relation to age, gender, political ideology and health status. Health status was measured as sick-leave experiences, self-reported health and level of symptoms. Showed that 42% considered the sick-leave rules to be too strict, 60% found relocation to other work tasks to be good while 35% found that applications for new work were good. In logistic regression analyses, high sick-leave experience was associated with increased odds of finding the sick-leave rules too strict and disagreement with relocation to other work tasks or application for new jobs. In conclusion, strong support was found for relocation to other work tasks with the present employer. Earlier research on returning to work has found workplace interventions to be efficient. From a policy perspective it seems relevant to promote such interventions given the strong public opinion in their favor.

  4. An Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Caregivers How to Support Social Skill Development in Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahfuz; Simpson, Andrea; Danaher, Katey; Haesen, James; Makela, Tanya; Thomson, Kendra

    2018-01-06

    Limited research has explored how to best train caregivers to support their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) despite caregivers being well suited to promote generalization and maintenance of their child's skills in the natural environment. Children with ASD have been shown to benefit from social skill training, which is not always conducted in the natural context. This research examined the efficacy of behavioral skills training (BST) with, and without in situ training (IST), for teaching caregivers how to also use BST to support their child's context-specific social skills. Although caregivers met mastery criterion within BST sessions, their skills did not generalize to the natural environment until IST was introduced. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Impact of Perceived Stress, Anxiety-Depression and Social Support on Coping Strategies of Parents Having A Child With Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussé, Véronique; Czernecki, Virginie; Denis, Pierre; Stilgenbauer, Jean-Louis; Deniau, Emmanuelle; Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have indicated that raising a child with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) could be considered a stressful experience. Thus our study aimed to assess the impact of perceived stress (i.e. parental cognitive perception of their child's disorder) and social support (number of people surrounding the subject providing support) on coping strategies-defined as processes of restoring balance between excessive demands and inadequate resources-of parents having a child with GTS. Twenty-eight parents of 21 patients with GTS (aged 6 to 16years) completed questionnaires on perceived stress (ALE Scale), social support (SSQ6), coping strategies (WCC-R) and anxiety-depression (HAD). Principal component analysis showed a negative correlation between social support on one side and perceived stress and anxiety/depression on the other. Problem- and emotion-focused coping both correlated with social support, all of them being independent from perceived stress and anxiety/depression. Hierarchical ascendant classification showed three clusters of individuals in our parents' groups: i) those having high scores in perceived stress and anxiety-depression; ii) those having high scores in social support associated with low scores in perceived stress; iii) parents having lower than average scores on both problem- and emotion- focused coping and social support. Our results reinforce the need for developing training programs for parents with GTS children to better understand and tolerate the disorder to decrease their stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crisis, Acceptance, and Advocacy: A Supportive Guide for Parents of Trans and Gender-Nonconforming Youth--A Review of "The Transgender Child"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Shannon E.

    2013-01-01

    The first nonpathologizing book for parents on trans and gender-nonconforming young people, Stephanie Brill and Rachel Pepper's "The Transgender Child: A Handbook for Families and Professionals", urges unconditional love and acceptance of both trans youth and gender-nonconforming children. The authors encourage parents not only to support their…

  7. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  8. A Person-Centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent-Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent-child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12-15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach,…

  9. Exploring the Relations among the Nature of the Abuse, Perceived Parental Support, and Child's Self-Concept and Trauma Symptoms among Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carla J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined two resiliency factors: self-concept and perceived parental support, in conjunction with abuse factors that impact psychological functioning. Data were collected on 61 sexually abused children prior to treatment. Findings indicate that a child's self-concept was associated with all the trauma symptoms except sexual concerns and…

  10. Farm to School and the Child Nutrition Act: Improving School Meals through Advocating Federal Support for Farm-to-School Programs. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James

    2011-01-01

    From 2009 to 2010, the Community Food Security Coalition advocated for more federal support and funding for farm-to-school programs as Congress considered reauthorizing the Child Nutrition Act. Farm-to-school initiatives aim to improve the quality and healthfulness of student meals through the inclusion of more fresh fruits and vegetables provided…

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE SYSTEM "SPECIAL CHILD – LIVING ENVIRONMENT" AS A BASIS FOR SUPPORT OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Анатольевна Калашникова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to determine the content characteristic of interaction of a child with disabilities and his living environment, psychological analysis of the options for the child development in different types of this interaction. It is based on the principles of system analysis. Child development is presented as a process and the result of interaction between the system components "child with disabilities – living environment". Interaction is considered in terms of compliance, non-compliance of system components.The article identifies the types of system interactions "special child – living environment" (adaptive, developing, maladaptive, deforming and gives their content characteristics. Integrative potential is considered as a condition, the result and complete description of the system "special child – living environment". It includes the personal potential possibilities of a child with disabilities and the resources of living environment according to the child’s needs.  The presented model is applicable to the analysis of family or  education environment  of disabled child to create and carry out the individual program of child development and creation of optimal conditions for the socialization and integration.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-13

  12. The 2009 Health Confidence Survey: public opinion on health reform varies; strong support for insurance market reform and public plan option, mixed response to tax cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth

    2009-07-01

    PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment

  13. Providing High-Quality Support Services to Home-Based Child Care: A Conceptual Model and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Korfmacher, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Home-based child care accounts for a significant proportion of nonparental child care arrangements for young children in the United States. Yet the early care and education field lacks clear models or pathways for how to improve quality in these settings. The conceptual model presented here articulates the components of…

  14. Palliative Care for Children: Support for the Whole Family When Your Child Is Living with a Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious illness. 5 6 The palliative care team works with you, your child, and your care team. Together with your child’s health care providers, palliative care professionals will work with you and your child to make a care plan that is right ...

  15. Support and monitoring of families after child abuse detection based on parental characteristics at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Dexhesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ‘Hague Protocol’ enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and

  16. Women's autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.

  17. Middle School Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of the Whole Child Professional Development Program Based on the PA School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Cohort Training System and the Thom Stecher and Associates Adult Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Whole child education is the process of supporting the social and emotional needs of students. By supporting the various non-academic needs of students, the social distractions and disadvantages are reduced and the academic needs have a greater opportunity to flourish. Whole child education is designed to foster a sense of social justice as the…

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Thermal Transport in Graphene Supported on Hexagonal Boron Nitride: The Importance of Strong Adhesion Due to π -Bond Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Alexander J.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2016-09-01

    One important attribute of graphene that makes it attractive for high-performance electronics is its inherently large thermal conductivity (κ ) for the purposes of thermal management. Using a combined density-functional theory and classical molecular-dynamics approach, we predict that the κ of graphene supported on hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN) can be as large as 90% of the κ of suspended graphene, in contrast to the significant suppression of κ (more than 70% reduction) on amorphous silica. Interestingly, we find that this enhanced thermal transport is largely attributed to increased lifetimes of the in-plane acoustic phonon modes, which is a notable contrast from the dominant contribution of out-of-plane acoustic modes in suspended graphene. This behavior is possible due to the charge polarization throughout graphene that induces strong interlayer adhesion between graphene and h -BN. These findings highlight the potential benefit of layered dielectric substrates such as h -BN for graphene-based thermal management, in addition to their electronic advantages. Furthermore, our study brings attention to the importance of understanding the interlayer interactions of graphene with layered dielectric materials which may offer an alternative technological platform for substrates in electronics.

  19. Facing Spousal Cancer During Child-Rearing Years: Do Social Support and Hardiness Moderate the Impact of Psychological Distress on Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C

    Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.

  20. Capacity of frontline ICDS functionaries to support caregivers on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anuraag; Nakkeeran, N; Doshi, Minal; Patel, Ruchi; Bhagwat, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Improved infant and young child feeding practices have the potential to improve child growth and development outcomes in India. Anganwadi Workers, the frontline government functionaries of the national nutrition supplementation programme in India, play a vital role in promoting infant and young child feeding practices in the community. The present study assessed the Anganwadi Workers' knowledge of infant and young child feeding practices, and their ability to counsel and influence caregivers regarding these practices. Eighty Anganwadi Workers from four districts of Gujarat participated in assessment centres designed to evaluate a range of competencies considered necessary for the successful promotion of infant and young child feeding practices. The results of the evaluation showed the Anganwadi Workers possessing more knowledge about infant and young child feeding practices like initiation of breastfeeding, pre-lacteal feeding and colostrum, age of introduction of complementary foods, portion size and feeding frequency than about domains which appear to have a direct bearing on practices. A huge contrast existed between the Anganwadi Workers' knowledge and their ability to apply this in formal counselling sessions with caregivers. Inability to empathetically engage with caregivers, disregard for taking the feeding history of children, poor active listening skills and inability to provide need-based advice were pervasive during counselling. In conclusion, to ensure enhanced interaction between the Anganwadi Workers and caregivers on infant and young child feeding practices, a paradigm shift in training is required, making communication processes and counselling skills central to the training.

  1. The Experiences of Supportive and Participative Needs of Couples in the First Experience of Child Bearing: A Qualitative Study with Phenomenology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    روح انگيز محمدي خشوئي

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The birth of the first child is one of the most important events in the couple's life that changes most parents deeply. The present study tries to describe the couples’ experiences during child bearing stage in association with their acceptance and role participation. This research is a qualitative study and collected a sample of 14 members of couples in the early stage of child bearing based on the purpose of the study and went through deep interviews. In this study, the Colaizzi method has been used for the information analysis. The reliability and validity of the present study mainly stem from four axes of real value, applicability, consistency and based on the fact. The interview transcripts have been analyzed with three main themes: acceptance, role participation, and social support. Three essential elements were found including “acceptance, role participation, and social support” as important in order to maintain life family strength during first experience of child bearing in marital life. There fore, health system providers are suggested to use this information to deal with the challenges they face in child bearing stage to improve preparation of young couples.

  2. The impact of different types of parental support behaviours on child physical activity, healthy eating, and screen time: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pyper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, 31.5 % of children are overweight or obese, putting them at an increased risk of chronic co-morbidities and premature mortality. Physical activity, healthy eating, and screen time are important behavioural determinants of childhood overweight and obesity that are influenced by the family environment, and particularly parents’ support behaviours. However, there is currently a limited understanding of which types of these support behaviours have the greatest positive impact on healthy child behaviours. This study aims to determine the relative contribution of different types of parental support behaviours for predicting the likelihood that children meet established guidelines for daily physical activity, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and recreational screen time. Methods A Computer Assisted Telephone Interview survey was used to collect data from a random sample of parents or guardians with at least one child under the age of 18 in Ontario (n = 3,206. Three multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict whether or not parents reported their child was meeting guidelines. Independent variables included parent and child age and gender, multiple indicators of parental support behaviours, and socio-demographic characteristics. Parental support behaviours were categorized post-hoc as motivational, instrumental, regulatory, and conditional based on an adapted framework. Results Controlling for all other factors in the model, several parental support behaviours were found to be significant predictors of children meeting established health guidelines. For example, conditional support behaviours including taking the child to places where they can be active (OR: 2.06; 95 % CI: 1.32-3.21, and eating meals as a family away from the TV (95 % CI: 1.15-2.41 were significant positive predictors of children meeting physical activity and fruit and vegetable guidelines, respectively. Conclusions Health

  3. Effect of peer counselling by mother support groups on infant and young child feeding practices: the Lalitpur experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Komal P; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J P; Gupta, Y P; Bhatt, Girish C; Ansari, Dilshad A; Sharma, B

    2014-01-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points-2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p =  feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, pfeeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p =  feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p =  feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained.

  4. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which...... a factor is in agreement with a statement, we propose the Discrete Level Support Vector Machine (DILSVM) where the feature scores can only take on a discrete number of values, defined by the so-called feature rating levels. The DILSVM classifier benefits from interpretability and it has visual appeal...

  5. Good Enough Support? Exploring the Attitudes, Knowledge and Experiences of Practitioners in Social Services and Child Welfare Working with Mothers with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamčíková, Zdeňka; Klusáček, Jan

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations between variables and differences between various subgroups of the sample were made. The open questions were analysed using the processes involved in content analysis. The findings indicated that the participants had limited knowledge of available supports and services for mothers with intellectual disability. Furthermore, many participants believed that mothers with intellectual disability should have an abortion should they become pregnant. The findings show practitioners' stereotyped attitudes towards mothers with intellectual disability. Workers in the area of social services and child welfare need access to training and professional development in the area of supporting mothers with intellectual disability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Supporting same-sex mothers in the Nordic child health field: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis of the most gender equal countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B; Lang, Sarah N

    2016-12-01

    To explore the needs of and support given to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents within the Nordic child health field. The number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents is growing around the world. However, they face fear, discrimination and heteronormativity within the child health field. The Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland) rank as the most gender equal countries in the world; therefore, they may support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents to a greater extent. Systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. A systematic search was conducted for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents' experiences in the child health field, which consists of prenatal, labour and birth, postnatal and child health clinics, using PubMed, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts and CINAHL, as well as searching the grey literature, from 2000-2015. Ten articles were included. A quality assessment and a meta-synthesis of the articles were performed. Nearly all studies were qualitative, and most articles had at least one area of insufficient reporting. Only two countries, Sweden and Norway, had lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents reporting on the child health field. However, gay, bisexual, transgender and inter-sex parents' perspectives were nonexistent in the literature; therefore, the results all relate to same-sex mothers. Five themes were found: Acceptance of Same-sex Mothers, Disclosing Sexual Orientation, Heteronormative Obstacles, Co-mothers are Not Fathers, and Being the Other Parent. Same-sex mothers are generally accepted within the Nordic child health field, but they still face overt and covert heteronormative obstacles, resulting in forms of discrimination and fear. Co-mothers feel invisible and secondary if they are not treated like an equal parent, but feel noticed and important when they are given equal support. Changes at the

  7. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Parent Perceptions of School, Professional, Social, and Informational Support, and Relations between Support, Child Behavior, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Greenlee, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder that adversely impacts child development and health conditions, and is often associated with significant behavioral challenges. In particular, children with PWS typically exhibit extremely high levels of maladaptive behavior (e.g., excessive food seeking, hording, and binging; temper tantrums;…

  8. Prevalence and determinants of need for formal parenting support among parents raising a child with a borderline to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) and psychosocial problems may yield a strong need for support among parents, but evidence for this is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of need for parenting support in this population,

  9. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential.

  10. Parental Kidnaping and Child Support. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on Problems of Domestic and International Kidnaping and Child Support Enforcement (July 19, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Senate hearing on parental kidnapping and child support. Opening statements are included from Senators Arlen Specter and Mich McConnell. Rebecca Hickman testifies about her experience when her daughter was abducted by the noncustodial father and taken to Iran. Hickman asks…

  11. Individual and contextual factors for the child abuse potential of Croatian mothers: The role of social support in times of economic hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Marina; Rajter, Miroslav; Rezo, Ines

    2018-01-17

    The study assessed mothers' risk for abusing their children in middle adolescence in relation to individual and contextual factors during the economic crisis in Croatia. Socioeconomic status of mothers, family economic pressure, and mothers' exposure to stress were measured. Special attention was given to the perceived availability of social support as one of protective factors potentially buffering the negative impact of risks of child abuse. The community sample included 746 mothers (Mage = 42.85; SDage = 5.319). The results showed that the risk of child abuse is higher for mothers with lower education, those who perceive themselves as suffering greater family economic hardship, those who have experienced a higher number of stressful events, and those with lower social support. When the mothers perceive a lower availability of social support, the effects of exposure to cumulative risk, namely the combination of socioeconomic status, economic pressure, and exposure to stress, are stronger. Since social support proved to be one of the key protective factors in the relationship between adverse life circumstances and parenting, the development of effective and non-stigmatized interventions aiming to increase social support, positive social relationships, and adequate parenting practices for parents facing economic hardship is an important direction for future family policy measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-Time Coaching with Bug-in-Ear Technology: A Practical Approach to Support Families in Their Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie

    2015-01-01

    Variability in the quality of adult-child interactions among caregivers of young children can be problematic for children's development. However, professional development has been successful in improving caregivers' positive interactions with children. Blending principles of adult learning theory with technology-based coaching can provide a…

  13. Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

  14. The support needs of parents having a child with a chronic kidney disease: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geense, W.W.; Gaal, B. van; Knoll, J.L.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents of children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a crucial role in the management of their child's disease. The burden on parents is high: they are often exhausted, depressed and experience high levels of stress and a low quality of life, which could have a negative impact on

  15. Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community : a qualitative diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piškur, Barbara; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Jongmans, Marian; Casparie, Barbara M; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents' own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community.

  16. Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community : A qualitative diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piškur, Barbara; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Jongmans, Marian J.; Casparie, Barbara M.; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents' own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community.

  17. Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community : a qualitative diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbara M. Casparie; Barbara Piskur; Rob J.E.M. Smeets; Anna J.H.M. Beurskens; Marjolijn Ketelaar; Marian J. Jongmans

    2017-01-01

    Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents’ own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community. An

  18. Why World Vision supports healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies to improve maternal and child health: a faith-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne A. Allison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available World Vision, a Christian humanitarian organization, began large family planning programs in 2007, with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID. As new data were published in 2008 and again in 2014, measuring the impact of the length of the preceding birth-to-conception interval on maternal, infant, and child mortality and child stunting, World Vision adopted the term “healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies” (HTSP as its approach to family planning. This term refocused family planning efforts to emphasize the health benefits for mothers and children, and was quickly accepted by faith leaders. The data are explained, and the consequences of shorter and longer birth intervals outlined.

  19. Infants Investigated by the Child Welfare System: Exploring a Distinct Profile of Risks, Service Needs, and Referrals for Support in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, Joanne; Fallon, Barbara; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Trocmé, Nico

    2017-08-12

    The science of early childhood development underscores that maltreatment and other adversities experienced during infancy heightens the risk for poor developmental and socio-emotional outcomes. Referrals to supportive services by the child welfare system are particularly critical during infancy given the rapidity of brain development and infants' sensitivity to their environment. The main objectives of the current study are to: (1) examine age-specific differences in clinical and case characteristics; (2) determine the factors associated with the service referral decision involving infants; and (3) explore the types of services families have been referred to at the conclusion of a maltreatment-related investigation. Using data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect for 2013, descriptive analyses were conducted, as was a logistic regression to identify factors associated with the decision to refer families of infants to supportive services. Overall, the findings reveal that the profile of infants and their families differs distinctly from those of older children with respect to risks, service needs, and service referrals, although this is rarely reflected in child welfare practice and policy. Investigations involving infants were most likely to have a referral made to supportive services, least likely to have an infant functioning concern identified; most likely to have a primary caregiver risk factor identified; and, the greatest likelihood of experiencing economic hardship. Multiple risks, identified for the primary caregiver of the infant are correlated to referral decisions for infants. However, the needs of the infant are likely under-identified and require cross-sectorial collaboration.

  20. De novo deletion of TBL1XR1 in a child with non-specific developmental delay supports its implication in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Anne-Claude; Leroy, Camille; Dupont, Céline; Serrano, Emilie; Hernandez, Karen; Gallard, Jennifer; Pouvreau, Nathalie; Gadisseux, Jean-François; Benzacken, Brigitte; Verloes, Alain

    2014-09-01

    We report on a 6-year-old child with a de novo 1.6 Mb deletion in the 3q26.31q26.32 region identified by SNP array, involving only one relevant gene: TBL1XR1. The girl shows non-specific, mild to moderate intellectual deficiency but no autistic behavior. Point mutations in TBL1XR1 have recently been implicated in three patients with intellectual disability (ID) and autistic features. Our report supports that haploinsufficiency for TBL1XR1 could be implicated in non-ASD autosomal dominant ID. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Emotional Support Consistency and Teacher-Child Relationships Forecast Social Competence and Problem Behaviors in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Laura L.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' ratings of conflict and closeness as well as observed emotional support are known predictors of children's social functioning. Consistency in emotional support represents an emerging line of research. The goal of the present study is to understand whether the relation between the consistency of teachers' emotional support and children's…

  2. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  3. Metal Catalysis with Nanostructured Metals Supported Inside Strongly Acidic Cross-linked Polymer Frameworks: Influence of Reduction Conditions of AuIII-containing Resins on Metal Nanoclusters Formation in Macroreticular and Gel-Type Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calore, L.; Cavinato, g.; Canton, P.; Peruzzo, L.; Banavali, R.; Jeřábek, Karel; Corain, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 391, AUG 30 (2012), s. 114-120 ISSN 0020-1693 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : strongly acidic cross-linked polymer * frameworks * gold(0) nanoclusters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2012

  4. The Assessment of Math Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade-4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mundia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-methods study incorporated elements of survey, case study and action research approaches in investigating an at-risk child. Using an in-take interview, a diagnostic test, an error analysis, and a think-aloud clinical interview, the study identified the child’s major presenting difficulties. These included: inability to use the four arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division efficiently; not understanding the relationship between units, tens and hundreds; using any two of the four arithmetic processes (+, - , x, ÷ in combination within one operation; treating each column as a separate problem; place value problems / wrong alignment of numbers; poor eye-hand coordination leading to dysgraphia; and memory lapses. The other problems that became apparent through this investigation and implied in the findings include possible causal factors such as dyscalculia, dyslexia, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and math anxiety. Further assessment, intervention and research are recommended to address problems of this vulnerable child.

  5. The assessment of math learning difficulties in a primary grade-4 child with high support needs: Mixed methods approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mundia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-methods study incorporated elements of survey, case study and action research approaches in investigating an at-risk child. Using an in-take interview, a diagnostic test, an error analysis, and a think-aloud clinical interview, the study identified the child’s major presenting difficulties. These included: inability to use the four arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division efficiently; not understanding the relationship between units, tens and hundreds; using any two of the four arithmetic processes (+, - , x, ÷ in combination within one operation; treating each column as a separate problem; place value problems / wrong alignment of numbers; poor eye-hand coordination leading to dysgraphia; and memory lapses. The other problems that became apparent through this investigation and implied in the findings include possible causal factors such as dyscalculia, dyslexia, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and math anxiety. Further assessment, intervention and research are recommended to address problems of this vulnerable child.

  6. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  7. The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables, Social Support and Child Sex on Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES, of social support as perceived by mothers, and of their three-month-olds child's sex, on mother-infant and father-infant interaction. A total of 58 mothers and 52 fathers were observed interacting with their infants. Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed several significant differences, particularly regarding maternal behaviors. Mothers from the highest SES level both talked to and interpreted their infants' behavior more than did lowest SES mothers. Social support perceived as unsatisfactory was associated with a greater amount of touch and stimulation during mother-infant interaction and also more infant vocalization. Mothers and fathers tended to talk more to their same-sex infants, and fathers tended to kiss and caress their sons more than they did their daughters. These results suggest particularities in the mother-infant and fatherinfant interaction when the infant was three months old.

  8. Disrupt, Support and Document: The Role of Social Media in International Parental Child Abduction Cases Involving Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Carney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine the use of social media by parents involved in cases of international parental abduction to and from Japan, with a focus on cases of abduction to Japan. I argue that the use of social media in these cases is a symptom of and a counter to a legal system which has been outpaced by changes in society, particularly the creation and dissolution of international families. This article discusses a number of case studies of social media usage and locates these in the context of the contemporary Japanese legal system. While not ignoring the nefarious potential of social media usage, I come to a positive assessment of its use in cases of international parental child abduction involving Japan. I also question how its utility will change over time, depending on the legal system’s ability to adapt to societal changes and expectations.

  9. In-situ methylation of strongly polar organic acids in natural waters supported by ion-pairing agents for headspace GC-MSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Walther, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Groundwater Managemant, Dresden (Germany); Nestler, W. [Institute for Technology and Economics, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Strongly polar organic substances like halogenated acetic acids have been analyzed in surface water and groundwater in the catchment area of the upper Elbe river in Saxony since 1992. Coming directly from anthropogenic sources like industry, agriculture and indirectly by rainfall, their concentrations can increase up to 100 {mu}g/L in the aquatic environment of this catchment area. A new static headspace GC-MSD method without a manual pre-concentration step is presented to analyze the chlorinated acetic acids relevant to the Elbe river as their volatile methyl esters. Using an ion-pairing agent as modifier for the in-situ methylation of the analytes by dimethylsulfate, a minimal detection limit of 1 {mu}g/L can be achieved. Problems like the thermal degradation of chlorinated acetic acids to halogenated hydrocarbons and changing reaction yields during the headspace methylation, could be effectively reduced. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring bank infiltrate, surface water, groundwater and water works pumped raw water according to health provision principles. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  10. Effect of Electronic Reminders, Financial Incentives, and Social Support on Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction: The HeartStrong Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G; Troxel, Andrea B; Mehta, Shivan J; Norton, Laurie; Zhu, Jingsan; Lim, Raymond; Wang, Wenli; Marcus, Noora; Terwiesch, Christian; Caldarella, Kristen; Levin, Tova; Relish, Mike; Negin, Nathan; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Snyder, Richard; Spettell, Claire M; Drachman, Brian; Kolansky, Daniel; Asch, David A

    2017-08-01

    Adherence to medications prescribed after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is low. Wireless technology and behavioral economic approaches have shown promise in improving health behaviors. To determine whether a system of medication reminders using financial incentives and social support delays subsequent vascular events in patients following AMI compared with usual care. Two-arm, randomized clinical trial with a 12-month intervention conducted from 2013 through 2016. Investigators were blinded to study group, but participants were not. Design was a health plan-intermediated intervention for members of several health plans. We recruited 1509 participants from 7179 contacted AMI survivors (insured with 5 large US insurers nationally or with Medicare fee-for-service at the University of Pennsylvania Health System). Patients aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if currently prescribed at least 2 of 4 study medications (statin, aspirin, β-blocker, antiplatelet agent), and were hospital inpatients for 1 to 180 days and discharged home with a principal diagnosis of AMI. Patients were randomized 2:1 to an intervention using electronic pill bottles combined with lottery incentives and social support for medication adherence (1003 patients), or to usual care (506 patients). Primary outcome was time to first vascular rehospitalization or death. Secondary outcomes were time to first all-cause rehospitalization, total number of repeated hospitalizations, medication adherence, and total medical costs. A total of 35.5% of participants were female (n = 536); mean (SD) age was 61.0 (10.3) years. There were no statistically significant differences between study arms in time to first rehospitalization for a vascular event or death (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.52; P = .84), time to first all-cause rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.09; P = .27), or total number of repeated hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.48; P

  11. Measles Vaccination Supports Millennium Development Goal 4: Increasing Coverage and Increasing Child Survival in Northern Ghana, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaga, Paul; Hodgson, Abraham; Debpuur, Cornelius; Aaby, Peter; Binka, Fred; Azongo, Daniel; Oduro, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Measles vaccine (MV) administered as the last vaccine after the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with better child survival unrelated to prevention of measles infection. Other studies have shown that MV administered after DTP was more beneficial and was associated with lower mortality compared with DTP administered after MV or DTP administered simultaneously with MV. We compared the difference in mortality between measles vaccinated after DTP3 and measles-unvaccinated children in Navrongo, Ghana. This was a follow-up study involving annual cohort of children aged 9-23 months from 1996 to 2012. We assessed survival in relation to the measles vaccination status within the first 12 months from interview date and until 5 years of age using Cox proportional hazards models. In all, 38,333 children were included in the study. The proportion of children vaccinated with MV-after-DTP3 increased from 45% in 1996 to 95% in 2012. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for measles unvaccinated compared with MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated children was 1.38 (1.15-1.66) in the first 12 months after assessment of vaccination status and 1.22 (1.05-1.41) with follow-up to 5 years of age. The national immunization days campaigns with oral polio vaccine or MV might have reduced the effect of being MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated vs MV-unvaccinated. For 12 months of follow-up, the HR before a campaign for MV-unvaccinated children was 1.63 (1.23-2.17) compared to those who received MV-after-DTP3. After the campaign, the HR reduced to 1.23 (0.97-1.54). Stratifying the analysis by sex, measles-unvaccinated boys had a HR of 1.69 (1.33-2.61) compared to measles-unvaccinated girls who had a HR 1.06 (0.79-1.40) during 1-year follow-up. In 1989, only 7% of children in the area had received MV-after-DTP3; the increase in MV-after-DTP3 coverage from 1989 to 2012 may have lowered mortality rate among children aged 9 months to 3 years by 24%. Though an observational

  12. Women's Perceptions of Using Mobile Phones for Maternal and Child Health Support in Afghanistan: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Fazal; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2018-04-10

    Growing rates of global mobile subscriptions pave the way for implementation of mobile health (mHealth) initiatives, especially among hard-to-reach populations. This study aimed to determine the perceptions of Afghan women regarding the use of mobile phones for maternal and child health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in both rural and urban districts of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess participants' demographic profile, mobile phone usage, and perception of respondents toward different aspects of health care delivery via mobile phones. Of the 240 participants, 142 (59.2%) owned mobile phones and 220 (91.7%) routinely used mobile phones. Approximately 209 (87.1%) of participants were willing to receive health messages via a mobile phone. Automated voice call was the most preferred method for sending health messages. More than 90% of the women reported that they would like to receive reminders for their children's vaccinations and antenatal care visits. Users' perception was associated with mobile phone ownership, literacy level, and experience using mobile phones. In the study area, where the literacy rate is low, mHealth was well perceived. ©Fazal Yamin, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Pratap Singhasivanon, Saranath Lawpoolsri. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  13. COMET strongly supported the development and implementation of medium-term topical research roadmaps consistent with the ALLIANCE Strategic Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, J; Vandenhove, H; Beresford, N; Muikku, M; Real, A

    2018-03-01

    The ALLIANCE 6 Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) initiated by the STAR 7 Network of Excellence and integrated in the research strategy implemented by the COMET consortium, defines a long-term vision of the needs for, and implementation of, research in radioecology. This reference document, reflecting views from many stakeholders groups and researchers, serves as an input to those responsible for defining EU research call topics through the ALLIANCE SRA statement delivered each year to the EJP-CONCERT 8 (2015-2020). This statement highlights a focused number of priorities for funding. Research in radioecology and related sciences is justified by various drivers, such as policy changes, scientific advances and knowledge gaps, radiological risk perception by the public, and a growing awareness of interconnections between human and ecosystem health. The SRA is being complemented by topical roadmaps that have been initiated by the COMET 9 EC-funded project, with the help and endorsement of the ALLIANCE. The strategy underlying roadmap development is driven by the need for improved mechanistic understanding across radioecology. By meeting this need, we can provide fit-for-purpose human and environmental impact/risk assessments in support of the protection of man and the environment in interaction with society and for the three exposure situations defined by the ICRP (i.e., planned, existing and emergency). Within the framework of the EJP-CONCERT the development of a joint roadmap is under discussion among all the European research platforms and will highlight the major research needs for the whole radiation protection field and how these are likely to be addressed by 2030.

  14. Small-Sized Tungsten Nitride Particles Strongly Anchored on Carbon Nanotubes and their Use as Supports for Pt for Methanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yan, Haijing; Zhou, Xiaoguang; Li, Mingxia; Fu, Honggang

    2015-12-07

    The anchoring of small-sized WN (tungsten nitride) nanoparticles (NPs) with good dispersion on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offers an effective means of obtaining promising materials for use in electrocatalysis. Herein, an effective method based on grinding treatment followed by a nitridation process is proposed to realize this goal. In the synthesis, a solution containing H4 [SiO4 (W3 O9 )4 ] (SiW12 ) and CNTs modified with polyethylenimine (PEI-CNTs) was ground to dryness. Small-sized WN NPs were anchored onto the CNTs with good dispersion after calcination under NH3 . Under hydrothermal assembly conditions (absence of grinding), WN particles of larger size and with inferior dispersion were obtained, demonstrating the important role of the grinding process. The benefit of the small-sized WN has been demonstrated by using WN/CNTs as a support for Pt to catalyze the methanol electro-oxidation reaction. The mass activity of Pt-WN/CNTs-G-70 (where G denotes the grinding treatment, and 70 is the loading amount (%) of WN in the WN/CNTs) was evaluated as about 817 mA mg(-1) Pt , better that those of commercial Pt/C (340 mA mg(-1) Pt ) and Pt/CNTs (162 mA mg(-1) Pt ). The Pt-WN/CNTs-G also displayed good CO tolerance. In contrast, Pt-WN/CNTs prepared without the grinding process displayed an activity of 344 mA mg(-1) Pt , verifying the key role of grinding treatment in the preparation of WN/CNTs with good co-catalytic effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  16. How Do Parents Acquire Information to Support Their Child with a Disability and Navigate Individualised Funding Schemes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Danielle; Johnston, Christine; Papps, Fiona Ann; Mahmic, Sylvana

    2018-01-01

    With the international trend towards individualised funding packages that allocate funds to individuals to spend on disability support needs, the challenge of ensuring parents can readily access useful information to make decisions becomes paramount. The present research used a two stage, mixed method sequential approach (with 291 parents surveyed…

  17. Long-term changes in parenting and child behavior after the Home-Start family support program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, J.M.A.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Hoffenaar, P.J.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intervention Home-Start is a wide spread program in a number of countries, among which the Netherlands. In Home-Start, trained volunteers visit families with young children in need of support once or twice a week to help them to deal with problems in family life and parenting. Little

  18. Measles Vaccination Supports Millennium Development Goal 4: Increasing Coverage and Increasing Child Survival in Northern Ghana, 1996–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Welaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasles vaccine (MV administered as the last vaccine after the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP may be associated with better child survival unrelated to prevention of measles infection. Other studies have shown that MV administered after DTP was more beneficial and was associated with lower mortality compared with DTP administered after MV or DTP administered simultaneously with MV. We compared the difference in mortality between measles vaccinated after DTP3 and measles-unvaccinated children in Navrongo, Ghana.MethodsThis was a follow-up study involving annual cohort of children aged 9–23 months from 1996 to 2012. We assessed survival in relation to the measles vaccination status within the first 12 months from interview date and until 5 years of age using Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsIn all, 38,333 children were included in the study. The proportion of children vaccinated with MV-after-DTP3 increased from 45% in 1996 to 95% in 2012. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for measles unvaccinated compared with MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated children was 1.38 (1.15–1.66 in the first 12 months after assessment of vaccination status and 1.22 (1.05–1.41 with follow-up to 5 years of age. The national immunization days campaigns with oral polio vaccine or MV might have reduced the effect of being MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated vs MV-unvaccinated. For 12 months of follow-up, the HR before a campaign for MV-unvaccinated children was 1.63 (1.23–2.17 compared to those who received MV-after-DTP3. After the campaign, the HR reduced to 1.23 (0.97–1.54. Stratifying the analysis by sex, measles-unvaccinated boys had a HR of 1.69 (1.33–2.61 compared to measles-unvaccinated girls who had a HR 1.06 (0.79–1.40 during 1-year follow-up. In 1989, only 7% of children in the area had received MV-after-DTP3; the increase in MV-after-DTP3 coverage from 1989 to 2012 may have lowered mortality rate among children aged 9 months to

  19. Web-Based eHealth to Support Counseling in Routine Well-Child Care: Pilot Study of E-health4Uth Home Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beelen, Mirjam Elisabeth Johanna; Vogel, Ineke; Beirens, Tinneke Monique Jozef; Kloek, Gitte Caroline; den Hertog, Paul; van der Veen, Monique Désirée; Raat, Hein

    2013-02-11

    Providing safety education to parents of young children is important in the prevention of unintentional injuries in or around the home. We developed a Web-based, tailored safety advice module to support face-to-face counseling in the setting of preventive youth health care (E-health4Uth home safety) in order to improve the provision of safety information for parents of young children. This pilot study evaluated a Web-based, tailored safety advice module (E-health4Uth home safety) and evaluated the use of E-health4Uth home safety to support counseling in routine well-child care visits. From a preventive youth health care center, 312 parents with a child aged 10-31 months were assigned to the E-health4Uth home safety condition or to the care-as-usual condition (provision of a generic safety information leaflet). All parents completed a questionnaire either via the Internet or paper-and-pencil, and parents in the E-health4Uth condition received tailored home safety advice either online or by a print that was mailed to their home. This tailored home safety advice was used to discuss the safety of their home during the next scheduled well-child visit. Parents in the care-as-usual condition received a generic safety information leaflet during the well-child visit. Mean age of the parents was 32.5 years (SD 5.4), 87.8% (274/312) of participants were mothers; mean age of the children was 16.9 months (SD 5.1). In the E-health4Uth condition, 38.4% (61/159) completed the online version of the questionnaire (allowing Web-based tailored safety advice), 61.6% (98/159) preferred to complete the questionnaire via paper (allowing only a hardcopy of the advice to be sent by regular mail). Parents in the E-health4Uth condition evaluated the Web-based, tailored safety advice (n=61) as easy to use (mean 4.5, SD 0.7), pleasant (mean 4.0, SD 0.9), reliable (mean 4.6, SD 0.6), understandable (mean 4.6, SD 0.5), relevant (mean 4.2, SD 0.9), and useful (mean 4.3, SD 0.8). After the well-child

  20. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and its Association with Life Events and Social Support in Mothers Attending a Well-Child Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Husain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Common mental disorders (CMD, such as depression and anxiety disorders that affect mothers with young children, are a major public health issue in developing countries. This study investigates the prevalence of CMD and its associated factors among mothers attending a well-child clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. In this cross-sectional study, 429 women were screened for the presence of CMD using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire–20 (SRQ-20. Social support and social stress were measured using the OSLO Social Support Scale and the Life Events Checklist. The prevalence of CMD was 20%. High SRQ scorers were more likely to be single or separated/divorced compared with low scorers. Language, neighborhood, and financial difficulties were found to be significant independent correlates of CMD through multiple logistic regression analysis. Rates of CMD among mothers with young children in Kenya are high. This is important for nurses and pediatricians whose contact offers them an opportunity to detect CMD and refer mothers for appropriate support.

  1. Immunization Status and Child Survival in Uganda | Bbaale | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the UDHS 2006 and 2011 and employing the Cox model, we tested the hypothesis that childhood immunization equalizes all children irrespective of parental background. Our findings reject this hypothesis. However, we find strong support to the view that childhood immunization decisively dampens child mortality.

  2. Sense - a biofeedback system to support the interaction between parents and their child with the Prader-Willi syndrome: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, K.; Croes, M.; Chen, W.; Oetomo, S.B.; Sterkenburg, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with the Prader-Willi syndrome have shown to experience difficulties in interpreting their child's signals and experience a lack of interest from their child, which causes a risk for a disrupted bonding process between the child and his or her parents. Evidence suggests that this

  3. "I Made Her Realise that I Could Be There for Her, that I Could Support Her": Child Protection Practices with Women in Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Simon; Cote, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that investigated child protection policies and practices, and focuses on data gathered in a child protection agency located in Quebec, Canada. This research project draws upon a qualitative case-study methodology, involving a documentary analysis of both national and local child protection policies, as…

  4. Child survival in England: Strengthening governance for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu

    2017-11-01

    The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  6. Psychological aspects and coping styles of parents with Haemophilic child undergoing a programme of counselling and psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottos, A M; Zanon, E; Sartori, M T; Girolami, A

    2007-05-01

    Parents of children affected by haemophilia must face, often without prior knowledge, the difficult challenge imposed by such a pathology. To satisfy the need of information, guideline and psychological support for a better quality of life, 30 parents with haemophiliac children have participated in a programme of counselling and psychological support. Such a programme has the aim of guiding the group trough a process of discovery, comparison and personal growth and stimulating adaptive processes of problem-solving and decision-making. The aim of this paper was to verify how the programme influenced coping strategies and other psychological constructs such as depression and anxiety. Subjects of this study were administered the following psychological tests: COPE (coping, orientation to problems experienced), BDI (beck depression inventory), STAI-Y form (state-trait anxiety inventory) at the beginning and at the end of the programme. The results show that by the end of the programme subjects are characterized by a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies, typical of individuals who think that the situation is susceptible to change, and a minor use of emotion-focused coping strategies, related to individuals who regard the situation as immutable. The use of avoidance -focused coping strategies seems to remain at the same level even if it was low. Also the other psychological aspects investigated, namely depression and anxiety, did receive a positive influence. The results show how significant such programme has been for parents.

  7. App-Supported Promotion of Child Growth and Development by Community Health Workers in Kenya: Feasibility and Acceptability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Alastair; Sen, Debjeet; Desmond, Chris; Louw, Julia; Richter, Linda

    2017-12-05

    Early childhood is a critical phase of development. In low resource settings, monitoring this stage of development and providing appropriate and timely feedback is a challenge. Community-based service providers play a key role in promoting early childhood development in areas where government services are weak. These community-based service providers are also tasked with the collection of monitoring and evaluation data for donors and local government. Usually, collection of these data aims to provide accountability, learning, and correction leading to improvement. However, such data is rarely used beyond the accountability stage. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of the Information for Action (IFA) mobile phone app. The IFA app was designed for use by community health volunteers (CHVs), and repackages routinely collected data about children into useful, offline decision support for caregivers and program managers. The IFA app was tested with a convenience sample of 10 CHVs in West Katweng'a, a sublocation of Rarieda subcounty in western Kenya. CHVs used the IFA app for 5 months as part of their regular home visits to households containing children aged 0 to 5 years, after which a qualitative assessment of the app was conducted. A total of 16 caregivers who received services from the CHVs were randomly selected to participate in 1 of 2 focus group discussions about their experience. The app was reported to help facilitate interactive dialog between CHVs and caregivers, leading to improved quality of home visits. Caregivers described the app as shifting the relationship from feeling harassed by CHVs to experiencing genuine interest from CHVs. CHVs reported feasibility challenges primarily related to infrastructure. The limited battery life of mobile phones combined with the lack of readily available electricity made it difficult to keep the phones charged. CHVs reported initial anxiety as first-time mobile phones users, including

  8. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feel stable and supported while having a bowel movement. It's usually best for boys to first learn ... express the act of using the toilet ("pee," "poop," and "potty"). Ask your child to let you ...

  9. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2014-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent...

  10. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  11. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  12. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...

  13. Mapping the use of research to support strategies tackling maternal and child health inequities: evidence from six countries in Africa and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Emily; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel Ángel; Akweongo, Patricia; Hazel, Cynthia N A; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Limbani, Felix; Bernardo, Wanderley; Muñoz, Fernando

    2016-01-07

    Striving to foster collaboration among countries suffering from maternal and child health (MCH) inequities, the MASCOT project mapped and analyzed the use of research in strategies tackling them in 11 low- and middle-income countries. This article aims to present the way in which research influenced MCH policies and programs in six of these countries - three in Africa and three in Latin America. Qualitative research using a thematic synthesis narrative process was used to identify and describe who is producing what kind of research, how research is funded, how inequities are approached by research and policies, the countries' research capacities, and the type of evidence base that MCH policies and programs use. Four tools were designed for these purposes: an online survey for researchers, a semi-structured interview with decision makers, and two content analysis guides: one for policy and programs documents and one for scientific articles. Three modalities of research utilization were observed in the strategies tackling MCH inequities in the six included countries - instrumental, conceptual and symbolic. Instrumental utilization directly relates the formulation and contents of the strategies with research results, and is the least used within the analyzed policies and programs. Even though research is considered as an important input to support decision making and most of the analyzed countries count five or six relevant MCH research initiatives, in most cases, the actual impact of research is not clearly identifiable. While MCH research is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the impact of its outcomes on policy formulation is low. We did not identify a direct relationship between the nature of the financial support organizations and the kind of evidence utilization within the policy process. There is still a visible gap between researchers and policymakers regarding their different intentions to link evidence and decision making processes.

  14. In-house consultation to support professionals’ responses to child abuse and neglect : Determinants of professionals’ use and the association with guideline adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke Ariënne Johanneke; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kaya, Anna H.; Haasnoot, Maria E.; Need, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the presence and strengths of determinants associated with consultation of an in-house expert on child abuse and neglect (CAN) by preventive child health care professionals who suspect CAN. This study also assessed the relationship between in-house CAN expert consultation and

  15. Unfinished Business: Continued Investment in Child Care and Early Education Is Critical to Business and America's Future. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Business leaders have an acute understanding of the importance of a well-educated workforce to support a strong economy, keep America competitive globally, and ensure a vibrant democracy. Right now 20 percent of the American labor force is functionally illiterate or innumerate. High-quality child care and early education builds a strong foundation…

  16. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  17. Parents' perceptions during the transition to home for their child with a congenital heart defect: How can we support families of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Sarita

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the literature related to transitions in healthcare between the hospital and home that caregivers experience with a child who has a congenital heart defect (CHD), specifically related to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A systematic literature review was conducted searching OVID Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed to discover the caregivers' perceptions on their transitions between hospital care and home care of their child with a CHD. Articles included those with focus on the transitions of caregivers between hospital and home care for children with CHD. Excluded articles were studies focused on adolescents, transition to adult healthcare, mortality results, other diseases associated with CHDs, comparison of CHD treatments, feasibility studies, differences in care between hospitals, home monitoring, and comparison of videoconference and telephone home communication. Ten articles were selected. Many parents voiced their concerns with feeding their child, learning medical skills and knowledge, reported a disrupted relationship between parents and their child, and identified stress and anxiety associated with taking care of a child with a CHD. There were limited studies on caregivers' transitions with a child with HLHS, but there also was limited focus on the caregivers' experiences with transitions between hospital and home care for their child with any CHD. Research on the transition experience between hospital care and home care for caregivers of children born with a CHD, and a specific focus on HLHS from the caregivers' viewpoint, would provide insight into the perspective of caregivers during the numerous transitions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Further Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Disgust Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Joshua M; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Viar-Paxton, Megan; Olatunji, Bunmi O; Jacobi, David M; Eken, Stephanie C; Kay, Brian; Riemann, Bradley C; Storch, Eric A

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Child Disgust Scale (CDS) among 457 youth (ages 8-17, M = 14.77 ± 1.98 years) initiating residential treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a bifactor model with two distinct factors of Disgust Avoidance and Disgust Affect, in addition to an overall General Disgust factor. Strong internal consistency was observed for the CDS total and factor scores. In addition, CDS scores demonstrated generally modest and positive correlations with child-reported obsessive-compulsive and anxiety symptoms, weaker correlations with parent-reported anxiety and child-rated impairment, and non-significant correlations with parent-rated impairment. Findings suggest that the CDS displays strong psychometric properties and is developmentally appropriate for use in pediatric clinical populations with obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders.

  19. Pathways and Partnerships for Child Care Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Child Care, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 12 million American children regularly rely on child care to support their healthy development and school success. Of these, over 1.6 million children receive a child care subsidy from the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program each month. In addition, CCDF helps leverage child care investments from the Temporary Assistance for…

  20. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  1. <strong>Confusion on tonguesstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    followed by theories that have the infant's development as their object. The concept of attachment and the empirical research tradition has created a new focus for the studies of the infant that seems to block our vision of the sexual. Following a short historical outline from Balint's concept of primary...... love to Bowlby's concept of attachment we examine the theories that, inspired by Laplanche, once more have taken up the discussion of infantile sexuality. In the light of these discussions and through clinical examples we argue that the concept of infantile sexuality could be clarified by combining......  What is the origin and character of infantile sexuality? At the time of its announcement, Freud's theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only did it shock by its claim that the small child sucking at the mother's breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named...

  2. <strong>Confusion on tonguesstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

      What is the origin and character of infantile sexuality? At the time of its announcement, Freud's theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only did it shock by its claim that the small child sucking at the mother's breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named...... sexual. The theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality upside-down by lifting the definition of sexuality out of a limited biological frame of understanding and placing it on the boundary between the somatic and the psychical. However, Freud's epoch-making discovery has not been...... followed by theories that have the infant's development as their object. The concept of attachment and the empirical research tradition has created a new focus for the studies of the infant that seems to block our vision of the sexual. Following a short historical outline from Balint's concept of primary...

  3. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  4. Development and Implementation of a Child Welfare Workforce Strategy to Build a Trauma-Informed System of Support for Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Negrete, Andrea; Uomoto, Jacqueline A; Berliner, Lucy; Shogren, Dae; Silverman, Ellen; Putnam, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Effective strategies that increase the extent to which child welfare professionals engage in trauma-informed case planning are needed. This study evaluated two approaches to increase trauma symptom identification and use of screening results to inform case planning. The first study evaluated the impact of training on trauma-informed screening tools for 44 child welfare professionals who screen all children upon placement into foster care. The second study evaluated a two-stage approach to training child welfare workers on case planning for children's mental health. Participants included (a) 71 newly hired child welfare professionals who received a 3-hr training and (b) 55 child welfare professionals who participated in a full-day training. Results from the first study indicate that training effectively increased knowledge and skills in administering screening tools, though there was variability in comfort with screening. In the second study, participants self-reported significant gains in their competency in identifying mental health needs (including traumatic stress) and linking children with evidence-based services. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the viability of this approach to increase the extent to which child welfare professionals are trauma informed, aware of symptoms, and able to link children and youth with effective services designed to meet their specific needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  7. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart health and fighting infection. Why Do Kids Need Vitamin D? Kids need vitamin D to build strong ... one. How Much Vitamin D Does My Child Need? Vitamin D is measured in international units (IU). Babies ...

  8. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  9. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  11. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...

  12. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...... some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation across settings combines savings on health care costs with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life...... is met by a meso-strategy aiming the formation of an international, multidisciplinary network which might organize regional workshops for representatives for all involved parties in order to prepare local implementation projects.   Regarding de-stressing by medical meditation a relatively fast...

  13. Daily actions, challenges, and needs among Dutch parents while supporting the participation of their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community: a qualitative diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Jongmans, Marian J; Casparie, Barbara M; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2017-01-11

    Parents have a vital influence on the participation of their child with a physical disability. The aim of this study is to gain insight into parents' own daily actions, challenges, and needs while supporting their child with a physical disability at home, at school, and in the community. An additional objective of this study is to refine the preliminary thematic framework previously identified in a scoping review. A qualitative research inquiry was performed based on using a diary over a 7-day period to gather data. To systematically organise data into a structured format, content analysis has been applied using both inductive and deductive reasoning guided by the existing preliminary thematic framework. Analysis of the eligible diaries shows that the actions mentioned by the 47 parents describe several efforts to enhance participation of their children with a physical disability by using, enabling, or changing the social and physical environment, or by supporting their child to perform or engage in meaningful activities. Those parents' actions are primarily a result of challenges caused by restrictions in social and physical environments. Parental responses highlighted, above all, the need for environments designed for all people. Based on the findings a redefined thematic framework is presented. Parents' actions, challenges, and needs are mainly directed towards the social or/and physical environment. The presented thematic framework can offer practitioners knowledge to support parents. More work is necessary to provide tailored approaches. Paediatric rehabilitation may need to address the importance of the environment on the participation of a child with a physical disability.

  14. Good Enough Support? Exploring the Attitudes, Knowledge and Experiences of Practitioners in Social Services and Child Welfare Working with Mothers with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamcíková, Zdenka; Klusácek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. Method: The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations…

  15. Public Law 107-110 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Support or Threat to Education as a Fundamental Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Camille M.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States of America, access to educational opportunity is widely viewed as a fundamental human right. The author explores the origins, content, and intended function of the controversial No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110) which was enacted by the Congress of the United States of America in the hope of closing the achievement…

  16. <strong>Generic Patch Inferencestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  17. Child Trafficking: A Hindrance to the Girl-Child Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibangbe, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Child trafficking continues to pose a major hindrance to the freedom and educational development of the girl-child in Nigeria. Most of the girls trafficked are forced into prostitution, forced labour and in some cases as human sacrifice. Some families support this trend because they see it as a means to break the yoke of economic hardship. The…

  18. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  19. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our... responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse... our Nation. Although a strong family unit is the best deterrent to child abuse, effectively...

  20. Observed child and parent toothbrushing behaviors and child oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLETT, BRENT R.; HUEBNER, COLLEEN E.; SEMINARIO, ANA LUCIA; WALLACE, ERIN; GRAY, KRISTEN E.; SPELTZ, MATTHEW L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Parent-led toothbrushing effectively reduces early childhood caries. Research on the strategies that parents use to promote this behavior is, however, lacking. Aim To examine associations between parent–child toothbrushing interactions and child oral health using a newly developed measure, the Toothbrushing Observation System (TBOS). Design One hundred children ages 18–60 months and their parents were video-recorded during toothbrushing interactions. Using these recordings, six raters coded parent and child behaviors and the duration of toothbrushing. We examined the reliability of the coding system and associations between observed parent and child behaviors and three indices of oral health: caries, gingival health, and history of dental procedures requiring general anesthesia. Results Reliabilities were moderate to strong for TBOS child and parent scores. Parent TBOS scores and longer duration of parent-led toothbrushing were associated with fewer decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces and lower incidence of gingivitis and procedures requiring general anesthesia. Associations between child TBOS scores and dental outcomes were modest, suggesting the relative importance of parent versus child behaviors at this early age. Conclusions Parents’ child behavior management skills and the duration of parent-led toothbrushing were associated with better child oral health. These findings suggest that parenting skills are an important target for future behavioral oral health interventions. PMID:26148197

  1. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  2. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  3. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  4. Predicting Child Abuse Potential across Family Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Brenda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined whether stress, family resources, and social support are correlates of the child abuse potential of mothers. Stress in family functioning appeared to be an important predictor of child abuse potential. Mothers of children with disabilities may be more inclined than other mothers to have elevated child abuse potential.…

  5. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  6. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  7. [Child labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  8. [The relationship between a mother's internal working model and her tendency to be abusive in her child-raising approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Akimi; Nishimura, Mamiko

    2009-04-01

    The internal working model (IWM) is an outcome of the individual's pattern of development during their childhood and determines attachment styles. Probably the most significant factor that leads to child-abuse is an unstable type of attachment of mothers towards their children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a mother's IWM, her tendency to be abusive in her child raising approach and the implications for support to prevent such abuse. Use of a self-administered questionnaire for mothers (n = 534) who visited health centers in Ishikawa prefecture for a routine child development check-up. The results showed that mothers with a strongly ambivalent IWM showed an increased tendency towards child abuse when compared with mothers with other types of IWM. Even when these ambivalent IWM mothers were supported, their abusive tendencies did not change. Another aspect that emerged from the study was that mothers with a low tendency for a stable IWM showed more abusive actions towards their child when compared with mothers with other types of IWM. However, these mothers, with support, responded with a reduction in their abusive actions. It can therefore be concluded that there is a demonstrable relationship between a mother's IWM and an abusive child-raising approach. It also showed that with mothers having a low tendency for a stable IWM, provision of support can reduce and even prevent child-abuse.

  9. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  10. Child labour, human capital and life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...

  11. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  12. How Do Women with an Intellectual Disability Experience the Support of a Doula during Their Pregnancy, Childbirth and after the Birth of Their Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Alison; Stenfert Kroese, Biza; Cox, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: With increasing numbers of people with an intellectual disability choosing to become parents, the right support is imperative for effective parenting (Macintyre & Stewart2011]). The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of parents who received support from Doulas during pregnancy, birth and following the birth…

  13. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  14. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  15. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  16. Beliefs about Supporting Mothers to Exclusively Breastfeed for 6 Months: An Elicitation Study of Health Professionals Working in Maternal-Child Health Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Susan A; Middlestadt, Susan E; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low in Kenya and determinants influencing mothers' practice are documented. Little is known about factors underlying health professionals' intention to support mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. Effective behavior modification requires designing interventions at multiple levels of influence, informed by theory-based research to identify relevant determinants. To identify salient beliefs held by health professionals about support of mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and to explore definitions of the term support. This qualitative study was conducted in 6 public health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya. We used open-ended questions based on the reasoned action approach to elicit salient consequences, referents, and circumstances perceived by 15 health professionals about support for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. The most frequently mentioned consequences were healthier babies (87%) and reduced childhood ailments (67%). The main disadvantage was human immunodeficiency virus transmission through breast milk (33%). Colleagues (80%) and managers (67%) were perceived as approving referents, whereas some mothers/couples (40%) and the breast milk substitute industry (20%) were perceived as disapproving. Facilitating circumstances included lighter workload, better training, and more time. Definitions of support were varied and included giving information and demonstrating positioning and attachment techniques. Overall, health professionals perceived positive consequences toward supporting exclusive breastfeeding continuation and identified a number of approving referents. However, they reported challenging circumstances in the work environment, which managers need to address to help health professionals provide the support needed by Kenyan mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD and child development: A Manitoba population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Comaskey

    Full Text Available To examine the association between maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD and child development assessed during the kindergarten year.Administrative data from several health and social databases in Manitoba, Canada, were used to study 18,331 mother-child pairs. MDAD over the period from one year prior to the child's birth to the kindergarten year was defined using physician diagnoses and filled prescriptions. Child development was assessed during the kindergarten year using the Early Development Instrument (EDI which measures vulnerability across five domains of development. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between timing, recurrence and severity of MDAD and child outcomes. Health at Birth (preterm, low birth weight, neonatal intensive care stay and long birth hospitalization, Family Context (teen mother, lone parent, socio-economic status (SES, child age and child sex were covariates.MDAD had a modest negative association with child EDI scores across all models tested, particularly for social, emotional and physical development. Prenatal MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than other time periods; however, recurrent MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than any specific time period or MDAD severity. The influence of MDAD was mediated by Family Context, which had a strong, negative association with outcomes, particularly language and cognitive development.The number of time periods a child was exposed to MDAD in early childhood was more negatively associated with five areas of child development than timing or severity. Prenatal exposure may be more sensitive to MDAD than other time periods. The familial context (teen mother, lone parenthood and low SES had a stronger influence on child outcomes than MDAD. Findings can be used to inform interventions which address maternal mental health from the prenatal period onward, and to support disadvantaged families to encourage

  18. On strongly condensing operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erzakova, N.A.; Väth, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 1 (2017), s. 309-323 ISSN 0373-3114 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : asymptotic derivative * compactness * Fréchet derivative Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.864, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-016-0573-8

  19. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  20. Dads' Parent Interactions With Children-Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (Piccolo-D): Developing An Observational Measure of Father-Child Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Intervention programs providing support for father parenting skills need a practical but psychometrically strong observational measure of fathers’ early positive parenting interactions with children. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a valid, reliable observational measure of father-child interaction, based on research and theory, that predicts child outcomes, identifies fathers’ strengths, and will be useful for home visiting practitioners. This study sought to fulfill this ...

  1. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV cascade analysis tool: supporting health managers to improve facility-level service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Sarah; Voss, Joachim; Mercer, Mary Anne; Zierler, Brenda; Gloyd, Stephen; Coutinho, Maria de Joana; Floriano, Florencia; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Einberg, Jennifer; Sherr, Kenneth

    2014-10-21

    The objective of the prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (pMTCT) cascade analysis tool is to provide frontline health managers at the facility level with the means to rapidly, independently and quantitatively track patient flows through the pMTCT cascade, and readily identify priority areas for clinic-level improvement interventions. Over a period of six months, five experienced maternal-child health managers and researchers iteratively adapted and tested this systems analysis tool for pMTCT services. They prioritized components of the pMTCT cascade for inclusion, disseminated multiple versions to 27 health managers and piloted it in five facilities. Process mapping techniques were used to chart PMTCT cascade steps in these five facilities, to document antenatal care attendance, HIV testing and counseling, provision of prophylactic anti-retrovirals, safe delivery, safe infant feeding, infant follow-up including HIV testing, and family planning, in order to obtain site-specific knowledge of service delivery. Seven pMTCT cascade steps were included in the Excel-based final tool. Prevalence calculations were incorporated as sub-headings under relevant steps. Cells not requiring data inputs were locked, wording was simplified and stepwise drop-offs and maximization functions were included at key steps along the cascade. While the drop off function allows health workers to rapidly assess how many patients were lost at each step, the maximization function details the additional people served if only one step improves to 100% capacity while others stay constant. Our experience suggests that adaptation of a cascade analysis tool for facility-level pMTCT services is feasible and appropriate as a starting point for discussions of where to implement improvement strategies. The resulting tool facilitates the engagement of frontline health workers and managers who fill out, interpret, apply the tool, and then follow up with quality improvement activities. Research on

  2. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  3. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  4. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  5. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Udry

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  6. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  7. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  8. Highlights from the Technical Assistance and Child Care Resources Sponsored by the Office of Child Care. Office of Child Care Pathways and Partnerships Priorities. Issue Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Child Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Child Care (OCC) administers the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program, a multibillion-dollar Federal and State partnership to support access to high-quality child care for working families. OCC helps States, Territories, and Tribes administer their CCDF programs through program support, policy guidance, technical…

  9. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  10. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children interact. Disobedience can have a variety of causes. At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's temperament, or to school problems, family stress, or conflicts between his parents. What parents can do When ...

  11. Child's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Kristina; Woolsey, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's…

  12. Web-based ehealth to support counseling in routine well-child Care: Pilot study of e-health4uth home safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam); I. Vogel (Ineke); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); G. Kloek (Gitte); P. den Hertog (Paul); M.D. van der Veen (Monique Désirée); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Providing safety education to parents of young children is important in the prevention of unintentional injuries in or around the home. We developed a Web-based, tailored safety advice module to support face-to-face counseling in the setting of preventive youth health care

  13. Effects and processes linking social support to caregiver health among HIV/AIDS-affected carer-child dyads: a critical review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that social support may be an important resource for the mental and physical health of caregivers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, especially in HIV-endemic areas of the developing world. Drawing from theory on social relations and health, in this paper we argue that it is important to assess not only the existence and direction of associations, but also the effects and processes explaining these. We refer to House et al's (in Annu Rev Sociol 14;293-318, 1988) theoretical framework on social support structures and processes as a guide to present and discuss findings of a systematic review of literature assessing the relationship between social support and health among caregivers living with HIV or caring for HIV/AIDS-affected children. Findings confirm the importance of social support for health among this population, but also expose the absence of empirical work deriving from the developing world, as well as the need for further investigation on the biopsychosocial processes explaining observed effects.

  14. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  15. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  16. Parents' Experiences of Collaborating with Professionals in the Support of Their Child with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Suzanne L. G.; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is little data on the collaboration between parents and professionals in the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Since communication is essential to collaboration, this study analysed the frequency, means, and personal experiences of communication between parents and professionals. Method: A…

  17. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  18. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since......Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...

  19. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......This article explores ‘childing’ pratices in relation to family supermarket shopping in Denmark. ‘Parenting’ practices have been explored for long but little attention has been given to how children strive to be ‘good’ children, who live up to certain standards and recognize what they perceive......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...

  20. El soporte nutrimental y su relación con algunos indicadores pronósticos del niño quemado Nutritional support and its relation to some prognostic indicators of burnt child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Torres Amaro

    2011-12-01

    between the nutritional support established during the firsts hours after resuscitation with some prognostic indicators in burnt children. Methods: an analytical and retrospective study was conducted including 252 children admitted in the burn service of the "Juan Manuel Márquez" Teaching Children Hospital of Marianao in La Habana with a stay higher of 7 days during the decade of 2000 to 2009. From the audit of medical records it was obtained the following prognostic indicators of burnt child: burnt body surface, stay time, weight loss percentage and mortality. Likewise it was possible to obtain information about the type of metabolic nutritional support used during treatment. Results: the above mentioned more used support was mixed where is combined the peripheral enteral and parenteral modality covering the 52 % of treated patients. The children with less percentage of weight loss (under 10 % received the exclusive enteral way (53,1 % of treated cases and in the 37,4 % the support was mixed, but using the peripheral modality of parenteral use. Conclusions: the nutritional strategy used in burnt child may to modify some prognostic indicators and must to be a therapeutical priority to prevent the clinical deterioration of these patients.

  1. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  2. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  3. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  4. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    reassurance, strong human relationships to stand in for those that were shattered . 0 0 S• i n | | |9 CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE IN FAMILIES The purpose of...was especially messy at meal time, mashing cereal in her hair and ears; 31 "an infant who pulls on a necklace and breaks it; " an infant who continually

  5. Predicting the decisions of hospital based child protection teams to report to child protective services, police and community welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Jedwab, Merav; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Slutzky, Hanna; Siegal, Gil; Lavi-Sahar, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2014-01-01

    This study examines judgments made by hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) when determining if there is reasonable suspicion that a child has been maltreated, and whether to report the case to a community welfare agency, to child protective services (CPS) and/or to the police. A prospective multi-center study of all 968 consecutive cases referred to CPTs during 2010-2011 in six medical centers in Israel. Centers were purposefully selected to represent the heterogeneity of medical centers in Israel in terms of size, geographical location and population characteristics. A structured questionnaire was designed to capture relevant information and judgments on each child referred to the team. Bivariate associations and multivariate multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict whether the decisions would be (a) to close the case, (b) to refer the case to community welfare services, or (c) to report it to CPS and/or the police. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified a large number of case characteristics associated with higher probability of reporting to CPS/police or of referral to community welfare services. Case characteristics associated with the decisions include socio-demographic (e.g., ethnicity and financial status), parental functioning (e.g., mental health), previous contacts with authorities and hospital, current referral characteristics (e.g., parental referral vs. child referral), physical findings, and suspicious behaviors of child and parent. Most of the findings suggest that decisions of CPTs are based on indices that have strong support in the professional literature. Existing heterogeneity between cases, practitioners and medical centers had an impact on the overall predictability of the decision to report. Attending to collaboration between hospitals and community agencies is suggested to support learning and quality improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity

  7. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement and Warmth of Fathers with Mental Illness: The Role of the Caregiving System, Parental Self-Efficacy, Social Support and Child Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Dayan-Gazith, Efrat; Borosh, Tali; Golubchik, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    This study compares the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 69 fathers with serious mental illness (SMI) and 69 matched non-clinical (NC) fathers in Israel. Findings show that the NC fathers were more involved with their children, whereas the SMI fathers reported more warmth and perceived their children as less difficult. The interactions that were found in the regression analyses highlight the differences between the two groups. Among the SMI fathers, but not the NC fathers, higher paternal self-efficacy was associated with increased father involvement, and lower family support was associated with decreased warmth.

  9. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As... promise for too many young Americans. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our... abuse every year. A strong and well-informed family unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and...

  10. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  11. Father's parenting and father-child relationship among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Ren; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-02-01

    Western literature documents impaired father-child interactions in addition to strong evidence of impaired mother-child interactions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the parenting process of fathers and their engagement in the Asian family with children with ADHD remain unexplored. The authors compared fathering and father-child relationships between children with ADHD and those without ADHD and identified the correlates of these paternal measures. Fathering and father-child relationships were compared between 296 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 229 children without ADHD in Taiwan. All child participants and their parents received psychiatric interviews for the diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders of the children, and their fathers were assessed for ADHD, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Both the fathers and children reported on the father's parenting style, father-child interactions, behavioral problems at home, and perceived family support. The results showed that children with ADHD received less affection/care and more overprotection and authoritarian control from their fathers. They had less active interactions with their fathers, more severe behavioral problems at home; and perceived less family support than children without ADHD. Correlates for impaired father-child interactions included childhood ADHD symptoms, any comorbidity, age at assessment, and the father's neurotic personality and depressive symptoms. In addition, the children reported more negatively on fathering and father-child interactions than the fathers. Our findings suggest the negative impacts of ADHD on the father's parenting style and father-child interactions. Clinical interventions aimed at improving father-child interactions warrant more attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Abstracts on Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    more carefully, but those he used heavily are given within the text (e.g., Margaret Mead, Jean Piaget , etc.). I Ki Lo UM 151kx -M 46 DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE...o5 ti A YWA kI, v .~ ., NOiT HLA~AMU k Lf A$L t- k. . E1974.i LALk , A. v. V .ul a 3±J PRESCUITtL DAV1lD 1.6G. LlylcJ 6L(LLGICAL kKATIQNS PIAGET , J. Ll

  13. child abuse and neglect as seen in a tertiary hospital in western

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... Background: Child abuse is defined as denying a child his or her rights such as food, clothing, education, health and emotional support. The forms of child abuse include physical, sexual, emotional, nutritional, child labour and abandonment. Objective: To describe the types of child abuse seen among the ...

  14. Parent- and child-reported parenting. Associations with child weight-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate associations of both parent-reported and child-perceived parenting styles and parent-reported parenting practices with child weight and weight-related behaviours. Participants were 175 children (56% female) aged between 7 and 11, and their primary caregivers (91% female), recruited through South Australian primary schools. Children completed measures of parenting style, attitude toward fruit, vegetables, and non-core food, and attraction to physical activity. Parents completed measures of parenting style and domain-specific parenting practices (feeding and activity-related practices) and reported on child dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour. Objective height and weight measurements were taken from children, from which body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Child-reported parenting style and parent-reported parenting practices were uniquely associated with child weight-related outcomes, but styles and practices did not interact in their association with child outcomes. Child-reported parenting style was associated with child food and activity attitudes, whereas parent-reported parenting style was not associated with child outcomes. The findings of the present study generally support the recommendation of a parenting style high in demandingness and responsiveness for supporting healthy child weight-related behaviours, along with appropriate domain-specific practices. The child's perspective should be incorporated into research involving child outcomes wherever possible. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  16. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  17. A training program for anthropometric measurements by a dedicated nutrition support team improves nutritional status assessment of the critically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Frederic V; Ford-Chessel, Carole; Meyer, Rosan; Berthiller, Julien; Dupenloup, Christine; Follin-Arbelet, Nathalie; Hubert, Anna; Javouhey, Etienne; Peretti, Noel

    2015-03-01

    The cornerstone of an optimal nutrition approach in PICUs is to evaluate the nutritional status of any patient. Anthropometric measurements and nutritional indices calculation allow for nutritional status assessment, which is not often part of routine management, as it is considered difficult to perform in this setting. We designed a study to evaluate the impact of a training program by the PICU nutritional support team on the implementation of routine anthropometric measurements on our PICU. A prospective study was performed over a 2-year period, which included: a baseline evaluation of nutritional assessment, knowledge, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and head and mid upper arm circumferences), and nutritional indices calculation in patient files. This was followed by a training program to implement the newly developed nutrition assessment guidelines, which included anthropometrical measurements and also the interpretation of these. The impact of this nutritional assessment program was reviewed annually for 2 years after the implementation. PICU--Lyon, France. PICU nursing and medical staff, and patients admitted in February 2011, 2012, and 2013. Training program. Ninety-nine percent of staff (n = 145) attended the individual teaching. We found significant progress in nutritional awareness and confidence about nutritional assessment following the teaching program. In addition, an improvement in staff knowledge about undernutrition and its consequences were found. We enrolled 41, 55, and 91 patients in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. There was a significant increase in anthropometric measurements during this time: 32%, 65% (p = 0.002), and 96% in 2013 (p importance and techniques of anthropometrical measurements has successfully been implemented in a PICU. It managed to improve staff knowledge and nutritional practice.

  18. A cluster randomized controlled trial of lay health worker support for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Weiss, Stephen M; Soni, Manasi; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan; Alcaide, Maria Luisa; Setswe, Geoffrey; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-12-16

    We evaluate the impact of clinic-based PMTCT community support by trained lay health workers in addition to standard clinical care on PMTCT infant outcomes. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, twelve community health centers (CHCs) in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, were randomized to have pregnant women living with HIV receive either: a standard care (SC) condition plus time-equivalent attention-control on disease prevention (SC; 6 CHCs; n  = 357), or an enhanced intervention (EI) condition of SC PMTCT plus the "Protect Your Family" intervention (EI; 6 CHCs; n  = 342). HIV-infected pregnant women in the SC attended four antenatal and two postnatal video sessions and those in the EI, four antenatal and two postnatal PMTCT plus "Protect Your Family" sessions led by trained lay health workers. Maternal PMTCT and HIV knowledge were assessed. Infant HIV status at 6 weeks postnatal was drawn from clinic PCR records; at 12 months, HIV status was assessed by study administered DNA PCR. Maternal adherence was assessed by dried blood spot at 32 weeks, and infant adherence was assessed by maternal report at 6 weeks. The impact of the EI was ascertained on primary outcomes (infant HIV status at 6 weeks and 12 months and ART adherence for mothers and infants), and secondary outcomes (HIV and PMTCT knowledge and HIV transmission related behaviours). A series of logistic regression and latent growth curve models were developed to test the impact of the intervention on study outcomes. In all, 699 women living with HIV were recruited during pregnancy (8-24 weeks), and assessments were completed at baseline, at 32 weeks pregnant (61.7%), and at 6 weeks (47.6%), 6 months (50.6%) and 12 months (59.5%) postnatally. Infants were tested for HIV at 6 weeks and 12 months, 73.5% living infants were tested at 6 weeks and 56.7% at 12 months. There were no significant differences between SC and EI on infant HIV status at 6 weeks and at 12 months, and no

  19. A Note on Strongly Dense Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2015), s. 721-730 ISSN 2199-675X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : strongly dense matrix * Boolean matrix * nonnegative matrix * idempotent matrix * intrinsic product * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Procedures in child deaths in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, Sandra; Petter, Jessica; Hoir, L' Monique; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Need, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of

  1. Research Award: Maternal and Child Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to address health inequities and improve health services, systems, and policies in developing countries. We are particularly interested in research on maternal and child health that ...

  2. Riding Bikes: A Pastime for Every Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    People have heard the expression "It's as easy as riding a bike." But the idea of a child with special needs balancing, steering, and pedaling a bike can seem out of reach for some; especially when he may be unable to walk unaided or hold his head up without support. Physical capabilities or stamina need not keep a child from this pleasurable…

  3. Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The importance of the parent-child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child's self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child's abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms.

  4. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  5. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k

  6. Leaving home, family support and intergenerational ties in Italy: Some regional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Santarelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In Italy conditions at leaving home are characterized by high age at exit, high proximity with parents and widespread intergenerational support, showing important regional differences. According to the "familistic" approach such conditions spread from strong intergenerational ties. Proximity and support are considered proxies of ties' strength so that different regional proximity and support correspond to different ties' intensities. The study aims at analyzing similarities and differences about parent-child ties, proximity and support in selected Italian regions, Liguria, Umbria, Sicily and Sardinia. Results show important differences among regions with respect to proximity and support, suggesting different intensity of intergenerational ties.

  7. Young Child. [SITE 2002 Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.; DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on the young child from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Young Children's Computer Use: Perspectives of Early Childhood Teacher Educators" (Mehmet Buldu); (2) "Using Technology To Support Preschool Teachers' Professional Development" (Julie Hirschler…

  8. Promoting Strong ISO 50001 Outcomes with Supportive National Infrastructure:

    OpenAIRE

    McKane, Aimee, T.; Siciliano, Graziella; de los Reyes, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The ISO 50001 standard is a key mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency globally. An increasing number of companies are seeking certification, creating the need for personnel that are competent to conduct ISO 50001 certification audits. The growth of ISO 50001 is expected to accelerate as more companies integrate ISO 50001 into their corporate sustainability strategies and supplier requirements. Robust implementation of ISO 50001 represents an impo...

  9. South Korea: strong infrastructure to support nation's needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief report is given on the development of the natural gas market in South Korea. The country is increasingly turning to imported LNG due to the phasing out of dirtier fuels by stricter planning regulations. Topics covered include gas terminals, gas-fired power stations and gas distribution systems. (UK)

  10. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  11. Military Families: Child Care Support During Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a different generation holds a different parenting philosophy than you do. She may be more lenient, ... Print Share Donate Contact Us About Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use Editorial Policy This site complies ...

  12. 75 FR 32145 - Safeguarding Child Support Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... a contractual relationship nor required to comply with ethics and confidentiality rules such as..., employers, and courts, as well as the recent litigation brought by the U.S. Postal Service and Commonwealth... representing the business as a government office, using official-looking documents to pressure employers to...

  13. 75 FR 81894 - Safeguarding Child Support Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... definition that requires assurance of a genuine attorney-client relationship that creates an ethical...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996... authorized under title IV-E of the Act) to assist States in carrying out their responsibilities under those...

  14. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  15. CHILD MAINTENANCE IN TURKISH LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Bilge Sarihan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alimony; the dictionary defines as, the whole of what is needed to make a living; as the legal sense is defined as connected with one month to one court decision that obliged to provide for. Family members of a moral rule, first of all to help each other. This moral without often any coercion parties in the framework adapts to this rule, but in this case the legislator for the processing always smoothly, has made it a statutory duty by going to road regulations to help each other for certain family members. Assistance in the form of alimony and child support maintenance can be divided into two main groups. Support resulting from family law, commonly referred to as maintenance support. Maintenance alimony; temporary alimony, child maintenance and poverty alimony. The care and upbringing of children in the marital union is entitled to custody of the mother and father in the framework. Mother and father use custody together. Custody of minors and adult children must sometimes restricted to persons, about paying attention to both the goods and to represent them as a whole of the rights and obligations of the law have been installed on the parents. Common life of the spouses or by court order issued at the end of separation has occurred judge may give custody to one of the spouses. side with custody of children have been left to him is obliged to look after and educate them. However, not given custody of his side, must participate in their child's care and education expenses amount to be determined by the judge according to financial strength. Associates alimony, separation or nullity or divorce, child custody as a result of which he had left his wife, child care and the financial strength to participate in the rate training expenses. Associates alimony, not a liability connected to custody, is a natural consequence of being parents. Because spouses are obliged to take care of children's care and upbringing. Child maintenance is

  16. Integrating Couple Teamwork Conversations into Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dana; Antle, Becky; Johnson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple…

  17. Child Care Helps America Work and Learn. Issue No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Helps America Work and Learn" is a new publication produced by the Child Care Bureau. This new series will highlight some of the many Recovery Act-funded child care success stories from communities across the country that illustrate how the Bureau is working toward the shared goal of supporting children and families. This…

  18. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  19. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  20. Pet dogs and child physical activity: the role of child-dog attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, A M; Scribani, M B; Krupa, N; Jenkins, P

    2017-10-01

    Dog ownership has been associated with increased physical activity in children which in turn may mitigate childhood obesity. To measure the association between child-dog attachment and child physical activity and screen time. Cross-sectional study including 370 children (ages 4-10) who had pet dogs in the home. Parents completed the DartScreen, a web-based screener, before a well-child visit. Screener domains included child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time and dog-related questions. The Companion Animal Bonding Scale (CABS) was used to measure child attachment to the dog. Clinic nurses weighed and measured the children. Associations between CABS, BMI z-score, screen time and physical activity were estimated. CABS was strongly associated with time spent being active with the dog (F = 22.81, p dog is associated with increased child physical activity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  2. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  3. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Mapping the Gap TM : Examining Child Care Supply & Demand Across the Country Checking In: A Snapshot of the Child Care Landscape – 2017 State Fact Sheets Child Care State Licensing Database Millennial Generation: How the Changing Economic Environment Impacts Parents’ Ability to Afford Child Care ...

  4. Evaluation of the Start Strong initiative: preventing teen dating violence and promoting healthy relationships among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  6. Strong-Q-sequences and small d

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounský, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2012), s. 2942-2946 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Katowice problem * strong-Q-sequence * dominating number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002222

  7. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  8. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Karn, Sumit; Devkota, Madhu Dixit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, S K; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Patel, Archana; Gaidhane, Abhay; Puri, Seema; Godakandage, Sanjeeva; Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-13

    South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  9. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. Methods We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Results Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. Conclusions The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  10. Procedures in child deaths in The Netherlands: a comparison with child death review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, S.; Petter, J.; L'Hoir, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of

  11. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  12. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  13. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Cherry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012. Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of self-efficacy from a sample of 395 child welfare workers. Factor analysis revealed two domains of self-efficacy, direct practice and indirect practice, which can be modestly predicted by worker characteristics upon hire and the training program the workers attend. Worker self-efficacy can be used to identify vulnerable workers who may be especially in need of strong supervisory support as well as understand who to target for recruitment. A review of the literature of self-efficacy in child welfare workers is included.

  14. Prevalence and relationship between adverse childhood experiences and child behavior among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson Freeman, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect impact a child's socioemotional development. Drawing from the methods employed in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE; Felitti et al.,) Study, the present study utilized data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine the prevalence of ACEs among children birth to 6 years, and the relationship of ACEs to emotional and behavioral outcomes 59 to 97 months after the close of investigation or assessment. Logistic regression also was used to examine the cumulative impact of ACEs on child behavior outcomes. By the age of 6, approximately 70% of children experienced three or more ACEs, and there were strong relationships between ACEs. Numerous ACEs were associated with long-term behavioral problems, and results supported a dose-response effect. Three or greater ACEs more than quadrupled the risk of experiencing internalizing problems, and almost quadrupled the risk of experiencing either externalizing or total problems at 59 to 97 months' postinvestigation. Based on these findings, it is crucial for both early screening/assessment and increased collaboration between child welfare and early intervention programs. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  16. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  17. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  18. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  19. Stability and Change in Mother-Child Planning over Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.; Reisz, Z.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal research examines maternal and child behaviors during joint planning over a 3-year period of middle childhood. 118 mother-child dyads were observed once a year beginning when the children were 8 years of age. Coding focused on mother and child planning behaviors, maternal instructional support, and child task engagement.…

  20. Do Child Molesters Hold Distorted Beliefs? What Does Their Memory Recall Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.; Wright, Daniel B.; Beech, Anthony R.; Williams, Sian

    2006-01-01

    Do child molesters hold distorted beliefs (or cognitive distortions) that support their sexual offending? To test this hypothesis, we asked 28 child molesters and 20 inmate controls to read a description of child molestation. Within this vignette, we planted 10 ambiguous descriptions. If child molesters' information processing were driven by…

  1. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  2. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  3. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  4. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas hars...

  5. Effectiveness of a national media campaign to promote parent-child communication about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-02-01

    Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children's decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) to encourage parent-child communication about sex. Previous experimental studies have found the campaign to be efficacious in increasing parent-child communication. But to date, the actual reach of the campaign and its real-world effectiveness in promoting parent-child communication has not been established. The present study addresses this gap. The authors surveyed 1,804 parents of 10- to14-year-old children from the nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel. The survey included questions about parents' awareness of PSUNC ads and parent-child communication behaviors. The authors also analyzed market-level data on campaign gross rating points, a measure of market-level intensity of PSUNC advertising in the United States. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the association between PSUNC exposure and a three-item scale for parent-child communication. Overall, 59.4% of parents in the sample reported awareness of PSUNC. The authors found that higher market-level PSUNC gross rating points were associated with increased parent-child communication. Similar relationships were observed between self-reported awareness of PSUNC and increased frequency of communication and recommendations to wait. These associations were particularly strong among mothers. This study provides the first field-based data on the real-world reach and effectiveness of PSUNC among parents. The data support earlier experimental trials of PSUNC, showing that the campaign is associated with greater parent-child communication, primarily among mothers. Further research may be needed to develop additional messages for fathers.

  6. A research-based child welfare employee selection protocol: strengthening retention of the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J; Ellett, Chad D; Ellis, Jacquelyn; Lerner, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial implementation of a new employee selection protocol (ESP) for child welfare grounded in the results of recent large-scale employee retention studies and a set of research-based, minimally essential knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. The complete ESP consists of a sequenced set of Web- and site-based assessment processes and procedures for potential applicants. Using the ESP, applicants and employers make informed decisions about the goodness of fit between the applicant and the demands of a career in child welfare. To date, the new ESP has been piloted in three Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) regions and implemented by all nine colleges and universities participating in IV-E child welfare education programs. Evaluation data collected from students and new employees in one DFCS region strongly support the value of the ESP Web-based activities to make a more informed decision about whether to apply for the IV-E stipends and child welfare positions. Feedback from trained ESP assessors supports the value of various ESP activities. A major goal of implementing the ESP is to select more professionally committed and highly qualified applicants to strengthen employee retention and outcomes for children and families.

  7. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  8. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  9. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  10. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  11. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  12. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  13. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples.

  14. Steady the dizzy child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    angular). Vestibular. (linear). Visual. Auditory. Fig 1. The mechanism of normal balance control. ... CHILD. History. A good clinical history forms the basis of the approach. Owing to the child's lack of communication skills, the parent or caretaker.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...

  16. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Center October 6, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  18. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (IBS) Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Toilet Training Your Child Toilet Training Your Child Share Print Children go through ... and for you—is learning to use the toilet. Parents often have many questions about when and ...

  19. Mothers' perceived physical health during early and middle childhood: relations with child developmental delay and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L

    2013-03-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N=116) or typical development (TD; N=129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that mothers in the DD group experienced poorer health from age 3 but that the two groups showed similar growth across ages 3-9 years. Second, cross-lagged panel analyses supported a child-driven pathway in early childhood (ages 3-5) by which early mother-reported child behavior problems predicted poorer maternal health over time, while the reversed, health-driven path was not supported. Third, this cross-lagged path was significantly stronger in the DD group, indicating that behavior problems more strongly impact mothers' health when children have developmental delay than when children have typical development. The health disparity between mothers of children with DD vs. TD stabilized by child age 5 and persisted across early and middle childhood. Early interventions ought to focus on mothers' well-being, both psychological and physical, in addition to child functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strong Josephson Coupling in Planar Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Takane, Yositake; Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Hu-Jong

    A recent breakthrough of processing graphene, employing encapsulation by hexagonal boron nitride layers (BGB structure), allows realizing the ballistic carrier transport in graphene. Thereafter, ballistic Josephson coupling has been studied by closely edge-contacted BGB structure with two superconducting electrodes. Here, we report on the strong Josephson coupling with planar graphene junction in truly short and ballistic regime. Our device showed high transmission probability and the junction critical current (IC) oscillating for sweeping the gate voltage along with the normal conductance oscillation (Fabry-Perot oscillations), providing a direct evidence for the ballistic nature of the junction pair current. We also observed the convex-upward shape of decreasing critical currents with increasing temperature, canonical properties of the short Josephson coupling. By fitting these curves into theoretical models, we demonstrate the strong Josephson coupling in our devices, which is also supported by the exceptionally large value of ICRN ( 2 Δ / e RNis the normal resistance).

  1. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W

    2015-05-01

    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. [Child dyspnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levieux, Karine; Bihouée, Tiphaine

    2015-05-01

    The management of children dyspnea depends on the severity and symptomatology. The severity assessment requires knowledge of the standards of respiratory rate by age and signs of failure ventilatory mechanics. Recognize the time of dyspnea is important because it guides the diagnosis. Inspiratory dyspnea is most often due to viral laryngitis but an age of less than 6 months or no vaccination against Haemophilus should suggest other urgent diagnostics. Dyspnea with inspiratory and expiratory wheeze is a sign of tracheal damage and needs specialized hospital care. Expiratory dyspnea is the sign of a lower airway affection. A first episode of wheezing during epidemics sign acute bronchiolitis whose support is purely symptomatic with DRP and nutritional splitting. Corticosteroids, bronchodilators and chest physiotherapy are not indicated. Asthma attack is defined as a third episode of wheezing, that requires the administration of salbutamol with an inhalation room, and even oral corticosteroids. Febrile dyspnea must seek auscultatory or radiological abnormalities confirming pneumonia to be treated by a probabilistic and emergency antibiotherapy.

  3. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  4. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  5. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  6. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nurturing the child's creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandalakshmy, S

    1991-01-01

    A much neglected but vital aspect of a child's development, creativity; needs to be vigorously promoted. India's child survival strategy has focused on immunization, oral rehydration, education, and limiting family size. No policy exists, however, that seeks to nurture a child's curiosity, joy and hopefulness. Many people place art and science in separate realms, not realizing that both depend on the unhindered flow of imagination. India's educational system emphasizes practical and utilitarian knowledge. This systems stresses the accumulation of information, academic performance, and competition. A child acquired value according to how well he or she performs in an exam, a fact that can have only a negative impact on the child's psyche. At home, parents push a child to achieve results, discouraging curiosity in the process. All of these tendencies serve to stifle the creative impulses of the child, making him or her apathetic or frustrated. Society needs to recognize that every child is a gifted child, one who has the inalienable right to explore, seek information, and use his or her imagination. Parents, schools, and the country as a whole need to foster such creativity. Stories, songs, poems, parables--all of these can stimulate a child's imagination. Parents should encourage a child to read for fun, and should help the child differentiate between good literature and mediocre writing, between the aesthetic and the gaudy. Parents should invite children to talk about their feelings and thoughts and should share their own.

  8. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective ways to discipline your child. Strategies That Work When your child does not listen, try the following: Natural Consequences ... younger than 6 or 7 years, withholding privileges works best if done right away. For example, if your child misbehaves in the morning, do not tell her ...

  9. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from getting worse. But, when they no longer work, the child's health care provider will recommend surgery. There are ... urinate. Your child's stomach and bowels may not work for a few days ... Your child may need to receive fluids and nutrition through ...

  10. Managing the Biting Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Anne E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the causes of biting behavior and techniques that parents and educators can use to manage biting toddlers. Notes that solutions need to consider the developmental level and needs of the child, the influence of the child's environment, and the role of adults in the child's life. (MDM)

  11. Emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eRobbins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong reciprocity is considered here as the propensity to sacrifice resources to be kind or to punish in response to prior acts, a behavior not simply reducible to self-interest and a likely force behind human cooperation and sociality. The aim was to capture emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny. Three- and five-year-old middle class American children (N=162 were tested in a simple, multiple round, three-way sharing game involving the child, a generous puppet, and a stingy puppet. At the end of the game, the child was offered an opportunity to sacrifice some of her personal gains to punish one of the puppets. By three years, American children demonstrate a willingness to engage in costly punishment. However, only five-year-olds show some evidence of strong reciprocity by orienting their punishment systematically toward the stingy puppet. Further analyses and 3 additional control conditions demonstrate that such propensity is not simply reducible to a straight imitation, or b inequity aversion. To assess the relative universality of such development, a group of five- to six-year-old children from rural Samoa (N=14 were tested and compared to age and gender matched American children. Samoan children did not manifest the same propensity toward strong reciprocity. The results are interpreted as pointing to 1 the developmental emergence of an ethical stance between three and five years of age, and 2 that the expression of such stance by young children could depend on culture.

  12. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  13. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  14. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  15. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  16. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  17. The art, science and philosophy of child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2009-02-01

    Pediatrics deals with promotion of health and well being of children and not merely diagnosis and treatment of their diseases. Children are truly the foundation of a society because healthy children grow to become healthy and strong adults who can actively participate in the developmental activities of a nation. Health and well being of children is intimately linked with the health, nutrition, education and awareness of their mothers. In order to improve child health and survival, it is therefore important to provide a life-cycle approach for the care of girl children with focus on equal opportunities for their nutrition (from birth through infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy and lactation), optimal health care, education, dignity, empowerment, status and say in society. Every child must be viewed in totality - body, mind, heart and soul, and not in isolation but in context with the dynamics of their ecology, family, friends, teachers and society. We should treat the child and not his disease or laboratory reports. And every contact with the family should be effectively harnessed to provide "holistic care" and not mere "cure". We must give advice regarding life style changes, importance of personal hygiene, promotion of breast feeding, provision of safe environment, personal hygiene, optimal nutrition, immunizations and prevention of accidents. We should try to establish a rapport with the child and his parents to provide them emotionai support and win their faith, trust and confidence. We should make sincere efforts to become knowledgeable, upto-date and a rational physician to practice evidence-based pediatrics. Above all, we must strive to master the sublime art of medicine and acquire the divine gift of healing. And we should not allow technology to further dehumanize medicine!

  18. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  19. Delivering social work services in collaboration with the legal representation for individual clients: An effective, ethical and economical approach to supporting families in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Robbin

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses the need to improve the quality of helping relationships between families and social workers in the child protection system and the growing body of evidence that teams of social workers and lawyers are effective at improving outcomes in child protection legal proceedings. The author presents an alternative structure of delivering social work services within the child protection systems once a court gets involved with a family, proposing that social workers should focus on individual clients in collaboration with their legal representation, rather than the traditional model of a governmental agency social worker serving the family as a unit as it also determines placement of the children. Pairing the social worker to an individual client in tandem with their legal representative would help resolve the widely observed relationship problems between service users and governmental agency social workers that include the power imbalance created by the agency's authority to determine placement of children, the conflicts of interest that agency workers face when required to manage differing family members' needs, and the lack of protection of the due process right of confidentiality for parties involved in legal proceedings. This alternative structure also impacts the need to use resources more efficiently and has been demonstrated to result in substantial returns on investment. This article concludes that when a family becomes involved in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings, the child welfare agency should shift the delivery of social work services to the individual parties, away from the governmental agency and in conjunction with their legal representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges related to migration and child attachment: A pilot study with South Asian immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Miconi, Diana; Rousseau, Cécile

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined psychological, social and cultural risk factors for child insecure attachment in a sample of South Asian immigrant families experiencing high migration stress in Montreal, Canada. Thirty-three participants were recruited through a local Health and Social Service organization. Maternal anxiety and depression, social support, and national and religious sense of belonging were assessed. Child attachment behaviors were coded from a 15 min free play period. Results indicated that maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower child attachment security scores. Lower support from friends was related to greater child ambivalent attachment behaviors. A higher sense of belonging to the country of origin was related to greater child disorganized attachment behaviors. These findings suggest that migration stresses, which include maternal depression, lack of social support and the sense of belonging, are associated with child attachment, and these variables should be considered in the design of appropriate interventions.

  1. School Quality, Child Wellbeing and Parents' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Child wellbeing at school and enjoyment of the learning environment are important economic outcomes, in particular because a growing body of research shows they are strongly linked to later educational attainments and labour market success. However, the standard working assumption in the economics of education is that parents choose schools on the…

  2. Facing suspected child abuse--what keeps Swedish general practitioners from reporting to child protective services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Marijke; Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of suspected child abuse among Swedish general practitioners (GPs), and to investigate factors influencing them in their decision whether or not to report to child protective services (CPS). A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Primary health care centres in western Sweden. 177 GPs and GP trainees. Demographic and educational background, education on child abuse, attitudes to reporting and CPS, previous experience of reporting suspected child abuse, and need of support. Despite mandatory reporting, 20% of all physicians had at some point suspected but not reported child abuse. Main reasons for non-reporting were uncertainty about the suspicion and use of alternative strategies; for instance, referral to other health care providers or follow-up of the family by the treating physician. Only 30% of all physicians trusted CPS's methods of investigating and acting in cases of suspected child abuse, and 44% of all physicians would have wanted access to expert consultation. There were no differences in the failure to report suspected child abuse that could be attributed to GP characteristics. However, GPs educated abroad reported less frequently to CPS than GPs educated in Sweden. This study showed that GPs see a need for support from experts and that the communication and cooperation between GPs and CPS needs to be improved. The low frequency of reporting indicates a need for continued education of GPs and for updated guidelines including practical advice on how to manage child abuse.

  3. Discriminative ability of the generic and condition-specific Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH Project: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masalu Joyce R

    2011-05-01

    .5. Conclusion The generic Child-OIDP discriminated equally well between children with and without dental caries and periodontal problems across socio-culturally different study sites. Compared with its generic form, the CS Child-OIDP discriminated most strongly between children with and without dental caries and malocclusion. The CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries and malocclusion seems to be better suited to support clinical indicators when estimating oral health needs among school children in Tanzania.

  4. Investment in Child Quality over Marital States. Discussion Paper No. 1320-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meta; Flinn, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Policies governing divorce and parenting, such as child support orders and enforcement, child custody regulations, and marital dissolution requirements, can have a large impact on the welfare of parents and children. Recent research has produced evidence on the responses of divorce rates to unilateral divorce laws and child support enforcement. In…

  5. Child disability and siblings' healthcare expenditures in a context of child fostering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo Fotso, Arlette

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have assessed the impact of disability on healthcare expenditures for the disabled child, but practically none has considered the externalities of a child's disability in terms of healthcare expenditures for his/her siblings. This study therefore seeks to measure the impact of a child's disability on the allocation of healthcare expenditures among children of a household. It uses data from the 2011 Demographic Health and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (DHS-MICS) conducted in Cameroon by the National Statistics Institute (INS), with support from UNFPA, UNICEF, the World Bank and USAID. The disability module of the survey was administered to 17,864 children under age 18. Multivariate analyses (two-part model with logistic then GLM regression) showed that a disability significantly increases the monthly healthcare expenditures for the disabled child by XAF 204. This effect does not differ significantly whether or not the disabled child is fostered (does not live with his/her mother). Living with a disabled child has no impact on healthcare expenditures of a child. However, if the child is a true sibling (same mother), having a disabled sibling reduces the healthcare expenditures allocated to that child by XAF 102. Childhood disability therefore has a potentially wider effect on the health of siblings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of parent post-traumatic stress symptoms after child hospitalization on general pediatric wards: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Wray, Jo; Gay, Caryl; Dearmun, Annette K; Lee, Kirsty; Cooper, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of parental post-traumatic stress symptoms following child hospitalization. In this prospective cohort study, a sample of 107 parents completed questionnaires during their child's hospitalization on pediatric (non-intensive care) wards and again three months after discharge. Eligible parents had a child expected to be hospitalized for three or more nights. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess parent distress during the child's hospitalization, parent coping strategies and resources, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress after the hospitalization. Correlations and multiple regressions were used to determine whether parent distress during hospitalization and coping strategies and resources predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms three months after the child's discharge, while controlling for relevant covariates. Three months after the child's hospital discharge, 32.7% of parents (n=35) reported some degree of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and 21.5% (n=23) had elevated (≥34) scores consistent with a probable diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. In the multivariable model, parent anxiety and uncertainty during hospitalization and use of negative coping strategies, such as denial, venting and self-blame, were associated with higher post-traumatic stress symptoms scores at three months post-discharge, even after controlling for the child's health status. Parental anxiety and depression during hospitalization moderated the relationship between negative coping strategies and post-traumatic stress symptoms. More than one quarter of parents of children hospitalized on pediatric (non-intensive care) wards experienced significant post-traumatic stress symptoms after their child's discharge. Parents' hospital-related anxiety, uncertainty and use of negative coping strategies are potentially modifiable factors that most strongly influenced post-traumatic stress symptoms. Further research is urgently needed

  7. Kindergarten teachers' experience with reporting child abuse in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-02-01

    The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics, attitudes about child discipline, punishment for perpetrators, and professional responsibility for reporting, subjective norms regarding support for reporting from the general and specific important persons, perceived behavioral control, and vignettes of child abuse, was used to collect data. A total of 598 kindergarten teachers (return rate 47%) provided data. While 97% of teachers reported having no experience with reporting a child abuse case, 11% indicated they had failed to report a suspected case of child abuse. Multiple regression revealed that, except for social norms, attitudes toward child discipline, punishments for perpetrators, and professional responsibility as well as perceived behavioral control explained 22.4% of variance of kindergarten teachers' intention to report child abuse. With the exception of the subjective norms, the findings of this study supported the TPB that kindergarten teachers' intention to report child abuse is associated with attitudes toward child discipline, punishment for perpetrators, professional responsibility, and perceived behavioral controls over reporting. This study revealed the problem of underreporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan, and highlighted the discrepancy between child abuse training and expected reporting outcomes suggesting an insufficiency in the current training programs on child abuse. There is a need to scrutinize the current training in child abuse and develop standardized training and clear reporting guidelines that will increase kindergarten teachers' confidence when confronted with suspected victims and perpetrators of child abuse in Taiwan. Copyright (c

  8. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  9. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  10. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  11. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  12. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  13. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  14. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  15. Child Survival in sub Sahara Africa: the role of CAPGAN and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Survival in sub Sahara Africa: the role of. CAPGAN and regional child health practitioners & scientists ... liberate the world from poverty. Child Survival is the direct goal of MDG 4, and strongly and ... fate of the children in sub Sahara Africa (sSA) is worse and the MDG 4 and 5 are regressing . Superimposed on this.

  16. Gender differences in child aggression : Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  17. Maternal control and early child dysregulation: Moderating roles of ethnicity and child delay status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, B; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Maternal controlling behaviour has been found to influence child development, particularly in behavioural and emotional regulation. Given the higher rates of interfering parent control found in mothers of children with developmental delays (DD) and Latina mothers, their children could be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional dysregulation. While studies generally support this increased risk for children with DD, findings for Latino children are mixed and often attributed to cultural models of child rearing. The present study sought to determine the moderating roles of child DD and mother ethnicity in determining the relationships between two types of parent control (supportive directiveness and interference) and child dysregulation over time. The present study, involving 178 3-year old children with DD (n = 80) or typical development (n = 98), examined observed parent control (directive versus interfering) of Latina and Anglo mothers as it relates to change in preschool child dysregulation over 2 years. Interfering parent control was greater for children with DD and also for Latino mothers. Supportive directive parenting generally related to relatively greater decline in child behaviour and emotion dysregulation over time, while interfering parenting generally related to less decline in child behaviour dysregulation over time. In Anglo but not Latino families, these relationships tended to vary as a function of child disability. Parent directives that support, rather than deter, ongoing child activity may promote positive regulatory development. These results particularly hold for children with DD and Latino families, and have implications for parenting practices and intervention. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 3 CFR 8457 - Proclamation 8457 of November 20, 2009. National Child's Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspires. On National Child's Day, we celebrate the promise living within every child. Ensuring the health... children the educational support necessary for their development and future success. That is why we...

  19. The influence of parental education on child mental health in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Llácer, Alicia; Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the association between parental education and offspring's mental health in a nationally representative Spanish sample, and assess the contribution of other socioeconomic factors to the association. We conducted a secondary analysis of data on 4- to 15-year-olds participating in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Mental health was assessed using the parent-reported Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire. Parents' respective educational levels were summarized in a single variable. Univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for family-, child- and parent-related characteristics, were used to study the association. The final sample comprised 5,635 children. A strong association between parental education and parent-reported child mental health was observed among 4- to 11-year-olds, with odds ratios (ORs) increasing as parental educational level decreased. Where both parents had a sub-university level, maternal education showed a stronger association than did paternal education. Following adjustment for covariates, parental education continued to be the strongest risk factor for parent-reported child mental health problems, OR = 3.7 (95% CI 2.4-5.8) for the lowest educational level, but no association was found among 12- to 15-year-olds. Male sex, immigrant status, activity limitation, parent's poor mental health, low social support, poor family function, single-parent families, low family income and social class were associated with parent-reported child mental health problems in both age groups. Our results show that there is a strong association between parental education and parent-reported child mental health, and that this is indeed stronger than that for income and social class. Among adolescents, however, the effect of parental education would appear to be outweighed by other factors.

  20. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  1. Relationship Transitions and the Risk for Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William

    2016-12-01

    Family structure as a risk for child maltreatment has long been viewed as a static state in the child maltreatment literature. Drawing on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, the author uses a series of individual fixed-effects models to investigate whether particular types of relationship transitions over children's first decade of life are associated with increased risk for maternal and paternal child abuse and maternal neglect. Findings question and confirm a number of long-standing theoretical and empirical findings from the child maltreatment literature. Results indicate that transitions to being single are associated with increased risk for maternal child abuse and neglect. In addition, the frequency and severity of paternal harsh parenting may be closely linked with the nature of fathers' relationship transitions. Last, results largely do not provide support for the theory that the presence of social (nonbiological) fathers increases mothers' risk for engaging in child abuse or neglect.

  2. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes.

  3. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  4. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  5. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    supported researcher is receiving international attention for his work to address maternal and child death rates in East Africa. View moreMaternal and child health research featured in Canadian Geographic ...

  6. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  7. Weaving child psychoanalysis: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinich, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Using the metaphor of a fabric woven from many threads, this paper describes nine of the many conceptual strands that have contributed to the development of child psychoanalysis over its first century. It notes the unfortunate isolation (sometimes self-imposed) of child analysis from related fields (including adult analysis) and argues that we must recognize both the strengths and weaknesses of our psychoanalytic tools if we are to collaborate with and profit from the work of nonanalytic colleagues. It closes with the suggestion that the continued weaving of child analysis will require the creation of new looms, structures that are able to support a new generation of child analysts and the continued elaboration of the field.

  8. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  9. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  10. Parental responses to child experiences of trauma following presentation at emergency departments: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria; Creswell, Cathy; Butler, Ian; Christie, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parents are often children's main source of support following fear-inducing traumatic events, yet little is known about how parents provide that support. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experiences of supporting their child following child trauma exposure and presentation at an emergency department (ED). Design Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. Setting The setting for this study was two National Health Service EDs in England. Participants 20 parents whose child experienced a traumatic event and attended an ED between August 2014 and October 2015. Results Parents were sensitive to their child's distress and offered reassurance and support for their child to resume normal activities. However, parental beliefs often inhibited children's reinstatement of pretrauma routines. Support often focused on preventing future illness or injury, reflective of parents' concerns for their child's physical well-being. In a minority of parents, appraisals of problematic care from EDs contributed to parents' anxiety and perceptions of their child as vulnerable post-trauma. Forgetting the trauma and avoidance of discussion were encouraged as coping strategies to prevent further distress. Parents highlighted their need for further guidance and support regarding their child's physical and emotional recovery. Conclusions This study provides insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by parents in supporting their child following trauma exposure. Perceptions of their child's physical vulnerability and treatment influenced parents' responses and the supportive strategies employed. These findings may enable clinicians to generate meaningful advice for parents following child attendance at EDs post-trauma. PMID:27821599

  11. The Family Value of Information, Community Support, and Experience Study: Rationale, Design, and Methods of a "Family-Centered" Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gloria M; Wehring, Heidi J; Connors, Kathleen M; Bussell, Kristin; Schiffman, Jason; Medoff, Deborah R; Tsuji, Thomas; Walker, Jane; Brown, Alicia; Strobeck, Danielle; Clough, Tammy; Rush, Caitlin B; Riddle, Mark A; Love, Raymond C; Zachik, Albert; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Olin, S Serene; Stephan, Sharon; Okuzawa, Nana; Edwards, Sarah; Baquet, Claudia; dosReis, Susan

    2015-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act focuses on improving consumer engagement and patient-centered care. This article describes the design and rationale of a study targeting family engagement in pediatric mental health services. The study is a 90-day randomized trial of a telephone-delivered Family Navigator services versus usual care for parents of Medicaid-insured youth younger than 13 years with serious mental illness. Youth are identified through a pediatric antipsychotic medication preauthorization program. Family Navigators offer peer support to empower and engage parents in their child's recovery. Outcomes include parent report of empowerment, social support, satisfaction with child mental health services, and child functioning as well as claims-based measures of psychotherapy service utilization and antipsychotic medication dosage. The focus on "family-centered" care in this study is strongly supported by the active role of consumers in study design and implementation.

  12. child bride and child sex: combating child marriages in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    There are preventive pre-marriage measures to protect children threatened with forced marriages. An application may be made for an Emergency Protection Order. (EPO). Where the EPO is granted, but the parents are the threat to the child, the court could be asked for a presumption of non-contract for the duration of EPO to ...

  13. Child care subsidies revisted

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert Jongen

    2010-01-01

    Public spending on child care has taken a high flight in the Netherlands. One of the key policy goals of child care subsidies is to stimulate labour participation. We study the impact of child care subsidies on labour participation using a general equilibrium model.Next to the labour supply choice, we model the choice over formal and informal care. The choice between formal and informal care plays an important role in the overall impact of child care subsidies on labour participation. The mod...

  14. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, M; Hewett, P

    2000-01-01

    Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly

  15. The involvement of family in child protection cases in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Haugen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of families in child protection cases in Iceland, as well as to shed light on the attitudes of child protection workers on the importance of including families while working on child protection cases. The study is part of an international comparative analysis called: Social Work with Families: Social Workers’ Constructions of Family in Professional Practice. This article only addresses the Icelandic segment of the research. In the study, qualitative methods were used and three focus groups were conducted, in which the same three-step vignette about a child protection case was presented. The findings highlighted how difficult child protection workers found it to define the family. The main element is that family are those individuals closest to the child and connected to them through emotional ties, as Icelandic child protection workers seem to strive to involve family in child protection cases. However, there are signs which show that when working with more complicated cases the definition of a family becomes narrower, and involvement is restricted mostly to parents and grandparents. The findings also show that attitudes toward fathers differ from those toward mothers. The mother is expected to support and create security for the child, while the father is judged mostly on his violent behaviour and is not automatically regarded as providing support or actively taking responsibility for his child.

  16. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Malawi’s success in child mortality reduction through the lens of the Catalytic Initiative Integrated Health Systems Strengthening programme: Retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Doherty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI programme of support (2007–2013. We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI 189 to 249 in the period 1991–1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132 in the period 2006–2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24% and increased household coverage of insecticide–treated bednets (19%. These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub–Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community–based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.

  18. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  19. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  20. Facilitating and hindering factors for coping with the experience of having a child with cancer: A Lebanese perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Khoury, May Naifeh

    2017-01-01

    Families with a child with cancer face significant emotional and psychosocial stressors. The frequency of childhood cancer is increasing in Lebanon with more than 282 children diagnosed each year. This condition is reported to evoke a range of challenging emotions for parents, yet no studies have been conducted on the facilitating and hindering factors that affect Lebanese parents coping with a child with cancer. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of factors facilitating and hindering coping methods of Lebanese parents with a child with cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 12 parents (mother or father) of a child were interviewed. Data were analyzed following the Utrecht School of phenomenology. Helpful and harmful experiences emerged through the coding process. The enabling factors were social/family support; talking about it; strong religious beliefs; and the communication style of health workers. On the other hand, the deterring factors were the waiting time and the hospital stay; changes in the couple's relationship; and sibling rivalry. These results could be used as the basis for additional research aimed at developing a structured approach to care that endorses the coping processes of Lebanese parents with a child with cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to be conscious of parents' coping strategies and their impact on family dynamics and the relationship between the family and the health care team.

  1. Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu-Amankwah, R.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods

  2. Child spacing and two child policy in practice in rural Vietnam: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, H T; Toan, N V; Johansson, A; Hoa, V T; Höjer, B; Persson, L A

    1996-11-02

    To explore the reproductive pattern of women in rural Vietnam in relation to the existing family planning policies and laws. Cross sectional survey with question-naires on reproductive history. Tien Hai, a district in Red River Delta area, where the population density is one of the highest in Vietnam. 1132 women who had at least one child under 5 years of age in April 1992. Birth spacing and probability of having a third child. The mean age at first birth was 22.2 years. The average spacing between the first and the second child was 2.6 years. Mothers with a lower educational level, farmers, and women belonging to the Catholic religion had shorter spacing between the first and second child and also a higher probability of having a third child. In addition, women who had no sons or who had lost a previous child were more likely to have a third child. Most families do not adhere to the official family planning policy, which was introduced in 1988, stipulating that each couple should have a maximum of two children with 3-5 years' spacing in between. More consideration should be given to family planning needs and perceptions of the population, supporting the woman to be in control of her fertility. This may imply improved contraceptive services and better consideration of sex issues and cultural differences as well as improved social support for elderly people.

  3. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  4. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  5. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  6. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  7. On the Effectiveness of Child Care Centers in Promoting Child Development in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Rosero

    2012-01-01

    Although the literature on the effectiveness of child care centers in developing countries is thin, most of the studies have concluded that the provision of these services are beneficial to enhance the development of poor children at early ages. Using different matching techniques, the results in this paper contrast with that conclusion as it finds no support of a positive effect of a large scale child care program in Ecuador on any of the dimensions considered of cognitive development. This ...

  8. Having another child without intellectual disabilities: Comparing mothers of a single child with disability and mothers of multiple children with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how having a child without a disability is related to maternal mental health and its predictors, we compared mothers of a single child with intellectual disabilities (single-child group, n = 117) and mothers of children with and without intellectual disabilities (multiple-children group, n = 457), in Japan. Compared to the multiple-children group, the single-child group had lower hope and social capital and poorer mental health; furthermore, 42.5% of them had decided not to have another child, despite desiring one. Hope was the strongest predictor of mental health in both groups but was more positively related to mental health in the multiple-children group. The fear of the possibility of the next child having a disability and receiving inadequate support were the obstacles for mothers who had decided not to have another child. Thus, greater support and more opportunities for obtaining adequate information about the implications of having another child may be needed.

  9. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  10. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  11. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  12. Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.

  13. 5994 Volume 12 No. 2 April 2012 CHILD MALNUTRITION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... increased child mortality. About 44.6% of the Swaziland pre-school age children .... children (6 - 12 years) more than pre-school children who could also be a potential source of transmission [25]. .... child health and nutrition are; gender inequality, presence of support networks, alternative explanatory ...

  14. Financing Child Care through Local Taxes: One City's Bold Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Kenneth E.; Strober, Myra H.

    1992-01-01

    Interviewed policymakers and conducted election day exit poll to examine Fremont, California City Council measure asking residents whether tax should pay for child care. Concluded that measure lost because city overestimated shortage of child-care slots, supporters underestimated opposition, and city council and public opinion polls overestimated…

  15. What Are the Chances My Child Will Inherit a Condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the pair may be able to do the work by itself. Whether your child will have a genetic condition depends on two ... Twitter YouTube RSS Genetics and Health How Genes ... My Child Inherit a Condition? Information & Support Genetic Disease Information ...

  16. Trends, Patterns and Issues of Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... education, knowledge about sound feeding practices and eating habits, growth monitoring and women supportive socio-cultural norms need to be given more emphasis to overcome the present situation. Key words: Child malnutrition, Health, Bangladesh, Child care, Food availability, Poverty, Education, Natural disaster.

  17. Building Capacity for Trauma Intervention across Child-Serving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, Susan; Stettler, Erin M.; Giammanco, Denise; Silverman, Marian; Briggs, Rahil D.; Loeb, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Infants most vulnerable to trauma are often the least able to access interventions. Universal child-serving systems, such as primary pediatrics, early care and education, and the child welfare system, can offer a port of entry for millions of children annually for trauma-related supports and services. However, practitioners in these systems have…

  18. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times of illness (of a parent or a child) or stress (a move, for instance, or the birth of a new sibling). These kinds of behavior might include not doing chores, ... well-being of the child, the family members, and others. They may interfere ...

  19. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) in which Australian child care facilities are surveyed to include those providing full-day care and therefore excludes kindergartens, play centers, nursery schools, and child minding centers that provide care for only part of the day. The document presents a breakdown of…

  20. Brushing Your Child's Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good oral health starts at a very young age. Taking care of your child's gums and teeth every day helps prevent tooth decay and gum disease. It also helps make it a regular habit for your child. Learn how to care for your ...