WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong central government

  1. Local Self-Government in Central and Eastern Europe: a Strong and Independent Local-Level Management Tool or Just a Paper Tiger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset of the independence process in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries during the 1990s was marked by tremendous optimism and a declared wish for stronger fiscal decentralisation and the transfer of powers, responsibilities and resources to the units of local and regional self-government that were supposed to be closest to citizens in resolving their daily problems. However, this has not happened in these countries, at least not according to the basic financial decentralisation indicators, and this is the main thesis of this work. Despite numerous adjustments made in the local self-government organisation in the observed countries, an optimum level of local and regional self-government organisation has still not been achieved. The units of local and regional self-government are still heavily dependent on, or rather restricted by, the strong central governments, which reduces their autonomy and their influence on the local social and economic development.

  2. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... for maintaining the MBOR system including setting requirements and recommendations for the design and use of performance contracts, which means that a common central government framework for performance contracting exists. Despite of this common framework, differences in the contract content (scale and focus...

  3. Performance management in Dutch central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Nico P.; de Kruijf, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates how and to what extent performance indicators in Dutch central government are actually embedded in performance management. In a case study encompassing 12 government organizations, the relevance of the indicators presented is analysed in three stages: (1) with respect to

  4. Financial Stability and Central Bank Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, Michael; Roszbach, Kasper; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The financial crisis has ignited a debate about the appropriate objectives and the governance structure of Central Banks. We use novel survey data to investigate the relation between these traits and banking system stability focusing in particular on their role in micro-prudential supervision. We

  5. Assessing Centralized Governance in a Software Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Leonardo Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been paid to the creation of spatially concentrated environments (industrial agglomerations or clusters that aim at fostering firm-level competitiveness. However, while much has been said about clusters in general, less attention has been paid to structural governance within these agglomerations. This paper discusses the economic dynamics of clusters in the presence of centralized formal body of governance regarding internal and external relationships. We have carried out a case study of the key players in the software industry of Ribeirão Preto, which relies on an institutional arrangement called PISO. PISO arises as an economic institution in the context of Ribeirão Preto’s software cluster that structures collective action within the system, interfering in the regional policymaking processes and fostering an environment that improves overall capabilities that allow firms to take full advantage of the externalities in order to create and consolidate competitive local advantages.

  6. Framing REDD+ in India: Carbonizing and centralizing Indian forest governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijge, Marjanneke J.; Gupta, Aarti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze whether India's REDD+ strategy induces carbonization and centralization. • REDD+ in India is framed as an opportunity for synergistic, decentralized governance. • Yet national safeguards are not as strong as asserted. • Controversial issues have so far been side-lined in India's REDD+ strategy. • Without investments, synergistic and decentralized REDD+ governance remains unlikely. - Abstract: This article analyzes the interaction of newly articulated climate governance goals with long-standing forest policies and practices in India. We focus on India's REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and related forest activities) strategy, with a particular focus on the Green India Mission (GIM). The GIM calls for a doubling of the area for afforestation and reforestation in India in the next decade as a dominant climate mitigation strategy. We analyze how the GIM policy document frames carbon versus non-carbon benefits to be derived from forest-related activities; and how the GIM envisages division of authority (between national, regional and local levels) in its implementation. We are interested in assessing (a) whether the GIM promotes a “carbonization” of Indian forest governance, i.e. an increased focus on forest carbon at the expense of other ecosystem services; and (b) whether it promotes an increased centralization of forest governance in India through retaining or transferring authority and control over forest resources to national and state-level authorities, at the expense of local communities. We argue that the GIM frames the climate-forest interaction as an opportunity to synergistically enhance both carbon and non-carbon benefits to be derived from forests; while simultaneously promoting further decentralization of Indian forest governance. However, based on past experiences and developments to date, we conclude that without significant investments in community-based carbon and biodiversity

  7. Legalisation and privatisation in global governance: the case of WTO dispute settlement<strong> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    . In this paper, emphasis is placed on the dual operation of legalisation and privatisation as particular logics which both help define which ideas become constitutive of global governance. Legalisation and privatisation – as two particularly dominant logics for conducting global governance – are important, since...

  8. A third generation of performance contracting in danish central government?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2017-01-01

    of outcomes has increased, activity-oriented targets have decreased, and targets for internal management decreased in the mid-2000s before again increasing more recently. On this basis, performance contracting in Danish central government is argued to have entered a third generation.......This paper compares the content of performance contracts in Danish central government over time in order to identify whether – and if so, how – it develops. The analysis is conducted as a two-step, mixed methods study. First, a quantitative study was carried out based on a study of all performance...... contracts in Danish central government in 2002, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2014. For each year, all performance contracts have been coded according to the number and type of targets included in them. A range of qualitative interviews was then carried out, and Ministry of Finance recommendations were consulted...

  9. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within......' EU coordination mechanisms into different clusters, including unicentric, pluricentric, decentric, proactive, reactive, politicized, depoliticized, high efficacy and low efficacy. Intriguing differences are identified, such as the fact that the Central and Eastern European member states' mechanisms...

  10. Strong Central Asian seasonality from Eocene oysters indicates early monsoons and aridification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeois, Laurie; de Rafélis, Marc; Tindall, Julia; Proust, Jean-Noël; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart; Guo, ZhaoJie; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    Climate models suggest that the onset of Asian monsoons and aridification have been governed by Tibetan plateau uplift, global climate changes and the retreat to the west of the vast epicontinental Proto-Paratethys sea during the warm Eocene greenhouse period (55-34 million years ago). However, the role of the Proto-Paratethys sea on climate remains to be quantified by accurate and precise reconstructions. By applying a novel intra-annual geochemical multi-proxy methodology on Eocene oyster shells of the Proto-Paratethys sea and comparing results to climate simulations and sedimentology analyses, we show that the Central Asian region was generally arid with a high seasonal contrast characterized by hot and arid summers and wetter winters. Hotter and more arid summers despite the presence of the Proto-Paratethys may be explained by warmer Eocene global conditions with a strong anticyclonic Hadley cell descending at Central Asian latitudes and a stronger Foehn effect from the emerging Tibetan Plateau to the south. This implies that the shallow sea did not have a strong dampening thermal effect on the monsoonal circulation in contrast to previous circulation models results but in agreement with recent evidence for Eocene summer monsoons. Enhanced winter precipitations, relative to modern, is linked to a westerly moisture source coming from the Proto-Paratethys sea at that time. Additional bulk sediment stable isotope data from marine limestones and pedogenic carbonates suggest a gradual decrease in this westerly moisture source, which is in line with the retreat of the Proto-Paratethys followed by the Oligo-Miocene orogeny of the Central Asian ranges (Tian Shan and Pamir) shielding the westerlies.

  11. Computer Support for Document Management in the Danish Central Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    1995-01-01

    Document management systems are generally assumed to hold a potential for delegating the recording and retrieval of documents to professionals such as civil servants and for supporting the coordination and control of work, so-called workflow management. This study investigates the use...... and organizational impact of document management systems in the Danish central government. The currently used systems unfold around the recording of incoming and outgoing paper mail and have typically not been accompanied by organizational changes. Rather, document management tends to remain an appendix...... to the primary work and be delegated to a specialized organizational unit. Several factors contribute to the present document management practices, for example it takes an extraordinary effort to achieve the benefits, and few institutions are forced to pursue them. Furthermore, document and workflow management...

  12. Understanding the Historical Role of Central Governance in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Afghan state. The scholars that have contributed to Francis 24 Thomas Barfield, Afghanistan: A...extended from the Central Asia to Delhi, and from Kashmir to the Arabian Sea. Even though some scholars of Afghanistan have described Shah Ahmad Khan... orchards of fruit trees, and vineyards.58 Since the Shah understood that the tribal chieftans and feudal lords were bent on preserving their privileged

  13. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Ji, Min Gu; Yun, Yo Il; Kim, Yong Cheon; Lee, Sang In; Lee, Chan Won [Chunnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to develop new model and feasible alternatives by seeking solutions for rational redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. Since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, It is imperative to improve reform measures for the decentralization of power between central and local governments. The core of decentralization is to redistribute administrative authorities and roles which have been centralized, toward both self-governing body and communities. The level of decentralization depends on how to redistribute roles and functions between central and local government. Therefore, it is necessary to examine principle and type of domestic foreign role adjustment for effective nuclear regulation. Based on three prerequisite studies, role adjustment model for more effective nuclear regulation is made taking account of the current domestic environments and conditions. In the long run, the outcomes of this study will be expected to improve the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea.

  14. Higher Education Governance in Central and Eastern Europe: A Perspective on Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlea, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of what motivates governments to introduce and implement reforms in higher education (HE). The political and economic reasons why some governments in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), for the period 1990 and 2015, have invested resources in order to facilitate cooperation between employers…

  15. 75 FR 3953 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6886] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign [[Page 3954... respect to the Government of Egypt, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be...

  16. 78 FR 46671 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Haiti Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the...(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Haiti and I hereby...

  17. Can (ReCentralization Be a Modern Governance in Rural Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István BALÁZS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentration and recentralization can be described as a European trend in the fi eld of local governance, especially in the fi eld of the administration of rural areas. An important tool of the concentration of the local administration is the intercommunal cooperation. The Hungarian rural areas have fragmented spatial structures. Because of the fragmentation and the small number of the voluntary associations these types of local cooperation were signifi cantly supported by the central budget in the 1990s and 2000s. The economic crisis resulted in a strong concentration trend in Hungary, as well. The new Hungarian Municipal Code introduced a Janus-faced model. The administration of the rural areas was strongly concentrated by the establishment of the mandatory common municipal offi ces of the small villages (under 2000 inhabitants while the forms of the intercommunal associations were simplifi ed. This reform reduced the number of local offi ces signifi cantly. This type of intercommunal cooperation became the main form of the j oined public service management as well, because the former signifi cant state aid of the voluntary associations has been reduced.

  18. Can (ReCentralization Be a Modern Governance in Rural Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István BALÁZS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentration and recentralization can be described as a European trend in the fi eld of local governance, especially in the fi eld of the administration of rural areas. An important tool of the concentration of the local administration is the intercommunal cooperation. The Hungarian rural areas have fragmented spatial structures. Because of the fragmentation and the small number of the voluntary associations these types of local cooperation were signifi cantly supported by the central budget in the 1990s and 2000s. The economic crisis resulted a strong concentration trend in Hungary, as well. The new Hungarian Municipal Code introduced a Janus-faced model. The administration of the rural areas was strongly concentrated by the establishment of the mandatory common municipal offi ces of the small villages (under 2000 inhabitants while the forms of the intercommunal associations were simplifi ed. This reform reduced the number of local offi ces signifi cantly. This type of intercommunal cooperation became the main form of the j oined public service management as well, because the former signifi cant state aid of the voluntary associations have been reduced.

  19. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY: CHANGING EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S PERSPECTIVE ON FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to look at the European Central Bank governance in terms of decisions taken to deploy a new kit of unconventional monetary policy measures, in order to respond to a new economic paradigm characterized by dynamic change in evolution, high volatility and enhanced financial risks. As an institution, the European Central Bank is led by the Governing Council and the decisions taken on how to use monetary policy impact an entire financial system. European Central Banking governance is about safeguarding the common currency and ensuring a future for the economic and monetary area to emerge stronger. For this purpose, when conventional monetary policies reach limits in their effects, it is time for the European Central Bank governance to analyse and assume the decision to deploy the arsenal of unconventional monetary policies. The experience of recent years showed a positive effect of the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary measures, but costs could rise in case of extensive use of such measures. When these measures are used in combination, the effect is amplified and the European Central Bank needs to assess when it is time to withdraw the support, how to communicate and what exit strategy should use, what the costs are and impact can expect.

  20. Learning and steering: changing implementation patterns and the Greek central government

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakopoulos, Dionyssis G.

    2001-01-01

    Greece is frequently characterized as a laggard in the implementation of EU policy. This article examines the key characteristics of the Greek central government and links them to patterns of policy implementation. However, governments, like all organizations, have the capacity to learn. Thus, implementation patterns change over time. Observations and inferences from experience matched by the acquisition of new techniques and critical events help to improve the implementation of EU public pol...

  1. Central-Local Administrative and Governance Relationships in Two Ukrainian Cities: Kyiv and Odessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya KOLISNICHENKO

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The institution of local self-government occupies an increasingly important position in Ukrainian society. However, the contemporary system of local self-government in Ukraine is still not consistent with the principles of the European Charter of Local Self-government. In areas such as access to sources of revenue, policy initiation and citizen involvement in local governance, municipal governments in Ukraine frequently fall significantly short of expected European standards. In part, this is due to the lingering influence of the Soviet totalitarian past on the mentality of both the Ukrainian legislators and the representatives of local governments who are working to create democratic principles of true people’s power. Too often, the creation of independent self-governance authority conflicts with the strong desire of some political forces to transform local self-government into an appendage of state (national government power under rigid and comprehensive control. But, in spite of this, democratic principles are finding their way into the re-thinking of the role of local self-government in Ukranian society.

  2. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8284] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... Egypt and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying Memorandum of...

  3. 78 FR 56768 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8468] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... year Acts with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  4. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8279] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Yemen and I...

  5. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8466] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Yemen, and I hereby...

  6. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8245] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I...

  7. 78 FR 46672 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8401] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ukraine Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Ukraine and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  8. 76 FR 43369 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7530] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Kyrgyzstan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... respect Kyrgyzstan and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the...

  9. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8553] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction...

  10. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7623] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I...

  11. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8233] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I...

  12. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8230] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Angola and I...

  13. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7920] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Angola and I...

  14. Strategic interaction between government and central bank in framework of cooperative and non-cooperative games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudinia, D.; Engwerda, Jacob; Esfahani, Rahim Dallali; Dastjerdi, R.B.; Fakhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the strategic interaction between government and central bank in Iranian economy. Using dynamic differential games and Nash equilibrium within cooperative and non-cooperative setting, we try to find the optimal values of debt, deficit and monetary base. The results of

  15. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8224] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and...

  16. How a Strong Government Backed an African Language: The Lessons of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Ali A.

    2001-07-01

    Although Somali is the mother tongue of over 95 per cent of the population of Somalia, when the country received independence in 1960 it took English, Italian, and Arabic as its official languages. Because of controversy involving technical, religious and political questions, no script for the Somali language could be agreed upon, either in the colonial era or in parliamentary years, 1960-1969. The consequences of this non-decision were considerable for Somali society. However, when the authoritarian military rulers came to the power in the early 1970s, they made a final decision in regard to script. They also issued a decree to the effect that Somali was to be the language of political and administrative discourse in the Somali Republic. That act marked the beginning of the restoration of cultural and linguistic rights for Somali society. This article examines how Somalia, under a strong and totalitarian regime, was able to promote its language. The article also presents an overview of the organisation and the implementation of the literacy campaigns carried out in Somalia, as well as some notes on planning and the theoretical framework behind the campaigns.

  17. Characterizing Aftershock Sequences of the Recent Strong Earthquakes in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Nekrasova, Anastasia K.

    2017-10-01

    The recent strong earthquakes in Central Italy allow for a comparative analysis of their aftershocks from the viewpoint of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter relationship making use of naturally fractal distribution of earthquake sources of different size in a seismic region. In particular, we consider aftershocks as a sequence of avalanches in self-organized system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere, each aftershock series characterized with the distribution of the USLE control parameter, η. We found the existence, in a long-term, of different, intermittent levels of rather steady seismic activity characterized with a near constant value of η, which switch, in mid-term, at times of transition associated with catastrophic events. On such a transition, seismic activity may follow different scenarios with inter-event time scaling of different kind, including constant, logarithmic, power law, exponential rise/decay or a mixture of those as observed in the case of the ongoing one associated with the three strong earthquakes in 2016. Evidently, our results do not support the presence of universality of seismic energy release, while providing constraints on modelling seismic sequences for earthquake physicists and supplying decision makers with information for improving local seismic hazard assessments.

  18. When State Centralism Meets Neo-Liberalism: Managing University Governance Change in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, both the Singapore and Malaysia governments have introduced reforms along the lines of ideas and practices embedded in neo-liberalism. In the last decade or so, we have witnessed reforms being introduced to the higher education sectors in these Asian states,…

  19. CENTRAL DARK MATTER TRENDS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM STRONG LENSING, DYNAMICS, AND STELLAR POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, C.; Jetzer, P.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the correlations between central dark matter (DM) content of early-type galaxies and their sizes and ages, using a sample of intermediate-redshift (z ∼ 0.2) gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey, and by comparing them to a larger sample of z ∼ 0 galaxies. We decompose the deprojected galaxy masses into DM and stellar components using combinations of strong lensing, stellar dynamics, and stellar populations modeling. For a given stellar mass, we find that for galaxies with larger sizes, the DM fraction increases and the mean DM density decreases, consistently with the cuspy halos expected in cosmological formation scenarios. The DM fraction also decreases with stellar age, which can be partially explained by the inverse correlation between size and age. The residual trend may point to systematic dependencies on formation epoch of halo contraction or stellar initial mass functions. These results are in agreement with recent findings based on local galaxies by Napolitano et al. and suggest negligible evidence of galaxy evolution over the last ∼2.5 Gyr other than passive stellar aging.

  20. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  1. A Resilient Central Administration? The Impact of Internationalization on State Education Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Brøgger, Katja

    2019-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards international harmonization of national education systems in the European Union and beyond. Although education as a policy area still falls under state jurisdiction, changes in modes of governance at both national and international level has...... been substantial during this period. Previous research has established that this international trend has had an extensive influence on institutions of higher education in terms of profound curriculum changes and the emergence of transnational education standards of comparison. However, only few studies...... governance of the European Union and the Bologna Process on the one hand and the shifting bureaucratic structures and administrative practices of the Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science on the other. The central aim of the study is to provide important insight into how the ministerial authorities...

  2. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  3. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  4. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  5. A note on the almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove some almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences under some mild conditions. The results extend the ASCLT to nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences and give substantial improvements for the weight sequence obtained by Lin et al. (Comput. Math. Appl. 62(2:635-640, 2011.

  6. Integration Plan for the Mid-Region Council of Governments : Central New Mexico Climate Change Scenario Planning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Integration Plan for the Central New Mexico Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSP) provides useful information on strategies that the Mid-Region Council of Governments (MRCOG) and its partners can pursue over the next five years to adap...

  7. Mode of Strong Earthquake Recurrence In Central Ionian Islands (greece). Possible Triggering Due To Coulomb Stress Changes Generated By The Occurrence of Previous Strong Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E.

    The spatial-temporal distribution of shallow strong (M>6.3) earthquakes occurring in the area of central Ionian Islands is analyzed. These shocks generated on two adja- cent fault segments with different strike, but both associated with strike-slip faulting, constituting the boundary between continental collision to the north and oceanic sub- duction to the south. Seismic activity is confined in short time intervals alternating by much longer relatively quiescent periods. Each active period consists of a relatively large event or series (two to four) of events occurring closely both in space and time. This alteration was observed to happen four times since 1867, from when complete data exist for the study area. Since the phenomenon is not strictly periodic and during each active period multiple events occurred, it is attempted to interpret the seismic behavior on the basis of possible triggering. It is then investigated how changes in Coulomb Failure Function (DCFF) associated with one or more earthquakes may trig- ger subsequent events. Both the coseismic slip due to the generation of the strong earthquakes and stress build up associated with the two major fault segments were taken into account for the DCFF calculation. Earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half-space, and the stress pattern has been inverted according to the geometry and slip of each of the faults that ruptured in the chain of events. These calculations show that 13 out of 14 earthquakes with M>6.3 were preceded by a static stress change that encouraged failure. The magnitude of the stress increases transferred from one earthquake to another ranged from 0.01 MPa (0.1 bar) to over 0.1 MPa (1 bar). Maps of current DCFF provide additional information to long-term earthquake prediction. Areas of positive DCFF have been identified at two sites in Ke- falonia and Lefkada faults, respectively, where the next strong events are expected to occur.

  8. Strong Enhancement of Extremely Energetic Proton Production in Central Heavy Ion Collisions at Intermediate Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V. (and others)

    2001-08-13

    The energetic proton emission has been investigated as a function of the reaction centrality for the system {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni at 30AMeV. Extremely energetic protons (E{sup NN}{sub p}{>=}130 MeV ) were measured and their multiplicity is found to increase almost quadratically with the number of participant nucleons, thus indicating the onset of a mechanism beyond one- and two-body dynamics.

  9. Strong Enhancement of Extremely Energetic Proton Production in Central Heavy Ion Collisions at Intermediate Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.

    2001-01-01

    The energetic proton emission has been investigated as a function of the reaction centrality for the system 58 Ni+ 58 Ni at 30AMeV. Extremely energetic protons (E NN p ≥130 MeV ) were measured and their multiplicity is found to increase almost quadratically with the number of participant nucleons, thus indicating the onset of a mechanism beyond one- and two-body dynamics

  10. Strong Enhancement of Extremely Energetic Proton Production in Central Heavy Ion Collisions at Intermediate Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Ventura, P. G.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, N.; D'Agostino, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Fiandri, M. L.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moroni, A.; Rui, R.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Vannini, G.

    2001-08-01

    The energetic proton emission has been investigated as a function of the reaction centrality for the system 58Ni+58Ni at 30A MeV. Extremely energetic protons (ENNp>=130 MeV) were measured and their multiplicity is found to increase almost quadratically with the number of participant nucleons, thus indicating the onset of a mechanism beyond one- and two-body dynamics.

  11. Higher Order QED Contributions to the Atomic Structure at Strong Central Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P H

    2007-01-01

    An accurate determination of the precise structure of highly charged, very heavy ions is crucial for understanding QED at strong fields. The experimental advances in the spectroscopy of very heavy, highly charged ions-in particular H-, He- and Li-like species-are reviewed: Presently the ground state Lamb shift for H-like U ions is measured on a 1% level of accuracy; the screening terms in two-electron QED have just been touched by experiments for He-like U; and two-loop QED terms have been determined with ultimate accuracy for Li-like heavy species. The different approaches on QED measurements in strong fields will be discussed and the results compared to theory

  12. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb T. Gallemore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance. We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We analyzed the effects of discursive divides on collaboration on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ policy development in Central Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo selected in 2010 to pilot subnational REDD+ policy. We argue that the complexities of bridging local land management practices and technical approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and carbon offsetting create barriers to cross-scale collaboration. We tested these hypotheses using an exponential random graph model of collaboration among 36 organizations active in REDD+ policy in the province. We found that discursive divides were associated with a decreased probability of collaboration between organizations and that organizations headquartered outside the province were less likely to collaborate with organizations headquartered in the province. We conclude that bridging discursive communities presents a chicken-and-egg problem for cross-scale governance of social-ecological systems. In precisely the situations where it is most important, when bridging transnational standards with local knowledge and land management practices, it is the most difficult.

  13. The Collective Strategies of Major Stakeholders in Land Expropriation: A Tripartite Game Analysis of Central Government, Local Governments, and Land-Lost Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxiang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Land expropriation, during the rapid urbanization process in China, results in rural conflicts and presents barriers in sustainable development. Collective strategies of major stakeholders should be clearly understood for finding effective measures to cope with conflicts. However, the existing studies usually assume two types of stakeholders, which overlook the complicated practices as, at least central, government, local governments, and land-lost farmers are three major stakeholders. This research aims to explore the collective strategies of the three major stakeholders and examine how various factors contribute to conflicts with a tripartite evolutionary game model. The tripartite model is established based on the evolutionary game theories and relationships among the central and local governments, and land-lost farmers. A simulation analysis is also conducted on the MATLAB platform, which shows that serious asymmetry of information between stakeholders leads to the low efficiency of the game or serious conflicts. Thorough discussions on the influencing factors have also been conducted. The findings can provide good references for the central and local governments to reduce conflicts during land expropriation.

  14. Extracellular vesicles: Pharmacological modulators of the peripheral and central signals governing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbank, Edward; Martinez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic resultant dysfunctions such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, grouped as the "metabolic syndrome", are chronic inflammatory disorders that represent one of the most severe epidemic health problems. The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, leading to an excess of body fat and an increase of cardiovascular and diabetes risks, is regulated by the interaction between central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral signals in order to regulate behavior and finally, the metabolism of peripheral organs. At present, pharmacological treatment of obesity comprises actions in both CNS and peripheral organs. In the last decades, the extracellular vesicles have emerged as participants in many pathophysiological regulation processes. Whether used as biomarkers, targets or even tools, extracellular vesicles provided some promising effects in the treatment of a large variety of diseases. Extracellular vesicles are released by cells from the plasma membrane (microvesicles) or from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) and contain lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, such as DNA, protein coding, and non-coding RNAs. Owing to their composition, extracellular vesicles can (i) activate receptors at the target cell and then, the subsequent intracellular pathway associated to the specific receptor; (ii) transfer molecules to the target cells and thereby change their phenotype and (iii) be used as shuttle of drugs and, thus, to carry specific molecules towards specific cells. Herein, we review the impact of extracellular vesicles in modulating the central and peripheral signals governing obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics Governing Women's Decision on Reproductive Health Matters: Reflections from a Qualitative Study in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Saha

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India is addressing the barriers in communication and improve dialogue between diverse stakeholders, particularly women in the community. Through a qualitative study conducted in one of the rural districts of India, it was attempted to understand the factors affecting women's decision-making process. It is observed that most of the factors are affected by strong intrinsic environment and hence it becomes important for programme managers to understand the environment first in order to design an acceptable and effective communication strategy. In this study, knowledge, tradition, stigma and accessibility of services are identified as the key primary factors affecting decision making of women in the community, particularly on their health related issues. These in turn are governed by various supporting factors. Finally, it is observed that communication strategies can achieve their desired objective only when the local intrinsic environment is taken into cognisance.

  16. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  17. Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Söderholm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions.

  18. Strong congruence in tree and fern community turnover in response to soils and climate in central Panama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mirkka; Ferrier, Simon; Condit, Richard

    2013-01-01

    and seasonality undoubtedly limit plant distributions in this region, soil effects are at least as important, and interactions between the two are sizeable. This is likely to hold elsewhere in the Caribbean region, where mosaics of marine and volcanic soils combined with pronounced rainfall gradients are common......1. Plant species turnover in central Panamanian forests has been principally attributed to the effects of dispersal limitation and a strong Caribbean to Pacific gradient in rainfall seasonality. Despite marked geological heterogeneity, the role of soil variation has not been rigorously examined. 2....... We modelled the compositional turnover of trees and ferns in the Panama Canal watershed as a function of soil chemistry, climate and geographical separation, using generalized dissimilarity models (GDMs). 3. Predictability in both plant groups was strong, with 74% of turnover explained in trees...

  19. Access to Strong Opioid Analgesics in the Context of Legal and Regulatory Barriers in Eleven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B; Scholten, Willem K; Jünger, Saskia; Medic, Dr Rer; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2018-04-06

    In 2011-2013, >95% of the global opioid analgesics consumption occurred in three regions, accounting for 15% of the world population. Despite abundant literature on barriers to access, little is known on the correlation between actual access to opioid analgesics and barriers to access, including legal and regulatory barriers. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and barriers to access in national legislation and regulations in 11 central and eastern European countries that participated in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. Two variables were contrasted to assess their correlation: the country level of access to strong opioid analgesics indicated by the Adequacy of Consumption Measure (ACM) and the number of potential legal and regulatory barriers identified by an external review of legislation and regulations. A linear correlation was evaluated using a squared linear correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the correlation between the ACM and the number of potential barriers produces an R 2 value of 0.023 and a correlation plot trend line gradient of -0.075, indicating no correlation between access to strong opioid analgesics and the number of potential barriers in national legislation and regulations in the countries studied. No correlation was found, which indicates that other factors besides potential legal and regulatory barriers play a critical role in withholding prescribers and patients essential pain medication in the studied countries. More research is needed toward better understanding of the complex interplay of factors that determine access to strong opioid analgesics.

  20. THE PROBABILITY OF STRONG (M≥7.5 EARTHQUAKES IN FAULT ZONES OF CENTRAL ASIA (TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gorbunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data on seismically active faults of Central Asia, the authors apply the Gutenberg‐Richter law to study regularities of seismicity in large seismically active fault zones. Cumulative recurrence plots are constructed for earthquakes recorded only in the areas of active dynamic influence of the specified faults. Special attention is paid to changes in slope angles of the recurrence plots at the transition to the area of strong magnitudes. It is noted that the right‐side end of the plot (i.e. distribution tail becomes steeper or less steep relative to the main distribution for small magnitudes. The degree of non‐linearity and the forms of the recurrence plot tail are used to rank the faults of Central Asia by potential relative seismic hazard. It is shown that the highest seismic hazard is associated with the faults that control earthquakes with magnitudes M≥7.5, which recurrence plots show a trend to decrease the slope angle of the regression line in the area of strong magnitudes. It is highly probable that such earthquakes may reoccur in the fault zones in the next 50–100 years.

  1. A cosmic-ray nuclear event with an anomalously strong concentration of energy and particles in the central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1986-01-01

    A cosmic-ray induced nuclear event detected in the emulsion chamber is described. The event consists of 217 shower cores with ΣEγ = 1,275 TeV. In log scale, energy and particles are emitted most densely at the small lateral distance corresponding to 0.5 mm; 77 % of the total energy and 61 % of the total multiplicity are inside the radius of 0.65 cm. The shower cores in the central region show exponential-type energy distribution and non-isotropic azimuthal distribution. This event indicates a possibility that phenomena of large transverse momentum could happen to produce a strong concentration of energy and particles in the very forward direction. (Authors) [pt

  2. DEVELOPING AN INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK IN STUDYING BUREAUCRATIC BEHAVIOUR IN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADA-MARIA ALBESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a comprehensive institutional analysis framework in studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies. Although the purpose is to outline a general framework for research, the focus will be on taking into account the specifics of the agencification process in states from Central and Eastern Europe. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I compare various neoinstitutionalist approaches in terms of analysing the processes and transformations in the institutional environment concerning government agencies as semi-autonomous bodies in state organization. I argue that the approach which has a greater potential in explaining the processes and transformations in the institutional environment in government agencies is rational choice institutionalism. The second section of this paper is focused on presenting several traditional bureaucratic models in studying bureaucratic behaviour, from the traditional approach to public choice ones, in order to determine their possible contribution in analysing officials behaviour in semiautonomous agencies. Using these and the institutional analysis framework sugested in the first section of this paper I will focus on developing a model for studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies. The final section of the paper will be focused on the possibility of using the institutional analysis framework for studying bureaucratic behaviour in government agencies in Central and Eastern Europe and the challenges presented.

  3. Core or Cusps: The Central Dark Matter Profile of a Strong Lensing Cluster with a Bright Central Image at Redshift 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Lin, Huan; Bacon, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Nord, Brian; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Amara, Adam; Birrer, Simon; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; More, Anupreeta; Papovich, Casey; Romer, Kathy K.; Tessore, Nicolas; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Allam, Sahar; Annis, James; Benoit-Lévy, Aurlien; Brooks, David; Burke, David L.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Castander, Francisco Javier J.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Flaugher, Brenna; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David W.; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Gruen, Daniel; Gschwend, Julia; Gutierrez, Gaston; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve; Lahav, Ofer; Li, Ting S.; Lima, Marcos; Maia, Marcio A. G.; March, Marisa; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrs A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Sanchez, Eusebio; Scarpine, Vic; Schindler, Rafe; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Mathew; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Tucker, Douglas L.; Walker, Alistair R.

    2017-07-10

    We report on SPT-CLJ2011-5228, a giant system of arcs created by a cluster at $z=1.06$. The arc system is notable for the presence of a bright central image. The source is a Lyman Break galaxy at $z_s=2.39$ and the mass enclosed within the 14 arc second radius Einstein ring is $10^{14.2}$ solar masses. We perform a full light profile reconstruction of the lensed images to precisely infer the parameters of the mass distribution. The brightness of the central image demands that the central total density profile of the lens be shallow. By fitting the dark matter as a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile---with a free parameter for the inner density slope---we find that the break radius is $270^{+48}_{-76}$ kpc, and that the inner density falls with radius to the power $-0.38\\pm0.04$ at 68 percent confidence. Such a shallow profile is in strong tension with our understanding of relaxed cold dark matter halos; dark matter only simulations predict the inner density should fall as $r^{-1}$. The tension can be alleviated if this cluster is in fact a merger; a two halo model can also reconstruct the data, with both clumps (density going as $r^{-0.8}$ and $r^{-1.0}$) much more consistent with predictions from dark matter only simulations. At the resolution of our Dark Energy Survey imaging, we are unable to choose between these two models, but we make predictions for forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope imaging that will decisively distinguish between them.

  4. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance : A Story of Two Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and

  5. Policy entrepreneurship in UK central government: The behavioural insights team and the use of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Peter

    2014-07-01

    What factors explain the success of the UK Cabinet Office's Behavioural Insights Team? To answer this question, this article applies insights from organizational theory, particularly accounts of change agents. Change agents are able-with senior sponsorship-to foster innovation by determination and skill: they win allies and circumvent more traditional bureaucratic procedures. Although Behavioural Insights Team is a change agent-maybe even a skunkworks unit-not all the facilitating factors identified in the literature apply in this central government context. Key factors are its willingness to work in a non-hierarchical way, skills at forming alliances, and the ability to form good relationships with expert audiences. It has been able to promote a more entrepreneurial approach to government by using randomized controlled trials as a robust method of policy evaluation.

  6. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    , this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional...... policy and special economic zones for Greenfield investors. The shifting policy priorities have thus changed the types of projects undertaken by foreign investors in the region....

  7. Good governance and tourism development in protected areas: The case of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hübner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are increasingly expected to serve as a natural income-producing resource via the exploitation of recreational and touristic activities. Whilst tourism is often considered a viable option for generating income which benefits the conservation of a protected area, there are many cases in which insufficient and opaque planning hinder sustainable development, thereby reducing local benefit sharing and, ultimately, nature conservation. This article delineated and examined factors in governance which may underlie tourism development in protected areas. Based on Graham, Amos and Plumptre’s five good governance principles, a specific analysis was made of the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in central Vietnam, which highlighted challenges in the practical implementation of governing principles arising for nature conservation, sustainable tourism development and complex stakeholder environments. Despite the limited opportunity of this study to examine the wider national and international context, the discussion facilitated an overview of the factors necessary to understand governance principles and tourism development. This article could serve as a basis for future research, especially with respect to comparative analyses of different management structures existing in Vietnam and in other contested centrally steered protected area spaces. Conservation implications: This research has shown that tourism and its development, despite a more market-oriented and decentralised policymaking, is a fragmented concept impacted by bureaucratic burden, lack of institutional capacities, top-down processes and little benefit-sharing. There is urgent need for stakeholders – public and private – to reconcile the means of protected areas for the ends (conservation by clarifying responsibilities as well as structures and processes which determine decision-making.

  8. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    investment risks associated with FDI in CEE are a reflection the institutional development. Thus, inflows of FDI have been largest in those countries that made most progress in establishing a market-oriented institutional framework. After outlining trends of institutional change and their impact on FDI......, this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional...

  9. The strong commitment. The government of Vietnam has invested nearly 30% of its budget for all the social programs such as education, health, population and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Phuong Lan

    1995-01-01

    Population and family planning activities first came into being in Vietnam in 1963 after a decree on fertility control was issued by the Council of Government on December 26, 1961. The Ministry of Health (MOH) was in charge of such activities, using its own network to provide services and mass organizations to garner public support for the acceptance of family planning. On May 13, 1979, the council transferred family planning activities to the new Committee for Maternal and Child Protection. However, that committee was soon disbanded, and family planning activities were returned to the auspices of the MOH. The National Committee for Population and Family Planning was created in 1984 under the MOH with the goal of mobilizing all social forces in population and family planning activities. Decrees of October 1988 and March 1989, and in 1991 and 1993, strengthened measures to reduce population growth and ensure that adequate family planning methods were available to couples. Vietnam's Population and Family Planning Program has strong political support. Indeed, the government of Vietnam has invested almost 30% of its budget into education, health, and population and family planning programs.

  10. The Climate Resilience Toolkit: Central gateway for risk assessment and resilience planning at all governance scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, D.; Lipschultz, F.

    2016-12-01

    As people and organizations grapple with a changing climate amid a range of other factors simultaneously shifting, there is a need for credible, legitimate & salient scientific information in useful formats. In addition, an assessment framework is needed to guide the process of planning and implementing projects that allow communities and businesses to adapt to specific changing conditions, while also building overall resilience to future change. We will discuss how the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) can improve people's ability to understand and manage their climate-related risks and opportunities, and help them make their communities and businesses more resilient. In close coordination with the U.S. Climate Data Initiative, the CRT is continually evolving to offer actionable authoritative information, relevant tools, and subject matter expertise from across the U.S. federal government in one easy-to-use location. The Toolkit's "Climate Explorer" is designed to help people understand potential climate conditions over the course of this century. It offers easy access to downloadable maps, graphs, and data tables of observed and projected temperature, precipitation and other decision-relevant climate variables dating back to 1950 and out to 2100. Since climate is only one of many changing factors affecting decisions about the future, it also ties climate information to a wide range of relevant variables to help users explore vulnerabilities and impacts. New topic areas have been added, such as "Fisheries," "Regions," and "Built Environment" sections that feature case studies and personal experiences in making adaptation decisions. A curated "Reports" section is integrated with semantic web capabilities to help users locate the most relevant information sources. As part of the USGCRP's sustained assessment process, the CRT is aligning with other federal activities, such as the upcoming 4th National Climate Assessment.

  11. RECENT STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN CENTRAL ASIA: REGULAR TECTONOPHYSICAL FEATURES OF LOCATIONS IN THE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE. PART 1. MAIN GEODYNAMIC FACTORS PREDETERMINING LOCATIONS OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying locations of strong earthquakes (М≥8 in space and time in Central Asia has been among top prob-lems for many years and still remains challenging for international research teams. The authors propose a new ap-proach that requires changing the paradigm of earthquake focus – solid rock relations, while this paradigm is a basis for practically all known physical models of earthquake foci. This paper describes the first step towards developing a new concept of the seismic process, including generation of strong earthquakes, with reference to specific geodynamic features of the part of the study region wherein strong earthquakes were recorded in the past two centuries. Our analysis of the locations of М≥8 earthquakes shows that in the past two centuries such earthquakes took place in areas of the dynamic influence of large deep faults in the western regions of Central Asia. In the continental Asia, there is a clear submeridional structural boundary (95–105°E between the western and eastern regions, and this is a factor controlling localization of strong seismic events in the western regions. Obviously, the Indostan plate’s pressure from the south is an energy source for such events. The strong earthquakes are located in a relatively small part of the territory of Central Asia (i.e. the western regions, which is significantly different from its neighbouring areas at the north, east and west, as evidenced by its specific geodynamic parameters. (1 The crust is twice as thick in the western regions than in the eastern regions. (2 In the western regions, the block structures re-sulting from the crust destruction, which are mainly represented by lense-shaped forms elongated in the submeridio-nal direction, tend to dominate. (3 Active faults bordering large block structures are characterized by significant slip velocities that reach maximum values in the central part of the Tibetan plateau. Further northward, slip velocities decrease

  12. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sharon, Keren; Runnoe, Jessie; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Acharyya, Ayan; Bian, Fuyan; Kewley, Lisa [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gladders, Michael D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dahle, Hakon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael, E-mail: mbayliss@mit.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  13. Governance of private forests in Eastern and Central Europe: An analysis of forest harvesting and management rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bouriaud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A property rights-based approach is proposed in the paper to underlinethe common characteristics of the forest property rights specificationin ten ECE countries, the specific patterns governing the harvesting of timber in private forestry and the role of the forest management planning in determining the content of the property rights. The analysis deals with the private forests of the individuals (non industrial ownership from ten countries, covering 7.3 million ha and producing yearly some 25 million timber. The study shows that the forest management rights in private forests belong to the State and that the withdrawal rights on timber, yet recognized in the forest management plans, are in reality strongly restricted from aneconomic viewpoint. The forest management planning is the key instrument of the current forest governance system, based on top-down, hierarchically imposed and enforced set of compulsory rules on timber harvesting. With few exceptions, the forest owners’ have little influence in the forest planning and harvesting. The rational and State-lead approach of the private forest management has serious implications not only on the economic content of the property rights, but also on the learning and adaptive capacity of private forestry to cope with current challenges such the climate change, the increased industry needs for wood as raw material, or the marketingof innovative non wood forest products and services. The study highlights that understanding and comparing the regime of the forest ownership require a special analysis of the economic rights attached to each forest attribute; and that the evolution towards more participatory decision-making in the local forest governance can not be accurately assessed in ECE region without a proper understanding of the forest management planning process.

  14. From Governmental Accounting into National Accounts: Adjustments Diversity and Materiality with Evidence from the Iberian Countries’ Central Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antónia Jorge de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a context where governments around the world acknowledge a need for more informative governmental financial reporting to improve financial sustainability, the European Council is proposing that EU member states adopt International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs—which are recognized as also allowing improved reliability of government finance statistics—in all subsectors of the General Government Sector (GGS. Consequently, the Governmental Accounting (GA role of running and reporting on governments’ budgets for purposes of decisionmaking and accountability is changing to include being part of the EU budgetary and monetary policy, specifically within the Euro zone. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to start a debate in the literature about the ability of GA as it stands across Europe to meet the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA requirements concerning GGS data. This assumes particular relevance in a context where the two systems have to coexist, but given that budgetary reporting (GA is the main input to ESA reporting (NA, reconciliation between the two systems is required. The second objective is of a more technical nature—empirically demonstrating the diversity and materiality of the main adjustments to be made when converting GGS data from GA into NA. This is done by using evidence for Portugal and Spain, focusing on Central Government data for the period 2006–2009 and measuring their quantitative impact on the public (budgetary deficit. We conclude that GA systems as they are across EU do not meet ESA requirements, and further alignment is therefore needed to reduce adjustments as much as possible when translating data from GA into NA. Additionally, in the case of Portugal and Spain, the main findings show that the adjustments from GA into NA present great diversity for both of these Iberian countries. As for materiality, their impact is greater in Spain, but still

  15. Spatial Collaboration Model among Local Governments in Ratubangnegoro Region in the Boundary Area of Central Java and East Java Provinces, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, H.; Wahdah, L.

    2018-02-01

    In Indonesia, according to Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, a local government can conduct cooperation with other local governments that are based on considerations of efficiency and effectiveness of public services and mutual benefit, in order to improve people's welfare. Such cooperation can be categorized into mandatory and voluntary cooperation. Cooperation shall be developed jointly between the adjacent areas for the implementation of government affairs which have cross-local government externalities; and the provision of public services more efficient if managed together. One of the parts of the area that is directly related to the implementation of the policy liabilities of inter-local government cooperation which is mandated is the he province boundary areas. The public management of the provincial boundary areas is different from the central province area. While the central province area considers only their own interests, the management of boundary development must consider the neighboring regions. On one hand, the area is influenced only by its own province policy, while on the other influenced by neighboring regions. Meanwhile, a local government tends to resist the influence and intervention of neighboring regions. Likewise, neighboring local governments also tend to resist the influence and intervention of other local governments. Therefore, when interacting on the boundary, inter-local government interaction is not only the potential for cooperation, but also conflict-prone regions. One of the boundary area provinces attempt to implement the collaborative planning approach is the boundary area of Central Java Province and East Java Province, which is known as Ratubangnegoro Region. Ratubangnegoro region is one of the strategic areas of both provinces. In order to the interaction between the region could take place, there are regencies in the region have formed and joined the Inter-Local Government Cooperation Agency (BKAD-Badan Kerjasama Antar

  16. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Gershenson, Carlos; Manzanilla, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  17. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    Full Text Available Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  18. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  19. Temporal bird community dynamics are strongly affected by landscape fragmentation in a Central American tropical forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.

  20. Co-evolution in relation to small cars and sustainability in China : interactions between central and local governments, and with business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Tsang, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how the institutional context, including central and local governments, has co-evolved with business in relation to small cars and sustainability. This is a very relevant issue for business and society in view of the environmental implications of the rapidly growing vehicle

  1. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  2. Strong decrease in streptomycin-resistance and absence of XDR 12 years after the Reorganization of the National Tuberculosis Control Program in the Central Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidze, Larissa Kamgue; Mouafo Tekwu, Emmanuel; Kuaban, Christopher; Assam Assam, Jean-Paul; Tedom, Jean-Claude; Eyangoh, Sara; Fouda, François-Xavier; Nolna, Désiré; Ntoumi, Francine; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Véronique N

    2014-01-01

    In the 1990s, resistance rates of 15% for streptomycin-resistance and 0.6% for multidrug-resistance (MDR) were reported from the Central Region of Cameroon. This work assesses drug resistant tuberculosis in this region 12 years after reorganization of the National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTCP). This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011 in Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Only patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Sputa were cultured and subsequently underwent drug susceptibility testing (DST). All consenting individuals were tested for their HIV status. A total of 665 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled. The HIV prevalence was 28.5% (95%CI [25.2-32.1]). Of the 582 sputa that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species, DST results were obtained for 576. The overall resistance rate was 10.9% (63/576). The overall resistance rates for single drug resistance were: isoniazid-resistance 4.7% (27/576), streptomycin-resistance 3.3% (19/576), rifampicin-resistance 0.2% (1/576), kanamycin-resistance 0.2% (1/576) and ofloxacin-resistance 0.2% (1/576). The MDR rate was 1.1% (6/576) and no extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR) was detected. The data show that reorganization of the NTCP resulted in a strong decrease in streptomycin-resistance and suggest that it prevented the emergence of XDR in the Central Region of Cameroon.

  3. Integral Action: Management Tool for Municipal Governments Centralized by the National Policy of Territorial Consolidation and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Antonio Mejía Quintero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral action has been a key tool for social development, regarding the achievements of the national government to recover legitimacy and governability. Since its beginning in 2002 and up to date, the consolidation process—represented in the National Policy of Territorial Consolidation and Reconstruction (NPTCR— has presented changes in its strategy, in line with current circumstances. This article is theoretically based on the concepts of legitimacy and governability and on the doctrine of integral action of the Armed Forces, complemented with the experience of officers who worked on this strategy or currently run it. Thus, this study offers recommendations to the national government for decision making in modifying the development of NPTCR, taking into account the current historical moment.

  4. Strong Decrease in Streptomycin-Resistance and Absence of XDR 12 Years after the Reorganization of the National Tuberculosis Control Program in the Central Region of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuaban, Christopher; Assam Assam, Jean-Paul; Tedom, Jean-Claude; Eyangoh, Sara; Fouda, François-Xavier; Nolna, Désiré; Ntoumi, Francine; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Véronique N.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the 1990s, resistance rates of 15% for streptomycin-resistance and 0.6% for multidrug-resistance (MDR) were reported from the Central Region of Cameroon. This work assesses drug resistant tuberculosis in this region 12 years after reorganization of the National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTCP). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011 in Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Only patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Sputa were cultured and subsequently underwent drug susceptibility testing (DST). All consenting individuals were tested for their HIV status. Results A total of 665 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled. The HIV prevalence was 28.5% (95%CI [25.2–32.1]). Of the 582 sputa that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species, DST results were obtained for 576. The overall resistance rate was 10.9% (63/576). The overall resistance rates for single drug resistance were: isoniazid-resistance 4.7% (27/576), streptomycin-resistance 3.3% (19/576), rifampicin-resistance 0.2% (1/576), kanamycin-resistance 0.2% (1/576) and ofloxacin-resistance 0.2% (1/576). The MDR rate was 1.1% (6/576) and no extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR) was detected. Conclusions The data show that reorganization of the NTCP resulted in a strong decrease in streptomycin-resistance and suggest that it prevented the emergence of XDR in the Central Region of Cameroon. PMID:24901982

  5. Bringing central regulation and local governance interaction together : The case of the Markermeer-IJmeer Natura 2000 area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterhout, B.; Louw, E.; Zonneveld, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws attention to a case in which Natura 2000 regulation, problematic ecological conditions, governance congestion and the aim to develop large urban projects are to go hand in hand in the soft space of the Markermeer-IJmeer area, a 30 by 25 km lake in the centre of the Netherlands. The

  6. Opening the Gates or Coping with the Flow? Governing Access to Higher Education in Northern and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Antonowicz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Access to higher education has become a key policy issue in most European countries in since the last half of the last century. We trace the historical development of the ways in which governments in two countries within the region, Norway and Poland, have attempted to steer developments. Three access waves or phases are identified and…

  7. Assessing the added value of the recent declaration on unregulated fishing for sustainable governance of the central Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, Grace Elizabeth; Dalen, Kari; Peldszus, Regina

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, the four Interim Measures in the Declaration are discussed and what value these measures bring beyond the existing international agreements is explored. It is found that even though the Declaration fills a gap in the management of potential fish stocks in the central Arctic Ocean, adopts......The ‘Declaration concerning the prevention of unregulated high seas fishing in the central Arctic Ocean’ signed by the Arctic 5 nations, limits unregulated high seas fishing in the central part of the Arctic Ocean, and holds potential social, economic and political impacts for numerous stakeholders...... understanding of the fisheries as well as the broader Arctic environment. Furthermore, the research generated by this measure will provide an important decision base for both regulation and management of human activity in the Arctic....

  8. The centralization of territorial governance of active labor market policies in Spain during the Great Recession (2011-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Hernández-Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spain is among the West European countries that has achieved higher levels of decentralization in its Welfare State. The 1990s and 2000s witnessed an acceleration of this process, which has been accompanied by an expansion of social spending at the subnational level, especially by the Autonomous Communities (Autonomous Communities. This article aims to contribute to several debates regarding changes in the territorial dimension of governance in social policies and their explanatory factors. Specifically, it focuses on active labor market policies (ALMPs and addresses the question of whether the reforms introduced in the field of activation in the context of the economic crisis have affected the exercise of political, financial and administrative authority by the different levels of government.

  9. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  10. Central Banking and the Crisis. A Comparison of the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank Measures, and the ECB’s Changing Role in the EU Economic Governance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Roman Czubala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank (ECB has received a lot of criticism for its too little, too late performance to ease market pressures during the economic crisis. At the same time, the ECB and the Federal Reserve (FED have managed the new economic realities that have emerged in the international context differently. Despite the criticisms, the European Central Bank is the European Union institution that has assumed more control due to the new model of economic governance of the EU. Why did the Federal Reserve act so nimbly and quickly to calm the markets, while the ECB was so cautious in managing monetary policy? The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis of the management of interest rates and other monetary policy measures undertaken by the Central Bank and the Federal Reserve during the economic crisis, as well as to understand the changes in the context of the ECB and the emergence of its authority within the European Union’s economic governance model since 2011. Thus, in order to carry out a scrupulous exposition, we will also limit the time frame of this study to the 2007-2014 period.

  11. ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi-technique approach at strong-motion stations in California and central-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan; Martin, Antony; Stokoe, Kenneth; Diehl, John

    2013-01-01

    Funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), we conducted geophysical site characterizations at 191 strong-motion stations: 187 in California and 4 in the Central-Eastern United States (CEUS). The geophysical methods used at each site included passive and active surface-wave and body-wave techniques. Multiple techniques were used at most sites, with the goal of robustly determining VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles and VS30 (the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth). These techniques included: horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), two-dimensional (2-D) array microtremor (AM), refraction microtremor (ReMi™), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), multi-channel analysis of surface waves (Rayleigh wave: MASRW; and Love wave: MASLW), and compressional- and shear-wave refraction. Of the selected sites, 47 percent have crystalline, volcanic, or sedimentary rock at the surface or at relatively shallow depth, and 53 percent are of Quaternary sediments located in either rural or urban environments. Calculated values of VS30 span almost the full range of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Site Classes, from D (stiff soils) to B (rock). The NEHRP Site Classes based on VS30 range from being consistent with the Class expected from analysis of surficial geology, to being one or two Site Classes below expected. In a few cases where differences between the observed and expected Site Class occurred, it was the consequence of inaccurate or coarse geologic mapping, as well as considerable degradation of the near-surface rock. Additionally, several sites mapped as rock have Site Class D (stiff soil) velocities, which is due to the extensive weathering of the surficial rock.

  12. Climate Change and Public Information in the Spanish Central Government. Its Management, Legal and Foresight in Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Ibáñez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the increasing amount of data that inform us of the possible causes that have contributed to climate change, the solution to the problem has not been identified or achieved yet. In the beginning it looked like a scientific and technical problem as climate change is attributed to the production and accumulation of greenhouse gases. However, time has shown that this issue is totally linked to public perception and public opinion. The effect of mass media upon the public has a great influence. Experts on climate change are criticizing those who are skeptical of the causes. According to these experts, the response from the international community has decreased by the denial of global warming. The mis-management of public information by governments is one of the causes of the aforementioned decreased response. The regulations about public information have also contributed to this. This article tries to give an opinion about the way in which the Public Administration uses and broadcasts the information and the restrictions and legal limitations it faces.

  13. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  14. Analyses of historical and current populations of black grouse in Central Europe reveal strong effects of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segelbacher, G.; Strand, T.M.; Quintela, M.; Axelsson, T.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Hoglund, J.

    2014-01-01

    Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in Central Europe have undergone a severe contraction of their range in recent decades with only a few small isolated remaining populations. Here we compare genetic diversity of two contemporary isolated populations (Sallandse Heuvelrug, Netherlands and Luneburger Heide,

  15. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...

  16. Comparative Taphonomy, Taphofacies, and Bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, Central California: Strong Physical Control on Marine Vertebrate Preservation in Shallow Marine Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Perry, Frank A.; Schmitt, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies. Conclusions/Significance Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the

  17. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  18. Stochastic strong motion generation using slip model of 21 and 22 May 1960 mega-thrust earthquakes in the main cities of Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Ojeda, J.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Pasten, C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Silva, R., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    In May 1960 took place the most unusual seismic sequence registered instrumentally. The Mw 8.1, Concepción earthquake occurred May, 21, 1960. The aftershocks of this event apparently migrated to the south-east, and the Mw 9.5, Valdivia mega-earthquake occurred after 33 hours. The structural damage produced by both events is not larger than other earthquakes in Chile and lower than crustal earthquakes of smaller magnitude. The damage was located in the sites with shallow soil layers of low shear wave velocity (Vs). However, no seismological station recorded this sequence. For that reason, we generate synthetic acceleration times histories for strong motion in the main cities affected by these events. We use 155 points of vertical surface displacements recopiled by Plafker and Savage in 1968, and considering the observations of this authors and local residents we separated the uplift and subsidence information associated to the first earthquake Mw 8.1 and the second mega-earthquake Mw 9.5. We consider the elastic deformation propagation, assume realist lithosphere geometry, and compute a Bayesian method that maximizes the probability density a posteriori to obtain the slip distribution. Subsequently, we use a stochastic method of generation of strong motion considering the finite fault model obtained for both earthquakes. We considered the incidence angle of ray to the surface, free surface effect and energy partition for P, SV and SH waves, dynamic corner frequency and the influence of site effect. The results show that the earthquake Mw 8.1 occurred down-dip the slab, the strong motion records are similar to other Chilean earthquake like Tocopilla Mw 7.7 (2007). For the Mw 9.5 earthquake we obtain synthetic acceleration time histories with PGA values around 0.8 g in cities near to the maximum asperity or that have low velocity soil layers. This allows us to conclude that strong motion records have important influence of the shallow soil deposits. These records

  19. Laser-Plasma Instabilities by Avoiding the Strong Ion Landau Damping Limit: The Central Role of Statistical, Ultrafast, Nonlinear Optical Laser Techniques (SUNOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeyan, Bedros; Hüller, Stefan; Montgomery, David; Moody, John; Froula, Dustin; Hammer, James; Jones, Oggie; Amendt, Peter

    2014-10-01

    In mid-Z and high-Z plasmas, it is possible to control crossed bean energy transfer (CBET) and subsequently occurring single or multiple beam instabilities such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) by novel means. These new techniques are inoperative when the ion acoustic waves are in their strong damping limit, such as occurs in low Z plasmas with comparable electron and ion temperatures. For mid-Z plasmas, such as Z = 10, and near the Mach 1 surface, the strong coupling regime (SCR) can be exploited for LPI mitigation. While at higher Z values, it is thermal filamentation in conjunction with nonlocal heat transport that are useful to exploit. In both these settings, the strategy is to induce laser hot spot intensity dependent, and thus spatially dependent, frequency shifts to the ion acoustic waves in the transient response of wave-wave interactions. The latter is achieved by the on-off nature of spike trains of uneven duration and delay, STUD pulses. The least taxing use of STUD pulses is to modulate the beams at the 10 ps time scale and to choose which crossing beams are overlapping in time and which are not. Work supported by a grant from the DOE NNSA-OFES joint program on HEDP

  20. Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2012-07-01

    A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative value of regression coefficient for tablet diameter showed an inverse relationship with hardness and DT. A positive value of regression coefficient for CF indicated an increase in hardness and DT with increasing CF as a result of the decrease in tablet porosity. Interestingly, at the larger tablet diameter of 15 mm, while hardness increased and porosity decreased with an increase in CF, the DT was resistant to change. The optimised combination was a tablet of 15 mm diameter compressed at 15 kN showing a rapid DT of 37.7s and high hardness of 71.4N. Using these parameters, ODTs containing ibuprofen showed no significant change in DT (ANOVA; p>0.05) irrespective of the hydrophobicity of the ibuprofen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SYSTEM OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is a unitary state with a history of strong local government involvement in public affairs. Local government has played an important role in the welfare state system with many responsibilities for the delivery of public services to citizens. Because of this important position in the welfare system, it has attracted local politicians of a high calibre. Swedish citizens have on the whole a positive view of Swedish local government and, partly because of the important policy and administrative responsibilities of the local authorities, there has been a high turnout in local elections, although this has been in some decline in recent years. The positive Swedish attitude to local government is also shared by the central government and parliament and Sweden signed and ratified the European Charter of Local Self-Government as early as 1989, just four years after its promulgation. The Instrument of Government (the Swedish Constitution, which came into force in January 1974, gives explicit recognition to the principle of local self-government and this has been further expanded in the Local Government Act (1991 which came into force in January 1992.

  2. An archaeomagnetic study of Upper Mesopotamia and Central Anatolia between 2500 and 700 BCE. Further evidence for an extremely strong geomagnetic field ca. 3000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertepinar, Pinar; Langereis, Cor; Biggin, Andrew; de Groot, Lennart

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of archaeomagnetic data in eastern Europe and the Near and Middle East shows a remarkable gap in Turkey. This study presents the first archaeomagnetic results from eight different archaeological sites in Central and Southeast Turkey. We sampled furnaces, burnt mud-brick walls, and granite and ignimbrite foundation stones. The rock magnetic experiments indicate that in the majority of the samples the dominant magnetic carrier is magnetite, which is stable to heating to temperatures of 700° C. In general, the demagnetization diagrams are single component and all sets display well-defined characteristic magnetizations and clustered directions. For the period between 2500 and 700 BCE, the declinations are between 350° and 20° while inclinations are in the range of 49-64° . The directional results are compared with the global geomagnetic field models (CALS7k.2, ARCH3k_cst.1 and CALS3k.4) and the data from the archaeomagnetic database GEOMAGIA50v2. The results are coherent with both the data and the models except for two near-contemporaneous sets dating ~2000 BCE, which are offset to the east by more than 20° with respect to CALS7k.2. Archaeointensity measurements were made using the microwave and conventional thermal Thellier methods, as well as the multi-specimen method. These different methods yielded comparable and intriguing results. While intensities from the furnaces are slightly higher than the CALS7k.2 model and in agreement with the GEOMAGIA50v2 and the Middle East data, the results from mud-brick walls suggest a high intensity of 100.8μT (17.7 x 1022 Am2 )at ~1000 BCE. This result is in excellent agreement with recent claims of extremely high intensity measured in other regions of the Middle East for this time period though less consistent with these being associated with extremely short-lived events. Finally, we discuss our new and other recently published archaeointensity results in terms of geomagnetic intensity versus climate.

  3. Can Energy Structure Optimization, Industrial Structure Changes, Technological Improvements, and Central and Local Governance Effectively Reduce Atmospheric Pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Area in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    this region, and the earnings of any unilateral treatment action is small. As a result, joint pollution control under the supervision of the central government can produce greater benefits. Therefore, we believe that the transition of the economic growth pattern, and the optimization of the energy and industry structures (especially developing the high-end service industry are effective ways to improve the environmental quality.

  4. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  5. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    , but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...... to understand that idea more fully and see how it functions in the context of interactive forms of governance. The authors also link governance to some very fundamental questions in political science and the social sciences more broadly. How is power exercised in interactive governance? How democratic...

  6. Dependence Structures and Systemic Risk of Government Securities Markets in Central and Eastern Europe: A CoVaR-Copula Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, we proposed a new empirical method by combining generalized autoregressive score functions and a copula model with high-frequency data to model the conditional time-varying joint distribution of the government bond yields between Poland/Czech Republic/Hungary, and Germany. Capturing the conditional time-varying joint distribution of these bond yields allowed us to precisely measure the dependence of the government securities markets. In particular, we found a high dependence of these government securities markets in the long term, but a low dependence in the short term. In addition, we report that the Czech Republic showed the highest dependence with Germany, while Hungary showed the lowest. Moreover, we found that the systemic risk dynamics were consistent with the idea that the global financial crisis not only had spillover effects on countries with weak economic fundamentals (e.g., Hungary, which had the highest systemic risk, but also had contagion effects for both CEEC-3 countries and Germany. Finally, we confirm that three major market events, namely the EU accession, the global financial crisis, and the European debt crisis, caused structural changes to the dynamic correlation.

  7. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  8. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  9. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  10. Preservation of government records in Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rv1

    Administration, Department of Local. Government. Service and. Management, Department of Food relief Services, Department of Local. Government Audit and the District. Commissioner were not covered because these were undergoing reviews for centralization to the central government. At least one of the six departments ...

  11. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  12. Towards sustainable water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Wietske; Adamowski, Jan; Orr, Christopher J.; Wals, Arjen; Milot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on multi-loop social learning processes required to move towards more sustainable water governance. Multi-loop social learning is recognized as a crucial element to decision-making involving a process of managing change where the central methodological concern is with

  13. Evaluating e-Government and Good Governance Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the achievement of Indonesian government institutions in implementing e-government has been conducted since around a decade ago. Several national assessments are available with almost the same ranking results. There is an agreement that the ultimate goal of e-government implementation is to achieve good government governance (GGG, while success stories of e-government require good governance practices. This study explored the correlation between e-government achievement and GGG achievement in Indonesia. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the relationship strength between e-government assessment results and good governance assessment results. The data were collected from institutions that participated in e-government and good governance assessments. The results showed that the correlation between these two entities is not very strong. Most cases showed that e-government implementation and the achievement of good governance have only a moderate positive correlation and none of the studied cases indicated a significant connection. This result can be attributed to the lack of emphasis on goals achievement in the assessments. Thus, it is recommended that future Indonesian e-government assessments should involve impact indicators.

  14. Identification of landslide-prone zones in the geomorphically and climatically sensitive Mandakini valley, (central Himalaya), for disaster governance using the Weights of Evidence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonam; Rana, Naresh; Champati ray, Parshant Kumar; Bisht, Pinkey; Bagri, Dhirendra Singh; Wasson, Robert James; Sundriyal, Yashpal

    2017-05-01

    The entire Himalayan region is prone to disasters, with many people being vulnerable to hydroclimatic threats such as extreme rainfall-driven floods, glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), landslide lake outburst floods (LLOFs), and landslides triggered by rainfall. Landslides and floods are related, as the former cause the lakes that burst, and floods can undercut slopes and cause landslides. During the past 200 years, landslides and floods caused by LLOFs in the Garhwal Himalaya have occurred in 1894, 1970, and 1978; but the most disastrous event, in terms of loss of life and economic impact, occurred in June 2013, which was a result of extreme rainfall in the Higher Himalaya and breaching of a moraine-dammed lake, very short-lived LLOFs, and rainfall-induced runoff and landslides. Outmigration from the area as a result of the 2013 event has caused anxiety about the future of the economy and also concerns about security of a state that has an international border. As a contribution to planning and reconstruction to secure the livelihoods of the local people and to entice migrants to return, this paper identifies zones in the Mandakini valley susceptible to landslides using a 'Weights of Evidence' approach. The roles of climate, geology, and geomorphology of the valley are also given attention to explain the reasons for the disastrous event of June 2013. The results of the research presented here may be an important input to disaster governance.

  15. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...... along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....

  16. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  17. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  18. PUNTOS FUERTES Y DÉBILES DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DESDE UN CONCEPTO AMPLIO DE GOBIERNO EMPRESARIAL/STRONG AND WEAK POINTS OF THE CO-OPERATIVES FROM A WIDE CONCEPT OF BUSINESS GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge COQUE MARTÍNEZ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia discute la frecuente consideración del cooperativismo como modelo desaventajado per se respecto a otras formas de organización empresarial. Sin embargo, el análisis económico permite diferenciar los aspectos más idiosincrásicos de las cooperativas, las cuales son (han de ser organizaciones de participación, ya que sus socios son, simultáneamente, capitalistas y usuarios de la actividad empresarial. Por tanto, los socios tienen doble interés en que sus empresas funcionen según los objetivos que motivaron la asociación económica. Este fenómeno se denomina principio de identidad o vínculo cooperativo. El gobierno empresarial es el conjunto de todas las formas de participar, directamente (toma de decisiones o indirectamente (actividad económica y financiera, para que se mantenga el principio de identidad. El texto concluye subrayando una paradoja aparente: las cooperativas menos competitivas serían aquéllas que sólo lo son de nombre, las desgobernadas, aquéllas donde no se respeta el principio de identidad./This paper discusses the frequent consideration of the cooperativism as disadvantageous model regard to other forms of business organization. However, the economic analysis allows to differentiate the most idiosyncratic aspects of the co-operatives, which are (they have to be organizations of participation, since his associates are, simultaneously, capitalists and users of the business activity. Therefore, the associates have double interest in which his companies work according to the targets that motivated the economic affiliation. This phenomenon is named a identity principle or cooperative tie. The business government is the set of all the ways of taking part, directly (take decisions or indirectly (economic and financial activity, so that the identity principle is supported. The text ends up by underlining an apparent paradox: the least competitive co-operatives would be those that only sound of name, the

  19. Public purchasers contracting external primary care providers in Central America for better responsiveness, efficiency of health care and public governance: issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macq, Jean; Martiny, Patrick; Villalobos, Luis Bernardo; Solis, Alejandro; Miranda, Jose; Mendez, Hilda Cecilia; Collins, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Several national health systems in Latin America initiated health reforms to counter widespread criticisms of low equity and efficiency. For public purchasing agencies, these reforms often consisted in contracting external providers for primary care provision. This paper intends to clarify both the complex and intertwined issues characterizing such contracting as well as health system performances within the context of four Central American countries. It results from a European Commission financed project lead between 2002 and 2005, involving participants from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Belgium, whose aim was to promote exchanges between these participants. The findings presented in this paper are the results of a two stage process: (a) the design of an initial analytical framework, built upon findings from the literature, interlinking characteristics of contractual relation with health systems performances criteria and (b) the use of that framework in four case studies to identify cross-cutting issues. This paper reinforces two pivotal findings: (a) contracting requires not only technical, but also political choices and (b) it cannot be considered as a mechanical process. The unpredictability of its evolution requires a flexible and reactive approach. This should be better assimilated by national and international organizations involved in health services provision, so as to progressively come out of dogmatic approaches in deciding to initiate contractual relation with external providers for primary care provision.

  20. Inter-local government collaboration and perceived transaction costs in Indonesian metropolitan transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miharja, Miming; Woltjer, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The Indonesian reformation of 1998 marked a fundamental turning point of this country's democracy. In the administrative sector, the so-called Decentralisation Act 22/1999 was enacted to reform a formerly centralistic system. A strong central government used to maintain a hierarchical spatial

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SELF-GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yashchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 34The article highlights the main stages in the development of local government and self-gov-ernment in Russia. It shows the specifics of each stage. The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of the princely power and the community self-government. The genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with the self-government institutions. The creation of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century was accom-panied by a debate on the social and public origin of these institutions.The Soviet state was based on the unity of the Soviet system. It concluded the discrete de-velopment of local self-government in Russia. There is no historical strong tradition of local government in this system.Objective of the article is to identify and characterize the main stages of development of local government and self-government in Russia. Show the discrete nature of the develop-ment of local self-government in Russia.The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of princely power and community self-government. Genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with self-government institutions. The absence of territorial self-government in Russia was offset by the presence of social class municipality for a long time. Caste traditions tradition had a negative impact after the establishment of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century.During the preparation of the reforms and their implementation were discussions of the rela-tionship between the state and the community began in management. As a result, there is the inclusion of local authorities in the sphere of active state regulation. The desire of the county public to the political activity was suppressed by autocracy. The Provisional Government at-tempt to rely on the local self-government to create new authorities ended in failure.The Soviet state was based on a single management system. Certain powers

  2. Digital governance and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlæger, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    allocation reform in China. The case shows how the central state used e-government to get rid of planning overload. Coal allocation meetings were abolished in favour of an ecology of online market solutions. The findings suggest that further research on Chinese e-government would benefit from attention...

  3. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  4. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    , legal and cultural, on a global scale. Against this background, this special issue sets out to explore the multifaceted meaning, potential and impact as well as the social praxis of regulatory governance. Under the notions rules, resistance and responsibility the special issue pins out three overall......Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...

  5. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  6. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...

  7. Total and free testosterone concentrations are strongly influenced by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi; Hampton, David; Newcombe, Robert G; Rees, D Aled

    2012-05-01

    Testosterone levels are commonly lowered in men with diabetes, but it is unclear how these relate to symptoms of hypogonadism and quality of life. We sought to investigate the relationship between testosterone levels, symptoms of androgen deficiency, erectile function and quality of life in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional study of 115 men with type 2 diabetes, 93 men with type 1 diabetes and 121 healthy controls. Total, bioavailable and free testosterone levels were measured or calculated by Vermuelen's formula. Quality of life and symptom scores were assessed by the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Forty-five and sixty-one per cent of men with type 2 diabetes had low total and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels, respectively. Total testosterone (TT) levels were not lowered in men with type 1 diabetes, but 32% had low CFT. After adjustment for age and waist circumference, only CFT in men with type 2 diabetes (-0·037 nm, 95% CI -0·075 to -0·0003, P = 0.048) remained lowered compared with controls. CFT correlated weakly with ADAM (r = -0·26, 95% CI -0.42 to -0·08, P = 0·006), IIEF (r = 0.19, 95% CI 0.01-0.37, P = 0.042) and ADDQoL (r = 0.21, 95% CI 0·03 to 0·38, P = 0·022) scores in men with type 2, but not type 1 diabetes. Age exerted the predominant effect on erectile function in both groups, in a model incorporating age, testosterone level and complications. Testosterone levels are strongly affected by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and erectile function. Testosterone levels do not appear to be a major determinant of quality of life in patients with diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  9. A Comparison and Evaluation of Hong Kong Air Pollution Data Measured in the Central Western District by the Hong Kong Government Versus Data Measured in Cyberport by the Independent Schools Foundation Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, G.; Gu, M.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution, a leading cause of global warming and many respiratory diseases, has become a global and prevalent concern in today's society. Thus, air pollution is a significant topic that we need to investigate and research, especially in highly-dense and busy cities like Hong Kong. The data collected will be based in Hong Kong. I will collect air pollutant concentrations data from a Central Western station set up by the Hong Kong government and compare it with air pollution data collected by the ISF Academy located in Cyberport. Levels of PM2.5 and PM10.0 will be measured by a TEOM, CH4 and CO2 by a Gasmet DX4015, and SO2, NOx, O3, and CO3 with an Airpointer. To compare pollution level in Hong Kong to the rest of the world, data collected will first be measured against international standards set by the World Health Organization. A mathematical analysis of the two sets of data obtained will then be conducted to determine the environmental circumstances that coincide with times with high levels of pollutants, as well as the types of pollutants that Cyberport has more of, compared to the Central Western district, and vice versa. Finally, an evaluation of the reasons behind the results presented will follow.

  10. Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijge, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    <strong>Carbonizing forest governance: strong>

    <strong>Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance>

    Marjanneke J. Vijge

    Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still

  11. Government Regulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  12. Environment, oil and political vulnerability in the Ecuadorian Amazon: Towards new forms of energy governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem JUTEAU-MARTINEAU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a historical analysis of oil exploitation governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region (rae, regarding its strong social and environmental impacts from the 1960’s until today. We identify three steps in the evolution of governance, leading up to the recent institutionalization of the regulation of impacts caused by oil-related activities, through centralized public policies. The relevance, feasibility and efficiency of these policies, as well as the role of decentralized governments regarding this regulation, are key factors in the evolution of social vulnerability to the impacts of oil-related activities.

  13. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...... rather than on organizational affiliation; and a transition from formal to informal as well as from professional to private collaboration....

  14. Dispersion interactions govern the strong thermal stability of a protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrášek, Jiří; Kubař, Tomáš; Jenney, Jr., F. E.; Adams, M. W. W.; Kožíšek, Milan; Černý, Jiří; Sklenář, V.; Hobza, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 32 (2007), s. 9022-9027 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550510; GA ČR GA203/06/1727; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ab initio calculations * hydrophobic core * hydrophobic effect * molecular modeling * NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2007

  15. Central Asian Drug Trafficking Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Afghanistan and Central Asia have made the region a perfect environment for drug trafficking and use. Weakened governments, corrupt officials, lack of...expanding and increasing the role of the KOGG. If governments in Central Asia are serious about wanting stability, corruption is one of the most...concerning expanding and increasing the role of the KOGG. If governments in Central Asia are serious about wanting stability, corruption is one of the most

  16. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  17. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  18. Governing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    BUPA HOSPITALS LIMITED took an early stand at a corporate level by championing the value of clinical governance for independent hospitals. The challenge this presented was never underestimated but was seen as a means to improve quality, patient outcomes and accountability, and ultimately to create a firm platform for the delivery of business objectives.

  19. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    frameworks to enable business-IT strategic alignment, efficient process and IT requirements specification, and IT-enabled business value realization. We examine the actuality of this alignment in practice through a case study conducted in a relatively mature multinational corporation. The findings indicate......The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  20. <strong>Dannelse og dissonanserstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Mons Bissenbakker

    ? Analyserne tager afsæt i poststrukturalistisk teori specifikt inspireret af foucauldi­ansk magtanalyse, (queer)feministisk kønsteori og postkoloniale teorier om etnici­tetskonstruktion. Disse retninger præsenteres i afhandlingens del I, som også inde­holder en afklaring af danskfagets centrale...

  1. Sharing responsibility : central and local government partnership.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    A brief history of road safety in Netherlands is presented. Up to the year 2000 it is estimated that about 110,000 people have been killed in road accidents. The Netherlands was the first EU country to introduce quantitative targets for reducing fatal and serious injury road accidents and to

  2. Infrastructure Governance and Corruption : Where Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Governance is central to development outcomes in infrastructure, not least because corruption (a symptom of failed governance) can have significantly negative impact on returns to infrastructure investment. This conclusion holds whether infrastructure is in private or public hands. This paper looks at what has been learned about the role of governance in infrastructure, provides some rece...

  3. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  4. Digesting the Dynamics of Federal-State-Local Government Nexus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In every country operating a federal system of government, there are usually two distinct levels of government. One is the federal or central all-embracing government, and the other is the government of the component parts which is known by such names as state, region or province. Each of these levels of government is ...

  5. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  6. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    most of the corruption takes place in the course of performing mundane governmental functions, such as government processing of official documents, in...which to judge progress in Afghanistan, including the performance and legitimacy of the Afghan government and its efforts to curb official corruption ...Afghanistan’s central government . The policy is predicated on the observation that weak and corrupt governance is causing some Afghans to acquiesce to, or even

  7. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  8. How nations govern growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-02

    the top but are meshed with the existing culture. They agree that strong government action is needed if third world nations wish to control population growth.

  9. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  10. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  11. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    administrative relationships between levels of government with varying degrees of autonomy. It is generally ... Under the distribution of powers in the 1999 constitution, Nigeria is a centralized federation with .... or regional. International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol.10 June, 2015 ...

  12. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  13. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)

  14. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents......-making, responsibility-making and disciplinary technologies, to govern people to promote physical health. Conclusion: Public health programmes conjure up an image of overweight individuals as strongly burdened subjectivities. The implications for overweight pregnant women are the formation of new subjectivities......, engagement in patient associations, the threat of exclusion from communities and social citizenship and other forms of stigmatization....

  15. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  16. The Forgotten Promise of E-government Maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Assessing e-government responsiveness is one of the major gaps in the currently dominant e-government maturity models. While we have a relatively large pool of models focusing on technological and organizational integration from a supply side perspective, measures of responsiveness of e-government...... that one third of central government agencies did not respond at all, and close to 80% of the ministries provided none or incomplete answers. Local government responds faster and provides answers that are more complete and accurate than those provided by central government. Implications for e-government...

  17. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  18. Collaborative Environmental Governance, Inter-Agency Cooperation and Local Water Sustainability in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrative fragmentation among government agencies has posed a significant challenge to environmental governance. However, few studies have theoretically examined and empirically measured how local governments in China address this with collaborative approaches. Informed by the ecology of games framework (EGF, this paper examined the status of inter-agency water governance in Dongguan City: the pilot city of aquatic ecologically friendly city of China. The research question we seek to address is: What are the main characteristics of the water governance network in local China? With empirical data collected via survey questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews following the EGF, we find that local agencies have realized the need for cooperation in water resource management. However, they were not substantially familiar with each other in the local policy network, failing to reach their full potential in collaboration. Social network analysis was used to analyze the collaborative network. We found that the network has a weak to moderate density, allowing for collective action problems and leading to insufficient cooperative governance. The network has presented central actors with strong bridging capital to control information and resource flows. We also find strong bonding capital among some policy actors as shown in high reciprocity, clustering coefficient and transitivity. To strengthen the effectiveness of local water governance, efforts should be made to establish a functional department and extend the boundary of collaborative network.

  19. Precursory strong-signal characteristics of the convective clouds of the Central Tibetan Plateau detected by radar echoes with respect to the evolutionary processes of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Xiangde; Ruan, Zheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Fang

    2018-03-01

    The integrated analysis of the data from a C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave (C-FMCW) radar site in Naqu obtained during a rainstorm over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the data concerning the three-dimensional structure of the circulation of the precipitation system that occurred over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin during the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Experiment from August 15th to 19th, 2014, was carried out. The changes in the echo intensity at the C-FMCW radar site in Naqu were of regional indicative significance for the characteristics of the whole-layer apparent heat source Q1 in local areas and the region of the adjacent river source area, including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River (hereinafter referred to as the "source area of three rivers"), as well as to the vertical speeds due to the development of convection. This study indicates that the C-FMCW radar echo intensity of the plateau convection zone and the related power structures of the coupled dipole circulations in the middle layer of the atmosphere, as well as in the upper atmospheric level divergence and lower atmospheric level convergence, are important stimuli for convective clouds in this region. Furthermore, these radar data provided a physical image of the development and maintenance mechanisms of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt. This study also shows that changes in the echo intensities at the C-FMCW radar site of Naqu can provide strong signals related to heavy rainstorm processes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

  20. The roles of government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigrain, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author chooses to address his talk to governments as a broad category, not differentiating the more centralized, socialized, federal, or for that matter the role of smaller governmental entities within countries, and the role they can have in impacting science. He chooses to try to say what governments should do, and with a few exceptions, what they should avoid doing, in order to support the development of physics, and for that matter other sciences within their countries. The major role is in education, where governments can prepare people for work in these disciplines, and also present the disciplines in an interesting manner so that the best minds can be attracted to these areas. The second major role is in the support of basic research in high technology areas. Some of this involves very large resource investments, but not all areas are equally expensive to support. There is a particular pitfall when governments become the consumer for basic research, for example in the case of national defense concerns, when the consumer can have a profound effect on the research effort in a country, not always for the betterment of science or society. Fiscal matters are equally important, not only in the support of the individual worker, support of the basic research, support of education, but also in the general attititude to supporting physics high tech work in the private sector within countries. Governmantal fiscal policies can have profound influences on the way private capital flows into such initiatives. Finally he touches on the need for those in basic research and high tech work to have contacts, all kinds of contacts, which foster the exchange of information and ideas, and the development of new approaches to old and new problems

  1. The Research Frontier in Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Thomas; Filatotchev, Igor; Thomsen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to identify the research frontier in corporate governance using three different approaches: (1) what challenges does the financial crisis 2007–2009 pose for corporate governance research? We show that the financial crisis is a huge natural experiment which has exposed gaps...... in our knowledge of corporate governance and is likely to lead of a rethink of central concepts like shareholder value, debt governance, and management incentives (2) what do we know and what do we need to how about the impact of national institutions on corporate governance? (3) What research questions...

  2. isk governance: Experience of Islamic banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohaya Mat Rahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk governance has evolved tremendously in the banking industry. Risk governance recommends the imperative roles of Chief Risk Officer (CRO to oversee risk. This study explores risk governance influence over the Islamic banks performances. Multivariate analysis techniques measure simultaneously via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. This study employed cross-sectional sample of 200 Islamic banks across 21 countries for the year 2014. To examine risk governance and Islamic banks performance, the study captures seventeen variables developed from risk management and corporate governance (ROA, ROE, Profit Margin, CRO, Shariah committee member, CEO, board size, remuneration meeting, credit rating, external audit, accounting standard, loan loss provision, capital adequacy ratio, total deposit ratio, GDP, central bank lending rate and inflation. The simulation result reveals, risk governance act as mediating variables towards Islamic banks performance. This study has practical and significance contribution for Islamic banks to understand risk governance, aligning with the fundamental risk management and corporate governance

  3. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  4. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  5. Governance as an instrument of successful organizational integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozon, Jeffrey C; Vernon, Sarah E

    2002-01-01

    In July 1997 the Health Services Restructuring Commission (HSRC) issued a formal direction to the Wellesley Central Hospital to relinquish the operation and management of its programs and services to St. Michael's Hospital. This event propelled staff and volunteers into four years of unrelenting efforts to bring together the mission, vision, values, human resources, clinical programs and broad communities of these two very unique and long-standing organizations. Looking back, the result was arguably one of the most successful hospital mergers in the province at that time. A number of factors were responsible for this outcome. The tremendous value of a strong and integrated governance team clearly stands out as one of the most pivotal success factors. This article examines the principles and structures that guided the governance team and St. Michael's Hospital to a stronger and more vibrant future.

  6. Good Governance, Welfare, and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Wagener

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Market conforming institutions are a precondition for a thriving and stable economy. This is the upshot of the Washington consensus or, of somewhat earlier origin, the “Eucken hypothesis”. Another hypothesis of Eucken has it that market conforming institutions are the product of a strong state. However, more general and more important than the strong state is good governance. In this paper I refer to it as the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”. The paper tries to figure out the mechanisms by which good governance and economic order influence economic outcome. Then the two hypotheses are tested for two aspects of economic outcome: productivity as measured by GNP per capita over a wide range of countries and transformation success as measured by GNP growth over the European transformation countries. The tests confirm the theoretical expectation that good governance is more important than good order

  7. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  8. Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Key among these was agenda item 4, which emphasized the need to address longstanding governance reforms and historical injustices. These governance reforms are so central to Kenya's future stability that if they are not implemented, it is possible that the country will experience another violent conflict and possibly ...

  9. Page | 69 ENSURING GOOD GOVERNANCE THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Abstract. Parliamentary institutions are central to most systems of government but their role within the structure of government varies from one country to another. Not only are there differences in terms of their specific powers, but also in measure of power/influence exercised within the framework of normative rules or legal ...

  10. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  11. Website Quality in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate how webmasters within government bodies explain quality of websites. Despite the central position for advancing the communication, bridging usability tests and design, there are surprisingly few studies on how webmasters perceive, experience...... and explain website quality or design issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors' unit of analysis is webmasters from Norwegian web-award-winning organizations. Eight webmasters from four types of websites were interviewed. The websites were purposefully sampled, using the strategy of maximal variation...... of website quality. Repeated keywords of website quality are mainly related to user-friendliness, effective website usage, content-related issues and accessibility (WAI-principles). Research limitations/implications – This study includes webmasters from award-winning websites. In upcoming research...

  12. 'Joined Up' Local Governments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnå, Hilde; Casale, Donatella; Hajnal, Gyorgy

    . forthc. 2015, Lægreid et al. 2014, Pollitt 2003). A growing body of research analyses JUG initiatives in several countries, but often in the form of single-case studies with central government focus (see e.g. Talbot 2011 or Lægreid et al. 2014). On municipal level, however, there is only a scarce number...... of such studies and comparative studies are lacking. With this, we ask how can local JUG initiatives be explained and what lessons can be drawn from a comparative perspective? Drawing on some components from the framework by Pollitt and Bouckaert (2011) for public management reforms, we analyse JUG reforms in six...... countries from different administrative traditions (Norway, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, Germany and Austria). First results suggest that in the same way as NPM has claimed to be an “umbrella term for a collection of trends” (Van de Walle/Hammerschmid 2011: 191), also JUG reforms take multiple nuances and foci...

  13. Exploring the governance and politics of transformations towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, James; Schulz, Karsten; Vervoort, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314503625; van der Hel, S.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/397095260; Widerberg, O.E.; Adler, Carolina; Hurlbert, Margot; Anderton, Karen; Sethi, Mahendra; Barau, Aliyu

    2017-01-01

    The notion of ‘transformations towards sustainability’ takes an increasingly central position in global sustainability research and policy discourse in recent years. Governance and politics are central to understanding and analysing transformations towards sustainability. However, despite receiving

  14. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  15. Developmental Local Government as a Model for Grassroots Socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental Local Government as a Model for Grassroots Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria. ... the Constitution gives the State governments the power to handle issues of organization and responsibility in the local governments places a strong limitation on local autonomy and governance at the local level.

  16. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  17. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  18. Leadership and Governance in Regional Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2015-01-01

    the idea that market-led governance offers a superior model of leadership for regional tourism. This paper adopts an embedded case study approach, undertaking a comparison of leadership in two RTOs that are operating in the same geographical location but under different governance regimes. Semi...... dimensions of governance such as participation, efficiency, legitimacy, accountability, effectiveness and transparency influence a RTO’s capacity to lead, good governance and strong leadership were not necessarily synonymous. RTOs can demonstrate varying levels of effectiveness in different dimensions...... of governance and leadership can be strong in some aspects and weak in others at the same time. The paper argues for a more nuanced approach to understanding governance and leadership....

  19. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  20. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  1. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  2. The Importance of Developing Government in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    government resources. Afghan and Coalition forces are working to counter the corruption , but the patronage system and a weak rule of law hamper progress...2011, Small Wars Foundation November 1, 2011 The Importance of Developing Government in Afghanistan by Scott R. Lewis While at RAND...United States‟ focus on building a strong military for the Government of the Republic of Vietnam came at the expense of recognizing the importance of

  3. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  4. Governance, decentralisation and deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the decentralisation policies in Indonesia, which started in 2000, has fundamentally changed the country's forest governance framework. This study investigates how decentralisation has influenced forest governance, and links the forest governance to deforestation rates at

  5. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  6. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  7. Trialogue model for ecosystem governance.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hattingh, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available of ecosystem goods and services in the decision-making processes that deal with environmental management. This, in turn, would help to promote and attain the ideals of good governance in the water sector. Knowledge of corruption, in the form of the bribery... various court cases, Earle (p.69) shows that corruption had strongly negative impacts on the relationship between society and government, as it relates to the Trialogue Model. In turn, corruption had a detrimental effect on the various interfaces...

  8. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  9. European Level Test of Romanian Enterprise Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance is a central and dynamic aspect of the businesses. The term governance comes from the latin “gubernare”, meaning to guide and supposes that the corporate governance imply equally both the leadership function and that of control. As is known there are more ways of defining the enterprise governance starting from the simple stones, which focus on the enterprise and its shareholders, to the most complex ones incorporating individual or departamental responsability to implement a given function of the companies and which implies many other groups of persons. Responsability is the consequence of the law and reglementation application or contract agreements.

  10. European Level Test of Romanian Enterprise Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance is a central and dynamic aspect of the businesses. The term governance comes from the latin “gubernare”, meaning to guide and supposes that the corporate governance imply equally both the leadership function and that of control. As is known there are more ways of defining the enterprise governance starting from the simple stones, which focus on the enterprise and its shareholders, to the most complex ones incorporating individual or departamental responsability to implement a given function of the companies and which implies many other groups of persons. Responsability is the consequence of the law and reglementation application or contract agreements.

  11. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  12. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  13. VT Certified Local Governments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont established its Certified Local Government (CLG) program in 1985 to better help local governments integrate historic preservation concerns with planning and...

  14. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-12-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  15. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  16. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Saltman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  17. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  18. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  19. Challenges in developing e-government for good governance in North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, AY

    2017-01-01

    E-government as one form of public administration reform in Indonesia is increasingly related to the pursuance of good governance. This paper examines the relationship between of e-government and good governance by utilizing the case study design on the implementation of e-procurement in North Sumatra. It reveals centrality of local politics and business culture in understanding resistances of both local government officials and local business which creates loopholes’ for the practice of ‘bad governance’ in all phases of e-procurement in North Sumatra province. Data transparency does not equate and guarantee the realization of good governance. Public knowledge and understanding on government decision making processes and accountability (process and policy transparency) are central to achieve good governance through e-procurement. E-procurement system does not automatically change organizational and working culture of the implementers and suppliers. This paper provides insight to the attitude and the perception of private sector engage in e-procurement towards government in implementing e-government. Resistance, digital divide and local politics interrelatedly obstruct the realization of pursuing good governance through e-procurement.

  20. Public management and governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke

    2009-01-01

    ... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...

  1. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  2. Transforming government service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...

  3. Maritime governance speed, flow, form process

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an original analysis of the problems facing global governance and in particular that of one of the most globalised of all industries – shipping. Central to all global trade and its dramatic growth, shipping faces difficulties of governance stemming from its every globalised nature. The current characteristics of global governance – nation-state fixation, anachronistic institutions, inadequate stakeholder involvement and an over-domination of owner interests are dwarfed by the problems of stasis and fixation which means that policies to address problems of safety, the environment and security are inadequate. This book provides a full and wide ranging discussion of how governance can be animated in a global context so that the dynamism of the maritime industry and its problems can be prevented, regulated and understood. Its unique approach to governance makes it essential reading for all maritime policy-makers and those analysing maritime issues, alongside those with an interest in govern...

  4. Governance and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria | Oarhe | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fate of any nation rests on the effectiveness and efficiency of its governance. The purpose of governance is essentially to promote collective interest of the citizenry of the state through effective and efficient management. In the recent times, the phenomenon of governance has assumed a central place in the analysis of ...

  5. Shared Governance: A Fable about the Lost Magic Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, J. Victor

    1982-01-01

    Shared governance and collegial management are discussed. Steps to strengthen the governance process are identified: a more sophisticated view of the governance process must be formed, faculty must avoid administrative centralization of power and faculty provincialism, become more involved in union affairs, and become politically knowledgeable.…

  6. National Standards for Civics and Government. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmueller, Charles F.

    This ERIC digest discusses the National Standards for Civics and Government for students from grades K-12. The Standards are organized around five central questions dealing with the following subjects: (1) the nature and necessity of government; (2) the foundations of American constitutionalism; (3) the functioning of American government and the…

  7. Participation, local governance and attitudes of youth: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsequently we explore the way in which participation has become a central tenet of cooperative developmental government through what has, especially at the local level, become known as governance. We argue that for these opportunities to become a reality and for citizens to benefit from the governance model, ...

  8. Governance innovation networks for sustainable tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Governance Innovation Networks for Sustainable Tunastrong> Alice M.M. Miller Tuna fisheries are among the most highly capitalised and valuable fisheries in the world and their exploitation will continue for the foreseeable future. This means the sustainability of tuna stocks is a pressing

  9. Governance innovation networks for sustainable tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Governance Innovation Networks for Sustainable Tunastrong>

    Alice M.M. Miller

    Tuna fisheries are among the most highly capitalised and valuable fisheries in the world and their exploitation will continue for the foreseeable future. This means the sustainability of tuna

  10. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  11. Toward an E-Government Semantic Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbodio, Marco Luca; Moulin, Claude; Benamou, Norbert; Barthès, Jean-Paul

    This chapter describes the major aspects of an e-government platform in which semantics underpins more traditional technologies in order to enable new capabilities and to overcome technical and cultural challenges. The design and development of such an e-government Semantic Platform has been conducted with the financial support of the European Commission through the Terregov research project: "Impact of e-government on Territorial Government Services" (Terregov 2008). The goal of this platform is to let local government and government agencies offer online access to their services in an interoperable way, and to allow them to participate in orchestrated processes involving services provided by multiple agencies. Implementing a business process through an electronic procedure is indeed a core goal in any networked organization. However, the field of e-government brings specific constraints to the operations allowed in procedures, especially concerning the flow of private citizens' data: because of legal reasons in most countries, such data are allowed to circulate only from agency to agency directly. In order to promote transparency and responsibility in e-government while respecting the specific constraints on data flows, Terregov supports the creation of centrally controlled orchestrated processes; while the cross agencies data flows are centrally managed, data flow directly across agencies.

  12. Diverse stakeholders create collaborative, multilevel basin governance for groundwater sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Conrad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA is introducing significant changes in the way groundwater is governed for agricultural use. It requires the formation of groundwater sustainability agencies (GSAs to manage groundwater basins for sustainability with the engagement of all users. That presents opportunities for collaboration, as well as challenges, particularly in basins with large numbers of agricultural water users who have longstanding private pumping rights. The GSA formation process has resulted in the creation of multiple GSAs in many such basins, particularly in the Central Valley. In case studies of three basins, we examine agricultural stakeholders' concerns about SGMA, and how these are being addressed in collaborative approaches to groundwater basin governance. We find that many water districts and private pumpers share a strong interest in maintaining local autonomy, but they have distinct concerns and different options for forming and participating in GSAs. Multilevel collaborative governance structures may help meet SGMA's requirements for broad stakeholder engagement, our studies suggest, while also addressing concerns about autonomy and including agricultural water users in decision-making.

  13. Efeitos da independência do banco central e da taxa de rotatividade sobre a inflação brasileira The effects of central bank independence and the rate of turnover on the Brazilian inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira de Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the belief is strong in the Brazilian federal government that operational central bank independence is a basic condition to assure price stability. The literature concerning this subject highlights that a high degree of independence and a low turnover of central bank governor are associated with low inflation. This paper analyzes the relation between central bank independence and inflation in Brazil during 1980-2002. The findings denote that there is no effect on inflation due to an increase in degree of independence and a fall in turnover rate.

  14. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  15. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  16. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  17. Global Financial Governance: a Perspective from the International Monetary Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wilczyński

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An environment for the activities of the International Monetary Fund (the IMF has fundamentally changed over the two recent decades. The strong development of financial innovations as well as of financial globalisation was among major forces driving the change and shaping the economic growth worldwide. As some economies were able - with the support from financial markets – to accelerate their growth, other countries suffered from turbulences, which were reinforced and transferred internationally through the volatile financial markets. The process of international financial contagion makes the case for global financial governance, which so far has been left behind the development of markets. The IMF is mandated to play a central role in the global governance designed to ensure financial stability. The article reconsiders the Fund’s role and includes an overview and assessment of its activities, particularly in the context of the global financial crisis in 2007-2010. In the aftermath of this crisis, the international financial stability may, however, again be at risk as several external imbalances in the global economy may be hardly sustainable. It is argued in the paper that, in addition to a gradually improving surveillance and lending as well as to adjusting resources by the Fund, an enhanced credibility of the institution is needed so that its role in the process of the stabilising global financial system is strong and effective.

  18. Corporate Governance: A Keynote Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten

    1998-01-01

    the changing ownership structures in Europe and governance, the influence exerted by shareholders in financial institutions on the management of those institutions, the role of banks as shareholders in non-financial companies in different European countries, and the different types of transactions through...... cases of privatization in Western Europe. Almost everywhere, the role of institutional shareholders is increasing. The internationalization proces implies that also the role of the governance systems changes the incentives for corporate managers to demonstrate good financial performance, and there seems...... to be signs of system convergence. In Western Europe affected by the globalization of the economies and the implementation of the Internal Market. In Central and Eastern Europe as a result of the internationalization process and the gradual adaption of the financial regulatory systems to the principles...

  19. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...

  20. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  1. On the Governance of Social Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nørreklit, Hanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    structures do not enter into a governance vacuum but replace existing profession-based governance structures. The present paper has a two-fold purpose. First, we map the key features and problems of a profession-based governance system focussing on principal-agent issues and motivational drivers. Second, we...... study the implications of the current changes in the social science research landscape along with central aspects of mechanism design, validity, employee motivation as well as the ability to establish socially optimal resource allocations. We identify a number of potential problems that may come along...

  2. Urban transport, the environment and deliberative governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2006-01-01

    , a range of deliberative and more interactive governance approaches have emerged. This article discusses the central role of interdependence and trust in such approaches, based on three cases, Aalborg (DK), Lund (S) and Groningen (NL), in which environmental objectives and strategies have materialized...... in searching for new formats for collaboration and deliberative governance and, in particular, for generating trust among interdependent actors. The concluding remark holds that deliberative governance can illuminate conflicting relations and provoke or massage those early in policy and planning processes...

  3. Value Positions in E-government strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Reinwald, Anja Kaldahl; Skorve, Espen

    2017-01-01

    Clarifying what value new information systems (IS) may help to create for government organizations and society is a central concern in the public sector. National e-government strategies present such efforts to clarify the value entailed by IS, however, what is considered valuable is influenced...... by value positions deeply enshrined in the traditions of public administration. We present a theory directed con-tent analysis of value positions in the national e-government strategy for Denmark published for the first time in 1994 and latest in 2016. Our comparison of the value positions in the two e...

  4. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  5. Government failure : four types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.

    Economists tend to see the market as a default option for social order and a role for government only when markets fail. Developing a convincing analysis of the role of government in economic processes, however, needs to start by considering government failure in its own terms. Drawing on insights

  6. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  7. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  8. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  9. The essence of governance in health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Kirigia, Doris Gatwiri

    2011-03-28

    Governance and leadership in health development are critically important for the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other national health goals. Those two factors might explain why many countries in Africa are not on track to attain the health MDGs by 2015. This paper debates the meaning of 'governance in health development', reviews briefly existing governance frameworks, proposes a modified framework on health development governance (HDG), and develops a HDG index. We argue that unlike 'leadership in health development', 'governance in health development' is the sole prerogative of the Government through the Ministry of Health, which can choose to delegate (but not abrogate) some of the governance tasks. The general governance domains of the UNDP and the World Bank are very pertinent but not sufficient for assessment of health development governance. The WHO six domains of governance do not include effective external partnerships for health, equity in health development, efficiency in resource allocation and use, ethical practises in health research and service provision, and macroeconomic and political stability. The framework for assessing health systems governance developed by Siddiqi et al also does not include macroeconomic and political stability as a separate principle. The Siddiqi et al framework does not propose a way of scoring the various governance domains to facilitate aggregation, inter-country comparisons and health development governance tracking over time.This paper argues for a broader health development governance framework because other sectors that assure human rights to education, employment, food, housing, political participation, and security combined have greater impact on health development than the health systems. It also suggests some amendments to Siddigi et al's framework to make it more relevant to the broader concept of 'governance in health development' and to the WHO African Region context. A strong

  10. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K

    2018-03-09

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  12. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  13. MCloud platform - common government informational infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia CEBOTARU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MCloud platform is foreseen for the exclusive use by the central administrative authorities and organizational structures within their jurisdiction, subordinated to the Government and is an innovative delivery model based on infrastructure consumption, platform and software as services

  14. Government records management and access to information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides a brief report on the proceedings of the 9th Annual Integrity Action Summer School's policy lab on Government Records Management and Citizen Access to Information, held in July 2013 at the Central European University, Hungary and attended by international experts in records management and ...

  15. Sustainable Consumption Governance in a Globalizing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, D.A.; Lorek, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Our paper explores the implications of globalization for sustainable consump tion governance. It draws its central findings from a structured inquiry into the implications of globalization for the sustainability of household consumption. Our focus is on industrialized countries and the two

  16. Balancing government-regulated participation with community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore the nature and extent of community participation and support for the Taung Skull World Heritage Site (TSWHS) scheme. Utilising the social exchange theory, the paper's central argument suggests meaningful community involvement in government-sponsored participation as a prerequisite to ...

  17. Corruption, Government Expenditures and Economic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the effect of corruption and government expenditures on the performance of Nigeria‟s economy in the pre-democratic (1994-1998) and the democratic (1999 – 2012) eras using annual time series data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, and Transparency International. The analysis indicates that ...

  18. Special Issue Environmental Governance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, N.T.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  19. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  20. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  1. Research governance: panacea or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ash; Samanta, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research must meet contemporary professional, legal and ethical standards. Research governance aims to improve quality whilst safeguarding the interests of the public. Research on humans is covered by several internationally recognised ethical codes designed to protect persons from the hazards of experimental treatment. However, to date there is no overarching statutory framework that regulates health and social care research, which is governed by common law principles. The recent European Union Clinical Trials Directive aims to harmonise regulation of clinical trials and protect the interest of study participants. Approval by the new Central Office for Research Ethics Committees (COREC) is now a mandatory requirement for research projects in the UK to ensure stringent ethical standards. Research that involves NHS patients, staff, resources or premises is subject to a framework for research governance that monitors performance and adverse incidents and delineates lines of responsibility and accountability. Researchers at all levels must be fully aware of these new initiatives and of their responsibilities. NHS organisations should acknowledge and commit to clinical research as an intrinsic component of high quality health service delivery.

  2. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  3. Internet Governance: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur J. Cordell; Prabir K. Neogi

    2007-01-01

    Internet Governance: An Introduction offers a complete guide to the “ins and outs” of Internet governance. Drawing on a range of international authors Internet Governance is best suited for those seeking an overview of the range of issues involved as the Internet becomes increasingly important to bu siness and to society in general, affecting the daily lives of millions of people around the world.

  4. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  5. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how...... deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges....

  6. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  7. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento del término moderno de gobierno por el postmoderno de gobernanza, pone de manifiesto un nuevo lenguaje postmoderno en el que se deja entrever que ambas nociones, gobierno y gobernanza, tienden a oponerse. La gobernanza corporativa designa la toma del poder del capitalismo financiero sobre el capitalismo industrial, que no es otra cosa que, por un lado, propender por la rentabilidad máxima para los accionistas, valorizar todo en el mercado sin consideraciones morales, obligar a los actores a la búsqueda de riesgo permanente y flexibilizar las relaciones jerárquicas en la Administración de la empresa; y por el otro, la marginación de la clase obrera. La gobernanza ha llegado a los asuntos políticos convirtiéndose en modelo de gestión pública por excelencia, ella trata que el gobierno reducido a su mínima expresión guie a una sociedad civil que adquiere un papel importante en la creación y seguimiento de las diferentes políticas, es decir, que el gobierno adquiere una forma flexible de regulación, es allá donde la gobernanza política nos conduce, a la supuesta autorregulación de los intereses privados que sumados pasan a configurar el interés general. En realidad se trata de una nueva forma de dominación marcada por un desvanecimiento político, donde la sociedad civil juega en contra del Estado. La gobernanza le está tendiendo una temible trampa a la democracia, en tanto se presenta como una ampliación de la democracia materializada en una mejor participación de la sociedad civil, destruyendo la persona pública que se forma por la unión de todos los otros y convirtiéndola en representante de intereses particulares.The displacement of the modern term of government for the postmodern one of governance, reveals a new postmodern language in which one is left to guess that both notions, government and governance, tend to be opposed. Corporate governance signifies the seizure of power of financial capitalism

  8. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  9. Local Government Strategy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview for policy makers and program implementers of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies that local governments can use to achieve economic, environmental, social, and human health benefits.

  10. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  11. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  12. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  13. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  14. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  15. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  16. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  17. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  18. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  19. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....

  20. Governance and growth revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.; Pandu Nugroho, E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies yield diverging outcomes on the governance-growth relationship. In this paper we construct a new index of governance using a latent variable approach and test whether this index is related to growth with varying samples of countries and different conditioning variables. The results

  1. Making Government Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    The financialised character of contemporary rationalities of public governance has been the subject of increased attention within a range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. With this paper we propose a particular analytical framework, focused on the notion of 'governance devices', for ...

  2. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  3. Community College Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This report presents the findings of the state legislature's Management Audit Committee's review of the structure and governance of community colleges in Wyoming, as requested by the Legislature's Management Council in September 1998. In trying to answer questions about the structure of community college governance, the tensions present in the…

  4. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  5. The school governance study

    OpenAIRE

    Balarin, Maria; Brammer, Stephen; James, Chris; Mccormack, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the English school system has changed substantially and the work of schools is now more complicated and demanding. These changes have important implications for school governing and are likely to further complicate the management of schools in the future. A study of school governing is therefore timely and appropriate.

  6. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  7. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative

  8. Obesity and government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Scott; Zvenyach, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    Despite much effort, obesity prevalence and disease severity continues to worsen. The purpose of this review is to describe the leading government supported food and nutrition interventions and policies to prevent and address obesity in the USA. The review also summarizes obesity interventions and policies that the government plays a role in, but further development is warranted. The government's role in obesity has largely focused on interventions and policies such as national surveillance, obesity education and awareness, grant-based food subsidy programs, zoning for food access, school-based nutrition programs, dietary guidelines, nutrition labeling, and food marketing and pricing policies. The government has played a lesser role in obesity interventions and policies that provide access to evidence-based obesity care to people affected by the disease. Given the magnitude of the obesity epidemic, the government should explore multiple evidence-based interventions and policies across prevention and clinical care.

  9. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...... the understanding of relations and the coherence of processes of influence/power/governance, the article introduces a communications model of decision-making processes as processes of influence....

  10. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  11. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  12. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  13. 'Governance' sebagai Pengelolaan Konflik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Noer Arfani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the notion of understanding governance as part of conflict management, or vice versa, of undustanding conflict management aspects as benefiting from governance concepts and practices. Governance, with its much broader meaning than government, suggests diverse relevant and significant clues, hints and ideas in the context of conflict management endeavors. one of which is the idea to involve larger audiences and stakeholders –beyond the conventional institutions such as governmental bodies– in policy making processes and public discourses. Such comprehension and appreciation of governance concepts and practices is certainly parallel with the conflict management philosophies, concepis and practices which based on and oriented toward integrative, non-formal and non-litigative mechanisms.

  14. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    as the child’s best teacher”. The program involves parents as facilitators modifying the child’s behavior instead of working directly on the child, thereby widening the target of intervention. PMTO exemplifies an arrangement that engages the private sphere in the conduct of public governance aiming at creating......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  15. Physics and Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Nancy H.

    1999-08-24

    In defining the powers and duties of the three branches of government, the U.S. Constitution never explicitly referred to Science, except in the patent clause. But many technical responsibilities are implied in references to weights and measures, the census, and the like. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and in particular Benjamin Franklin, were highly literate in science, but it was their disciple, President John Quincy Adams who promoted as a matter of policy a direct role of the government in science--in particular with respect to astronomy, land surveys and navigation--all physical sciences. Some agencies of government--notably the National Bureau of Standards and the Department of Agriculture were founded in the early days of the Republic with scientific and technical missions. Since then the involvement of the government with science has waxed and waned but the major expansion of the interaction between physics and government occurred after World War II when physicists demonstrated the power of their craft during mobilization of science in support of the war effort. In discussing the interaction of physics with government we should distinguish ''science in government''--scientific input into policy making--from ''government in science,'' which is the support and management of that part of the overall scientific endeavor for which the government has responsibility. Let me turn first to the subject of physics in government. An overwhelming fraction of governmental decisions today have scientific and technical components; decisions ignoring these components are wasteful at best and can imperil the nation. For this reason governmental bodies at all levels solicit scientific advice--or at least give lip service to the need for such advice. When such advice was deliberately avoided, as President Reagan did before announcing his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983, the technically unattainable goal ''to make

  16. Governance in Blockchain Technologies & Social Contract Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Reijers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed in the context of a growing number of social and political critiques of blockchain technologies. We focus on the supposed potential of blockchain technologies to transform political institutions that are central to contemporary human societies, such as money, property rights regimes, and systems of democratic governance. Our aim is to examine the way blockchain technologies canbring about - and justify - new models of governance. To do so, we draw on the philosophical works of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Rawls, analyzing blockchain governance in terms of contrasting social contract theories. We begin by comparing the justifications of blockchain governance offered by members of the blockchain developers’ community with the justifications of governance presented within social contract theories. We then examine the extent to which the model of governance offered by blockchain technologies reflects key governance themes and assumptions located within social contract theories, focusing on the notions of sovereignty, the initial situation, decentralization and distributive justice.

  17. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  18. Managerialism and higher education governance: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher educational governance seems to be economic rationalism underpinned by a conception of corporatisation. This ideal is rooted in, and influenced by, a neo-liberal interpretation of globalisation with a strong preference tendency towards managerialism.

  19. Money, Fiscal Defecits and Government Debt in a Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.; Raith, M.

    1996-01-01

    The replacement of national currencies by a common currency in the EMU causes a monetary externality if the European Central Bank is inclined to monetize part of outstanding government debt in the community.High government debt in one part of the EU then increases the common inflation rate.We model

  20. Transforming University Governance in Ukraine: Collegiums, Bureaucracies, and Political Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2014-01-01

    The massification of higher education in Ukraine is a fact, while financing the system is still an issue. External pressures from the central government and the market require changes in university governance. Europeanization of the educational system and adherence to the principles laid down by the Bologna Declaration add to already existing…

  1. Governance and strategy of entrepreneurial networks: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windsperger (Josef); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); G. Cliquet (Gérard); T. Ehrmann (Thomas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue focuses on empirical and theoretical papers that help us to better understand the strategy and governance of entrepreneurial networks, such as franchise chains, alliances, and cooperative networks. The following central themes are covered: (I) Which formal governance

  2. Governance Modes For Systemic Innovation. Service Development In Mobile Telecommunications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); F.P.H. Jaspers (Ferdinand)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on governance modes for systemic innovation projects. The central question is: to what extent does the newness of a system and its components affect the most appropriate governance mode for component development projects? Component development projects can be performed

  3. Building the Next Generation of Digital Government Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Chun, S.A.; Gil-Garcia, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Digital Government Infrastructures provide generic functionalities that are used by large numbers of users. Typically, they have no central authority, are governed by networks and contain both emerging and purposefully designed parts. Their use varies over time, and a large number of individuals use

  4. Can the Reporting of Local Government Performance enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statutorily, local government institutions in South Africa are expected to report their performance to central government on a regular basis. This paper argues that using this reporting information to also inform citizens and stakeholders about the performance of municipalities would enhance citizens' participation and improve ...

  5. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  6. Sustainability of U.S. Government Projects in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    institutional capacity, endemic corruption , and bureaucratic confusion all work to restrict PRT personnel from incorporating Afghan government officials in long...Costa wrote on UNODC’s website. Mr. Costa notes that corruption can be found at the highest levels of the Afghan government . While Afghanistan has or...d] corruption , improved financial management and budget execution, and increase[d] the capacity of the central and provincial government agencies to

  7. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k......-3/2 for the potential fluctuations in the production, coupling and inertia subranges, respectively. The coefficient of Bohm diffusion is reproduced, and its role in electrostatic coupling is derived. Comparison is made with measured power laws reported in the literature, from Q-devices, hot...

  8. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  9. Intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance Perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Birkholm Laursen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    En stadig voksende interesse for risiko styring (Risk Management) som en central proces i virksomhedsledelse vil måske betyde en ændret opfattelse af intern kontrol. Dette artikel fokuserer på intern kontrol fra et Corporate Governance perspektiv. "Intern kontrol" kan udfra de forskellige...... definitioner på begrebet summarisk beskrives som et begreb der integrerer kontrol og elementer, der kan henføres til overordnet ledelse/daglig ledelse i forbindelse med disses styring af virksomheden (Laursen, 2000). De forskellige aktører identificeret ved Corporate Governance perspektivet kan have forskellig...

  10. Tourism and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework re...... and contemporary knowledge and understandings of governance; competencies for tourism governance for sustainability; and ethical action-oriented practice.......This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework...... requires that tourism professionals effectively engage in dynamic social discourses where difficult trade-offs are made between competing demands. The challenge for tourism education is therefore to prepare graduates to work in these complex, value-laden, socio-political environments where they can...

  11. Measuring government activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollitt, Christopher; Bouckaert, Geert; Dooren, Wouter van

    2009-01-01

    .... The goods and services government provides, its redistributive and regulatory powers, and how those are exercised affect the way business is conducted and people live their lives in every country...

  12. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  13. Government Actions and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John B.

    2009-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that government actions and interventions prolonged and worsened the financial crisis, because they were based on faulty diagnosis of the problem and did not follow clear predictable principles.

  14. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  15. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  16. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  17. The role of health system governance in strengthening the rural health insurance system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; Jian, Weiyan; He, Li; Wang, Bingyu; Balabanova, Dina

    2017-05-23

    Systems of governance play a key role in the operation and performance of health systems. In the past six decades, China has made great advances in strengthening its health system, most notably in establishing a health insurance system that enables residents of rural areas to achieve access to essential services. Although there have been several studies of rural health insurance schemes, these have focused on coverage and service utilization, while much less attention has been given to the role of governance in designing and implementing these schemes. Information from publications and policy documents relevant to the development of two rural health insurance policies in China was obtained, analysed, and synthesise. 92 documents on CMS (Cooperative Medical Scheme) or NCMS (New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme) from four databases searched were included. Data extraction and synthesis of the information were guided by a framework that drew on that developed by the WHO to describe health system governance and leadership. We identified a series of governance practices that were supportive of progress, including the prioritisation by the central government of health system development and certain health policies within overall national development; strong government commitment combined with a hierarchal administrative system; clear policy goals coupled with the ability for local government to adopt policy measures that take account of local conditions; and the accumulation and use of the evidence generated from local practices. However these good practices were not seen in all governance domains. For example, poor collaboration between different government departments was shown to be a considerable challenge that undermined the operation of the insurance schemes. China's success in achieving scale up of CMS and NCMS has attracted considerable interest in many low and middle income countries (LMICs), especially with regard to the schemes' designs, coverage, and funding

  18. Managing e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby; Heeager, Lise Tordrup

    2015-01-01

    Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment...... in the public administration literature. Four value positions relevant to e-Government together with their IT assumptions are identified; they reflect the ideals of professionalism, efficiency, service and engagement. A qualitative investigation of Danish local authority managers displays both value congruence...

  19. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  20. <strong>Size and local democracystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has been...... and investigated for each indicator in a successive, cumulative fashion employing a "funnel of causality" logic. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the size of the local political system has a significant negative effect on the character of local democracy in about half of the models estimated...

  1. Theoretical interpretation of e-government implementation challenges in South Africa: A case study of a selected provincial government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Twum-Darko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses factors influencing e-Government initiatives by African Governments to improve services to their citizens, businesses and their constituent. It further discusses, as a socially constructed phenomenon, the degree of readiness of governments to implement e-Government initiatives to improve services. The discussion uses Actor Network Theory (ANT and in particular the concepts of moments of translation and irreversibility as a lens through which to understand and interpret the social phenomenon. Although a number of e-Government researchers have argued that strong leadership and clear vision is required to implement e-Government initiatives, the view is that Governments have continuously failed to achieve the intended results. E-Government potentials and benefits which are well documented in Information Systems and e-Government research literature have not been realised by governments due to limited capabilities in the administration of the public service. The study applied a deductive approach where semi-structured interviews were used for data collection in a selected Provincial Government in South Africa. The outcome is a general framework to determine the readiness of South Africa government and generally, African governments for e-Government initiatives to achieve the intended results.

  2. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  3. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  4. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  5. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Centroamérica: de las guerras civiles a la ultraviolencia callejera,” La Hora (Guate- mala City), 30 March 2005, <sww.lahora.com.gt/05/03/30/paginas...Batos Locos (the crazy Boys) in Guatemala; La Mau Mau (derived from the name of rebels in Kenya and a new York gang in the 1950s) and La Maquina (the...machine) in el Salvador; La Mau Mau, Los Batos Locos, and Los Rockeros (the rockers) in Honduras; and the Gerber Boys and Los Charly in nicaragua

  6. A curve of thresholds governs plague epizootics in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike

    2012-01-01

    , it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of vector and host abundances. Here, we show in contrast, both from field data and model simulations, that for plague (Yersinia pestis) in Kazakhstan, the invasion threshold quantity is based on the product of its host (Rhombomys opimus) and vector...

  7. Dangerous Liaisons? Governments, companies and Internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Private actors in the information technology sector are currently playing an increasingly important role in content mediation, as well as in regulation of online forms of expression, with implications for both internet rights and economic freedom. The “privatisation of internet governance” (DeNardis, 2010, is not a new dynamic; however, in a scenario in which users are taking advantage of increasingly sophisticated technology, the centralisation and concentration characterising today’s most widespread internet services are contributing to the accentuation of this tendency. The 'inherently political' qualities of search engine algorithm development, video content removals, blocking of domain names – actions that originate and rest with the private sector’s handling of the internet’s infrastructure – should not be neglected in our assessment of the field of internet governance today.

  8. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  9. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  10. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  11. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  12. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  13. <strong>Implementation of integrated homecare in EUstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    HTA Core Model for interventions focusing 9 domains is applied. Further, a SWOT-analysis of IHC determines a strategy for implementation of IHC in EU. Preliminary results 1. The efficacy of IHC for rehabilitation of frequent chronic conditions as stroke, COPD and heart failure (HF) has a common......-country-specific survey on financial and organizational barriers to IHC due to a fragmented administrative organization 3. The SWOT-analysis indicates in accordance with an empirical study that a feasible strategy of implementation is a meso-strategy combining the advantages of the goal-directedness of a centralized...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Local Governance between South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2014 South Africa will be celebrating 20 years of democracy, which requires introspection on its state of local governance. China is used as a comparative case study because its economic growth has been strongly linked to local governance strategies. The article makes use of three variables to determine strategies ...

  15. Government Influence on Print Media Content in Pakistan: Pakistani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is equally important to understand the influences that shape content. This study investigates the government's influence on print media content in Pakistan due to its advertising and economic power. The results of the study show that journalists are of the view that the government has a very strong influence on ...

  16. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  17. E-government value priorities of Danish local authority managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby

    2012-01-01

    The management of eGovernment is a central topic in the improvement of public administration, where the underlying values of eGovernment practitioners are an important (but often taken for granted) motivation for strategy and implementation of eGovernment projects. This chapter offers a value...... analysis of central trends in the public administration literature: New Public Management, the post-Weberian Bureaucracy and the New Public Service. Using the assumption that eGovernment is driven largely by public administrations and therefore shares public management values, we develop a value model...... for eGovernment. Administrative Efficiency focuses on value for money logics highlighted by New Public Management thinking. Service Improvement, derived from the tradition of public service, emphasises the value of providing better services to citizens. Citizen Engagement, with its roots in liberal...

  18. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  19. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  20. Measuring Innovation in Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in supporting innovation in the public sector as a means of increasing the efficiency and quality of government services. Generally speaking, innovation in government could be defined as “The creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcome efficiency, effectiveness or quality’’ [3]. A ‘Process Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing ‘efficiency’. A ‘Product or Service Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing the ‘effectiveness’ of government. A ‘Policy Innovation’ is mainly oriented at enhancing outcomes. These categorisations are important for identifying and selecting the metrics of measurement and to make distinctions between inputs, outputs, and outcomes. (Author)

  1. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? What is the rationale and purpose of these policies? Scholars from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations and Management Studies have offered explanations for th...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....... for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...

  2. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...... information asymmetries between insiders and outsiders. Outsiders, being liquidity providers, therefore do not trade in stocks for which they have no information. Therefore, firms with poor governance mechanisms usually experience higher decline in liquidity during periods of market-wide uncertainty....

  3. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden......) are influenced by constitutional or jurisdictional notions of consolidation boundaries. The localization of globalized or generic concepts of consolidation is driven largely by government priorities or preoccupations rather than necessarily user demand. We propose that we need to better understand the relevance...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...

  4. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices...... in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs......” in their communication efforts, and that they face a daily professional challenge as they attempt to promote the European Parliament and its activities to the news media in a way that will not compromise their credibility as government sources. The study provides new insights into communicative aspects of EU governance...

  5. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  6. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes......, which have arisen in the context of globalization, often adopt a multiactor, multilevel, and network-based approach. We then analyze how far the Global Compact's institutional design reflects this multiactor, multilevel, and network-based steering mode. Drawing on this discussion, we offer suggestions...

  7. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes......, supranational nor totally denationalised. It is neither arbitrary nor accidental that we present our inquiries into this phenomenon in the series of International Studies on Private Law Theory....

  8. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  9. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  10. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  11. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  12. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  13. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  14. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  15. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as response of finite elastic media. R N IYENGAR* and SHAILESH KR AGRAWAL**. *Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. e-mail: rni@civil.iisc.ernet.in. **Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, India.

  16. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NRNHL-0212-9515; 2280-665] Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government- to-government consultation meetings with Indian...

  17. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies in assessing the capacity and ability of the Federal acquisition workforce to develop, manage, and... projects found cost overruns of 26 percent, totaling $295 billion over the life of the projects. Improved... serve the Federal Government's needs and to manage the risk associated with the goods and services being...

  18. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit

  19. Ethics in Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  20. Getting Port Governance Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Langen, Peter; Saragiotis, Periklis

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply ch...

  1. Tactics of the governed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment has become a performative idiom in Andean Peru, where it retains its purchase despite the investments of the state. Local development is tied to the desire to be governed. In spite of prolonged state presence, the villages’ relationship to authorities is continuously and persistently...

  2. Leadership and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Discusses leadership and governance issues in implementing curricular reform at eight medical schools participating in a large-scale medical curriculum development project. Attention is given to the definition of leadership, characteristics of successful leaders, management of resistance to change, the role of curriculum committees, the use of…

  3. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  4. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  5. Contractual Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Companies have the choice to deviate from their national corporate governance standards by opting into another system. They can do so via contractual devices – such as cross-border mergers and acquisitions, (re)incorporations, and cross-listings – which enable firms to choose their preferred level

  6. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  7. Government support of innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    Studt, T

    2003-01-01

    "One of the Federal government's few formal interagency enterprises, the Networking and Information Technology R&D (NITRD) program, is the collaborative framework of numerous federal agencies that conduct fundamental R&D in advanced networks, computing systems, software, and information management technologies" (1/2 page).

  8. Ambidextrous IT Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Svejvig, Per; Tordrup Heeager, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study at a global technology company, we investigate how organizations can adapt their IT governance approach to the information system at hand. This is done by considering the degree of information system integration and whether the system is related to supporting operational effi...

  9. Constructing Private Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the economic implications of tobacco control for government revenue and employment in manufacturing are now well understood, industry claims .... for the tobacco-control community and health ministries to play a supportive role to ministries of agriculture, the environment, labor, finance and rural development.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-05-02

    May 2, 1995 ... Mr. Ossa has written on exchange rate policies, export diversification, industrial development and external debt of developing countries. ...... I think most people would agree that the World Bank, for example, should not only finance governments but should directly finance the private sector in developing ...

  11. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  12. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  13. Values and Governance Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, P.H.M.; van den Brink, J.R.; Semenov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Cooperative behavior as well as other cultural rules and values are made explicit in organizational units that procure and provide a common service. The common service is procured by a club, which consists of a user-value function, a representation governance, and a budget-allocation function. The

  14. Operationalizing Anticipatory Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    cause among ourselves. This has a potentially Operationalizing Anticipatory Governance Leon Fuerth is the Founder and Director of the Project on...and so forth, plus the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review initiated by the Secretary of State). These reports are asynchronous, syncopated ...Review initiated by the Secretary of State). These reports are asynchronous, syncopated , and disjointed from one another. Instead, these strategy

  15. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  16. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  17. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutllant, J.

    1994-07-01

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Limits to Decentralization in Mozambique: Leadership, Politics and Local Government Capacities for Service Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Machohe (Antonio)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMozambique has been a centralized State since its independence in 1975. During this time, local government has depended on the Central Government and has lacked autonomy in both local policy decisions and resource management in addition to the complete failure of effective local services

  19. Which type of government revenue leads government expenditure?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...

  20. Corporate and philanthropic models of hospital governance: a taxonomic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B J; Alexander, J A

    1993-08-01

    We assess the theoretical integrity and practical utility of the corporate-philanthropic governance typology frequently invoked in debates about the appropriate form of governance for nonprofit hospitals operating in increasingly competitive health care environments. Data were obtained from a 1985 national mailed survey of nonprofit hospitals conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) and the Hospital Research and Educational Trust (HRET). A sample 1,577 nonprofit community hospitals were selected for study. Representativeness was assessed by comparing the sample with the population of non-profit community hospitals on the dimensions of bed size, ownership type, urban-rural location, multihospital system membership, and census region. Measurement of governance types was based on hospital governance attributes conforming to those cited in the literature as distinguishing corporate from philanthropic models and classified into six central dimensions of governance: (1) size, (2) committee structure and activity, (3) board member selection, (4) board composition, (5) CEO power and influence, and (6) bylaws and activities. Cluster analysis and ANCOVA indicated that hospital board forms adhered only partially to corporate and philanthropic governance models. Further, board forms varied systematically by specific organizational and environmental conditions. Boards exhibiting more corporate governance forms were more likely to be large, privately owned, urban, and operating in competitive markets than were hospitals showing more philanthropic governance forms. Findings suggest that the corporate-philanthropic governance distinction must be seen as an ideal rather than an actual depiction of hospital governance forms. Implications for health care governance are discussed.

  1. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  2. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  3. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  4. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  5. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  6. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  7. Strong profiling is not mathematically optimal for discovering rare malfeasors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a large population of individuals labeled j = 1,2,...,N, governments attempt to find the rare malfeasor j = j, (terrorist, for example) by making use of priors p{sub j} that estimate the probability of individual j being a malfeasor. Societal resources for secondary random screening such as airport search or police investigation are concentrated against individuals with the largest priors. They may call this 'strong profiling' if the concentration is at least proportional to p{sub j} for the largest values. Strong profiling often results in higher probability, but otherwise innocent, individuals being repeatedly subjected to screening. They show here that, entirely apart from considerations of social policy, strong profiling is not mathematically optimal at finding malfeasors. Even if prior probabilities were accurate, their optimal use would be only as roughly the geometric mean between a strong profiling and a completely uniform sampling of the population.

  8. Do Higher Government Wages Reduce Corruption? Evidence Based on a Novel Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Van-Ha Le; Jakob de Haan; Erik Dietzenbacher

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a novel dataset on government wages to investigate the relationship between government remuneration policy and corruption. Our dataset, as derived from national household or labor surveys, is more reliable than the data on government wages as used in previous research. When the relationship between government wages and corruption is modeled to vary with the level of income, we find that the impact of government wages on corruption is strong at relatively low-income levels.

  9. Why some governments are ‘less’ open: Sketching out Models of Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Francoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to consider why some national governments have been able to successfully take steps toward open government while others have not. In doing this it outlines two models of information management: a reactive model and a proactive model. Ultimately, it is found that governments following a reactive model, characterized by strong informational control and a lack of high-level political and bureaucratic support for open government, cannot fully or successfully realize open government.

  10. Government turnover in parliamentary democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Diermeier, Daniel; Merlo, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider a dynamic model of government formation and termination in parliamentary democracies. Our analysis accounts for the following observed phenomena: (1) Cabinet reshuffles; (2) Cabinet replacements; (3) Early elections; (4) Surplus governments; (5) Minority governments; (6) The relative instability of minority governments.

  11. Elements of a strong and healthy interagency partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    In an era of budget cuts and declining resources, an increased need exists for government agencies to develop formal and informal partnerships. Such partnerships are a means through which government agencies can use their resources to accomplish together what they cannot accomplish on their own. Interagency partnerships may involve multiple government agencies, private contractors, national laboratories, technology developers, public representatives, and other stakeholders. Four elements of strong and healthy interagency partnerships are presented as well as three needs that must be satisfied for the partnership to last. A diagnostic tool to measure the strength of these building blocks within an existing partnership is provided. Tools, techniques, and templates to develop these fundamental elements within a new partnership or to strengthen those within an already existing partnership are presented. This includes a comprehensive template for a partnership agreement along with practical suggestions as membership, operations, and decisions-making. (authors)

  12. The Emergence of Governance and the Function of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of evolutionary governance theory (Van Assche et al. (Evolutionary governance theory: an introduction. Springer, 2014)), this contribution develops a particularly coevolutionary view of governance by understanding governance frameworks as forms of transfer. World society consists...... of multiple types of normative orders. It is within this structural setup that a governance phenomenon has emerged as the form through which expectations between different normative orders are stabilized. In addition, governance institutions serve as the central channels through which transfers between...... such orders are made possible. They structure the transposition of condensed social components such as economic products and capital, political decisions, legal judgments, scientific knowledge, and religious acts of salvation from one order to another, thereby allowing coevolution to unfold. In this context...

  13. Governance and communication for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has multiple benefits. It usually is a win-win option for all aspects of sustainability – environment, social objectives, and economy. We need to evaluate and communicate these multiple benefits – to citizens, companies, and policy-makers. Due to strong market barriers, effective governance and policy packages for energy efficiency are needed. Evaluation shows effective policy can achieve around 2% per year of additional energy savings.

  14. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  15. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  16. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN WATER GOVERNANCE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. Chan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the central issues in the 21st century in Malaysia. Of all the issues associated with water management, governance is considered of primary importance. This paper examines water governance in Malaysia and concludes that it is successful in the sense that water is served to more than 95 % of the population, water tariffs are some of the cheapest in the world, the poor is not denied access, and water supply is 24 hours per day. However, there are many areas that need improvement to achieve better governance in water management. One is to improve Government-controlled water departments by ensuring their workers are well-trained and committed to excellence, public service and integrity instead of the usual laid-back government-servant mentality. Another is to ensure politicians do not interfere in the water sector. Currently, it is widely believed that many water companies are linked to powerful politicians, making the awarding of contracts, tariffs and other management aspects non-transparent and ineffective. Ideally, politicians that govern should act on the professional advice of the water managers and not the other way around. Another area of water governance that needs to be intensified is the war against corruption. In the water sector, there should also be an all-out war on corruption at all levels of governance, in both the public and private sectors. Government should make all contracts in the water sector awarded through open tender with public consultation to ensure professionalism, fairness, transparency, accountability and good governance. Equally, all contracts and other relevant documents drawn up between the government and private companies should not be “classified” but instead be public documents available to the public for discussion, review and improvement. Another area to ensure better governance is for the government to engage and actively involved all stakeholders in the water sector, especially civil

  17. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  18. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  19. Assist or desist? Conditional bailouts and fiscal discipline in local governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria

    2015-01-01

    Central government bailouts of local governments are commonly viewed as a recipe for local fiscal indiscipline, as local governments learn that the center will come to the rescue in times of trouble. However, little is known about the consequences of bailouts granted conditional on local governme...... greater fiscal discipline....

  20. Governance of tourism conservation partnerships: lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nthiga, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Governance of Tourism Conservation Partnerships: Lessons from Kenyastrong> Rita Wairimu Nthiga Since the 19th century nature conservation in Eastern Africa has evolved in different stages. Initial interventions emerged as a result of the decline and potential extinction of species for

  1. Governance of tourism conservation partnerships: lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nthiga, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Governance of Tourism Conservation Partnerships: Lessons from Kenyastrong>

    Rita Wairimu Nthiga

    Since the 19th century nature conservation in Eastern Africa has evolved in different stages. Initial interventions emerged as a result of the decline and potential extinction of

  2. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...... for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private...

  3. Auditing IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Mihai ILIESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective IT governance helps ensure that IT supports business goals, optimizes business investment in IT, and appropriately manages IT-related risks and opportunities. Organizations that realize the IT is no longer a support process and embeds value and risks need a structured approach for better managing Information Technology, enable its capability to deliver added value enterprise wide and for setting up a risk management program to address new risks arising for usage of IT in business processes. In order to assess if IT Governance is in line with industry practices, IT Auditors need a good understanding of processes and applicable standards, particular audit work programs and experience in assessing potential problem indicators.

  4. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  5. Urban Governance of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.

  6. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  7. Determinants of Government Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    David Hauner; Annette J Kyobe

    2008-01-01

    We compile the first large cross-country panel dataset of public sector performance and efficiency, encompassing 114 countries on all income levels from 1980 to 2006, with about 1,800 country-year observations for the education sector and about 900 observations for health. We regress these indicators on potential economic, institutional, demographic, and geographic determinants. Our most resounding conclusion is that higher government expenditure relative to GDP tends to be associated with lo...

  8. Growth & Governance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    means of pursuing domestic social goals, as the Malaysian government has done, for instance, in promoting bumiputera companies). The challenge for...In 1998, the population of Malaysia was 22.2 million. Of that, 57.8 percent is comprised of those regarded as bumiputera (“sons and daughters of the...soil”), or indigenous to the country. Most of these are Malays, at 49 percent of the total population. Non-Malay bumiputera , such as the Orang Asli

  9. Corporate governance in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Rajesh; Megginson, William L.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the Indian corporate governance system and examines how the system has both supported and held back India's ascent to the top ranks of the world's economies. While on paper the country's legal system provides some of the best investor protection in the world, enforcement is a major problem with slow, over-burdened courts and significant corruption. Ownership remains concentrated and family business groups continue to be the dominant business model. There is significant py...

  10. Government Favouritism in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Muhittin, Acar (PhD); David-Barrett, Elizabeth (PhD); Dimulescu, Valentina; Doroftei, Madalina (PhD); Emek, Uğur (PhD); Fazekas, Mihály (PhD); Karaboev, Stefan; András Lukács, Péter; Martínez Barranco Kukutschka, Roberto; Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina (PhD); Podumljak, Munir; Sberna, Salvatore (PhD); Stefanov, Ruslan; János Tóth, István (PhD); Vannucci, Alberto (PhD)

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Government Favouritism in Europe reunites the fieldwork of 2014-2015 in the ANTICORRP project. It is entirely based on objective indicators and offers both quantitative and qualitative assessments of the linkage between political corruption and organised crime using statistics on spending, procurement contract data and judicial data. The methodology used in the analysis of particularism of public resource distribution is applicable to any other country where procurement data ca...

  11. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  12. Corporate Governance Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Gnecchi

    2006-01-01

    The recognised critical importance of corporate governance, and the attention that it is paid today, can be ascribed to several factors: sensational financial scandals (and the repercussions they have had for securities and financial markets), the exponential development of stock option policies, the information asymmetry that can be noted in practically every company. The different requests for information of the various categories of stakeholders, combine to strengthen the decision to adopt...

  13. Urban Governance of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Katz; Sangeeta Mookherji; Morgan Kaminski; Vibhuti Haté; Julie E. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen coll...

  14. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  15. Progressive governance and globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Pisani-Ferry

    2008-01-01

    Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses the development of globalisation during the last decade and the challenges ahead. The speed and magnitude of the transformation affecting the world economy are larger than initially envisaged, while domestic policy reforms and redistribution have often been insufficient to cope with this adjustment challenge. Against this background, the definition of a renewed agenda that builds on the success of the initial one should be a priority for progressive governments. Th...

  16. Good veterinary governance: definition, measurement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A

    2012-08-01

    Services. Also, central to improving transparency and accountability is access to information and a discussion on the appropriate level of decentralisation of Veterinary Services. Bringing Veterinary Services into compliance with OIE international standards would contribute to improving governance and providing economic benefits through increased animal productivity, the expansion of trade and improved food security. It would also help to increase public health benefits, through greater food safety and better prevention and control of zoonoses.

  17. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  18. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  19. Model Penguatan Kapasitas Pemerintah Desa dalam Menjalankan Fungsi Pemerintahan Berbasis Electronic Government (E-Government menuju Pembangunan Desa Berdaya Saing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulismadi Sulismadi

    2017-06-01

    program APBDes budgeted in fiscal year 2017. Step next phase is the research team conducting FGD Phase II to design e-government as a means of governance villages effective and efficient, to disseminate the e-government, and publishes scientific articles on the model of governance based rural e-government in the Journal of Politics and Government Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta. Our advice as a researcher is a village government should make regulations governing Internet-based mechanism of public services (e-government. The regulation is to encourage villagers Landungsari to get used to using services based on the Internet, the district government of Malang should provide support to the village government to make innovations in governance, and the central government should support the village government to strengthen rural government institutions such as the addition of the village

  20. The Web's Unelected Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Simson L.

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium--an organization based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that has 275 corporate members and holds closed meetings--is the closest thing the Web has to a central authority; however, almost nobody outside the telecommunications industry understands what the consortium is. Analyzes the role this body may…

  1. Critical Review of Spatial Planning of CAT Watuputih, Rembang Zone, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    The Act 26 of 2007 on spatial planning stipulates that spatial planning at national, provincial and local level must be based on environmental carrying capacity and environmental carrying capability. Provincial governments generally finished its spatial planning in 2010 and the city and regency's governments in 2011.This paper reviews the spatial planning of Central Java and Rembang Regency regarding the use of CAT (ground water basin) Watuputih, Rembang Zone. Both spatial planning determined that CAT Watuputih was allocated for conservation and for mining. The mixed use zoning stimulates conflict between private sector and government on one side and local people along with academician and NGOs on another side. The SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) studies initiated by central government found that CAT Watuputih has strong indication to be KBAK (natural landscape area of karst) need to be conserved while at the moment there have been 21 mining permit holders operating since 1998. The lesson learned from the review is that formulation of spatial planning must be conducted participatory by involving relevant stakeholder, objective and accountable.

  2. The Development of e-Government System in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi'rojul Huda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the system of electronic-based government or e-government in Indonesia. The development of e-government system in Indonesia is very important to answer the demands of globalization and modernization that are growing rapidly. E-government system is intended so that the governance is easier, faster, transparent, and effective. However, in its development, the implementation of e-government in Indonesia still needs various improvements. Information in this study is obtained from a variety of publications and documents related to the purposes of the study. The results of the study, among others, show that for technology resources,should the current government to allocate funds sufficient to meet the various devices related to the development of e-government. As for human resources, starting now, the government should have a commitment to provide informal education in the field of ICT in the state apparatus and society. To synchronize both strategies, it is necessary to build digital communities (digital society throughout the region in Indonesia. The existence of digital society is considered not only able to develop better e-government system but also has an impact on economic acceleration. Other than those two things, the most important thing also requires commitment and strong leadership in developing e-government.

  3. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  4. Quasinormal Modes and Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Costa, João L.; Destounis, Kyriakos; Hintz, Peter; Jansen, Aron

    2018-01-01

    The fate of Cauchy horizons, such as those found inside charged black holes, is intrinsically connected to the decay of small perturbations exterior to the event horizon. As such, the validity of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture is tied to how effectively the exterior damps fluctuations. Here, we study massless scalar fields in the exterior of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. Their decay rates are governed by quasinormal modes of the black hole. We identify three families of modes in these spacetimes: one directly linked to the photon sphere, well described by standard WKB-type tools; another family whose existence and time scale is closely related to the de Sitter horizon; finally, a third family which dominates for near-extremally charged black holes and which is also present in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The last two families of modes seem to have gone unnoticed in the literature. We give a detailed description of linear scalar perturbations of such black holes, and conjecture that SCC is violated in the near extremal regime.

  5. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  6. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  7. Environmental pollution liability insurance in China: in need of strong government backing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Mol, Arthur P J; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; van Koppen, C S A

    2014-09-01

    Environmental pollution liability insurance was officially introduced in China only in 2006, as part of new market-based approaches for managing environmental risks. By 2012, trial applications of pollution insurance had been launched in 14 provinces and cities. More than ten insurance companies have entered the pollution insurance market with their own products and contracts. Companies in environmentally sensitive sectors and high-risk industries bought pollution insurance, and a few successful compensation cases have been reported. Still, pollution insurance faces a number of challenges in China. The absence of a national law weakens the legal basis of pollution insurance, and poor technical support stagnates further implementation. Moreover, current pollution insurance products have limited risk coverage, high premium rates, and low loss ratios, which make them fairly unattractive to polluters. Meanwhile, low awareness of environmental and social liabilities leads to limited demand for pollution insurance products by industrial companies. Hence, the pollution insurance market is not yet flourishing in China. To improve this situation, this economic instrument needs stronger backing by the Chinese state.

  8. Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance in China: In Need of Strong Government Backing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; He, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution liability insurance was officially introduced in China only in 2006, as part of new market-based approaches for managing environmental risks. By 2012, trial applications of pollution insurance had been launched in 14 provinces and cities. More than ten insurance companies

  9. Government Securities Market in Kosovo: Overview and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Bektashi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of recent developments in government securities market in Kosovo. In contradistinction to similar studies of developed financial markets an analysis of developments in the Kosovo’s government securities market, meets certain difficulties and takes into account a number of assumptions, which are to be specifically noted. The Government of the Republic Kosovo has successfully begun issuance of Treasury bills since January 2012, but market development is still at an early stage. The Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo maintains, records, trades and settles all government securities transactions through the BES trading platform, which term includes the initial electronic auction sales at the primary auction, electronic trading and the central securities depository. Most T-bills have been kept by the commercial banks for their own account, and six-month bills have been bought by institutional investors. As a result, no secondary market has yet developed. Capital markets are nonexistent.

  10. Performance Budgeting: Suatu Alternatif Pencapaian Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryo Pratolo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We hope that District Autonomy implementation does not move the Corruption, Collusion & Nepotism (KKN from central government to the central of district. If it is happened, it will make the only part of center district people wealth. To avoid this matter, the district government must manage it financial efectively. One of the district financial management object is district expenditure using the budget mechanism. There are many method in budgeting system. They are line item budgeting and Performance one. Recently, Indonesian characteristic budgeting system is like the  line item budgeting that have so many weakness (Baswir, 1999. This article discus about the line item and performance budgeting characteristic. The second characteristic is more advantages than the first relatively. So in this article, the researchers try to promote the district expenditure concept base on performance budgeting. The aim of this article is giving the description about how the performance budgeting support district expenditure management in achieving good governance, so the Indonesian district autonomy can be implemented successfully.

  11. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  12. Between Dependency and Autonomy – Taiwanese Entrepreneurs and Local Chinese Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-yi Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the changing interaction between Taiwanese entrepreneurs and local Chinese governments. Through the analysis of this changing process, it can be seen that Taiwanese businesses are a special “asset” of Chinese governments. The main argument of this paper is that both central and local governments in China have strategic considerations in respect of Taiwanese businesses. The Chinese central government values Taiwanese businesses because more Taiwanese investment in China strengthens the Beijing government in negotiations with the Taibei government. Nevertheless, since the Kuomintang (KMT (Guomindang regained power in 2008, the strategic value of Taiwanese businesses in the cross-Strait relationship seems to have decreased. The central government has created a profitable macro-environment enabling local officials to give a warm welcome to Taiwanese businesses. Chinese local governments value Taiwanese businessmen not only because of the central government’s deliberate policy but also because they are pursuing their own self-interest. This paper firstly focuses on the changing interaction between Taiwanese businesses and Chinese local governments. It then further analyses the different but complementary interests of both central and local governments in China in relation to Taiwanese investors.

  13. Network Governance of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gunnar Carlsson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish so-called cross-scale linkages has recently been vitalised in the literature. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, co-management and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management incorporate an implicit assumption about the establishment of social networks and is more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity - and innovation in adaptive co-management systems are highlighted as important to consider when crafting institutions for natural resource management. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  14. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  15. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  16. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  17. Governance in new European regions: the case of Centrope

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra Swiatek, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation analyses governance in the process of the formation of new regional alliances and spaces in Europe, by studying the case of the Central European Region - Centrope, which is both a region and a political project at the border area of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. This research aims at illuminating the historically founded relationship between emerging territories and new socioeconomic institutionalisations through unveiling the mode of governance in Cent...

  18. Governing education systems: International trends and main topics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents different approaches and international trends in governing education systems and analyses the causes of the perceived convergence of education policies in this field. An overview of the situation in countries throughout the world indicates an increasingly greater mutual similarity in governing education systems, especially when it comes to insisting on the following: searching for balance in (de)centralization of the system, increasing school autonomy, reinforcing the role ...

  19. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and na...

  20. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  1. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  2. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  3. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...

  4. Four logics of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...... combined with state funding through a taximeter scheme (pay per student). Secondly, party governance system involving labor market partners at both national and local level formalized through a national Council for Vocational Training and 50 local trade committees as well as local education committees...

  5. World governance for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  6. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries provides practical supporting material on information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D), specifically, e-government implementation. In this book, Kettani and Moulin develop their findings and methods from the eFez ...

  7. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  8. Linkage of Credit on BI Rate, Funds Rate, Inflation and Government Spending on Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linkage of credit on BI rate, funds rate, inflation, and government spending on capital provides evidence from Indonesia.  This paper found advance explanation about banks credit as monetary transmission channel and its role on Indonesian economy.  We used credit depth as a ratio of banks credit to GDP nominal, to explain the role of credit in Indonesian economy.  We developed a VAR model to measure the response of credit to BI rate, funds rate and inflation rate, and OLS method to find out how banks credit response to government spending on capital. This paper revealed bi-direction causality between credit and BI rate, credit and funds rate, and credit and inflation.  There is trade-off between credit and BI rate, credit and funds rate, and credit and inflation, but government spending on capital promotes credit depth.  We found that Indonesian banking is bank view, allocated their credit based on their performance, not merely on the monetary policy determined by central bank.  For bank view perspectives, we analyzed the link between LDR as an indicator of credit channel mechanism to NPLs and CAR.  We found that there is no significant effect of CAR to LDR, but has a strong negatively relationship between NPLs to LDR.  This evidence indicates that commercial banks in Indonesia allocated their credit do not related to their capital but merely to the quality of their credit portfolio.

  9. Constitutional Models of Semi-Presidential Systems of Government in Russia and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of new political systems in Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of communist regimes implied a decision on a new system of government instead of the earlier proclaimed assembly system. The position of the framers of the Constitution on the need for a strong institution of state presidency during the transition process, and the correlation of forces between diff erent actors in the political arena, have resulted in the establishment of the semi-presidential system in many of these countries. In Russia and Poland, with the fi rst modifi cations of their Constitutions, some elements of semi-presidentialism were adopted, and then the whole concept of semi-presidentialism has been accepted. The constitutional models in the two countries are compatible with the criteria of semi-presidential systems – they have a dual structure of the executive branch of government and a fi xed term of the state president elected on the general elections and politically unaccountable to the parliament. The political practice in these countries during the last fi fteen years has shown diff erent eff ects of the established system. In Russia, the state president dominated so much over the political system that the system was virtually presidential, while in Poland the constitutional changes in 1990, 1992 and 1997 have resulted in the change of the correlation of forces within the dual structure of the executive branch of government.

  10. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  11. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  13. Steuern und Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.

  14. Implementing and Designing Interactive Governance Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    of the oldest research questions in public administration research: how and why are the high hopes of central policy-makers (not) translated into practice? By combining insights from the public policy implementation literature, network governance literature and theories of multi-actor institutional design......, the article develops a theoretical perspective for studying top-down implementation of interactive governance arenas. The developed perspective enables researchers and practitioners to identify a number of critical junctions in the implementation process with important implications for the final design...... of the interactive arenas. A longitudinal case-analysis of the implementation of ten Local Crime Prevention Councils in one of twelve Danish police districts is conducted to demonstrate how the perspective may be deployed in empirical studies....

  15. Spatialising Agricultural Water Governance Data in Polycentric Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Sternlieb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water governance in the Colorado River Basin (CRB is based on a historical and complex set of policies, legal decisions, and operational guidelines called the Law of the River. Behind the complex institutional structure lies an intricate web of data on water, most of which are hydrogeological in nature. However, we posit that in order to realise sustainable water governance, management efforts must also address data on water governance. Therefore, our central research question is: what is the role of water governance data in water governance, as it pertains to agriculture? First, we lay out the digital landscape and theoretical framework that justify the development of the Colorado River Basin Water Governance Relational Database. Then, we conduct an analysis of water-sharing policies within Law of the River to identify and categorise boundaries. By operationalising a boundary typology in a geographic information system, we found that data on agricultural water governance have little to no current role in water governance due to scale discrepancies, insufficient availability and collection of data, and lack of standardisation. In addition, agricultural water governance in the CRB was found to exhibit polycentric patterns. However, unlike the flexible and adaptive nature of some polycentric systems, polycentric data sets may pose challenges to water governance due to limited information regarding organisational changes, policy developments, and special interests. This study advances the science-policy dialogue in four ways: 1 by emphasising the salience of the data on water governance, 2 by incorporating water governance data in water governance and policy decisions, 3 by demonstrating the value of integrating data types, and 4 by engaging users through geo-visualisation.

  16. Governance Quality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Kong

    2011-01-01

    Among both academics and the wider development community there seems to be a general acceptance of the value of good governance and its role in promoting economic growth. However, beyond this general statement, there is a lack of deeper theoretical understanding as to why good governance is expected to foster economic growth and how such effects may take place. We de.ne governance quality as the capacity of a government to internalize externality. A theoretical model is developed to formally ...

  17. Governance, Growth and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq H. Khan

    2009-01-01

    Poverty reduction is a function of economic growth, income distribution and distribution changes. Governance can impact both growth and income distribution. The dominant market-enhancing governance paradigm seeks to enhance the efficiency of markets through ‘good governance’ reforms, ostensibly to trigger or sustain growth. ‘Pro-poor’ good governance reforms purport to enhance the scale and efficiency of service delivery to the poor. The good governance approach to enhancing growth is dispute...

  18. City Governments Need Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’......Innovation in the public sector has become an important focus for governments, which are facing a growing inability to address difficult policy challenges. In the context of city governments, innovation capacity is boosted by the involvement of ‘outsiders’...

  19. Open Government Partnership as a Platform for Advancing Open Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondol, Jan; Allen, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    An exciting new avenue for establishing and expanding national commitments to open education has emerged through the Open Government Partnership (OGP), a multilateral initiative that aims to secure commitments from governments to make their governance more open, accountable and responsive to citizens. In the past, there has not been a strong link…

  20. Handbook on Theories of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of governing. As a result, the notion of governance is now one of the most frequently used social science concepts in the world. No single theory encompasses this diverse body of work, but rather multiple theories with different aims and perspectives. The Handbook on Theories of Governance collects...

  1. REFORMING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ETHIOPIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milkii

    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Ministry of Justice is revising the Commercial .... 15 Malla Praveen Bhasa, Global Corporate Governance: Debates and Challenges, Corporate. Governance: The .... 38 Steve Letza et al, Corporate Governance Theorizing: Limits, Critics And Alternatives. International Journal ...

  2. Corporate Governance, CSR og menneskerettigheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer om der findes en forbindelse mellem Corporate Governance og Corporate Social Responsibility i forhold til menneskerettigheder. Det konkluderes, at en sådan forbindelse findes, i hvert fald i forhold til arbejdstagerrettigheder og dele af forholdet til eksterne stakeholdere....... Menneskeretsaspekter i Good (Public) Governance fungerer som udgangspunkt for identifikation af menneskerettighedselementer i Corporate Governance...

  3. Characterizing Government Social Media Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As research on government social media continues to grow in quantity and scope, this area calls for mapping and systematization, in order to stimulate better-informed studies in the future. This paper draws on a comprehensive review of government social media literature in the e...... a four-point research agenda for future government social media research....

  4. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an updated assessment of Egypt's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Egypt. In recent years there have been a number of major reforms, mostly...

  5. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  6. THEORY OF GOVERNANCE AND SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SANDU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, subordinated to the governance and public sector reform domain, approaches governance theory, a theory that is specific to a society in a profound transformation. The transformation represents a result of globalization and the thematic of social enterprise a mean of appearance within the global arena for social actors as representatives of the new economic governance. Starting from the New Public Management reforms, the article analysis the state and public action changes within the contemporary society and in the same time, realizes a clear distinction between governing and governance and identifies a third way within the economic governance –heterarchy or network management, which refers to horizontal self-organizations between the interdependent actors. The study also illustrates the fact that the development of global political economy is in strong connection with democratization. Thus, the democracy must be affirmed at both global and local levels, and the role of non-state actors must increase, democratization representing a consonance in economic liberalization, state institutional change and development of a powerful public space. The result of the current analysis materializes in the identification of the social enterprise typology, the reference models and comparative experiences of social enterprise. As a conclusion, the study formulates a complex definition of social enterprise concept, which comprises the social and economic criteria, the social aim of the ideal-type of social enterprise. The research methodology is represented by complex methods as follows: the first and the second parts are based on literature and theories analysis, the third part is based on questionnaire application, statistical data collection and comparative empirical studies. The sample the comparative studies is represented by European countries as follows: the references models - United Kingdom, France and Italy and the empirical studies

  7. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Banks: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogege Samson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the backbones of any economy therefore it is of immense importance for economies to possess a healthy and buoyant banking system with effective corporate governance practices. In Nigeria, the Central Bank replaced the past governance codes with the CBN code (2012. Therefore this study examines corporate governance and financial performance in Nigerian banks, using this new code. The main issues in this study are: what is the relationship between board size and financial performance of banks in Nigeria? What is the effect of the proportion of non- executive directors on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria? To what extent is the corporate governance disclosure of banks in Nigeria in compliance to CBN governance code (2012? Does a relationship actually exist between banks that disclose on corporate governance and their financial performance in Nigeria? These questions were answered by examining the yearly-published reports of the listed banks in Nigeria. In examining whether or not there is a relationship between corporate governance and the financial performance of the banks, this research employed the regression analysis method to determine the relationship. However, the variables that were employed for corporate governance are: board size, board composition (the ratio of non-executive directors to total directors, and corporate governance disclosure index. Variables used in this study for examining the financial performance of these banks were the financial accountant measure for performance.

  8. Health sector governance: should we be investing more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryatt, Robert; Bennett, Sara; Soucat, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Governance is central to improving health sector performance and achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, the growing body of research on governance and health has not yet led to a global consensus on the need for more investment in governance interventions to improve health. This paper aims to summarise the latest evidence on the influence of governance on health, examines how we can assess governance interventions and considers what might constitute good investments in health sector governance in resource constrained settings. The paper concludes that agendas for improving governance need to be realistic and build on promising in-country innovation and the growing evidence base of what works in different settings. For UHC to be achieved, governance will require new partnerships and opportunities for dialogue, between state and non-state actors. Countries will require stronger platforms for effective intersectoral actions and more capacity for applied policy research and evaluation. Improved governance will also come from collective action across countries in research, norms and standards, and communicable disease control.

  9. Governance structures impact on eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background National eHealth implementation efforts need to move beyond the scope of making technology the primary focus and instead consider the broader spectrum of influences that can either hinder or facilitate eHealth adoption such as governance structures and policies. In this study, Denmark...... to identify relevant papers. Results This study reveals that despite Denmark׳s high deployment of eHealth technologies, the Danish healthcare system faces significant interoperability challenges which stem from the country׳s decentralized and centralized approach to eHealth implementation. Conclusion...

  10. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  11. Between Democracy and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    collective capacities for representation, participation and deliberation crucial to keeping democratic government responsive, effective and accountable to the common will. On this view, all new forms of connective action are ipso facto rejected as the spawn of neoliberalism: They appear as individualistic....... By contrast, these new actors insist that it is more important to problematize how policy risks and problems are handled by a network of globally interconnected policy elites from the public, private and even voluntary domains. The challenge for democratic political analysis today is to avoid placing...... politicization before problematization or vice versa. This requires a new model which does not identify politics with inputs and thereby relegates outputs to the domain of technical, non-political administration and management. Connective action, I argue, manifests a new model for problematizing how policies...

  12. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  13. Governing Social Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Hasselbladh, Hans; Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    the last two decades, the operations of memory institutions increasingly mingle with those of information aggregators and search engines. These developments reframe longstanding professional practices of memory organizations and, in this process, challenge their institutional mandate.......In this article, we extend the concept of technology beyond the conventional understanding of systems and artifacts as embodiments of particular functionalities that are variously enacted in local settings. Technological artifacts or systems epitomize operational couplings that extend beyond...... relationships and, in this quality, complement and occasionally compete with institutional modes of governance. We explore these ideas in the empirical context of cultural memory organizations (e.g., libraries, archives, museums). As the outcome of the technological developments that have marked the field over...

  14. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    , a spate of work in management research and new institutional economics has highlighted dimensions such as complementarity, complexity, tacitness, and so on of knowledge assets and shown how knowledge assets, thus dimensionalized, has explanatory value with respect to economic organization. However......Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...

  15. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  16. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  17. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  18. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  19. Privatization Of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Biersteker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Biersteker graduated from Chicago University (BF in Political Science and MIT (MA in Political Science and got PhD in Political Science in MIT as well. Later professor Biersteker lectured in Yale University (1976-1985, South Carolina University (1985-1992 and Brown University (1992-2006. He could be described as a constructivist focusing his research on global governance, international organizations and transnational policy networks, construction of sovereignty and regimes of targeted sanctions. Professor Birsteker kindly agreed to give an interview to the “MGIMO Review of International Relations” during a seminar within the research project - Grant of RFBR No. 16-23-41004. The seminar was also attended by M.M. Lebedeva, Yu.A. Nikitin, A.I. Nikitin, I.A. Istomin.

  20. Perceiving sustainable forest spaces: governance aspects of private and company owned forests in North-Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of improved environmental or sustainable aspects in forest management is often affiliated with the rise of market-driven governance systems, such as forest certification. In terms of forest resource peripheries, like North-Karelia, Finland, these are often attributed to environmental business and consumer demands from the green Central European markets. While acknowledging these aspects related to the supply chains of wood-based products, this study evaluates the actual perceptions about environmental forest governance and its spaces in the resource peripheries themselves. It displays the perceived changes and practices in forestry by comparing private and corporate ownership and their governance networks. This is accomplished by a qualitative, interview based case study of North Karelian and Finnish forestry actors. Transnational forest governance is hereby treated as a relational space, with forest certification systems as possible technologies used to achieve improved, sustainable forest management. Utilizing the North-Karelian forestry sector, the varying positionalities of actors and institutions within such a relational space shape the knowledge networks, perceptions and decision-making. The study evaluates how these local-global positionalities of actors and individuals shapes their understanding, and guide the direction of sustainable forest management in Finland while it (re-produces opposing regimes of practice. With the discourse on forest certification being twofold, a more complex picture emerges if aspects of even- versus uneven-aged forest management in Finland are integrated. Shaped by the actor’s positionalities and related knowledge networks, perceptions regarding the quality of forest management practices and technologies used to achieve sustainability differ and thereby shape governance processes. The green markets are not perceived as the main driving force and a strong governmental influence, particularly

  1. Strongly Deterministic Population Dynamics in Closed Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak Frentz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems are influenced by random processes at all scales, including molecular, demographic, and behavioral fluctuations, as well as by their interactions with a fluctuating environment. We previously established microbial closed ecosystems (CES as model systems for studying the role of random events and the emergent statistical laws governing population dynamics. Here, we present long-term measurements of population dynamics using replicate digital holographic microscopes that maintain CES under precisely controlled external conditions while automatically measuring abundances of three microbial species via single-cell imaging. With this system, we measure spatiotemporal population dynamics in more than 60 replicate CES over periods of months. In contrast to previous studies, we observe strongly deterministic population dynamics in replicate systems. Furthermore, we show that previously discovered statistical structure in abundance fluctuations across replicate CES is driven by variation in external conditions, such as illumination. In particular, we confirm the existence of stable ecomodes governing the correlations in population abundances of three species. The observation of strongly deterministic dynamics, together with stable structure of correlations in response to external perturbations, points towards a possibility of simple macroscopic laws governing microbial systems despite numerous stochastic events present on microscopic levels.

  2. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  3. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  4. Governance and the loss of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Muir, R D J; Walpole, M J; Balmford, A; Leader-Williams, N

    2003-11-06

    Most of the world's biodiversity occurs within developing countries that require donor support to build their conservation capacity. Unfortunately, some of these countries experience high levels of political corruption, which may limit the success of conservation projects by reducing effective funding levels and distorting priorities. We investigated whether changes in three well surveyed and widespread components of biodiversity were associated with national governance scores and other socio-economic measures. Here we show that governance scores were correlated with changes in total forest cover, but not with changes in natural forest cover. We found strong associations between governance scores and changes in the numbers of African elephants and black rhinoceroses, and these socio-economic factors explained observed patterns better than any others. Finally, we show that countries rich in species and identified as containing priority areas for conservation have lower governance scores than other nations. These results stress the need for conservationists to develop and implement policies that reduce the effects of political corruption and, in this regard, we question the universal applicability of an influential approach to conservation that seeks to ban international trade in endangered species.

  5. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  6. Governing the Lebanese health system: strengthening the national response to the burden of Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; McKee, Martin

    2017-08-20

    Lebanon is providing sanctuary to an estimated 1.5 million Syrian refugees, with potential consequences for its health system. Here, we analyse how it has responded to this challenge, identify sensitive areas where a strong national governance system is needed and explore how it might be implemented. An effective response to the Syrian refugee crisis requires concerted international action. Nonetheless, geography dictates that the Lebanese health system must play a central role. We identify some areas where a strengthened stewardship role of the Ministry of Public Health is urgently required. We argue that the Ministry is well placed to take a lead, with its detailed knowledge of the Lebanese health system and its legitimacy to formulate a national health response. Finally, we suggest that this crisis could be a catalyst for the strengthening of the Lebanese health system, based on evidence-informed policies that would benefit refugees and the Lebanese population alike.

  7. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  8. Petra Governance Handbook - WP7 – Governance structures & business models : D7.3: Governance Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.; Hirschhorn, F.; Klievink, A.J.; Steenhuisen, B.M.; van der Voort, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This document represents the governance handbook on mobility data platforms for the PETRA project. The governance handbook provides metropolitan authorities contemplating the implementation of a mobility data platform in line with the PETRA project about governance issues and design.
    The

  9. Governing the Nexus for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Sina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the challenges of and requirements for effective governance of the water, energy and food nexus. With global dynamics such as climate change, urbanization and changing consumption patterns, governing resources in a coherent manner becomes both more complex and more relevant for sustainable development. Governance challenges include nexus economics (costs and benefits of different approaches to resource management, institutional design (like questions of how decision-making should be best distributed and good governance (how to make sure that nexus governance adheres to certain agreed upon principles and values. In terms of economics, a balance between sector specific actions and nexus governance is required. For effective decision-making it is important that power among different institutions is both distributed and coordinated. Good nexus governance requires targets that can be monitored to make sure that basic principles are followed and to examine whether progress toward sustainable development is being made.

  10. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Banks: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogege S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the backbones of any economy therefore it is of immense importance for economies to possess a healthy and buoyant banking system with effective corporate governance practices. In Nigeria, the Central Bank replaced the past governance codes with the CBN code (2012. Therefore this study examines corporate governance and financial performance in Nigerian banks, using this new code. The main issues in this study are: what is the relationship between board size and financial performance of banks in Nigeria? What is the effect of the proportion of non- executive directors on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria? To what extent is the corporate governance disclosure of banks in Nigeria in compliance to CBN governance code (2012? Does a relationship actually exist between banks that disclose on corporate governance and their financial performance in Nigeria? These questions were answered by examining the yearly published reports of the listed banks in Nigeria. In examining whether or not there is a relationship between corporate governance and the financial performance of the banks, this research employed the regression analysis method to determine the relationship. However, the variables that was employed for corporate governance are: board size, board composition (the ratio of non-executive directors to total directors, and corporate governance disclosure index. Variables used in this study for examining the financial performance of these banks were the financial accountant measure for performance. These measures are return on equity (ROE and return on asset (ROA. In examining the level of compliance of the banks in this study to the CBN (2012 governance code, the research employed the content analysis method. Employing the content analysis, a disclosure index was formed and the annual report for each bank was examined using the CBN code of corporate governance (2012 as a guide. The results of the study showed that a positive

  11. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Banks: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogege Samson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the backbones of any economy therefore it is of immense importance for economies to possess a healthy and buoyant banking system with effective corporate governance practices. In Nigeria, the Central Bank replaced the past governance codes with the CBN code (2012. Therefore this study examines corporate governance and financial performance in Nigerian banks, using this new code. The main issues in this study are: what is the relationship between board size and financial performance of banks in Nigeria? What is the effect of the proportion of non- executive directors on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria? To what extent is the corporate governance disclosure of banks in Nigeria in compliance to CBN governance code (2012? Does a relationship actually exist between banks that disclose on corporate governance and their financial performance in Nigeria? These questions were answered by examining the yearly-published reports of the listed banks in Nigeria. In examining whether or not there is a relationship between corporate governance and the financial performance of the banks, this research employed the regression analysis method to determine the relationship. However, the variables that were employed for corporate governance are: board size, board composition (the ratio of non-executive directors to total directors, and corporate governance disclosure index. Variables used in this study for examining the financial performance of these banks were the financial accountant measure for performance. These measures are return on equity (ROE and return on asset (ROA. In examining the level of compliance of the banks in this study to the CBN (2012 governance code, the research employed the content analysis method. Employing the content analysis, a disclosure index was formed and the annual report for each bank was examined using the CBN code of corporate governance (2012 as a guide. The results of the study showed that a positive

  12. Tourism as a Public Good – Local Government Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kopczewska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of tourism should be based on common participation of local governments, enterprises and communities. Strong impulse for building and enlargement of infrastructure and tourism service was given by European funds, for which local governments and firms can apply. This support should be analyzed two-fold: subjective „who” and geographical „where” funds were used and what is their potential. The article presents spatial analysis of tourism development in Poland from the perspective of public sector.

  13. Economic and Political Governance in Germany's Social Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Horst Siebert

    2004-01-01

    Germany's system of economic and political governance strongly relies on group decision-making and consensus to solve economic issues. This approach relates to a wide spectrum of decisions, including the social partners with the trade unions and the employers' associations in wage formation, the trade unions in the governance of firms through codetermination and the workers' councils in the operation of firms, but also to relationship banking and to the steering of the university system by co...

  14. Legal Aspects of Corporate Governance in Albania: A critical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Fana

    2015-01-01

    The academic debate on legal aspects of corporate governance, be it at national or international level, has strongly intensified especially during the last two decades. Such tendency has also influenced the relevant Albanian legal framework, as it is evidenced by the most recent amendments on the Law “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies” of 2014. This article focuses exactly on an analyses of the legal and quasi-legal norms of corporate governance in Albania (IFC principles), providing ...

  15. Transformations in identity, governance and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Katie; Thompson-Fawcett, Michelle; Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2016-01-01

    Cities that have transformed in response to socio-economic crises are a focus of theorists interested in identifying why changes are triggered and how they are played out. Stories of success add to knowledge of ‘fruitful’ city functioning. This paper examines how transformations in urban governance...... and planning can unfold in smaller cities by scrutinising the New Zealand city of Invercargill. The city underwent metamorphosis from a faded town with a negative image to one that has a new path despite isolation and small population. Leadership, networking and innovation have been key factors. The paper...... unveils how development fortunes on the global periphery can be reshaped by strong place leadership, revised connections between different tiers of policy making, and reframed processes of governance and planning....

  16. PENERAPAN E-GOVERNMENT DALAM MENDORONG TERWUJUDNYA PENYELENGGARAAN PEMERINTAHAN YANG BAIK (STUDI PENELITIAN KABUPATEN / KOTA DI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik Retno Herawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of e-government aims to establish a good relationship between the government and the society as well as businesses that take place in an efficient, effective and economical. In addition, the purpose of implementing e-government is to achieve a good governance (good governance. Good governance has several elements one of which is the effectiveness and efficiency. Departing from the above conditions, this study tried to describe the general adoption of e-Government Regency/City in Central Java. In detail, this study will discuss how the implementation of E Government Regency/City in Central Java and what the barriers to implementation of the E Government. Application of E Government by Regency City in Central Java, most of the entry on stage 2 (two, but there are some districts / municipalities that have entered at step 3 (three which apply online application for public services. For institutions, the need for clarity of authority and responsibility of all agencies in the government district / municipality. Some of Regency/City there that give's responsibility in the development of E Government Electronic Data Processing Section (PDE in the Regional Secretariat. However there are some Regency/city that provide responsibility under the Department of Transportation, Communication and other Information. Another problem encountered is the lack of ability of the ranks of civil servants and others in the field of ICT for the conduct of government in the Regional (E-Government and lack of budget implementation of e-government.

  17. Shortfall of Strategic Governance and Strategic Management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problems of strategic governance and strategic management of the Czechoslovak Government, as well as the Government of the Czech Republic in the years 1989-2016. It seeks the causes and factors that have caused the low levels of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the ministries of the Czech Republic. It examines the problem from genetic and historical perspective, and from the organizational and human capacity to exercise strategic governance. The study is based on two pieces of empirical research within the ministries of the Czech Republic. It identifies the main cause of failure of strategic governance and strategic management at the level of the central government of the Czech Republic. These include, in particular, the persistent distrust of the ideas of strategic governance and strategic management held by the right-wing governments and the generally low capacity of governments of the Czech Republic to engage in strategic governance. The organizational structure of the central state administration lacks the strategic units that generate ideas for supporting strategic governance. The empirical research of the ministries of the Czech Republic also revealed that policy workers in Czech ministries dedicate a large proportion of their work time to operational and administrative activities at the expense of analytical and strategic activities. The changes require implementation of reforms within the public administration, which (among other things will eliminate the existing causes and inhibiting factors regarding the lack of strategic governance in the Czech Republic.

  18. Towards a large deviation theory for strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Guiomar, E-mail: guiomar.ruiz@upm.es [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Matemática Aplicada y Estadística, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tsallis, Constantino, E-mail: tsallis@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2012-07-23

    A large-deviation connection of statistical mechanics is provided by N independent binary variables, the (N→∞) limit yielding Gaussian distributions. The probability of n≠N/2 out of N throws is governed by e{sup −Nr}, r related to the entropy. Large deviations for a strong correlated model characterized by indices (Q,γ) are studied, the (N→∞) limit yielding Q-Gaussians (Q→1 recovers a Gaussian). Its large deviations are governed by e{sub q}{sup −Nr{sub q}} (∝1/N{sup 1/(q−1)}, q>1), q=(Q−1)/(γ[3−Q])+1. This illustration opens the door towards a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics. -- Highlights: ► We introduce the formalism of relative entropy for a single random binary variable and its q-generalization. ► We study a model of N strongly correlated binary random variables and their large-deviation probabilities. ► Large-deviation probability of strongly correlated model exhibits a q-exponential decay whose argument is proportional to N, as extensivity requires. ► Our results point to a q-generalized large deviation theory and suggest a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  19. Matter in strong fields: from molecules to living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, D

    2007-01-01

    Strong optical fields induce multiple ionization in irradiated molecules. The ionization dynamics are governed by optical-field-induced distortions of molecular potential energy surfaces and molecular dissociation is the expected by-product. Recent experiments have even shown, quite counter-intuitively, that strong optical fields may even induce bond formation processes in molecules. All such processes are all manifestations of how intense light affects matter. In turn, matter also affects intense light. A visually dramatic manifestation of matter affecting light is obtained when ultrashort pulses of intense light propagate though condensed matter. The temporal and spatial properties of the incident light pulse are modified, and such modifications manifest themselves in an enlarged optical frequency sweep, resulting in the generation of broadband radiation (white light) known as supercontinuum production. Although the physics that governs supercontinuum generation is not properly understood, some recent progress is summarized. Novel applications of strong field phenomena are reported that are of relevance in the biomedical and life sciences

  20. Foresight as an e-Government Development Planning Component: Proposed e-Government Foresight Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Grincevičius

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that e-government is developed by a country which is making the first steps in this area, or state, seeking to increase effectiveness of the existing e-government tools, it is necessary to have the methodology to create a basis for the formation of strategic e-government decisions, whose implementation will meet existing citizen needs and emerged challenges which appear during continuous information communication technology transformation processes.One of the ways to respond to these requirements is the application of foresight exercises as a component of strategic e-government planning. Nevertheless in Lithuania and many other Eastern European countries, the planning process is still centralized, based on the five-year planning context. Ex communist states are behind other regions with the number of research based on the foresight methodology, so these conditions determine the lack of information in this domain and this article is a small part of the attempt to fill the existing vacuum.The main aim of this article is to analyse the foresight impact on the electronic government strategic planning process, its role in the political decision formation process and by identifying contact points of different foresight research components, in the context of e-government foresight methodology framework creation processes, to form a deeper perception on how foresight works as a system.This aim is determined by the following objectives—to analyse foresight concept, circumstances and causes of its origin, main guidelines, methods used during foresight exercises and reasons, which determine its application; also, to analyse different suggested foresight exercise approaches and according to the results of the analysis, to form a distinctive e-government foresight methodology, which can be used for already performed foresight analysis or for prototyping a planned one.Thus, the first part of the article covers the most important theoretical

  1. Education Policy and Governance in England under the Coalition Government (2010-15): Academies, the Pupil Premium, and Free Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the governance of school-based and early education in England under the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government (2010-15). It draws on three prominent Coalition policy areas--the academies programme, the pupil premium, and free part-time early education--and focuses on changes to the role played by central government…

  2. Non-Functional Property Driven Service Governance: Performance Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Bass, Len; Gorton, Ian; Staples, Mark

    2007-09-17

    Service governance is a set of businesses processes, policies and technical solutions that support enterprises in their implementation and management of their SOA. The decisions of service governance, especially concerning service boundaries at the enterprise level, influence the deployment topology of business services across or within business organizations. Deployment topologies are realized by integration technologies such as Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). Service governance and technical solutions interact in a subtle way including through communication patterns and protocols between services and ESBs, as well as the deployment and configuration of ESB. These factors have a strong influence on the Non- Functional Properties (NFP) of a SOA solution. A systematic approach is essential to understand alternative technical solutions for a specific service governance decision. This paper proposes a modeling approach to evaluate the performance-related NFP impacts when mapping service governance to technical solutions using an ESB. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative performance analysis of a real

  3. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  4. Democracy over governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of institutional economics are available to evaluate varieties of capitalism. These methodologies dig behind preferences and technology to arrive at the ground on which agents make choices. The individual is at the foundation of these edifices, neoclassical and otherwise. Consequently, the denouement of all these models is that the market knows best in the absence of effective counterfactuals. A natural corollary is that the task of the government is to set effective mechanisms in place in order to approach the best outcomes. In contrast, we propose a framework which contends with the modern economy as an aggregate that evolves in historical time. Problems like effective demand failures are endemic to capitalist economies. Therefore, systematic State intervention is essential to their functioning. In particular, political economy teaches us that intervention must be in the interest of wage earners. In contrast to the earlier model, the fabric of norms and conventions that facilitate the growth and development of economies must emerge from the consciousness and practices of the working class.

  5. Happiness, Sadness and Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duncan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policy-making that re-presents – as objects of concern and by means of statistics – the suffering or depression and the happiness of populations indicates an evolving form of governance that examines and reshapes subjectivity itself. Never before have states of subjectivity been acted upon, through surveys, statistical and policy analysis, and scientific disciplines, to the extent seen today. This article: Documents changing epistemic co-ordinates, especially in psychology and economics, that first occluded happiness in the interests of objectivity, but, in recent decades, marked out a renewed ‘science’ of happiness.Examines changes in the discursive formulation of depression, as a counterpart to happiness.Argues that, seen in terms of bio-power, contemporary concerns for happiness and depression are consistent – rather than incompatible – with one another. How can so many claim to be happy when so many, we are told, are depressed, anxious or suffering emotional pain? There is no underlying contradiction here, for two reasons: Happiness and depression are manifestations of the same political discourse (or aspects of a political subjectivity characterized by dis-inhibition, consumer self-indulgence and performance anxiety. And, just as we needed madness in order to understand ‘sanity,’ or the prison in order to view ourselves as ‘free,’ so we rely upon concerns about depression in order to understand and act upon ourselves as subjects capable of unlimited happiness.

  6. Europe's place in global financial governance after the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the years leading up the global financial crisis, the European Union (EU) had emerged as a central actor in global financial governance, almost rivalling the United States in influence. While the USA and the EU continue to dominate financial rule setting in the post-crisis world, the context in

  7. The Role of Local Government in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodiana Gorica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending where one looks you will find various definitions aimed at describing ‘sustainability’. In lasts years the notion of sustainable tourism must be regarded as one of the great success stories of tourism research and knowledge transfer. It has become the first topic discourse in academic research, business fields and governance. The government takes responsibility for the social and economic development of the country. The government through the lows, programs, plans, and strategies oriented people to choose the tools in economy’s branches and to walk in sustainable development without afraid for the future. One of the economic branches, that is qualified as friend of sustainable development is tourism. But tourism cannot develop in chaos by self without a strategy or a plan confirmed by specialist, who works in different sectors of public administrate in government. While, big or central government is occupied with macro-problem and macro-policies, local government is nearest community and it know better than anyone, their human and natural resources. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of local governance systems for sustainable tourism. So, local government can be the first promoting and encouraging tourism development, and helping the community for sustainable tourism.

  8. Governance and Economic Transformation in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the developmental-state approach as compared with a broader and more flexible developmental-governance approach – in relation to economic transformation in a single case country, Taiwan. It argues that both approaches have strong and weak points......, and comes down in favour of the view that it is only through a ‘thick’ study of political forces, processes and circumstances that the reasoning behind developmental policies and institutions can be understood and the processes of economic transformation explained....

  9. Knowledge governance in a dynamic global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper tells the story of the emergence of distinct research around the theory of the firm at Copenhagen Business School within the last two decades, focussing on elements of continuity in the thinking of key CBS persons in the period. It discusses the current research agenda of the Center...... for Strategic Management and Globalization, a research agenda that may be described as multi-level research in international strategy, based on the economic theory of the firm and strategic management theory, and with a strong emphasis on micro-foundations and knowledge governance. The paper relates...

  10. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  11. Government governance, executive networks and enterprise R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly competitive market environment makes independent innovation the core of the enterprise’s and evens the country’s competitiveness. In order to solve the problem of its own limited R&D resources, firms need to find access to outside resources. Since the government mainly provides policy and financial support, the information diffusion and learning effects of executive networks can effectively compensate for the shortage of formal institutional arrangements. In view of this, we manually collect data on R&D expenditures and executive networks having common management members in China A-share listed companies from 2007 to 2010. Combined with corporate governance and government governance data, this paper empirically tests the influence of government governance and executive networks on enterprise innovation. The empirical results reveal that the governance efficiency of the government where the enterprise is located determines the efficiency of resource allocation firms are faced with, which provides institutional constraints on corporate R&D intensity, and that the establishment and scale of executive networks do contribute to R&D decisions. Further testing shows that compared with non-state-owned enterprises, state-owned enterprises are faced with relatively weaker restraints and pressures in terms of policy, finance, technology and competition. Thus, they show no obvious reliance on government governance quality and the information diffusion of executive networks. The findings of this study help us to understand the role of informal systems in social economics, such as relationship networks and social capital, in the context of China’s economic development, and provide relevant evidence and enrich macro and micro studies of “government and market” and “market and enterprise” relationships.

  12. Reforming local government: Must it always be democracy versus efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinlivan Aodh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis from 2008 has had a profound impact on Irish local government. Councils were faced with a disastrous combination of factors - declining funding from central government, difficulties in collecting commercial rates as businesses struggled, and a drastic fall in revenue from development levies. Staffing levels in the local government sector were reduced by over 20 per cent, significantly more than the losses suffered by central government ministries and departments. Yet the financial crisis also offered an opportunity for reform and a fundamental reappraisal of subnational government in Ireland. A reform strategy produced in 2012 paved the way for the Local Government Reform Act, 2014. As a result of this legislation, the number of local authorities was reduced from 114 to 31 with the complete abolition of all town councils. The number of council seats also fell from 1,627 to 949. Using Scharpf’s dimensions of democratic legitimacy, this article assesses whether the focus of the 2014 reforms was on output legitimacy (efficiency and effectiveness as opposed to input legitimacy (citizen integration and participation.

  13. Governing board of the pension fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 4 February 2003 the Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its hundred and fourteenth meeting, the first meeting to be attended by G. de la Fuente and M. Goossens, recently elected as Alternates to I. Seis and J.-P. Matheys respectively. Opening the meeting, J. Bezemer, Chairman of the Governing Board with effect from 1st January 2003, paid tribute to the outgoing Chairman, P. Levaux, on behalf of all members of the Governing Board, underlining the skill, clarity of vision and unfailing commitment to the Fund that had marked the twelve years of a remarkable chairmanship. Over that time Paul Levaux had successfully guided the Fund towards the broader-based, dynamic scheme it had now become, and towards a central role within the Organization. The special guest at the meeting, CERN Director-General L. Maiani, also warmly thanked the former Chairman for his remarkable work for the Fund on behalf of the Organization to which he had made so many contributions and for the invaluable role he had played in promot...

  14. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-05

    government workers receive very low salaries. The anti- corruption and governmental performance aspect of U.S. policy is to be enhanced as a result of the... governmental corruption worldwide, ranked Afghanistan in 2008 as 176th out of 180 countries ranked in terms of government corruption . Because of the...the Afghan government , including its efforts to curb official corruption , although the Administration and many in Congress appear reluctant to tie

  15. Banking crises and government intervention

    OpenAIRE

    García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Hasman, Augusto; Samartín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Intervention has taken different forms in different countries and periods of time. Moreover, recent episodes showed that in front of an imminent crisis, the promise of no interventions made by governments is barely credible. In this paper we address the problem of resolving banking crises from the government perspective, taking into account the fact that preventing banking crises is crucial for the government. In addition, we introduce the moral hazard problem, inherent in the banking system,...

  16. Corporate governance of the environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, B.

    2005-01-01

    The global pursuit of a more sustainable future cannot be achieved without the active engagement of the business community. The challenge for business has been to strategically engage with and embed environmental responsibility within their wider corporate governance to create effective corporate governance of the environment. The assumption would appear to be, that we have already witnessed the construction of such governance, delivered through the attainment of a paradigmatic shift in corpo...

  17. Why Efforts to Centralize the US Intelligence Community Fail

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Daniel B

    2005-01-01

    .... The attack on Pearl harbor and other events during that war created a growing consensus that the nation required a central authority to manage national intelligence pertinent to multiple departments of the government...

  18. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  19. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    .... However, ethnic disputes remain confined largely to political debate and competition, enabling President Karzai to focus on improving governance, reversing security deterioration, and his re-election...

  20. Government influence on patient organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2011-12-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care providers, health insurers and the pharmaceutical industry. To strengthen the position of patient organizations government funding is often recommended as a solution. In this paper we analyze the ties between Dutch government and Dutch patient organizations to learn more about the effects of such a relationship between government and this part of civil society. Our study is based on official government documents and existing empirical research on patient organizations. We found that government influence on patient organizations has become quite substantial with government influencing the organizational structure of patient organizations, the activities these organizations perform and even their ideology. Financing patient organizations offers the government an important means to hold them accountable. Although the ties between patient organizations and the government enable the former to play a role that can be valued as positive by both parties, we argue that they raise problems as well which warrant a discussion on how much government influence on civil society is acceptable.