WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong causal statements

  1. Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    2000-03-01

    Written by one of the pre-eminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artifical intelligence, business, epidemiology, social science and economics. Students in these areas will find natural models, simple identification procedures, and precise mathematical definitions of causal concepts that traditional texts have tended to evade or make unduly complicated. This book will be of interest to professionals and students in a wide variety of fields. Anyone who wishes to elucidate meaningful relationships from data, predict effects of actions and policies, assess explanations of reported events, or form theories of causal understanding and causal speech will find this book stimulating and invaluable.

  2. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  3. A methodological note on the making of causal statements in the debate on anthropogenic global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampen, Jarl K.

    2011-06-01

    At best, the empirical evidence for human impact on climate change, more specifically, the anthropogenic global warming (AGW), is based on correlational research. That is, no experiment has been carried out that confirms or falsifies the causal hypothesis put forward by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that anthropogenic increasing of green house gas concentrations very likely causes increasing of the (mean) global temperature. In this article, we point out the major weaknesses of correlational research in assessing causal hypotheses. We further point out that the AGW hypothesis is in need of potential falsifiers in the Popperian (neopositivistic) sense. Some directions for future research on the formulation of such falsifiers in causal research are discussed. Of course, failure to find falsifying evidence in empirical climate data will render the AWG hypothesis much stronger.

  4. A methodological note on the making of causal statements in the debate on anthropogenic global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    At best, the empirical evidence for human impact on climate change, more specifically, the anthropogenic global warming (AGW), is based on correlational research. That is, no experiment has been carried out that confirms or falsifies the causal hypothesis put forward by the International Panel on

  5. Strong and weak statements in the study on internal gamma ray conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listengarten, M.A.; Sergeev, V.O.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions, when modern tables of inner conversion coefficients (ICC) can be used with confidence while determining multipolarity of nuclear gamma transitions, and cases, when it must be done carefully, are considered. Differences in methods for calculating the ICC modern tables by various authors are reviewed and reliability of these methods are compared. Discussed were:1) influence of different methods for consideration of the penetration effect; 2) influence of choice of different constant values in the Hartree-Fock-Slater potential when considering the screening; 3) sequences of the consideration or unaccountancy of a hole in atomic shell after conversion during the ICC table calculation. The main statement is: in those cases when accuracy of ICC measurements of the same order as differences in the table ICC due to use of tables of different calculational methods by authors, detail analysis of difference in the ICC measured from ICC of different tables is necessary to elucidate causes of these differences Experimental data on ICC in the 121.78 keV 152 Eu transition have been analyzed in detail as an example. Graphs showing a relative role of the three effects mentioned in the ICC value of different multipolarities (E1-E4, M1-M4) for different shell (K, L 1 , L 2 , L 3 ), different meanings of atomic number Z(30 <= Z <= 90) and transition energies E <= 500 keV are given

  6. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  7. Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.

  8. Causal universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George FR; Pabjan, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Written by philosophers, cosmologists, and physicists, this collection of essays deals with causality, which is a core issue for both science and philosophy. Readers will learn about different types of causality in complex systems and about new perspectives on this issue based on physical and cosmological considerations. In addition, the book includes essays pertaining to the problem of causality in ancient Greek philosophy, and to the problem of God's relation to the causal structures of nature viewed in the light of contemporary physics and cosmology.

  9. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  10. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  11. Causally nonseparable processes admitting a causal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Caslav

    2016-01-01

    A recent framework of quantum theory with no global causal order predicts the existence of ‘causally nonseparable’ processes. Some of these processes produce correlations incompatible with any causal order (they violate so-called ‘causal inequalities’ analogous to Bell inequalities ) while others do not (they admit a ‘causal model’ analogous to a local model ). Here we show for the first time that bipartite causally nonseparable processes with a causal model exist, and give evidence that they have no clear physical interpretation. We also provide an algorithm to generate processes of this kind and show that they have nonzero measure in the set of all processes. We demonstrate the existence of processes which stop violating causal inequalities but are still causally nonseparable when mixed with a certain amount of ‘white noise’. This is reminiscent of the behavior of Werner states in the context of entanglement and nonlocality. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the existence of causally nonseparable processes which have a causal model even when extended with an entangled state shared among the parties. (paper)

  12. Tools for Detecting Causality in Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Wing, S.

    2017-12-01

    Complex systems such as the solar and magnetospheric envivonment often exhibit patterns of behavior that suggest underlying organizing principles. Causality is a key organizing principle that is particularly difficult to establish in strongly coupled nonlinear systems, but essential for understanding and modeling the behavior of systems. While traditional methods of time-series analysis can identify linear correlations, they do not adequately quantify the distinction between causal and coincidental dependence. We discuss tools for detecting causality including: granger causality, transfer entropy, conditional redundancy, and convergent cross maps. The tools are illustrated by applications to magnetospheric and solar physics including radiation belt, Dst (a magnetospheric state variable), substorm, and solar cycle dynamics.

  13. Causality in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puente Águeda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Causality is a fundamental notion in every field of science. Since the times of Aristotle, causal relationships have been a matter of study as a way to generate knowledge and provide for explanations. In this paper I review the notion of causality through different scientific areas such as physics, biology, engineering, etc. In the scientific area, causality is usually seen as a precise relation: the same cause provokes always the same effect. But in the everyday world, the links between cause and effect are frequently imprecise or imperfect in nature. Fuzzy logic offers an adequate framework for dealing with imperfect causality, so a few notions of fuzzy causality are introduced.

  14. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...... of discursive causalities towards more substantive claims of causality between EU policy and institutional initiatives and domestic change....

  15. Causality in Classical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Classical physics encompasses the study of phys- ical phenomena which range from local (a point) to nonlocal (a region) in space and/or time. We discuss the concept of spatial and temporal non- locality. However, one of the likely implications pertaining to nonlocality is non-causality. We study causality in the context of ...

  16. Causality in Classical Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…

  17. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological......This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  18. Non-Causal Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ämin Baumeler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Computation models such as circuits describe sequences of computation steps that are carried out one after the other. In other words, algorithm design is traditionally subject to the restriction imposed by a fixed causal order. We address a novel computing paradigm beyond quantum computing, replacing this assumption by mere logical consistency: We study non-causal circuits, where a fixed time structure within a gate is locally assumed whilst the global causal structure between the gates is dropped. We present examples of logically consistent non-causal circuits outperforming all causal ones; they imply that suppressing loops entirely is more restrictive than just avoiding the contradictions they can give rise to. That fact is already known for correlations as well as for communication, and we here extend it to computation.

  19. A Multi-Ethnic Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Over 100,000 Subjects Identifies 23 Fibrinogen-Associated Loci but no Strong Evidence of a Causal Association between Circulating Fibrinogen and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Huang, Jie; Chasman, Daniel; Naitza, Silvia; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Teumer, Alexander; Reiner, Alex P; Folkersen, Lasse; Basu, Saonli; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Trompet, Stella; Mälarstig, Anders; Baumert, Jens; Bis, Joshua C.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hottenga, Jouke J; Shin, So-Youn; Lopez, Lorna M; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Yanek, Lisa R; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Wilson, James F; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zemunik, Tatijana; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena; Pulanic, Drazen; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Wild, Sarah H; Campbell, Harry; Curb, J David; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin; Eaton, Charles B.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Fornage, Myriam; Green, David; Gross, Myron; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Williams, Frances M.K.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Strawbridge, Rona J; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Yao, Jie; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Lumley, Thomas; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Grotevendt, Anne; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas; Goel, Anuj; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Clarke, Robert; Steri, Maristella; Tarasov, Kirill V; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Stott, David J; Sattar, Naveed; Buckley, Brendan M; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D; McArdle, Wendy L; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Song, Jaejoon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Teichert, Martina; Ikram, M Arfan; Mosley, Thomas H; Bevan, Steve; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Danesh, John; Nelson, Christopher P; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Eriksson, Johan G; Jacobs, David; Deary, Ian J; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; de Geus, Eco JC; Tracy, Russell P.; Hayward, Caroline; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cucca, Francesco; Jukema, J Wouter; Eriksson, Per; Seshadri, Sudha; Markus, Hugh S.; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J; Wallaschofski, Henri; Smith, Nicholas L.; Tregouet, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; Strachan, David P.; Hamsten, Anders; O’Donnell, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), range from 34 to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies only explain a small proportion (< 2%) of its variation. Methods and Results We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 GWA studies, including more than 90,000 subjects of European ancestry, the first GWA meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 African Americans studies totaling 8,289 samples, and a GWA study in Hispanic-Americans totaling 1,366 samples. Evaluation for association of SNPs with clinical outcomes included a total of 40,695 cases and 85,582 controls for coronary artery disease (CAD), 4,752 cases and 24,030 controls for stroke, and 3,208 cases and 46,167 controls for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the three structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead SNPs in a few loci were significantly associated with CAD, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead SNPs was not significant for CAD, stroke or VTE. Conclusion We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and CAD, stroke or VTE. PMID:23969696

  20. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Huang, Jie; Chasman, Daniel; Naitza, Silvia; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Teumer, Alexander; Reiner, Alex P; Folkersen, Lasse; Basu, Saonli; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Trompet, Stella; Mälarstig, Anders; Baumert, Jens; Bis, Joshua C; Guo, Xiuqing; Hottenga, Jouke J; Shin, So-Youn; Lopez, Lorna M; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Yanek, Lisa R; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Wilson, James F; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zemunik, Tatijana; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena; Pulanic, Drazen; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Wild, Sarah H; Campbell, Harry; Curb, J David; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin; Eaton, Charles B; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Bandinelli, Stefania; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Fornage, Myriam; Green, David; Gross, Myron; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Williams, Frances M K; Grant, Peter J; Spector, Timothy D; Strawbridge, Rona J; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Yao, Jie; Swords Jenny, Nancy; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Lumley, Thomas; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Grotevendt, Anne; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas; Goel, Anuj; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Clarke, Robert; Steri, Maristella; Tarasov, Kirill V; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Stott, David J; Sattar, Naveed; Buckley, Brendan M; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D; McArdle, Wendy L; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Song, Jaejoon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R; Rose, Lynda M; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Teichert, Martina; Ikram, M Arfan; Mosley, Thomas H; Bevan, Steve; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Hopewell, Jemma C; Chambers, John C; Saleheen, Danish; Kooner, Jaspal S; Danesh, John; Nelson, Christopher P; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Eriksson, Johan G; Jacobs, David; Deary, Ian J; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; de Geus, Eco J C; Tracy, Russell P; Hayward, Caroline; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cucca, Francesco; Jukema, J Wouter; Eriksson, Per; Seshadri, Sudha; Markus, Hugh S; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J; Wallaschofski, Henri; Smith, Nicholas L; Tregouet, David; Ridker, Paul M; Tang, Weihong; Strachan, David P; Hamsten, Anders; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2013-09-17

    Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (90 000 subjects of European ancestry, the first genome-wide association meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 studies in blacks totaling 8289 samples, and a genome-wide association study in Hispanics totaling 1366 samples. Evaluation for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with clinical outcomes included a total of 40 695 cases and 85 582 controls for coronary artery disease, 4752 cases and 24 030 controls for stroke, and 3208 cases and 46 167 controls for venous thromboembolism. Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10(-8)) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the 3 structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines, and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a few loci were significantly associated with coronary artery disease, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms was not significant for coronary artery disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism. We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and coronary artery disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism.

  1. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  2. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannone, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focusses on one of the basic points of EU (European Union) regulation 1863/1993, namely the disclosure of information via an environmental statement. The author examines the uses to which the data may be put, emphasizes the importance of the environmental statement's contents and addressee, and describes the key function of external data control by an environmental verifier. Lastly, the author shows that the environmental statement could replace a number of documents that companies are now required to file with various agencies; this would reduce their administrative burden

  3. Dynamics Of Causal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Rideout, D P

    2001-01-01

    The Causal Set approach to quantum gravity asserts that spacetime, at its smallest length scale, has a discrete structure. This discrete structure takes the form of a locally finite order relation, where the order, corresponding with the macroscopic notion of spacetime causality, is taken to be a fundamental aspect of nature. After an introduction to the Causal Set approach, this thesis considers a simple toy dynamics for causal sets. Numerical simulations of the model provide evidence for the existence of a continuum limit. While studying this toy dynamics, a picture arises of how the dynamics can be generalized in such a way that the theory could hope to produce more physically realistic causal sets. By thinking in terms of a stochastic growth process, and positing some fundamental principles, we are led almost uniquely to a family of dynamical laws (stochastic processes) parameterized by a countable sequence of coupling constants. This result is quite promising in that we now know how to speak of dynamics ...

  4. A quantum causal discovery algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmatzi, Christina; Costa, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Finding a causal model for a set of classical variables is now a well-established task—but what about the quantum equivalent? Even the notion of a quantum causal model is controversial. Here, we present a causal discovery algorithm for quantum systems. The input to the algorithm is a process matrix describing correlations between quantum events. Its output consists of different levels of information about the underlying causal model. Our algorithm determines whether the process is causally ordered by grouping the events into causally ordered non-signaling sets. It detects if all relevant common causes are included in the process, which we label Markovian, or alternatively if some causal relations are mediated through some external memory. For a Markovian process, it outputs a causal model, namely the causal relations and the corresponding mechanisms, represented as quantum states and channels. Our algorithm opens the route to more general quantum causal discovery methods.

  5. Causal inference in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of causal inference which is one of the most difficult tasks in data analysis: when two phenomena are observed to be related, it is often difficult to decide whether one of them causally influences the other one, or whether these two phenomena have a common cause. This analysis is the main focus of this volume. To get a good understanding of the causal inference, it is important to have models of economic phenomena which are as accurate as possible. Because of this need, this volume also contains papers that use non-traditional economic models, such as fuzzy models and models obtained by using neural networks and data mining techniques. It also contains papers that apply different econometric models to analyze real-life economic dependencies.

  6. Perceptual causality in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Anne; Allen, Deborah; Linderoth, Carina; Hesketh, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments considered the development of perceptual causality in children from 3 to 9 years of age (N = 176 in total). Adults tend to see cause and effect even in schematic, two-dimensional motion events: Thus, if square A moves toward B, which moves upon contact, they report that A launches B--physical causality. If B moves before contact, adults report that B tries to escape from A--social or psychological causality. A brief pause between movements eliminates such impressions. Even infants in the first year of life are sensitive to causal structure in both contact and no-contact events, but previous research with talking-age children found poor verbal reports. The present experiments used a picture-based forced-choice task to reduce linguistic demands. Observers saw eight different animations involving squares A and B. Events varied in whether or not these agents made contact; whether or not there was a delay at the closest point; and whether they moved rigidly or with a rhythmic, nonrigid "caterpillar" motion. Participants of all ages assigned events with contact to the physical domain and events without contact to the psychological domain. In addition, participants of all ages chose causality more often for events without delay than with delay, but these events became more distinct over the preschool range. The manipulation of agent motion had only minor and inconsistent effects across studies, even though children of all ages considered only the nonrigid motion to be animal-like. These results agree with the view that perceptual causality is available early in development.

  7. Regression to Causality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordacconi, Mats Joe; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally primed for making causal attributions based on correlations. This implies that researchers must be careful to present their results in a manner that inhibits unwarranted causal attribution. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment that suggests regression...... more likely. Our experiment drew on a sample of 235 university students from three different social science degree programs (political science, sociology and economics), all of whom had received substantial training in statistics. The subjects were asked to compare and evaluate the validity...

  8. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  9. Resonating Statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2015-01-01

    IT projects are often complex arrangements of technological components, social actions, and organizational transformation that are difficult to manage in practice. This paper takes an analytical discourse perspective to explore the process of legitimizing IT projects. We introduce the concept of ...... as part of a feedback loop to re-attach the localized IT project to the broader national discourse. The paper concludes with reflections on how to actively build on resonating statements as a strategic resource for legitimizing IT projects...... of resonating statements to highlight how central actors navigate in various discourses over time. Particularly, the statements and actions of an IT project manager are portrayed to show how individuals can legitimize actions by connecting statements to historically produced discourses. The case study...... of an IT project in a Danish local government spans a two-year time period and demonstrates a double-loop legitimization process. First, resonating statements are produced to localize a national IT initiative to support the specificity of a local government discourse. Second, the resonating statements are used...

  10. Causal pathways between substance use disorders and personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.

    2005-01-01

    A high co-occurrence between personality and substance use disorders suggests causal relationships between these conditions. Most empirical evidence strongly supports causal pathways in which (pathological) personality traits contribute to the development of a substance use disorder (i.e., primary

  11. Causality and Free Will

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, Supp.2 (2012), s. 64-69 ISSN 1335-0668 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/12/0833 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : conciousness * free will * determinism * causality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. Explaining through causal mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, Robbert; Dupuis, Johann; Wellstead, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper synthesizes and builds on recent critiques of the resilience literature; namely that the field has largely been unsuccessful in capturing the complexity of governance processes, in particular cause–effects relationships. We demonstrate that absence of a causal model is reflected in the

  13. The causal link between energy and output growth: Evidence from Markov switching Granger causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir Kocaaslan, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we empirically investigate the causal link between energy consumption and economic growth employing a Markov switching Granger causality analysis. We carry out our investigation using annual U.S. real GDP, total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption data which cover the period between 1968 and 2010. We find that there are significant changes in the causal relation between energy consumption and economic growth over the sample period under investigation. Our results show that total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption have significant predictive content for real economic activity in the U.S. economy. Furthermore, the causality running from energy consumption to output growth seems to be strongly apparent particularly during the periods of economic downturn and energy crisis. We also document that output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. Furthermore, the power of output growth in predicting total energy consumption is found to diminish after the mid of 1980s. - Highlights: • Total energy consumption has predictive content for real economic activity. • The causality from energy to output growth is apparent in the periods of recession. • The causality from energy to output growth is strong in the periods of energy crisis. • Output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. • The power of output growth in explaining energy diminishes after the mid of 1980s

  14. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Surya, Sumati

    2011-08-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  15. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrikar, Onkar [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa campus, Goa 403 726 (India); Surya, Sumati, E-mail: ssurya@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2011-08-07

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  16. Normalizing the causality between time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  17. Optimal causal inference: estimating stored information and approximating causal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Crutchfield, James P; Ellison, Christopher J

    2010-09-01

    We introduce an approach to inferring the causal architecture of stochastic dynamical systems that extends rate-distortion theory to use causal shielding--a natural principle of learning. We study two distinct cases of causal inference: optimal causal filtering and optimal causal estimation. Filtering corresponds to the ideal case in which the probability distribution of measurement sequences is known, giving a principled method to approximate a system's causal structure at a desired level of representation. We show that in the limit in which a model-complexity constraint is relaxed, filtering finds the exact causal architecture of a stochastic dynamical system, known as the causal-state partition. From this, one can estimate the amount of historical information the process stores. More generally, causal filtering finds a graded model-complexity hierarchy of approximations to the causal architecture. Abrupt changes in the hierarchy, as a function of approximation, capture distinct scales of structural organization. For nonideal cases with finite data, we show how the correct number of the underlying causal states can be found by optimal causal estimation. A previously derived model-complexity control term allows us to correct for the effect of statistical fluctuations in probability estimates and thereby avoid overfitting.

  18. Preschoolers prefer to learn causal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubry eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Young children, in general, appear to have a strong drive to explore the environment in ways that reveal its underlying causal structure. But are they really attuned specifically to casual information in this quest for understanding, or do they show equal interest in other types of non-obvious information about the world? To answer this question, we introduced 20 three-year-old children to two puppets who were anxious to tell the child about a set of novel artifacts and animals. One puppet consistently described causal properties of the items while the other puppet consistently described carefully matched non-causal properties of the same items. After a familiarization period in which children learned which type of information to expect from each informant, children were given the opportunity to choose which they wanted to hear describe each of eight pictured test items. On average, children chose to hear from the informant that provided causal descriptions on 72% of the trials. This preference for causal information has important implications for explaining the role of conceptual information in supporting early learning and may suggest means for maximizing interest and motivation in young children.

  19. Space, time and causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Originating from lectures given to first year undergraduates reading physics and philosophy or mathematics and philosophy, formal logic is applied to issues and the elucidation of problems in space, time and causality. No special knowledge of relativity theory or quantum mechanics is needed. The text is interspersed with exercises and each chapter is preceded by a suggested 'preliminary reading' and followed by 'further reading' references. (U.K.)

  20. Operator ordering and causality

    OpenAIRE

    Plimak, L. I.; Stenholm, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that causality violations [M. de Haan, Physica 132A, 375, 397 (1985)], emerging when the conventional definition of the time-normal operator ordering [P.L.Kelley and W.H.Kleiner, Phys.Rev. 136, A316 (1964)] is taken outside the rotating wave approximation, disappear when the amended definition [L.P. and S.S., Annals of Physics, 323, 1989 (2008)] of this ordering is used.

  1. Of arrows and flows. Causality, determination, and specificity in the Central Dogma of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2006-01-01

    From its first proposal, the Central Dogma had a graphical form, complete with arrows of different types, and this form quickly became its standard presentation. In different scientific contexts, arrows have different meanings and in this particular case the arrows indicated the flow of information among different macromolecules. A deeper analysis illustrates that the arrows also imply a causal statement, directly connected to the causal role of genetic information. The author suggests a distinction between two different kinds of causal links, defined as 'physical causality' and 'biological determination', both implied in the production of biological specificity.

  2. financial statements

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) provides a narrative discussion of the financial results and operational changes for the financial year ended on. 31 March 2015. This discussion should be read with the. Financial Statements and accompanying notes provided on pages 46-63, which were prepared in ...

  3. Rio 2016 financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These documents include the report from independent auditors balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements.

  4. Causal Entropic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  5. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which...... a factor is in agreement with a statement, we propose the Discrete Level Support Vector Machine (DILSVM) where the feature scores can only take on a discrete number of values, defined by the so-called feature rating levels. The DILSVM classifier benefits from interpretability and it has visual appeal...

  6. Causal inference based on counterfactuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfler M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept.

  7. Causal Reasoning with Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    mreasoner/. 445 In broad terms, three strands of evidence corroborate the model theory of causal deductions. The 446 first strand of evidence bears ...models and causal reasoning Sangeet Khemlani et al. 13 She will not gain weight. 459 Will she not eat protein? 460 The results therefore bear out the... Adele Goldberg, Catrinel Haught, Max Lotstein, Marco Ragni, and Greg 821 Trafton for helpful criticisms. 822 Khemlani et al. Causal reasoning with

  8. Path integrals on causal sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We describe a quantum mechanical model for particle propagation on a causal set. The model involves calculating a particle propagator by summing amplitudes assigned to trajectories within the causal set. This 'discrete path integral' is calculated using a matrix geometric series. Amplitudes are given which, when the causal set is generated by sprinkling points into 1+1 or 3+1 Minkowski spacetime, ensure the particle propagator agrees in a suitable sense, with the retarded causal propagator for the Klein-Gordon equation.

  9. Causality Statistical Perspectives and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berzuini, Carlo; Bernardinell, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    A state of the art volume on statistical causality Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications presents a wide-ranging collection of seminal contributions by renowned experts in the field, providing a thorough treatment of all aspects of statistical causality. It covers the various formalisms in current use, methods for applying them to specific problems, and the special requirements of a range of examples from medicine, biology and economics to political science. This book:Provides a clear account and comparison of formal languages, concepts and models for statistical causality. Addr

  10. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  11. Re-thinking local causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell's criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the

  12. Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…

  13. Introduction to causal dynamical triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görlich, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The method of causal dynamical triangulations is a non-perturbative and background-independent approach to quantum theory of gravity. In this review we present recent results obtained within the four dimensional model of causal dynamical triangulations. We describe the phase structure of the mode...

  14. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  15. Paradoxical Behavior of Granger Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Annette; Battaglia, Demian; Gail, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Granger causality is a standard tool for the description of directed interaction of network components and is popular in many scientific fields including econometrics, neuroscience and climate science. For time series that can be modeled as bivariate auto-regressive processes we analytically derive an expression for spectrally decomposed Granger Causality (SDGC) and show that this quantity depends only on two out of four groups of model parameters. Then we present examples of such processes whose SDGC expose paradoxical behavior in the sense that causality is high for frequency ranges with low spectral power. For avoiding misinterpretations of Granger causality analysis we propose to complement it by partial spectral analysis. Our findings are illustrated by an example from brain electrophysiology. Finally, we draw implications for the conventional definition of Granger causality. Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Goettingen

  16. Causal aspects of diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis is directed at a causal description of photon diffraction, which is explained in terms of a wave exerting real forces and providing actual guidance to each quantum of energy. An undulatory PSI wave is associated with each photon, and this wave is assumed to imply more than an informative probability function, so that it actually carries real energy, in much the same way as does an electro-magnetic wave. Whether or not it may be in some way related to the electromagnetic wave is left as a matter of on-going concern. A novel application of the concept of a minimum energy configuration is utilized; that is, a system of energy quanta seeks out relative positions and orientations of least mutual energy, much as an electron seeks its Bohr radius as a position of least mutual energy. Thus the concept implies more a guiding interaction of the PSI waves than an interfering cancellation of these waves. Similar concepts have been suggested by L. de Broglie and D. Bohm

  17. Clear message for causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Aephraim M. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Experiment confirms that information cannot be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Ever since Einstein stated that nothing can travel faster than light, physicists have delighted in finding exceptions. One after another, observations of such 'superluminal' propagation have been made. However, while some image or pattern- such as the motion of a spotlight projected on a distant wall - might have appeared to travel faster than light, it seemed that there was no way to use the superluminal effect to transmit energy or information. In recent years, the superluminal propagation of light pulses through certain media has led to renewed controversy. In 1995, for example, Guenther Nimtz of the University of Cologne encoded Mozart's 40th Symphony on a microwave beam, which he claimed to have transmitted at a speed faster than light. Others maintain that such a violation of Einstein's speed limit would wreak havoc on our most fundamental ideas about causality, allowing an effect to precede its cause. Relativity teaches us that sending a signal faster than light would be equivalent to sending it backwards in time. (U.K.)

  18. Principal stratification in causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B

    2002-03-01

    Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority.

  19. Causal boundary for stably causal space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1987-12-01

    The usual boundary constructions for space-times often yield an unsatisfactory boundary set. This problem is reviewed and a new solution is proposed. An explicit identification rule is given on the set of the ideal points of the space-time. This construction leads to a satisfactory boundary point set structure for stably causal space-times. The topological properties of the resulting causal boundary construction are examined. For the stably causal space-times each causal curve has a unique endpoint on the boundary set according to the extended Alexandrov topology. The extension of the space-time through the boundary is discussed. To describe the singularities the defined boundary sets have to be separated into two disjoint sets. (D.Gy.) 8 refs

  20. Discrete causal theory emergent spacetime and the causal metric hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dribus, Benjamin F

    2017-01-01

    This book evaluates and suggests potentially critical improvements to causal set theory, one of the best-motivated approaches to the outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Spacetime structure is of central importance to physics beyond general relativity and the standard model. The causal metric hypothesis treats causal relations as the basis of this structure. The book develops the consequences of this hypothesis under the assumption of a fundamental scale, with smooth spacetime geometry viewed as emergent. This approach resembles causal set theory, but differs in important ways; for example, the relative viewpoint, emphasizing relations between pairs of events, and relationships between pairs of histories, is central. The book culminates in a dynamical law for quantum spacetime, derived via generalized path summation.

  1. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  2. Functional equations with causal operators

    CERN Document Server

    Corduneanu, C

    2003-01-01

    Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.

  3. Causal Learning in Gambling Disorder: Beyond the Illusion of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, José C; Navas, Juan F; Ruiz de Lara, Cristian M; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2017-06-01

    Causal learning is the ability to progressively incorporate raw information about dependencies between events, or between one's behavior and its outcomes, into beliefs of the causal structure of the world. In spite of the fact that some cognitive biases in gambling disorder can be described as alterations of causal learning involving gambling-relevant cues, behaviors, and outcomes, general causal learning mechanisms in gamblers have not been systematically investigated. In the present study, we compared gambling disorder patients against controls in an instrumental causal learning task. Evidence of illusion of control, namely, overestimation of the relationship between one's behavior and an uncorrelated outcome, showed up only in gamblers with strong current symptoms. Interestingly, this effect was part of a more complex pattern, in which gambling disorder patients manifested a poorer ability to discriminate between null and positive contingencies. Additionally, anomalies were related to gambling severity and current gambling disorder symptoms. Gambling-related biases, as measured by a standard psychometric tool, correlated with performance in the causal learning task, but not in the expected direction. Indeed, performance of gamblers with stronger biases tended to resemble the one of controls, which could imply that anomalies of causal learning processes play a role in gambling disorder, but do not seem to underlie gambling-specific biases, at least in a simple, direct way.

  4. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    for understanding the structure of task-oriented dialogues. Such dialogues locate conversational acts in contexts containing both pending tasks and the acts which bring them about. The ability to infer causal implicatures lets us interleave decisions about "how to sequence actions" with decisions about "when......In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  5. Consciousness and the "Causal Paradox"

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Max

    1996-01-01

    Viewed from a first-person perspective consciousness appears to be necessary for complex, novel human activity - but viewed from a third-person perspective consciousness appears to play no role in the activity of brains, producing a "causal paradox". To resolve this paradox one needs to distinguish consciousness of processing from consciousness accompanying processing or causing processing. Accounts of consciousness/brain causal interactions switch between first- and third-person perspectives...

  6. Causality and analyticity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    In order to provide an overall picture of the broad range of optical phenomena that are directly linked with the concepts of causality and analyticity, the following topics are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent developments: 1) Derivation of dispersion relations for the optical constants of general linear media from causality. Application to the theory of natural optical activity. 2) Derivation of sum rules for the optical constants from causality and from the short-time response function (asymptotic high-frequency behavior). Average spectral behavior of optical media. Applications. 3) Role of spectral conditions. Analytic properties of coherence functions in quantum optics. Reconstruction theorem.4) Phase retrieval problems. 5) Inverse scattering problems. 6) Solution of nonlinear evolution equations in optics by inverse scattering methods. Application to self-induced transparency. Causality in nonlinear wave propagation. 7) Analytic continuation in frequency and angular momentum. Complex singularities. Resonances and natural-mode expansions. Regge poles. 8) Wigner's causal inequality. Time delay. Spatial displacements in total reflection. 9) Analyticity in diffraction theory. Complex angular momentum theory of Mie scattering. Diffraction as a barrier tunnelling effect. Complex trajectories in optics. (Author) [pt

  7. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  8. Causality as a Rigorous Notion and Quantitative Causality Analysis with Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. S.

    2017-12-01

    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Here we show that this important and challenging question (one of the major challenges in the science of big data), which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, has a positive answer. Particularly, for linear systems, the maximal likelihood estimator of the causality from a series X2 to another series X1, written T2→1, turns out to be concise in form: T2→1 = [C11 C12 C2,d1 — C112 C1,d1] / [C112 C22 — C11C122] where Cij (i,j=1,2) is the sample covariance between Xi and Xj, and Ci,dj the covariance between Xi and ΔXj/Δt, the difference approximation of dXj/dt using the Euler forward scheme. An immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but not vice versa, resolving the long-standing debate over causation versus correlation. The above formula has been validated with touchstone series purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the classical approaches such as Granger causality test and transfer entropy analysis. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of many real problems. Through a simple analysis with the stock series of IBM and GE, an unusually strong one-way causality is identified from the former to the latter in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a "Giant" for the computer market. Another example presented here regards the cause-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In general, these modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean. In the third example, an unambiguous one-way causality is found between CO2 and the global mean temperature anomaly. While it is confirmed that CO2 indeed drives the recent global warming

  9. Entropy for theories with indefinite causal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markes, Sonia; Hardy, Lucien

    2011-01-01

    Any theory with definite causal structure has a defined past and future, be it defined by light cones or an absolute time scale. Entropy is a concept that has traditionally been reliant on a definite notion of causality. However, without a definite notion of causality, the concept of entropy is not all lost. Indefinite causal structure results from combining probabilistic predictions and dynamical space-time. The causaloid framework lays the mathematical groundwork to be able to treat indefinite causal structure. In this paper, we build on the causaloid mathematics and define a causally-unbiased entropy for an indefinite causal structure. In defining a causally-unbiased entropy, there comes about an emergent idea of causality in the form of a measure of causal connectedness, termed the Q factor.

  10. A Causal Theory of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Alvarado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a causal conception of metaphysical modality in which a state of affairs is metaphysically possible if and only if it can be caused (in the past, the present or the future by current entities. The conception is contrasted with what is called the “combinatorial” conception of modality, in which everything can co-exist with anything else. This work explains how the notion of ‘causality’ should be construed in the causal theory, what difference exists between modalities thus defined from nomological modality, how accessibility relations between possible worlds should be interpreted, and what is the relation between the causal conception and the necessity of origin.

  11. Introductive remarks on causal inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana A. Romio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the more challenging issues in epidemiological research is being able to provide an unbiased estimate of the causal exposure-disease effect, to assess the possible etiological mechanisms and the implication for public health. A major source of bias is confounding, which can spuriously create or mask the causal relationship. In the last ten years, methodological research has been developed to better de_ne the concept of causation in epidemiology and some important achievements have resulted in new statistical models. In this review, we aim to show how a technique the well known by statisticians, i.e. standardization, can be seen as a method to estimate causal e_ects, equivalent under certain conditions to the inverse probability treatment weight procedure.

  12. Quantum theory and local causality

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes the results of research the authors have pursued in the past years on the problem of implementing Bell's notion of local causality in local physical theories and relating it to other important concepts and principles in the foundations of physics such as the Common Cause Principle, Bell's inequalities, the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) scenario, and various other locality and causality concepts. The book is intended for philosophers of science with an interest in the formal background of sciences, philosophers of physics and physicists working in foundation of physics.

  13. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  14. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  15. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  16. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of ... for this statement on human cloning. Ban Reproductive Cloning AAAS endorses a legally enforceable ban on efforts ...

  17. Rio 2016 financial statements 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document includes the report from independent auditors, the balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements as of December 2011.

  18. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Cointegration and dynamic causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir Alam, Mohammad; Ara Begum, Ismat; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the possible existence of dynamic causality between energy consumption, electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Bangladesh. First, we have tested cointegration relationships using the Johansen bi-variate cointegration model. This is complemented with an analysis of an auto-regressive distributed lag model to examine the results' robustness. Then, the Granger short-run, the long-run and strong causality are tested with a vector error correction modelling framework. The results indicate that uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth both in the short and the long-run while a bi-directional long-run causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth but no causal relationship exists in short-run. The strong causality results indicate bi-directional causality for both the cases. A uni-directional causality runs from energy consumption to CO 2 emission for the short-run but feedback causality exists in the long-run. CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run. An important policy implication is that energy (electricity as well) can be considered as an important factor for the economic growth in Bangladesh. Moreover, as higher energy consumption also means higher pollution in the long-run, policy makers should stimulate alternative energy sources for meeting up the increasing energy demand. - Highlights: ► Dynamic causality among energy and electricity consumption, CO 2 and economic growth. ► Uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth. ► Bi-directional causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth. ► Feedback causality exists between CO 2 emission to energy consumption. ► CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run.

  19. Financial Statements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  20. Identification of Principal Causal Effects Using Additional Outcomes in Concentration Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealli, Fabrizia; Pacini, Barbara; Stanghellini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Unless strong assumptions are made, nonparametric identification of principal causal effects can only be partial and bounds (or sets) for the causal effects are established. In the presence of a secondary outcome, recent results exist to sharpen the bounds that exploit conditional independence assumptions. More general results, though not embedded…

  1. Causal feedbacks in climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.; Brovkin, V.; Lenton, T.M.; Ye, H.; Deyle, E.; Sugihara, G.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical association between temperature and greenhouse gases over glacial cycles is well documented1, but causality behind this correlation remains difficult to extract directly from the data. A time lag of CO2 behind Antarctic temperature—originally thought to hint at a driving role for

  2. Granger Causality and Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    , eventually rejecting the null hypothesis, even when the series are independent of each other. Moreover, controlling for these deterministic elements (in the auxiliary regressions of the test) does not preclude the possibility of drawing erroneous inferences. Granger-causality tests should not be used under...... stochastic nonstationarity, a property typically found in many macroeconomic variables....

  3. Causality tests between stock market development and economic growth in West African Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Tachiwou ABOUDOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for the West African Monetary Union economy over the last decade or so. By applying the techniques of unit–root tests and the long–run Granger noncausality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995, the causal relationships between the real GDP growth rate and two stock market development proxies are tested. The results are in line with the supply leading hypothesis in the sense that there is strong causal flow from the stock market development to economic growth. A unidirectional causal relationship is also observed between real market capitalization ratio and economic growth.

  4. Directed information graphs for the Granger causality of multivariate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Cui, Wanqi; Ye, Wenna

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the links between (strong) Granger causality and directed information theory for multivariate time series. Based on the decomposition of conditional directed information, we propose a definition of Granger causality including instantaneous variables in the conditional set, which can avoid the spurious causality. The directed information graphs are presented to describe the Granger causality and instantaneous coupling. The structure learning of the graph models is based on the Leonenko's k-nn estimator of the statistics and a permutation test of the significant. Finally, we demonstrate the numerical implementation of these techniques on linear and nonlinear time series.

  5. Inferring Causalities in Landscape Genetics: An Extension of Wright's Causal Modeling to Distance Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtune, Lisa; Prunier, Jérôme G; Paz-Vinas, Ivan; Loot, Géraldine; Veyssière, Charlotte; Blanchet, Simon

    2018-04-01

    Identifying landscape features that affect functional connectivity among populations is a major challenge in fundamental and applied sciences. Landscape genetics combines landscape and genetic data to address this issue, with the main objective of disentangling direct and indirect relationships among an intricate set of variables. Causal modeling has strong potential to address the complex nature of landscape genetic data sets. However, this statistical approach was not initially developed to address the pairwise distance matrices commonly used in landscape genetics. Here, we aimed to extend the applicability of two causal modeling methods-that is, maximum-likelihood path analysis and the directional separation test-by developing statistical approaches aimed at handling distance matrices and improving functional connectivity inference. Using simulations, we showed that these approaches greatly improved the robustness of the absolute (using a frequentist approach) and relative (using an information-theoretic approach) fits of the tested models. We used an empirical data set combining genetic information on a freshwater fish species (Gobio occitaniae) and detailed landscape descriptors to demonstrate the usefulness of causal modeling to identify functional connectivity in wild populations. Specifically, we demonstrated how direct and indirect relationships involving altitude, temperature, and oxygen concentration influenced within- and between-population genetic diversity of G. occitaniae.

  6. Environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewing, C.

    1986-01-01

    The adoption of US-type environmental impact statements is considered to be approaching. Environmental impact statements are defined as comprehensive analyses of the future effects of measures on environmental conditions with the aim of avoiding ecological disadvantages. The recommendation ratified by the European Communities on June 27, 1985 requires the environmental impact statement to be implemented as a mandatory procedure. The implementation is difficult to realize. Particular problems consist in the alignment of the environmental impact statement with existing administrative procedures and in the operationable formulation of the aims and results of the statement. Paragraph 72 of the administrative procedures law (VwVfG) shows that planning procedures and environmental impact statement are to be treated as two parallel regulations. The structural order of environmental impact statements must therefore be integrated into the regulations of planning procedures. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  8. Momentary and integrative response strategies in causal judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Darrell J; Shanks, David R

    2002-10-01

    Associative models of causal learning predict recency effects. Judgments at the end of a trial series should be strongly biased by recently presented information. Prior research, however, presents a contrasting picture of human performance. López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) observed recency, whereas Dennis and Ahn (2001) found the opposite, primacy. Here we replicate both of these effects and provide an explanation for this paradox. Four experiments show that the effect of trial order on judgments is a function of judgment frequency, where incremental judgments lead to recency while single final judgments abolish recency and lead instead to integration of information across trials (i.e., primacy). These results challenge almost all existing accounts of causal judgment. We propose a modified associative account in which participants can base their causal judgments either on current associative strength (momentary strategy) or on the cumulative change in associative strength since the previous judgment (integrative strategy).

  9. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  10. Two roads to noncommutative causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    We review the physical motivations and the mathematical results obtained so far in the isocone-based approach to noncommutative causality. We also give a briefer account of the alternative framework of Franco and Eckstein which is based on Lorentzian spectral triples. We compare the two theories on the simple example of the product geometry of the Minkowski plane by the finite noncommutative space with algebra M 2 (C). (paper)

  11. Concept of statistical causality and local martingales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a statistical concept of causality in continuous time in filtered probability spaces which is based on Granger's definitions of causality. The given causality concept is closely connected to the preservation of the property being a local martingale if the filtration is getting larger. Namely, the local martingale remains unpredictable if the amount of information is increased. We proved that the preservation of this property is equivalent with the concept of causality.

  12. Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I

    2015-01-01

    Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.

  13. Behavioural Pattern of Causality Parameter of Autoregressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a causal form of Autoregressive Moving Average process, ARMA (p, q) of various orders and behaviour of the causality parameter of ARMA model is investigated. It is deduced that the behaviour of causality parameter ψi depends on positive and negative values of autoregressive parameter φ and moving ...

  14. Causal knowledge and reasoning in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will

  15. The argumentative impact of causal relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1996-01-01

    such as causality, explanation and justification. In certain types of discourse, causal relations also imply an intentional element. This paper describes the way in which the semantic and pragmatic functions of causal markers can be accounted for in terms of linguistic and rhetorical theories of argumentation....

  16. Financial Statement Math

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis

  17. Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.

  18. A theory of causal learning in children: causal maps and Bayes nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M; Schulz, Laura E; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David

    2004-01-01

    The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children construct new causal maps and that their learning is consistent with the Bayes net formalism.

  19. Causality links among renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Africa: evidence from a panel ARDL-PMG approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiaoui, Imed; Toumi, Hassen; Ammouri, Bilel; Gargouri, Ilhem

    2017-05-01

    This research examines the causality (For the remainder of the paper, the notion of causality refers to Granger causality.) links among renewable energy consumption (REC), CO 2 emissions (CE), non-renewable energy consumption (NREC), and economic growth (GDP) using an autoregressive distributed lag model based on the pooled mean group estimation (ARDL-PMG) and applying Granger causality tests for a panel consisting of 22 African countries for the period between 1990 and 2011. There is unidirectional and irreversible short-run causality from CE to GDP. The causal direction between CE and REC is unobservable over the short-term. Moreover, we find unidirectional, short-run causality from REC to GDP. When testing per pair of variables, there are short-run bidirectional causalities among REC, CE, and GDP. However, if we add CE to the variables REC and NREC, the causality to GDP is observable, and causality from the pair REC and NREC to economic growth is neutral. Likewise, if we add NREC to the variables GDP and REC, there is causality. There are bidirectional long-run causalities among REC, CE, and GDP, which supports the feedback assumption. Causality from GDP to REC is not strong for the panel. If we test per pair of variables, the strong causality from GDP and CE to REC is neutral. The long-run PMG estimates show that NREC and gross domestic product increase CE, whereas REC decreases CE.

  20. BioCause: Annotating and analysing causality in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihăilă, Claudiu; Ohta, Tomoko; Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2013-01-16

    Biomedical corpora annotated with event-level information represent an important resource for domain-specific information extraction (IE) systems. However, bio-event annotation alone cannot cater for all the needs of biologists. Unlike work on relation and event extraction, most of which focusses on specific events and named entities, we aim to build a comprehensive resource, covering all statements of causal association present in discourse. Causality lies at the heart of biomedical knowledge, such as diagnosis, pathology or systems biology, and, thus, automatic causality recognition can greatly reduce the human workload by suggesting possible causal connections and aiding in the curation of pathway models. A biomedical text corpus annotated with such relations is, hence, crucial for developing and evaluating biomedical text mining. We have defined an annotation scheme for enriching biomedical domain corpora with causality relations. This schema has subsequently been used to annotate 851 causal relations to form BioCause, a collection of 19 open-access full-text biomedical journal articles belonging to the subdomain of infectious diseases. These documents have been pre-annotated with named entity and event information in the context of previous shared tasks. We report an inter-annotator agreement rate of over 60% for triggers and of over 80% for arguments using an exact match constraint. These increase significantly using a relaxed match setting. Moreover, we analyse and describe the causality relations in BioCause from various points of view. This information can then be leveraged for the training of automatic causality detection systems. Augmenting named entity and event annotations with information about causal discourse relations could benefit the development of more sophisticated IE systems. These will further influence the development of multiple tasks, such as enabling textual inference to detect entailments, discovering new facts and providing new

  1. A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets

    OpenAIRE

    Gopnik, A; Glymour, C; Sobel, D M; Schulz, L E; Kushnir, T; Danks, D

    2004-01-01

    The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computatio...

  2. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  3. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  4. Identifying Causality from Alarm Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    on an abstracted model of the mass and energy flows in the system. The application of MFM for root cause analysis based alarm grouping has been demonstrated and can be extended to reason about the direction of causality considering the entirety of the alarms present in the system for more comprehensive decision...... support. This contribution presents the foundation for combining the cause and consequence propagation of multiple observations from the system based on an MFM model. The proposed logical reasoning matches actually observed alarms to the propagation analysis in MFM to distinguish plausible causes...

  5. Random number generators and causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrondo, H.A.; Martin, M.T.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O.A.

    2006-01-01

    We advance a prescription to randomize physical or algorithmic Random Number Generators (RNG's) that do not pass Marsaglia's DIEHARD test suite and discuss a special physical quantifier, based on an intensive statistical complexity measure, that is able to adequately assess the improvements produced thereby. Eight RNG's are evaluated and the associated results are compared to those obtained by recourse to Marsaglia's DIEHARD test suite. Our quantifier, which is evaluated using causality arguments, can forecast whether a given RNG will pass the above mentioned test

  6. An Algorithmic Information Calculus for Causal Discovery and Reprogramming Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2017-09-08

    We introduce a conceptual framework and an interventional calculus to steer and manipulate systems based on their intrinsic algorithmic probability using the universal principles of the theory of computability and algorithmic information. By applying sequences of controlled interventions to systems and networks, we estimate how changes in their algorithmic information content are reflected in positive/negative shifts towards and away from randomness. The strong connection between approximations to algorithmic complexity (the size of the shortest generating mechanism) and causality induces a sequence of perturbations ranking the network elements by the steering capabilities that each of them is capable of. This new dimension unmasks a separation between causal and non-causal components providing a suite of powerful parameter-free algorithms of wide applicability ranging from optimal dimension reduction, maximal randomness analysis and system control. We introduce methods for reprogramming systems that do not require the full knowledge or access to the system\\'s actual kinetic equations or any probability distributions. A causal interventional analysis of synthetic and regulatory biological networks reveals how the algorithmic reprogramming qualitatively reshapes the system\\'s dynamic landscape. For example, during cellular differentiation we find a decrease in the number of elements corresponding to a transition away from randomness and a combination of the system\\'s intrinsic properties and its intrinsic capabilities to be algorithmically reprogrammed can reconstruct an epigenetic landscape. The interventional calculus is broadly applicable to predictive causal inference of systems such as networks and of relevance to a variety of machine and causal learning techniques driving model-based approaches to better understanding and manipulate complex systems.

  7. CADDIS Volume 1. Stressor Identification: About Causal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An introduction to the history of our approach to causal assessment, A chronology of causal history and philosophy, An introduction to causal history and philosophy, References for the Causal Assessment Background section of Stressor Identification

  8. Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…

  9. Oil prices and the world business cycle: A causal investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oil shocks have been often considered as exogenous factors responsible of economic downturns. In this paper the hypothesized exogeneity of oil prices is investigated by using running cross-correlations, distributed lag-regressions, Granger causality tests and VAR models applied to annual data 1960-2014 of oil prices and global economic activity—as measured by world GDP. Strong evidence is found that (a) the relation between oil prices and the global economy has significantly changed since th...

  10. Probabilistic causality and radiogenic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    A review and scrutiny of the literature on probability and probabilistic causality shows that it is possible under certain assumptions to estimate the probability that a certain type of cancer diagnosed in an individual exposed to radiation prior to diagnosis was caused by this exposure. Diagnosis of this causal relationship like diagnosis of any disease - malignant or not - requires always some subjective judgments by the diagnostician. It is, therefore, illusory to believe that tables based on actuarial data can provide objective estimates of the chance that a cancer diagnosed in an individual is radiogenic. It is argued that such tables can only provide a base from which the diagnostician(s) deviate in one direction or the other according to his (their) individual (consensual) judgment. Acceptance of a physician's diagnostic judgment by patients is commonplace. Similar widespread acceptance of expert judgment by claimants in radiation compensation cases does presently not exist. Judicious use of the present radioepidemiological tables prepared by the Working Group of the National Institutes of Health or of updated future versions of similar tables may improve the situation. 20 references

  11. Space and time in perceptual causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Straube

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte’s view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks.

  12. Opening statements and general statements by delegation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    23 delegations have submitted general reports and statements on the situation and evolution of the nuclear fuel cycle. Each report reflects the particular interests of the country that submitted it. All in all, these reports provide general background information on the subject of the conference

  13. Causality and skies: is non-refocussing necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A.; Ibort, A.; Lafuente, J.

    2015-05-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal, null pseudo-convex, space-time M is completely characterized in terms of a partial order on its space of skies defined by means of a class of non-negative Legendrian isotopies called sky isotopies. It is also shown that such partial order is determined by the class of future causal celestial curves, that is, curves in the space of light rays which are tangent to skies and such that they determine non-negative sky isotopies. It will also be proved that the space of skies Σ equipped with Low’s (or reconstructive) topology is homeomorphic and diffeomorphic to M under the only additional assumption that M separates skies, that is, that different events determine different skies. The sky-separating property of M is sharp and the previous result provides an answer to the question about the class of space-times whose causal structure, topological and differentiable structure can be reconstructed from their spaces of light rays and skies. These results can be understood as a Malament-Hawking-like theorem stated in terms of the partial order defined on the space of skies.

  14. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  15. Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2018-01-01

    We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.

  16. Space-time as a causal set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombelli, L.; Lee, J.; Meyer, D.; Sorkin, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    We propose that space-time at the smallest scales is in reality a causal set: a locally finite set of elements endowed with a partial order corresponding to the macroscopic relation that defines past and future. We explore how a Lorentzian manifold can approximate a causal set, noting in particular that the thereby defined effective dimensionality of a given causal set can vary with length scale. Finally, we speculate briefly on the quantum dynamics of causal sets, indicating why an appropriate choice of action can reproduce general relativity in the classical limit

  17. Does causal action facilitate causal perception in infants younger than 6 months of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakison, David H; Krogh, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has established that infants are unable to perceive causality until 6¼ months of age. The current experiments examined whether infants' ability to engage in causal action could facilitate causal perception prior to this age. In Experiment 1, 4½-month-olds were randomly assigned to engage in causal action experience via Velcro sticky mittens or not engage in causal action because they wore non-sticky mittens. Both groups were then tested in the visual habituation paradigm to assess their causal perception. Infants who engaged in causal action - but not those without this causal action experience - perceived the habituation events as causal. Experiment 2 used a similar design to establish that 4½-month-olds are unable to generalize their own causal action to causality observed in dissimilar objects. These data are the first to demonstrate that infants under 6 months of age can perceive causality, and have implications for the mechanisms underlying the development of causal perception. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Cash flow statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cash flow is "bloodstream" of business and without constant cash flow a company would not be able to function. The cash flow statement is statutory financial report that provides information to the interested parties on cash inflows and outflows from operating, investing and financing activities during the accounting period. This paper will discuss the origin and significance of the cash slow statement; in addition, we will define the main categories of this statement and present the methodology of its composition in accordance with IAS 7.

  19. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  20. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  1. Does the stock of monei have any causal significance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Arestis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in macroeconomics, and economic policy in general, have produced a "new consensus" economy-wide model, in which the stock of money doesnot play any causal role. The stock of money operates a mere residual in the economic process. The absence of the stock of money in many current debates over monetary policy has prompted the statement by the Governor of the Bank of England (during his time as the Deputy Governor that it is ironic that as central banks became more and more concerned with price stability, less and less attention is paid to money. Indeed, the decline of interest in money appeared to have coincided with low inflation in a significant number of countries. This has prompted a number of contributions that, wittingly or perhaps unwittingly, have attempted to "reinstate" a more substantial role for money in this "new" macroeconomics. In this paper we wish to argue that these attempts to "reinstate" money in current macroeconomic thinking entails two important problems. The first is that they contradict an important theoretical property of the new "consensus" macroeconomic model, namely that of dichotomy between the monetary and the real sector. The second is that some of these attempts either fail in terms of their objective, or merely reintroduce the problem rather than solving it. We conclude that if money is to be given a causal role in the "new" consensus model, then a great deal of more substantial research would be necessary.

  2. A new topology for curved space--time which incorporates the causal, differential, and conformal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.; King, A.R.; McCarthy, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A new topology is proposed for strongly causal space--times. Unlike the standard manifold topology (which merely characterizes continuity properties), the new topology determines the causal, differential, and conformal structures of space--time. The topology is more appealing, physical, and manageable than the topology previously proposed by Zeeman for Minkowski space. It thus seems that many calculations involving the above structures may be made purely topological

  3. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  4. Causal random geometry from stochastic quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Loll, R.; Westra, W.

    2010-01-01

     in this short note we review a recently found formulation of two-dimensional causal quantum gravity defined through Causal Dynamical Triangulations and stochastic quantization. This procedure enables one to extract the nonperturbative quantum Hamiltonian of the random surface model including the...... the sum over topologies. Interestingly, the generally fictitious stochastic time corresponds to proper time on the geometries...

  5. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics-2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 2. Guruprasad Kar Samir Kunkri Sujit K Choudhary. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 ... Keywords. Causality; quantum entanglement; cloning; local realism; completely positive maps.

  6. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Tingley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  7. Causal Mediation Analysis: Warning! Assumptions Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Luke

    2015-01-01

    In policy evaluations, interest may focus on why a particular treatment works. One tool for understanding why treatments work is causal mediation analysis. In this essay, I focus on the assumptions needed to estimate mediation effects. I show that there is no "gold standard" method for the identification of causal mediation effects. In…

  8. A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2013-07-01

    Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks.

  9. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  10. Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2017-07-01

    Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B208.

  11. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That

  12. Causal systems categories: differences in novice and expert categorization of causal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the relevant domains. This prediction was borne out: the novice groups sorted primarily by domain and the expert group sorted by causal category. These results suggest that science training facilitates insight about causal structures. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. A Simple Test for Causality in Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An early development in testing for causality (technically, Granger non-causality in the conditional variance (or volatility associated with financial returns was the portmanteau statistic for non-causality in the variance of Cheng and Ng (1996. A subsequent development was the Lagrange Multiplier (LM test of non-causality in the conditional variance by Hafner and Herwartz (2006, who provided simulation results to show that their LM test was more powerful than the portmanteau statistic for sample sizes of 1000 and 4000 observations. While the LM test for causality proposed by Hafner and Herwartz (2006 is an interesting and useful development, it is nonetheless arbitrary. In particular, the specification on which the LM test is based does not rely on an underlying stochastic process, so the alternative hypothesis is also arbitrary, which can affect the power of the test. The purpose of the paper is to derive a simple test for causality in volatility that provides regularity conditions arising from the underlying stochastic process, namely a random coefficient autoregressive process, and a test for which the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimates have valid asymptotic properties under the null hypothesis of non-causality. The simple test is intuitively appealing as it is based on an underlying stochastic process, is sympathetic to Granger’s (1969, 1988 notion of time series predictability, is easy to implement, and has a regularity condition that is not available in the LM test.

  14. Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2013-11-10

    Causal inference from observational studies is a fundamental topic in biostatistics. The causal graph literature typically views probability theory as insufficient to express causal concepts in observational studies. In contrast, the view here is that probability theory is a desirable and sufficient basis for many topics in causal inference for the following two reasons. First, probability theory is generally more flexible than causal graphs: Besides explaining such causal graph topics as M-bias (adjusting for a collider) and bias amplification and attenuation (when adjusting for instrumental variable), probability theory is also the foundation of the paired availability design for historical controls, which does not fit into a causal graph framework. Second, probability theory is the basis for insightful graphical displays including the BK-Plot for understanding Simpson's paradox with a binary confounder, the BK2-Plot for understanding bias amplification and attenuation in the presence of an unobserved binary confounder, and the PAD-Plot for understanding the principal stratification component of the paired availability design. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  16. Causality and Time in Historical Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahoney, James; Mohamedali, Khairunnisa; Nguyen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the dual concern with causality and time in historical institutionalism using a graphical approach. The analysis focuses on three concepts that are central to this field: critical junctures, gradual change, and path dependence. The analysis makes explicit and formal the logic...... underlying studies that use these “causal-temporal” concepts. The chapter shows visually how causality and temporality are linked to one another in varying ways depending on the particular pattern of change. The chapter provides new tools for describing and understanding change in historical- institutional...

  17. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  18. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1973-01-01

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  19. Noise resistance of the violation of local causality for pure three-qutrit entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Wiesław; Ryu, Junghee; Żukowski, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Bell's theorem started with two qubits (spins 1/2). It is a ‘no-go’ statement on classical (local causal) models of quantum correlations. After 25 years, it turned out that for three qubits the situation is even more astonishing. General statements concerning higher dimensional systems, qutrits, etc, started to appear even later, once the picture with spin (higher than 1/2) was replaced by a broader one, allowing all possible observables. This work is a continuation of the Gdansk effort to take advantage of the fact that Bell's theorem can be put in the form of a linear programming problem, which in turn can be translated into a computer code. Our results are numerical and classify the strength of the violation of local causality by various families of three-qutrit states, as measured by the resistance to noise. This is previously uncharted territory. The results may be helpful in suggesting which three-qutrit states will be handy for applications in quantum information protocols. One of the surprises is that the W state turns out to reveal a stronger violation of local causality than the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’.

  20. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  1. Selecting appropriate cases when tracing causal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed resurgence in the interest in studying the causal mechanisms linking causes and outcomes in the social sciences. This article explores the overlooked implications for case selection when tracing mechanisms using in-depth case studies. Our argument is that existing case...... selection guidelines are appropriate for research aimed at making cross-case claims about causal relationships, where case selection is primarily used to control for other causes. However, existing guidelines are not in alignment with case-based research that aims to trace mechanisms, where the goal...... is to unpack the causal mechanism between X and Y, enabling causal inferences to be made because empirical evidence is provided for how the mechanism actually operated in a particular case. The in-depth, within-case tracing of how mechanisms operate in particular cases produces what can be termed mechanistic...

  2. Causality Between Urban Concentration and Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population is concentrated in urban areas can cause the external diseconomies on environment if it exceeds the carrying capacity of the space and the urban economy. Otherwise the quality of the environment is getting better, led to the concentration of population in urban areas are increasingly high. This study aims to analyze the relationship of causality between the urban concentration and environmental quality in urban agglomeration areas. The data used in the study of secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of statistics and the City Government from 2000 to 2013. The analytical method used is the Granger causality and descriptive. Granger causality study results showed no pattern of reciprocal causality, between urban concentration and the quality of the environment, but there unidirectional relationship between the urban concentration and environmental quality. This means that increasing urban concentration led to decreased environmental quality.

  3. Risk and causality in newspaper reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max

    2009-11-01

    The study addresses the textual representation of risk and causality in news media reporting. The analytical framework combines two theoretical perspectives: media frame analysis and the philosophy of causality. Empirical data derive from selected newspaper articles on risks in the Göta älv river valley in southwest Sweden from 1994 to 2007. News media content was coded and analyzed with respect to causal explanations of risk issues. At the level of individual articles, this study finds that the media provide simple causal explanations of risks such as water pollution, landslides, and flooding. Furthermore, these explanations are constructed, or framed, in various ways, the same risk being attributed to different causes in different articles. However, the study demonstrates that a fairly complex picture of risks in the media emerges when extensive material is analyzed systematically.

  4. Rate-Agnostic (Causal) Structure Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey; Danks, David; Freeman, Cynthia; Calhoun, Vince

    2015-12-01

    Causal structure learning from time series data is a major scientific challenge. Extant algorithms assume that measurements occur sufficiently quickly; more precisely, they assume approximately equal system and measurement timescales. In many domains, however, measurements occur at a significantly slower rate than the underlying system changes, but the size of the timescale mismatch is often unknown. This paper develops three causal structure learning algorithms, each of which discovers all dynamic causal graphs that explain the observed measurement data, perhaps given undersampling. That is, these algorithms all learn causal structure in a "rate-agnostic" manner: they do not assume any particular relation between the measurement and system timescales. We apply these algorithms to data from simulations to gain insight into the challenge of undersampling.

  5. Causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sandoval Fernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ocupa de las causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal, especialmente de aquellas que tienen efecto en el injusto. Como subtemas se delimita el concepto de responsabilidad penal y su ausencia. Se estudian las principales teorias a cerca de la relación tipicidad-antijuridicidad y su incidencia en el derecho penal colombiano. Por último contiene una propuesta acerca de cómo deberian agruparse las causales del arto 32 C. PlOO.

  6. Corporate Information Management Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the OASD(C31) methods for preparing FY 1996 CIM, general purpose financial statements will result in auditable and complete general purpose financial statements...

  7. Kant on causal laws and powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschen, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the paper is threefold. Its first aim is to defend Eric Watkins's claim that for Kant, a cause is not an event but a causal power: a power that is borne by a substance, and that, when active, brings about its effect, i.e. a change of the states of another substance, by generating a continuous flow of intermediate states of that substance. The second aim of the paper is to argue against Watkins that the Kantian concept of causal power is not the pre-critical concept of real ground but the category of causality, and that Kant holds with Hume that causal laws cannot be inferred non-inductively (that he accordingly has no intention to show in the Second analogy or elsewhere that events fall under causal laws). The third aim of the paper is to compare the Kantian position on causality with central tenets of contemporary powers ontology: it argues that unlike the variants endorsed by contemporary powers theorists, the Kantian variants of these tenets are resistant to objections that neo-Humeans raise to these tenets.

  8. Detecting causal drivers and empirical prediction of the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, G.; Vellore, R.; Raghavan, K.; Coumou, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is crucial for the economy, society and natural ecosystems on the Indian peninsula. Predict the total seasonal rainfall at several months lead time would help to plan effective water management strategies, improve flood or drought protection programs and prevent humanitarian crisis. However, the complexity and strong internal variability of the ISM circulation system make skillful seasonal forecasting challenging. Moreover, to adequately identify the low-frequency, and far-away processes which influence ISM behavior novel tools are needed. We applied a Response-Guided Causal Precursor Detection (RGCPD) scheme, which is a novel empirical prediction method which unites a response-guided community detection scheme with a causal discovery algorithm (CEN). These tool allow us to assess causal pathways between different components of the ISM circulation system and with far-away regions in the tropics, mid-latitudes or Arctic. The scheme has successfully been used to identify causal precursors of the Stratospheric polar vortex enabling skillful predictions at (sub) seasonal timescales (Kretschmer et al. 2016, J.Clim., Kretschmer et al. 2017, GRL). We analyze observed ISM monthly rainfall over the monsoon trough region. Applying causal discovery techniques, we identify several causal precursor communities in the fields of 2m-temperature, sea level pressure and snow depth over Eurasia. Specifically, our results suggest that surface temperature conditions in both tropical and Arctic regions contribute to ISM variability. A linear regression prediction model based on the identified set of communities has good hindcasting skills with 4-5 months lead times. Further we separate El Nino, La Nina and ENSO-neutral years from each other and find that the causal precursors are different dependent on ENSO state. The ENSO-state dependent causal precursors give even higher skill, especially for La Nina years when the ISM is relatively strong. These

  9. Statement on Plagiarism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Statement on Plagiarism. S Mahadevan N Mukunda. Editorial Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 403-404. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/05/0403-0404. Author Affiliations.

  10. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  11. Consolidated financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.

  12. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...

  13. Fundamentals of Financial Statements Audit

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion as to whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards or another identified financial reporting fr...

  14. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  15. The causal nexus between oil prices and equity market in the U.S.: A regime switching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcilar, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the causal link between monthly oil futures price changes and a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock index changes. The causal linkage between oil and stock markets is modelled using a vector autoregressive model with time-varying parameters so as to reflect changes in Granger causality over time. A Markov switching vector autoregressive (MS-VAR) model, in which causal link between the series is stochastic and governed by an unobservable Markov chain, is used for inferring time-varying causality. Although we do not find any lead–lag type Granger causality, the results based on the MS-VAR model clearly show that oil futures price has strong regime prediction power for a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock index during various sub-periods in the sample, while there is a weak evidence for the regime prediction power of a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock indexes. The regime-prediction non-causality tests on the MS-VAR model show that both variables are useful for making inference about the regime process and that the evidence on regime-prediction causality is primarily found in the equation describing a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock market returns. The evidence from the conditional non-causality tests shows that past information on the other series fails to improve the one step ahead prediction for both oil futures and stock returns. - Highlights: • We analyse the causal links between oil futures price and a sub-grouping of S and P 500 index. • The causal links are modelled using a regime switching model. • We do not find any lead–lag type Granger causality between the series. • The results show that oil futures price has regime prediction power for a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock index

  16. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  17. Entanglement entropy in causal set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Rafael D.; Yazdi, Yasaman K.

    2018-04-01

    Entanglement entropy is now widely accepted as having deep connections with quantum gravity. It is therefore desirable to understand it in the context of causal sets, especially since they provide in a natural manner the UV cutoff needed to render entanglement entropy finite. Formulating a notion of entanglement entropy in a causal set is not straightforward because the type of canonical hypersurface-data on which its definition typically relies is not available. Instead, we appeal to the more global expression given in Sorkin (2012 (arXiv:1205.2953)) which, for a Gaussian scalar field, expresses the entropy of a spacetime region in terms of the field’s correlation function within that region (its ‘Wightman function’ W(x, x') ). Carrying this formula over to the causal set, one obtains an entropy which is both finite and of a Lorentz invariant nature. We evaluate this global entropy-expression numerically for certain regions (primarily order-intervals or ‘causal diamonds’) within causal sets of 1  +  1 dimensions. For the causal-set counterpart of the entanglement entropy, we obtain, in the first instance, a result that follows a (spacetime) volume law instead of the expected (spatial) area law. We find, however, that one obtains an area law if one truncates the commutator function (‘Pauli–Jordan operator’) and the Wightman function by projecting out the eigenmodes of the Pauli–Jordan operator whose eigenvalues are too close to zero according to a geometrical criterion which we describe more fully below. In connection with these results and the questions they raise, we also study the ‘entropy of coarse-graining’ generated by thinning out the causal set, and we compare it with what one obtains by similarly thinning out a chain of harmonic oscillators, finding the same, ‘universal’ behaviour in both cases.

  18. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity and causal disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; de Jonge, Peter; Schoevers, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In psychiatry, comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. Up to 45% of all patients are classified as having more than one psychiatric disorder. These high rates of comorbidity have led to a debate concerning the interpretation of this phenomenon. Some authors emphasize the problematic character of the high rates of comorbidity because they indicate absent zones of rarities. Others consider comorbid conditions to be a validator for a particular reclassification of diseases. In this paper we will show that those at first sight contrasting interpretations of comorbidity are based on similar assumptions about disease models. The underlying ideas are that firstly high rates of comorbidity are the result of the absence of causally defined diseases in psychiatry, and second that causal disease models are preferable to non-causal disease models. We will argue that there are good reasons to seek after causal understanding of psychiatric disorders, but that causal disease models will not rule out high rates of comorbidity--neither in psychiatry, nor in medicine in general. By bringing to the fore these underlying assumptions, we hope to clear the ground for a different understanding of comorbidity, and of models for psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  1. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  2. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  3. How causal analysis can reveal autonomy in models of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William; Kim, Hyunju; Walker, Sara I.; Tononi, Giulio; Albantakis, Larissa

    2017-11-01

    Standard techniques for studying biological systems largely focus on their dynamical or, more recently, their informational properties, usually taking either a reductionist or holistic perspective. Yet, studying only individual system elements or the dynamics of the system as a whole disregards the organizational structure of the system-whether there are subsets of elements with joint causes or effects, and whether the system is strongly integrated or composed of several loosely interacting components. Integrated information theory offers a theoretical framework to (1) investigate the compositional cause-effect structure of a system and to (2) identify causal borders of highly integrated elements comprising local maxima of intrinsic cause-effect power. Here we apply this comprehensive causal analysis to a Boolean network model of the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) cell cycle. We demonstrate that this biological model features a non-trivial causal architecture, whose discovery may provide insights about the real cell cycle that could not be gained from holistic or reductionist approaches. We also show how some specific properties of this underlying causal architecture relate to the biological notion of autonomy. Ultimately, we suggest that analysing the causal organization of a system, including key features like intrinsic control and stable causal borders, should prove relevant for distinguishing life from non-life, and thus could also illuminate the origin of life problem. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  4. Causal binding of actions to their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, Marc J; Humphreys, Gruffydd R

    2009-10-01

    According to widely held views in cognitive science harking back to David Hume, causality cannot be perceived directly, but instead is inferred from patterns of sensory experience, and the quality of these inferences is determined by perceivable quantities such as contingency and contiguity. We report results that suggest a reversal of Hume's conjecture: People's sense of time is warped by the experience of causality. In a stimulus-anticipation task, participants' response behavior reflected a shortened experience of time in the case of target stimuli participants themselves had generated, relative to equidistant, equally predictable stimuli they had not caused. These findings suggest that causality in the mind leads to temporal binding of cause and effect, and extend and generalize beyond earlier claims of intentional binding between action and outcome.

  5. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  6. Spatial hypersurfaces in causal set cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Seth A; Rideout, David; Surya, Sumati

    2006-01-01

    Within the causal set approach to quantum gravity, a discrete analogue of a spacelike region is a set of unrelated elements, or an antichain. In the continuum approximation of the theory, a moment-of-time hypersurface is well represented by an inextendible antichain. We construct a richer structure corresponding to a thickening of this antichain containing non-trivial geometric and topological information. We find that covariant observables can be associated with such thickened antichains and transitions between them, in classical sequential growth models of causal sets. This construction highlights the difference between the covariant measure on causal set cosmology and the standard sum-over-histories approach: the measure is assigned to completed histories rather than to histories on a restricted spacetime region. The resulting re-phrasing of the sum-over-histories may be fruitful in other approaches to quantum gravity

  7. Entropy and information causality in general probabilistic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, Howard; Leifer, Matthew; Spekkens, Robert; Barrett, Jonathan; Clark, Lisa Orloff; Stepanik, Nicholas; Wilce, Alex; Wilke, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the concept of entropy in probabilistic theories more general than quantum mechanics, with particular reference to the notion of information causality (IC) recently proposed by Pawlowski et al (2009 arXiv:0905.2292). We consider two entropic quantities, which we term measurement and mixing entropy. In the context of classical and quantum theory, these coincide, being given by the Shannon and von Neumann entropies, respectively; in general, however, they are very different. In particular, while measurement entropy is easily seen to be concave, mixing entropy need not be. In fact, as we show, mixing entropy is not concave whenever the state space is a non-simplicial polytope. Thus, the condition that measurement and mixing entropies coincide is a strong constraint on possible theories. We call theories with this property monoentropic. Measurement entropy is subadditive, but not in general strongly subadditive. Equivalently, if we define the mutual information between two systems A and B by the usual formula I(A: B)=H(A)+H(B)-H(AB), where H denotes the measurement entropy and AB is a non-signaling composite of A and B, then it can happen that I(A:BC)< I(A:B). This is relevant to IC in the sense of Pawlowski et al: we show that any monoentropic non-signaling theory in which measurement entropy is strongly subadditive, and also satisfies a version of the Holevo bound, is informationally causal, and on the other hand we observe that Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, which violate IC, also violate strong subadditivity. We also explore the interplay between measurement and mixing entropy and various natural conditions on theories that arise in quantum axiomatics.

  8. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  9. Inferring causality from noisy time series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Convergent Cross-Mapping (CCM) has shown high potential to perform causal inference in the absence of models. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of the method by varying coupling strength and noise levels in coupled logistic maps. We find that CCM fails to infer accurate coupling strength...... and even causality direction in synchronized time-series and in the presence of intermediate coupling. We find that the presence of noise deterministically reduces the level of cross-mapping fidelity, while the convergence rate exhibits higher levels of robustness. Finally, we propose that controlled noise...

  10. Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2014-01-01

    We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....

  11. Relativistic Causality and Quasi-Orthomodular Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Renato

    2006-05-01

    The concept of fractionability or decomposability in parts of a physical system has its mathematical counterpart in the lattice--theoretic concept of orthomodularity. Systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom can be decomposed in different ways, corresponding to different groupings of the degrees of freedom. The orthomodular structure of these simple systems is trivially manifest. The problem then arises as to whether the same property is shared by physical systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, in particular by the quantum relativistic ones. The latter case was approached several years ago by Haag and Schroer (1962; Haag, 1992) who started from noting that the causally complete sets of Minkowski spacetime form an orthomodular lattice and posed the question of whether the subalgebras of local observables, with topological supports on such subsets, form themselves a corresponding orthomodular lattice. Were it so, the way would be paved to interpreting spacetime as an intrinsic property of a local quantum field algebra. Surprisingly enough, however, the hoped property does not hold for local algebras of free fields with superselection rules. The possibility seems to be instead open if the local currents that govern the superselection rules are driven by gauge fields. Thus, in the framework of local quantum physics, the request for algebraic orthomodularity seems to imply physical interactions! Despite its charm, however, such a request appears plagued by ambiguities and criticities that make of it an ill--posed problem. The proposers themselves, indeed, concluded that the orthomodular correspondence hypothesis is too strong for having a chance of being practicable. Thus, neither the idea was taken seriously by the proposers nor further investigated by others up to a reasonable degree of clarification. This paper is an attempt to re--formulate and well--pose the problem. It will be shown that the idea is viable provided that the algebra of

  12. CausalTrail: Testing hypothesis using causal Bayesian networks [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stöckel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Causal Bayesian Networks are a special class of Bayesian networks in which the hierarchy directly encodes the causal relationships between the variables. This allows to compute the effect of interventions, which are external changes to the system, caused by e.g. gene knockouts or an administered drug. Whereas numerous packages for constructing causal Bayesian networks are available, hardly any program targeted at downstream analysis exists. In this paper we present CausalTrail, a tool for performing reasoning on causal Bayesian networks using the do-calculus. CausalTrail's features include multiple data import methods, a flexible query language for formulating hypotheses, as well as an intuitive graphical user interface. The program is able to account for missing data and thus can be readily applied in multi-omics settings where it is common that not all measurements are performed for all samples. Availability and Implementation CausalTrail is implemented in C++ using the Boost and Qt5 libraries. It can be obtained from https://github.com/dstoeckel/causaltrail

  13. Somatoform disorders and causal attributions in patients with suspected allergies: Do somatic causal attributions matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groben, Sylvie; Hausteiner, Constanze

    2011-03-01

    Somatic causal illness attributions are being considered as potential positive criteria for somatoform disorders (SFDs) in DSM-V. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients diagnosed with SFDs tend towards a predominantly somatic attribution style. We compared the causal illness attributions of 48 SFD and 149 non-somatoform disorder patients, in a sample of patients presenting for an allergy diagnostic work-up, and those of 47 controls hospitalised for allergen-specific venom immunotherapy. The SFD diagnosis was established by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Both spontaneous and prompted causal illness attributions were recorded through interview and by means of the causal dimension of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), respectively. Patients' spontaneous and prompted responses were assigned to a psychosocial, somatic, or mixed attribution style. Both in the free-response task and in their responses to the IPQ-R, SFD patients were no more likely than their nonsomatoform counterparts to focus on somatic explanations for their symptoms. They were just as likely to make psychosocial or mixed causal attributions. However, patients with SFDs were significantly more likely to find fault with medical care in the past. Our data do not support the use of somatic causal illness attributions as positive criteria for SFDs. They confirm the dynamic and multidimensional nature of causal illness attributions. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dating the abusive head trauma episode and perpetrator statements: key points for imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, Catherine; Morel, Baptiste [AP-HP, CHU Bicetre, Service d' Imagerie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Ducot, Beatrice [Universite Paris Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); INSERM CESP U 1018, Paris (France); Antoni, Guillemette [Universite Paris Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline [AP-HP, CHU Hotel Dieu, Unite Medico-Judiciaire, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    Shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The presence of a diffuse subdural hematoma without evidence of accident is a key diagnostic clue. The hematoma is typically attributed to rupture of the cerebral bridging veins due to violent shaking, with or without impact. Dating the incident, however, remains controversial. The aim of this article is to review the most reliable features used for dating the incident, based on both legal statements by perpetrators and medical documentation. The key points are: 1) The high (yet likely underestimated) frequency of repeated shaking is around 50%, 2) Children do not behave normally immediately after shaking, and the time of onset of even mild symptoms appears to be the best clue for dating the incident and 3) Brain imaging provides strong indicators of ''age-different'' injuries but the ranges for dating the causal event are wide. The density pattern in a single subdural hematoma location provides no reliable clues for assessing repeated violence. Only the finding of different density in two distant subdural hematomas argues in favor of ''age-different'' injuries, i.e. repeated violence. MRI is difficult to interpret in terms of dating subdural hemorrhages and must be analyzed in conjunction with CT. Most importantly, all of the child's previous clinical and radiological data must be carefully studied and correlated to provide accurate information on the date and repetition of the trauma. (orig.)

  15. Dating the abusive head trauma episode and perpetrator statements: key points for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamsbaum, Catherine; Morel, Baptiste; Ducot, Beatrice; Antoni, Guillemette; Rey-Salmon, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The presence of a diffuse subdural hematoma without evidence of accident is a key diagnostic clue. The hematoma is typically attributed to rupture of the cerebral bridging veins due to violent shaking, with or without impact. Dating the incident, however, remains controversial. The aim of this article is to review the most reliable features used for dating the incident, based on both legal statements by perpetrators and medical documentation. The key points are: 1) The high (yet likely underestimated) frequency of repeated shaking is around 50%, 2) Children do not behave normally immediately after shaking, and the time of onset of even mild symptoms appears to be the best clue for dating the incident and 3) Brain imaging provides strong indicators of ''age-different'' injuries but the ranges for dating the causal event are wide. The density pattern in a single subdural hematoma location provides no reliable clues for assessing repeated violence. Only the finding of different density in two distant subdural hematomas argues in favor of ''age-different'' injuries, i.e. repeated violence. MRI is difficult to interpret in terms of dating subdural hemorrhages and must be analyzed in conjunction with CT. Most importantly, all of the child's previous clinical and radiological data must be carefully studied and correlated to provide accurate information on the date and repetition of the trauma. (orig.)

  16. Mendelian Randomisation Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants...

  17. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  18. Localization and causality in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.F.; Wilde, I.F.

    It is shown that in relativistic quantum mechanics there is no criterion for the strict localization of a state in a bounded space-time region compatible with causality, translation covariance and the spectral condition (or positivity of energy together with Lorentz covariance) [pt

  19. Catastrophizing and Causal Beliefs in Whiplash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; de Jong, P. J.; Jaspers, J. P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. This study investigates the role of pain catastrophizing and causal beliefs with regard to severity and persistence of neck complaints after motor vehicle accidents. Summary of Background Data. In previous research on low back pain, somatoform

  20. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information theory in general and quantum non-locality and entanglement in particular. Right. S Kunkri - current research interest is the role of entanglement in quantum information processing and the connection between quantum operations and causality. Centre. S K Choudhary - current research interest is the study of ...

  1. Marriage and Anomie: A Causal Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary R.

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 394 married couples is employed to test the possibility of an association between marital satisfaction and personal (attitudinal) anomie. The hypothesis is supported. Conclusions are offered relevant to anomie theory, and to utilization of marital and family phenomena as independent variables in causal explanations of nonfamily events.…

  2. Causal Measurement Models: Can Criticism Stimulate Clarification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In their 2016 work, Aguirre-Urreta et al. provided a contribution to the literature on causal measurement models that enhances clarity and stimulates further thinking. Aguirre-Urreta et al. presented a form of statistical identity involving mapping onto the portion of the parameter space involving the nomological net, relationships between the…

  3. Causal Meta-Analysis : Methodology and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical method to summarize research data from multiple studies in a quantitative manner. This dissertation addresses a number of methodological topics in causal meta-analysis and reports the development and validation of meta-analysis software. In the first (methodological)

  4. A Causal Model of Faculty Turnover Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A causal model assesses the relative influence of individual attributes, institutional characteristics, contextual-work environment variables, and multiple measures of job satisfaction on faculty intentions to leave their current institutions. Factors considered include tenure status, age, institutional status, governance style, organizational…

  5. Black Hole Complementarity and Violation of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenblit, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of a massive shell collapsing on a solid sphere shows that black hole complementarity (BHC) violates causality in its effort to save information conservation. In particular, this note describes a hypothetical contraption based on BHC that would allow the transfer of information from the future to the present.

  6. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  7. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion (‘the bite’) are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query ‘Bruxism [Majr

  8. Sequential causal learning in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Rojas, R.R.; Beckers, T.; Yuille, A.; Love, B.C.; McRae, K.; Sloutsky, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments (Beckers, De Houwer, Pineño, & Miller, 2005;Beckers, Miller, De Houwer, & Urushihara, 2006) have shown that pretraining with unrelated cues can dramatically influence the performance of humans in a causal learning paradigm and rats in a standard Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.

  9. Dimensional reduction in causal set gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S.

    2015-12-01

    Results from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity suggest that the effective dimension of spacetime may drop to d = 2 at small scales. I show that two different dimensional estimators in causal set theory display the same behavior, and argue that a third, the spectral dimension, may exhibit a related phenomenon of ‘asymptotic silence.’

  10. The Causal Relationship between Financial Development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study employs cointegration, vector error correction model and Granger causality test to ascertain causation between financial development and economic performance in Tanzania. Economic performance is measured by the real GDP, whereas proxies for financial development are: the ratio of money supply to nominal ...

  11. Causal and Teleological Explanations in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2009-01-01

    A causal explanation in biology focuses on the mechanism by which a biological process is brought about, whereas a teleological explanation considers the end result, in the context of the survival of the organism, as a reason for certain biological processes or structures. There is a tendency among students to offer a teleological explanation…

  12. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peaceful Coexistence of Special Relativity and. Quantum Mechanics. As discussed in Part 1, in the framework of the special theory of relativity, causality holds. This can be stated as follows: there is a finite speed for any signal, i.e. , for anything that carries information, and the highest speed for any signal is identical to the ...

  13. Causal Relationship between Teachers' Job Performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated teachers' job performance and students' academic achievement in secondary schools for the existence of bi-causal relationship in Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was adopted in the study. The population of the study covered all the Economic teachers and senior school students in class ...

  14. Introducing mechanics by tapping core causal knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, C.W.J.M.; Westra, A.S.; Emmett, K.M.; Eijkelhof, H.M.C.; Lijnse, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns an outline of an introductory mechanics course. It is based on the argument that various uses of the concept of force (e.g. from Kepler, Newton and everyday life) share an explanatory strategy based on core causal knowledge. The strategy consists of (a) the idea that a force

  15. Causality and analyticity in quantum fields theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1992-01-01

    This is a presentation of results on the causal and analytical structure of Green functions and on the collision amplitudes in fields theories, for massive particles of one type, with a positive mass and a zero spin value. (A.B.)

  16. Causality relationship between energy demand and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the causal relationship between electricity demand and economic growth in Nigeria using data for 1970 – 2003. The study uses the Johansen cointegration VAR approach. The ADF and Phillips – Perron test statistics were used to test for stationarity of the data. It was found that the data were ...

  17. The Causal Priority of Form in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Koslicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In various texts (e.g., Met. Z.17, Aristotle assigns priority to form, in its role as a principle and cause, over matter and the matter-form compound. Given the central role played by this claim in Aristotle's search for primary substance in the Metaphysics, it is important to understand what motivates him in locating the primary causal responsibility for a thing's being what it is with the form, rather than the matter. According to Met. Theta.8, actuality [energeia/entelecheia] in general is prior to potentiality [dunamis] in three ways, viz., in definition, time and substance. I propose an explicitly causal reading of this general priority claim, as it pertains to the matter-form relationship. The priority of form over matter in definition, time and substance, in my view, is best explained by appeal to the role of form as the formal, efficient and final cause of the matter-form compound, respectively, while the posteriority of matter to form according to all three notions of priority is most plausibly accounted for by the fact that the causal contribution of matter is limited to its role as material cause. When approached from this angle, the work of Met. Theta.8 can be seen to lend direct support to the more specific and explicitly causal priority claim we encounter in Met. Z.17, viz., that form is prior to matter in its role as the principle and primary cause of a matter-form compound's being what it is.

  18. A quantum probability model of causal reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Trueblood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People can often outperform statistical methods and machine learning algorithms in situations that involve making inferences about the relationship between causes and effects. While people are remarkably good at causal reasoning in many situations, there are several instances where they deviate from expected responses. This paper examines three situations where judgments related to causal inference problems produce unexpected results and describes a quantum inference model based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory that can explain these effects. Two of the three phenomena arise from the comparison of predictive judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of an effect given a cause with diagnostic judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of a cause given an effect. The third phenomenon is a new finding examining order effects in predictive causal judgments. The quantum inference model uses the notion of incompatibility among different causes to account for all three phenomena. Psychologically, the model assumes that individuals adopt different points of view when thinking about different causes. The model provides good fits to the data and offers a coherent account for all three causal reasoning effects thus proving to be a viable new candidate for modeling human judgment.

  19. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the significance of Einstein's second postulate of the special theory of relativity (STR) stipulating the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. The causality that follows from the. STR may be a more general principle to orga- nize our knowledge of all phenomena. In partic- ular, quantum dynamics can be derived ...

  20. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tum world. An example of a game which can be won exploiting quantum entanglement, but which can never be won classically, is described. Peaceful Coexistence of Special Relativity and. Quantum Mechanics. As discussed in Part 1, in the framework of the special theory of relativity, causality holds. This can be stated.

  1. Probable autoimmune causal relationship between periodontitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease with microbial dental plaque as the initiator of periodontal disease. However, the manifestation and progression of the disease is influenced by a wide variety of determinants and factors. The strongest type of causal relationship is the association of systemic and periodontal disease.

  2. Cystatin C Is Not Causally Related to Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson-Färbom, Patrik; Almgren, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Persson, Margaretha; Christensson, Anders; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Strong and independent associations between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) suggests causal involvement of cystatin C. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a causal relationship between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) using a Mendelian Randomization approach. We estimated the strength of association of plasma cystatin C on CAD risk and the strength of association of the strongest GWAS derived cystatin C SNP (rs13038305) on plasma cystatin C in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC) and thereafter the association between rs13038305 and CAD in the MDC (3200 cases of CAD and 24418 controls) and CARDIOGRAM (22233 cases of CAD and 64762 controls). Each standard deviation (SD) increment of plasma cystatin C was associated with increased risk of CAD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34) after full adjustment. Each copy of the major allele of rs13038305 was associated with 0.34 SD higher plasma concentration of cystatin C (P98% to detect a significant relationship between rs13038305 and CAD in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. The odds ratio for CAD (per copy of the major rs13038305 allele) was 1.00 (0.94-1.07); P = 0.92 in MDC, 0.99 (0.96-1.03); P = 0.84 in CARDIOGRAM and 1.00 (0.97-1.03); P = 0.83 in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. Genetic elevation of plasma cystatin C is not related to altered risk of CAD, suggesting that there is no causal relationship between plasma cystatin C and CAD. Rather, the association between cystatin C and CAD appears to be due to the association of eGFR and CAD.

  3. Cystatin C Is Not Causally Related to Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svensson-Färbom

    Full Text Available Strong and independent associations between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD suggests causal involvement of cystatin C.The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a causal relationship between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD using a Mendelian Randomization approach.We estimated the strength of association of plasma cystatin C on CAD risk and the strength of association of the strongest GWAS derived cystatin C SNP (rs13038305 on plasma cystatin C in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC and thereafter the association between rs13038305 and CAD in the MDC (3200 cases of CAD and 24418 controls and CARDIOGRAM (22233 cases of CAD and 64762 controls.Each standard deviation (SD increment of plasma cystatin C was associated with increased risk of CAD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 after full adjustment. Each copy of the major allele of rs13038305 was associated with 0.34 SD higher plasma concentration of cystatin C (P98% to detect a significant relationship between rs13038305 and CAD in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. The odds ratio for CAD (per copy of the major rs13038305 allele was 1.00 (0.94-1.07; P = 0.92 in MDC, 0.99 (0.96-1.03; P = 0.84 in CARDIOGRAM and 1.00 (0.97-1.03; P = 0.83 in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled.Genetic elevation of plasma cystatin C is not related to altered risk of CAD, suggesting that there is no causal relationship between plasma cystatin C and CAD. Rather, the association between cystatin C and CAD appears to be due to the association of eGFR and CAD.

  4. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  5. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...... the efficacy and safety of augmentation therapy, the only specific treatment available for the pulmonary disease associated with AATD.As AATD is a rare disease, it is crucial to organise national and international registries and collect information prospectively about the natural history of the disease...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.51 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statements. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit financial statements to the Department on a periodic basis. Each such financial statement shall include, but not be limited to, a balance sheet, income statement... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 1212.51 Section 1212.51...

  7. 1987 Statement on Software Copyright: An ICCE Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computing Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Building on the 1983 policy statement developed by the International Council for Computers in Education (ICCE), this statement recommends the adoption of a school district copyright policy, adoption of the suggested software use guidelines, and use of the copyright page of software documentation to ascertain user's rights, obligations, and licence…

  8. Framework for assessing causality in disease management programs: principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas; MacDowell, Martin

    2003-01-01

    To credibly state that a disease management (DM) program "caused" a specific outcome it is required that metrics observed in the DM population be compared with metrics that would have been expected in the absence of a DM intervention. That requirement can be very difficult to achieve, and epidemiologists and others have developed guiding principles of causality by which credible estimates of DM impact can be made. This paper introduces those key principles. First, DM program metrics must be compared with metrics from a "reference population." This population should be "equivalent" to the DM intervention population on all factors that could independently impact the outcome. In addition, the metrics used in both groups should use the same defining criteria (ie, they must be "comparable" to each other). The degree to which these populations fulfill the "equivalent" assumption and metrics fulfill the "comparability" assumption should be stated. Second, when "equivalence" or "comparability" is not achieved, the DM managers should acknowledge this fact and, where possible, "control" for those factors that may impact the outcome(s). Finally, it is highly unlikely that one study will provide definitive proof of any specific DM program value for all time; thus, we strongly recommend that studies be ongoing, at multiple points in time, and at multiple sites, and, when observational study designs are employed, that more than one type of study design be utilized. Methodologically sophisticated studies that follow these "principles of causality" will greatly enhance the reputation of the important and growing efforts in DM.

  9. Extracting causal relationships from Chinese written text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Expert systems form one of the most important research areas in Artificial Intelligence. The main parts in expert systems are knowledge bases and inference engines. In the knowledge bases the main knowledge is knowledge in the form of ``IF-THEN" statements. In knowledge graphs, a new form of

  10. Causal knowledge and the development of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Aimée K; Feeney, Aidan

    2014-06-01

    We explored the development of sensitivity to causal relations in children's inductive reasoning. Children (5-, 8-, and 12-year-olds) and adults were given trials in which they decided whether a property known to be possessed by members of one category was also possessed by members of (a) a taxonomically related category or (b) a causally related category. The direction of the causal link was either predictive (prey→predator) or diagnostic (predator→prey), and the property that participants reasoned about established either a taxonomic or causal context. There was a causal asymmetry effect across all age groups, with more causal choices when the causal link was predictive than when it was diagnostic. Furthermore, context-sensitive causal reasoning showed a curvilinear development, with causal choices being most frequent for 8-year-olds regardless of context. Causal inductions decreased thereafter because 12-year-olds and adults made more taxonomic choices when reasoning in the taxonomic context. These findings suggest that simple causal relations may often be the default knowledge structure in young children's inductive reasoning, that sensitivity to causal direction is present early on, and that children over-generalize their causal knowledge when reasoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Violation of causality in f( T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otalora, G.; Rebouças, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    In the standard formulation, the f( T) field equations are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations, and thus the theory does not inherit the causal structure of special relativity. Actually, even locally violation of causality can occur in this formulation of f( T) gravity. A locally Lorentz covariant f( T) gravity theory has been devised recently, and this local causality problem seems to have been overcome. The non-locality question, however, is left open. If gravitation is to be described by this covariant f( T) gravity theory there are a number of issues that ought to be examined in its context, including the question as to whether its field equations allow homogeneous Gödel-type solutions, which necessarily leads to violation of causality on non-local scale. Here, to look into the potentialities and difficulties of the covariant f( T) theories, we examine whether they admit Gödel-type solutions. We take a combination of a perfect fluid with electromagnetic plus a scalar field as source, and determine a general Gödel-type solution, which contains special solutions in which the essential parameter of Gödel-type geometries, m^2, defines any class of homogeneous Gödel-type geometries. We show that solutions of the trigonometric and linear classes (m^2 electromagnetic field matter component. We extended to the context of covariant f( T) gravity a theorem which ensures that any perfect-fluid homogeneous Gödel-type solution defines the same set of Gödel tetrads h_A^{ μ } up to a Lorentz transformation. We also showed that the single massless scalar field generates Gödel-type solution with no closed time-like curves. Even though the covariant f( T) gravity restores Lorentz covariance of the field equations and the local validity of the causality principle, the bare existence of the Gödel-type solutions makes apparent that the covariant formulation of f( T) gravity does not preclude non-local violation of causality in the form of closed time

  12. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Loh, Po-Ru; Enayetallah, Ahmed; Berger, Bonnie; Ziemek, Daniel

    2012-02-20

    Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds.Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical challenges unique to signed causal graphs

  13. Causal connections in the acquisition of an orthographic rule: a test of Uta Frith's developmental hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Claire; Bryant, Peter

    2006-08-01

    In a longitudinal study we tested Frith's causal hypothesis that children first gain orthographic knowledge through reading and then later, as a consequence, through spelling. Children from Years 2 and 3 were tested three times over two years on their reading and spelling of pseudo-words which conformed to the conditional orthographic rule, the 'final -e' or 'split-digraph' rule. Cross-lagged panel correlation analyses suggested that the children's success in reading split-digraph words was a causal determinant of their learning to use split-digraphs in spelling, in the 7- to 8-year period and, with one year-group but not with the other, in the 8- to 9-year period. In the 9- to 10-year period children's success in reading no longer seemed to affect their spelling. These results strongly support Frith's causal hypothesis about the development of orthographic knowledge.

  14. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Algeria: Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherfi Souhila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy consumption-growth nexus in Algeria. The causal relationship between the logarithm of per capita energy consumption (LPCEC and the logarithm of per capita GDP (LPCGDP during the 1965-2008 period is examined using the threshold cointegration and Granger causality tests. The estimation results indicate that the LPCEC and LPCGDP for Algeria are non cointegrated and that there is a uni-directional causality running from LPCGDP to LPCEC, but not vice versa. The research results strongly support the neoclassical perspective that energy consumption is not a limiting factor to economic growth in Algeria. Accordingly, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that government can pursue the conservation energy policies that aim at curtailing energy use for environmental friendly development purposes without creating severe effects on economic growth. The energy should be efficiently allocated into more productive sectors of the economy.

  15. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  16. Violence in psychosis: conceptualizing its causal relationship with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamsma, J.; Harte, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While statistically robust, the association between psychosis and violence remains causally unexplained. Objective: To provide an overview of possible causal pathways between risk factors and violence in psychosis. Methods: A structured narrative review of relevant studies published

  17. Elements of Causal Inference: Foundations and Learning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Jonas Martin; Janzing, Dominik; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    A concise and self-contained introduction to causal inference, increasingly important in data science and machine learning......A concise and self-contained introduction to causal inference, increasingly important in data science and machine learning...

  18. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  19. The Hankel transform of causal distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Aguirre T.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this note we evaluate the unidimensional distributional Hankel transform of \\dfrac{x^{\\alpha-1}_{+}}{\\Gamma^{\\alpha}},\\dfrac{x^{\\alpha-1}_{-}}{\\Gamma^{\\alpha}},dfrac{|x|^{\\alpha-1}}{\\Gamma^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}},dfrac{|x|^{\\alpha-1}sgn(x}{\\Gamma^{\\frac{\\alpha +1}{2}}} and (x± i0^{\\alpha-1} and then we extend the formulae to certain kinds of n-dimensional distributions calles "causal" and "anti-causal" distributions. We evaluate the distributional Handel transform of \\dfrac{(m^2+P^{\\alpha -1}_{-}}{\\Gamma^{(\\alpha} }, \\dfrac{|m^2+P|^{\\alpha -1}_{-}}{\\Gamma^{(\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}}, \\dfrac{|m^2+P|^{\\alpha -1}sgn(m^2+P}{\\Gamma (\\frac{\\alpha +1}{2 }} and (m^2+P±i0^{\\alpha-1}

  20. Kernel Method for Nonlinear Granger Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Pellicoro, Mario; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2008-04-01

    Important information on the structure of complex systems can be obtained by measuring to what extent the individual components exchange information among each other. The linear Granger approach, to detect cause-effect relationships between time series, has emerged in recent years as a leading statistical technique to accomplish this task. Here we generalize Granger causality to the nonlinear case using the theory of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Our method performs linear Granger causality in the feature space of suitable kernel functions, assuming arbitrary degree of nonlinearity. We develop a new strategy to cope with the problem of overfitting, based on the geometry of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Applications to coupled chaotic maps and physiological data sets are presented.

  1. Finite quantum electrodynamics the causal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Günter

    2014-01-01

    In this classic text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics, author Günter Scharf carefully analyzes the role of causality in quantum electrodynamics. His approach offers full proofs and detailed calculations of scattering processes in a mathematically rigorous manner. This third edition contains Scharf's revisions and corrections plus a brief new Epilogue on gauge invariance of quantum electrodynamics to all orders. The book begins with Dirac's theory, followed by the quantum theory of free fields and causal perturbation theory, a powerful method that avoids ultraviolet divergences and solves the infrared problem by means of the adiabatic limit. Successive chapters explore properties of the S-matrix — such as renormalizability, gauge invariance, and unitarity — the renormalization group, and interactive fields. Additional topics include electromagnetic couplings and the extension of the methods to non-abelian gauge theories. Each chapter is supplemented with problems, and four appe...

  2. Capturing cognitive causal paths in human reliability analysis with Bayesian network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirglmaier, Kilian; Straub, Daniel; Groth, Katrina M.

    2017-01-01

    reIn the last decade, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been identified as a powerful tool for human reliability analysis (HRA), with multiple advantages over traditional HRA methods. In this paper we illustrate how BNs can be used to include additional, qualitative causal paths to provide traceability. The proposed framework provides the foundation to resolve several needs frequently expressed by the HRA community. First, the developed extended BN structure reflects the causal paths found in cognitive psychology literature, thereby addressing the need for causal traceability and strong scientific basis in HRA. Secondly, the use of node reduction algorithms allows the BN to be condensed to a level of detail at which quantification is as straightforward as the techniques used in existing HRA. We illustrate the framework by developing a BN version of the critical data misperceived crew failure mode in the IDHEAS HRA method, which is currently under development at the US NRC . We illustrate how the model could be quantified with a combination of expert-probabilities and information from operator performance databases such as SACADA. This paper lays the foundations necessary to expand the cognitive and quantitative foundations of HRA. - Highlights: • A framework for building traceable BNs for HRA, based on cognitive causal paths. • A qualitative BN structure, directly showing these causal paths is developed. • Node reduction algorithms are used for making the BN structure quantifiable. • BN quantified through expert estimates and observed data (Bayesian updating). • The framework is illustrated for a crew failure mode of IDHEAS.

  3. Influence of Customer Focused Mission Statement on Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of customer‑focused mission statements on customer satisfaction in selected cell phone manufacturing companies in the United States. The study employed content analysis for the mission statement and data from America customer satisfaction index (ACSI. In analysing our data, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression techniques were used. The result showed that product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image mission statement components are strongly positively correlated with customer satisfaction. Customer, survival, growth and profitability and market mission statement components are insignificantly negatively correlated with customer satisfaction. The study, therefore, recommends that companies that want to remain competitive by enhancing customer satisfaction should formulate mission statements from a customer perspective so that they include product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image components. The main limitation of the study represents the sample size and structure. This study empirically investigated the correlation and association of nine mission statement components with customer satisfaction.

  4. Granger-Causality Maps of Diffusion Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wahl, B.; Feudel, U.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.; Freund, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 16 February (2016), č. článku 022213. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Granger causality * stochastic process * diffusion process * nonlinear dynamical systems Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  5. On the causality relations in thermoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Federico; López de Haro, Mariano; Figueroa, Aldo

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between the causality principle and the existence of couplings between different thermodynamic driving forces in a given phenomenon is discussed. The case of thermoelectricity is explicitly analyzed. A transport equation for the propagation of thermal disturbances in a sample after an electric potential difference is applied is derived. The consequences of the non-hyperbolic character of this equation and the need for investigating its possible connection with nonequilibrium thermodynamics formulations are pointed out.

  6. Usage of internal statements in making consolidated financial statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Herman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the consolidated financial statements is the result of integration processes in the businesses that lead to pooling of different companies. As consolidated financial statements present an aggregated look at the financial position of a parent and its subsidiaries, they let you gauge the overall health of an entire group of companies as opposed to one company’s standalone position. Consolidation of financial statements requires from the participants of joining elaborating their individual statements. The article describes the general scheme of consolidation process and defines the key trends of consolidation adjustments, in particular, financial investments, internal operations, goodwill and exchange rate differences. It is found out that to get information about internal operations and financial investments such data have to be synthesized from internal statements. This approach allows using the same accounting methods to parent and subsidiary entities. The objects, the users and the subject domain of internal statements are determined in order to make consolidation of financial statements of joining.

  7. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship). Find...

  8. Statement on virginity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Virginity testing (virginity examination) is a gynecological examination that is intended to correlate the status and appearance of the hymen with previous sexual contact to determine whether a female has had or is habituated to sexual intercourse. Virginity examinations are practiced in many countries, often forcibly, including in detention places; on women who allege rape or are accused of prostitution; and as part of public or social policies to control sexuality. The Independent Forensic Expert Group (IFEG) - thirty-five preeminent independent forensic experts from eighteen countries specialized in evaluating and documenting the physical and psychological effects of torture and ill-treatment - released a statement on the practice in December 2014. In its statement, the IFEG outlines the physical and psychological effects of forcibly conducting virginity examinations on females based on its collective experience. The Group assesses whether, based on the effects, forcibly conducted virginity examinations constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or torture. Finally, the IFEG addresses the medical interpretation, relevance, and ethical implications of such examinations. The IFEG concludes that virginity examinations are medically unreliable and have no clinical or scientific value. These examinations are inherently discriminatory and, in almost all instances, when conducted forcibly, result in significant physical and mental pain and suffering, thereby constituting cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or torture. When virginity examinations are forcibly conducted and involve vaginal penetration, the examination should be considered as sexual assault and rape. Involvement of health professionals in these examinations violates the basic standards and ethics of the professions. Copyright © 2015 Torture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A new approach to causality in the frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Dalkir

    2004-01-01

    This study refers to the earlier work of analysis in the frequency domain. A different definition of causality is made, and its implications to the general idea of causality are discussed. The causality relationship between two monetary aggregates, simple sum and Divisia indices, and their relation with the personal income is analyzed using wavelet time-scale decomposition.

  10. A Quantitative Causal Model Theory of Conditional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbach, Philip M.; Erb, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose and test a causal model theory of reasoning about conditional arguments with causal content. According to the theory, the acceptability of modus ponens (MP) and affirming the consequent (AC) reflect the conditional likelihood of causes and effects based on a probabilistic causal model of the scenario being judged. Acceptability…

  11. How to Be Causal: Time, Spacetime and Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    I explain a simple definition of causality in widespread use, and indicate how it links to the Kramers-Kronig relations. The specification of causality in terms of temporal differential equations then shows us the way to write down dynamical models so that their causal nature "in the sense used here" should be obvious to all. To extend existing…

  12. Pathway Analysis and the Search for Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Nicholas; Barnes, Jeb

    2016-01-01

    The study of causal mechanisms interests scholars across the social sciences. Case studies can be a valuable tool in developing knowledge and hypotheses about how causal mechanisms function. The usefulness of case studies in the search for causal mechanisms depends on effective case selection, and there are few existing guidelines for selecting…

  13. Causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Raymond Ashwin

    Categorical quantum mechanics is a way of formalising the structural features of quantum theory using category theory. It uses compound systems as the primitive notion, which is formalised by using symmetric monoidal categories. This leads to an elegant formalism for describing quantum protocols such as quantum teleportation. In particular, categorical quantum mechanics provides a graphical calculus that exposes the information flow of such protocols in an intuitive way. However, the graphical calculus also reveals surprising features of these protocols; for example, in the quantum teleportation protocol, information appears to flow `backwards-in-time'. This leads to question of how causal structure can be described within categorical quantum mechanics, and how this might lead to insight regarding the structural compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This thesis is concerned with the project of formalising causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics. We begin by studying an abstract view of Bell-type experiments, as described by `no-signalling boxes', and we show that under time-reversal no-signalling boxes generically become signalling. This conflicts with the underlying symmetry of relativistic causal structure. This leads us to consider the framework of categorical quantum mechanics from the perspective of relativistic causal structure. We derive the properties that a symmetric monoidal category must satisfy in order to describe systems in such a background causal structure. We use these properties to define a new type of category, and this provides a formal framework for describing protocols in spacetime. We explore this new structure, showing how it leads to an understanding of the counter-intuitive information flow of protocols in categorical quantum mechanics. We then find that the formal properties of our new structure are naturally related to axioms for reconstructing quantum theory, and we show how a reconstruction scheme based on

  14. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  15. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  16. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    York eHagmayer; Neele eEngelmann

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  17. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  18. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  19. Developing Causal Understanding with Causal Maps: The Impact of Total Links, Temporal Flow, and Lateral Position of Outcome Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Allan; Lee, Woon Jee

    2012-01-01

    This study examined some of the methodological approaches used by students to construct causal maps in order to determine which approaches help students understand the underlying causes and causal mechanisms in a complex system. This study tested the relationship between causal understanding (ratio of root causes correctly/incorrectly identified,…

  20. Information causality from an entropic and a probabilistic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safi, Sabri W.; Short, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The information causality principle is a generalization of the no-signaling principle which implies some of the known restrictions on quantum correlations. But despite its clear physical motivation, information causality is formulated in terms of a rather specialized game and figure of merit. We explore different perspectives on information causality, discussing the probability of success as the figure of merit, a relation between information causality and the nonlocal ''inner-product game,'' and the derivation of a quadratic bound for these games. We then examine an entropic formulation of information causality with which one can obtain the same results, arguably in a simpler fashion.

  1. Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    In this thesis, we investigate the connections between the geometry of spacetime and aspects of quantum field theory such as entanglement entropy and causality. This work is motivated by the idea that spacetime geometry is an emergent phenomenon in quantum gravity, and that the physics responsible for this emergence is fundamental to quantum field theory. Part I of this thesis is focused on the interplay between spacetime and entropy, with a special emphasis on entropy due to entanglement. In general spacetimes, there exist locally-defined surfaces sensitive to the geometry that may act as local black hole boundaries or cosmological horizons; these surfaces, known as holographic screens, are argued to have a connection with the second law of thermodynamics. Holographic screens obey an area law, suggestive of an association with entropy; they are also distinguished surfaces from the perspective of the covariant entropy bound, a bound on the total entropy of a slice of the spacetime. This construction is shown to be quite general, and is formulated in both classical and perturbatively quantum theories of gravity. The remainder of Part I uses the Anti-de Sitter/ Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to both expand and constrain the connection between entanglement entropy and geometry. The AdS/CFT correspondence posits an equivalence between string theory in the "bulk" with AdS boundary conditions and certain quantum field theories. In the limit where the string theory is simply classical General Relativity, the Ryu-Takayanagi and more generally, the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) formulae provide a way of relating the geometry of surfaces to entanglement entropy. A first-order bulk quantum correction to HRT was derived by Faulkner, Lewkowycz and Maldacena. This formula is generalized to include perturbative quantum corrections in the bulk at any (finite) order. Hurdles to spacetime emergence from entanglement entropy as described by HRT and its quantum

  2. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  3. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  4. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EDF - 2012 full-year results: Strong results and commitments delivered. Confirmation of the solidity of EDF's integrated and diversified business model. Annual results 2012. Electricite de France S.A.: Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements. Management report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2012 annual results, management report and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2012: EBITDA: euro 16.1 billion, +7.7% of which 4.6% organic growth; Net income excluding non-recurring items: euro 4.2 billion, +16.9%; Net income - Group share: euro 3.3 billion, + 5.3%; Allocation in 2013 of the CSPE receivable to dedicated assets, bringing coverage of eligible provisions to 100% starting as early as 2013; Net financial debt/EBITDA: 2.4x2; Proposed dividend of euro 1.25/share for the 20123 financial year, i.e. a pay-out ratio of 55% of net income excluding non-recurring items. 2013: a decisive year: Launch of 'Spark': plan targeting savings of euro 1 billion as soon as 2013; EBITDA: between 0% and 3% in organic growth excluding Edison; Edison: expectation for recurring EBITDA in line with 2012, with fluctuation in results possible in 2013-2014 linked to calendar effect from the re-negotiation of gas supply contracts; Net investments stable at euro 12 billion; Net financial debt/EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; Pay-out ratio: between 55% and 65% of net income excluding non-recurring items. Consolidated Financial Statements: Group accounting standards; comparability; significant events and transactions; regulatory events in France; changes in the scope of consolidation; segment reporting; sales; fuel and energy purchases; other external expenses; personnel expenses; taxes other than income taxes; other operating income and expenses; impairment / reversals; other income and expenses; financial result

  6. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basis of policy disagreements. At the same time, such signing statements serve a legitimate function in... interpretations of the Constitution that are well-founded. 3. To promote transparency and accountability, I will...

  7. Basic statements of relativity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  8. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  9. Writing Your UCAS Personal Statement.

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Tess

    2010-01-01

    The personal statement on the UCAS form is your best opportunity to "sell" yourself to the universities of your choice. Here, Tess Parkinson, a psychology admissions tutor, gives inside advice on how to approach what may seem a daunting task.

  10. A Causal Theory of Mnemonic Confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernecker, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to answer the question of what defines mnemonic confabulation vis-à-vis genuine memory. The two extant accounts of mnemonic confabulation as "false memory" and as ill-grounded memory are shown to be problematic, for they cannot account for the possibility of veridical confabulation, ill-grounded memory, and well-grounded confabulation. This paper argues that the defining characteristic of mnemonic confabulation is that it lacks the appropriate causal history. In the confabulation case, there is no proper counterfactual dependence of the state of seeming to remember on the corresponding past representation.

  11. A Causal Theory of Mnemonic Confabulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Bernecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question of what defines mnemonic confabulation vis-à-vis genuine memory. The two extant accounts of mnemonic confabulation as “false memory” and as ill-grounded memory are shown to be problematic, for they cannot account for the possibility of veridical confabulation, ill-grounded memory, and well-grounded confabulation. This paper argues that the defining characteristic of mnemonic confabulation is that it lacks the appropriate causal history. In the confabulation case, there is no proper counterfactual dependence of the state of seeming to remember on the corresponding past representation.

  12. De Broglie's causal interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YOAV Ben-Dov

    1989-01-01

    In this article we trace the history of de Broglie's two causal interpretations of quantum mechanics, namely the double solution and the pilot wave theories, at the two periods in which he developed them: 1924-27 and 1952 onwards. Examining the reasons for which he always preferred the first theory to the second, reasons that are mainly concerned with the question of the physical nature of the quantum wave function, we try to show the continuity and the coherence of his underlying vision

  13. [Therapy of polyneuropathies. Causal and symptomatic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Felber, W

    2001-05-28

    In the first instance, polyneuropathies are treated causally. The most common underlying cause is diabetes mellitus or alcohol abuse. In a large number of patients with polyneuropathy, however, the underlying cause cannot be definitively identified. For these--but equally for patients with etiologically clear polyneuropathy--a stock-taking of clinical symptoms should be carried out and, where indicated, symptomatic treatment initiated. In addition to medication aimed at combating pain, muscular spasm, autonomic functional disorders, and for the prevention of thrombosis, physical measures (physiotherapy, foot care, orthopedic shoes) are of primary importance.

  14. Conditional Granger Causality of Diffusion Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wahl, B.; Feudel, U.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.; Freund, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 197. ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Granger causality * stochastic process * diffusion process * nonlinear dynamical systems Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  15. GASB Statement No. 3 Guides Deposits, Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linda A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses an April 1986 Governmental Accounting Standards Board statement concerning disclosures of repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. The statement tries to help financial statement users assess the risks a goverment entity takes when investing public funds. It is effective for financial statement periods ending after December 15,…

  16. It's Time to Implement GASB Statement 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinfeld, Gary; Nuehring, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) issued Statement No. 54, "Find Balance Reporting and Governmental Fund Type Definitions." This statement changes how a fund balance is classified on the face of the government fund financial statements and refines the definitions for government fund types. The statement's…

  17. 29 CFR 99.310 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....310 Financial statements. (a) Financial statements. The auditee shall prepare financial statements that reflect its financial position, results of operations or changes in net assets, and, where... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Financial statements. 99.310 Section 99.310 Labor Office of...

  18. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  19. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  20. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  1. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Antibibiotic resistance by nosocomial infections' causal agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Holguín, Héctor Daniel; Cisneros-Robledo, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    The antibibiotic resistance by nosocomial infections (NI) causal agents constitutes a seriously global problematic that involves the Mexican Institute of Social Security's Regional General Hospital 1 in Chihuahua, Mexico; although with special features that required to be specified and evaluated, in order to concrete an effective therapy. Observational, descriptive and prospective study; by means of active vigilance all along 2014 in order to detect the nosocomial infections, for epidemiologic study, culture and antibiogram to identify its causal agents and antibiotics resistance and sensitivity. Among 13527 hospital discharges, 1079 displayed NI (8 %), standed out: the related on vascular lines, of surgical site, pneumonia and urinal track; they added up two thirds of the total. We carried out culture and antibiogram about 300 of them (27.8 %); identifying 31 bacterian species, mainly seven of those (77.9 %): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae; showing multiresistance to 34 tested antibiotics, except in seven with low or without resistance at all: vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, piperacilin-tazobactam, amikacin and carbapenems. When we contrasted those results with the recommendations in the clinical practice guides, it aroused several contradictions; so they must be taken with reserves and has to be tested in each hospital, by means of cultures and antibiograms in practically every case of nosocomial infection.

  3. Evidence for online processing during causal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-03-01

    Many models of learning describe both the end product of learning (e.g., causal judgments) and the cognitive mechanisms that unfold on a trial-by-trial basis. However, the methods employed in the literature typically provide only indirect evidence about the unfolding cognitive processes. Here, we utilized a simultaneous secondary task to measure cognitive processing during a straightforward causal-learning task. The results from three experiments demonstrated that covariation information is not subject to uniform cognitive processing. Instead, we observed systematic variation in the processing dedicated to individual pieces of covariation information. In particular, observations that are inconsistent with previously presented covariation information appear to elicit greater cognitive processing than do observations that are consistent with previously presented covariation information. In addition, the degree of cognitive processing appears to be driven by learning per se, rather than by nonlearning processes such as memory and attention. Overall, these findings suggest that monitoring learning processes at a finer level may provide useful psychological insights into the nature of learning.

  4. Diagnostic reasoning using qualitative causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The application of expert systems to reasoning problems involving real-time data from plant measurements has been a topic of much research, but few practical systems have been deployed. One obstacle to wider use of expert systems in applications involving real-time data is the lack of adequate knowledge representation methodologies for dynamic processes. Knowledge bases composed mainly of rules have disadvantages when applied to dynamic processes and real-time data. This paper describes a methodology for the development of qualitative causal models that can be used as knowledge bases for reasoning about process dynamic behavior. These models provide a systematic method for knowledge base construction, considerably reducing the engineering effort required. They also offer much better opportunities for verification and validation of the knowledge base, thus increasing the possibility of the application of expert systems to reasoning about mission critical systems. Starting with the Signed Directed Graph (SDG) method that has been successfully applied to describe the behavior of diverse dynamic processes, the paper shows how certain non-physical behaviors that result from abstraction may be eliminated by applying causal constraint to the models. The resulting Extended Signed Directed Graph (ESDG) may then be compiled to produce a model for use in process fault diagnosis. This model based reasoning methodology is used in the MOBIAS system being developed by Duke Power Company under EPRI sponsorship. 15 refs., 4 figs

  5. Introducing mechanics by tapping core causal knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, Kees; Westra, Axel; Emmett, Katrina; Eijkelhof, Harrie; Lijnse, Piet

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns an outline of an introductory mechanics course. It is based on the argument that various uses of the concept of force (e.g. from Kepler, Newton and everyday life) share an explanatory strategy based on core causal knowledge. The strategy consists of (a) the idea that a force causes a deviation from how an object would move of its own accord (i.e. its force-free motion), and (b) an incentive to search, where the motion deviates from the assumed force-free motion, for recurring configurations with which such deviations can be correlated (interaction theory). Various assumptions can be made concerning both the force-free motion and the interaction theory, thus giving rise to a variety of specific explanations. Kepler's semi-implicit intuition about the force-free motion is rest, Newton's explicit assumption is uniform rectilinear motion, while in everyday explanations a diversity of pragmatic suggestions can be recognized. The idea is that the explanatory strategy, once made explicit by drawing on students' intuitive causal knowledge, can be made to function for students as an advance organizer, in the sense of a general scheme that they recognize but do not yet know how to detail for scientific purposes

  6. Causal Inference in the Perception of Verticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winkel, Ksander N; Katliar, Mikhail; Diers, Daniel; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2018-04-03

    The perceptual upright is thought to be constructed by the central nervous system (CNS) as a vector sum; by combining estimates on the upright provided by the visual system and the body's inertial sensors with prior knowledge that upright is usually above the head. Recent findings furthermore show that the weighting of the respective sensory signals is proportional to their reliability, consistent with a Bayesian interpretation of a vector sum (Forced Fusion, FF). However, violations of FF have also been reported, suggesting that the CNS may rely on a single sensory system (Cue Capture, CC), or choose to process sensory signals based on inferred signal causality (Causal Inference, CI). We developed a novel alternative-reality system to manipulate visual and physical tilt independently. We tasked participants (n = 36) to indicate the perceived upright for various (in-)congruent combinations of visual-inertial stimuli, and compared models based on their agreement with the data. The results favor the CI model over FF, although this effect became unambiguous only for large discrepancies (±60°). We conclude that the notion of a vector sum does not provide a comprehensive explanation of the perception of the upright, and that CI offers a better alternative.

  7. ¿CONFIEREN PODERES CAUSALES LOS UNIVERSALES TRASCENDENTES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Alvarado Marambio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the so-called ‘Eleatic’ argument against the existence of transcendent universals, i. e. universals which does not require instantiation for its existence. The Eleatic Principle states that everything produces a difference in the causal powers of something. As transcendent universals seem not to produce such a difference, transcendent universals seem not to exist. The argument depends crucially on the justification and the interpretation of the Eleatic Principle. It is argued, first, that it is not very clear that the principle is justified, and, second, that there are several alternatives for its interpretation, in relation with the different theories one can endorse about modality or causality. Anti-realist theories of modality or causality are not very appropriate for the understanding of what should be a ‘causal power’. Neither does a realist theory of causality conjoined with a combinatorial theory of possible worlds. A ‘causal power’ seems to be better understood in connection with a realist –non-reductionist– theory of causality and a causal theory of modality. Taken in this way the Eleatic Principle, nonetheless, it is argued that transcendent universals do ‘produce’ a difference in causal powers, for every causal connection requires such universals for its existence.

  8. Trivariate causality between economic growth, urbanisation and electricity consumption in Angola: Cointegration and causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between economic growth, urbanisation and electricity consumption in the case of Angola, while utilizing the data over the period of 1971–2009. We have applied Lee and Strazicich (2003. The Review of Economics and Statistics 63, 1082–1089; 2004. Working Paper. Department of Economics, Appalachian State University) unit root tests to examine the stationarity properties of the series. Using the Gregory–Hansen structural break cointegration procedure as a complement, we employ the ARDL bounds test to investigate long run relationships. The VECM Granger causality test is subsequently used to examine the direction of causality between economic growth, urbanisation, and electricity consumption. Our results indicate the existence of long run relationships. We further observe evidence in favour of bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. The feedback hypothesis is also found between urbanisation and economic growth. Urbanisation and electricity consumption Granger cause each other. We conclude that Angola is energy-dependent country. Consequently, the relevant authorities should boost electricity production as one of the means of achieving sustainable economic development in the long run. - Highlights: • We consider the link between electricity consumption and economic growth in Angola. • Urbanisation is added to turn the research into a trivariate investigation. • Various time series procedures are used. • Results show that increasing electricity will improve economic growth in Angola. • Results show urbanisations reduced economic growth during civil war

  9. God Does Not Play Dice: Causal Determinism and Preschoolers' Causal Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Laura E.; Sommerville, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated children's belief in causal determinism. If children are determinists, they should infer unobserved causes whenever observed causes appear to act stochastically. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds saw a stochastic generative cause and inferred the existence of an unobserved inhibitory cause. Children traded off inferences…

  10. Quantum causality conceptual issues in the causal theory of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Riggs, Peter J; French, Steven RD

    2009-01-01

    This is a treatise devoted to the foundations of quantum physics and the role that causality plays in the microscopic world governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. The book is controversial and will engender some lively debate on the various issues raised.

  11. IPPF statement on infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The policy statement on infertility issued by the International Medical Advisory Panel of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and adopted by the Central Council of the IPPF in November, 1984, is provided. The IPPF recognizes that subinfertility and infertility is a part of family planning and provides suggestions for how Family Planning Associations (FPAs) can provide supportive assistance in this area of concern. Depending on the facilities and resources available at specific clinics, FPS can provide preventive, counseling, diagnostic, treatment, and referral services. FPAs can play a major role in prevention. Many conditions which cause infertility are preventable, and these include sexually transmitted diseases, infections stemming from abortion and childbirth, and possibly tuberculosis. IUDs increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease and may increase the risk of infertility; however, a direct relationship between IUDs and infertility has not been established. Injectable contraceptives may delay the return of fertility but do not lead to permanent infertility. Barrier methods protect againsr sexually transmitted diseases, and oral contraceptives may provide protection from pelvic inflammatory disease. FPAs should be familiar with the major causes of infertility in their region and adopt an advocacy role by promoting community programs to control sexually transmitted diseases which may play a role in infertility, to improve obstetric care, to increase access to reproductive health services, and to provide reproductive educational services for adolescents. FPAs can work in cooporation with other agencies concerned with infertility prevention and management. FPAs can play a direct role by educating their clients about infertility prevention. Most FPAs do have have the facilities and personnel to provide diagnostic and treatment services, but they can provide referral services. They should establish a link with centers which are fully

  12. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. Specious causal attributions in the social sciences: the reformulated stepping-stone theory of heroin use as exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, D

    1983-12-01

    The claims based on causal models employing either statistical or experimental controls are examined and found to be excessive when applied to social or behavioral science data. An exemplary case, in which strong causal claims are made on the basis of a weak version of the regularity model of cause, is critiqued. O'Donnell and Clayton claim that in order to establish that marijuana use is a cause of heroin use (their "reformulated stepping-stone" hypothesis), it is necessary and sufficient to demonstrate that marijuana use precedes heroin use and that the statistically significant association between the two does not vanish when the effects of other variables deemed to be prior to both of them are removed. I argue that O'Donnell and Clayton's version of the regularity model is not sufficient to establish cause and that the planning of social interventions both presumes and requires a generative rather than a regularity causal model. Causal modeling using statistical controls is of value when it compels the investigator to make explicit and to justify a causal explanation but not when it is offered as a substitute for a generative analysis of causal connection.

  15. Entanglement, non-Markovianity, and causal non-separability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milz, Simon; Pollock, Felix A.; Le, Thao P.; Chiribella, Giulio; Modi, Kavan

    2018-03-01

    Quantum mechanics, in principle, allows for processes with indefinite causal order. However, most of these causal anomalies have not yet been detected experimentally. We show that every such process can be simulated experimentally by means of non-Markovian dynamics with a measurement on additional degrees of freedom. In detail, we provide an explicit construction to implement arbitrary a causal processes. Furthermore, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for open system dynamics with measurement to yield processes that respect causality locally, and find that tripartite entanglement and nonlocal unitary transformations are crucial requirements for the simulation of causally indefinite processes. These results show a direct connection between three counter-intuitive concepts: entanglement, non-Markovianity, and causal non-separability.

  16. A MATLAB toolbox for Granger causal connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K

    2010-02-15

    Assessing directed functional connectivity from time series data is a key challenge in neuroscience. One approach to this problem leverages a combination of Granger causality analysis and network theory. This article describes a freely available MATLAB toolbox--'Granger causal connectivity analysis' (GCCA)--which provides a core set of methods for performing this analysis on a variety of neuroscience data types including neuroelectric, neuromagnetic, functional MRI, and other neural signals. The toolbox includes core functions for Granger causality analysis of multivariate steady-state and event-related data, functions to preprocess data, assess statistical significance and validate results, and to compute and display network-level indices of causal connectivity including 'causal density' and 'causal flow'. The toolbox is deliberately small, enabling its easy assimilation into the repertoire of researchers. It is however readily extensible given proficiency with the MATLAB language. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries: A dynamic panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, A.; Zarraga, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market.

  18. Electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa. A trivariate causality test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M. [Economics Department, University of South Africa (UNISA), P.O. Box 392, UNISA, 0003, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we examine the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa. We incorporate the employment rate as an intermittent variable in the bivariate model between electricity consumption and economic growth - thereby creating a simple trivariate causality framework. Our empirical results show that there is a distinct bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in South Africa. In addition, the results show that employment in South Africa Granger-causes economic growth. The results apply irrespective of whether the causality is estimated in the short-run or in the long-run formulation. The study, therefore, recommends that policies geared towards the expansion of the electricity infrastructure should be intensified in South Africa in order to cope with the increasing demand exerted by the country's strong economic growth and rapid industrialisation programme. This will certainly enable the country to avoid unprecedented power outages similar to those experienced in the country in mid-January 2008. (author)

  19. Causal attribution among women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina W. B. Peuker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Causal attribution among women with breast cancer was studied. The study included 157 women outpatients with breast cancer. A form for sociodemographic and clinical data and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R were used. The results showed that women attributed breast cancer primarily to psychological causes, which does not correspond to known multifactorial causes validated by the scientific community. Providing high quality, patient-centered care requires sensitivity to breast cancer women’s beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how it can influence patient’s health behaviors after diagnosis. If women with breast cancer attribute the illness to modifiable factors then they can keep a healthy lifestyle, improving their recovery and decrease the probability of cancer recurrence after diagnosis.

  20. Delinquency among pathological gamblers: A causal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G; Fabian, T

    1992-03-01

    In a comprehensive research project on gamblers in self-help groups in West Germany one object of investigation was the question of whether or not pathological gambling has a criminogenic effect. 54.5% of the 437 members of Gamblers Anonymous interviewed stated that they had committed illegal actions in order to obtain money for gambling. Comparisons of this sub-group with those interviewees who did not admit having committed criminal offences show distinct differences: Those who admitted illegal action were more excessive in their gambling behavior and experienced a higher degree of subjective satisfaction through gambling. They also showed a more pronounced problem behavior and more psychosocial problems because of gambling. A multiple regression within the framework of path analysis was computed in order to explore causal links between pathological gambling and delinquency. The results support the hypothesis that pathological gambling can lead to delinquent behavior. Forensic implications are discussed.

  1. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  2. A study in cosmology and causal thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H.P. de.

    1986-01-01

    The especial relativity of thermodynamic theories for reversible and irreversible processes in continuous medium is studied. The formalism referring to equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations, and theories which includes the presence of gravitational fields are discussed. The nebular model in contraction with dissipative processes identified by heat flux and volumetric viscosity is thermodymically analysed. This model is presented by a plane conformal metric. The temperature, pressure, entropy and entropy production within thermodynamic formalism which adopts the hypothesis of local equilibrium, is calculated. The same analysis is carried out considering a causal thermodynamics, which establishes a local entropy of non-equilibrium. Possible homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models, considering the new phenomenological equation for volumetric viscosity deriving from cause thermodynamics are investigated. The found out models have plane spatial section (K=0) and some ones do not have singularities. The energy conditions are verified and the entropy production for physically reasobable models are calculated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. On the causal set–continuum correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravani, Mehdi; Aslanbeigi, Siavash

    2014-01-01

    We present two results that concern certain aspects of the question: when is a causal set well approximated by a Lorentzian manifold? The first result is a theorem that shows that the number–volume correspondence, if required to hold even for arbitrarily small regions, is best realized via Poisson sprinkling. The second result concerns a family of lattices in 1+1 dimensional Minkowski space, known as Lorentzian lattices, which we show provide a much better number–volume correspondence than Poisson sprinkling for large volumes. We argue, however, that this feature should not persist in higher dimensions. We conclude by conjecturing a form of the aforementioned theorem that holds under weaker assumptions, namely that Poisson sprinkling provides the best number–volume correspondence in 3+1 dimensions for spacetime regions with macroscopically large volumes. (paper)

  4. Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George; Loll, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global ....... Apart from setting the stage for the analysis of shape dynamics on the torus, the new set-up highlights the role of nontrivial boundaries and topology....... shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large...

  5. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  6. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  7. Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy Are Equivalent for Gaussian Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lionel; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.

    2009-12-01

    Granger causality is a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression. Developed originally in the field of econometrics, it has since found application in a broader arena, particularly in neuroscience. More recently transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between jointly dependent processes, has gained traction in a similarly wide field. While it has been recognized that the two concepts must be related, the exact relationship has until now not been formally described. Here we show that for Gaussian variables, Granger causality and transfer entropy are entirely equivalent, thus bridging autoregressive and information-theoretic approaches to data-driven causal inference.

  8. Analogy in causal inference: rethinking Austin Bradford Hill's neglected consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article was to rethink and resurrect Austin Bradford Hill's "criterion" of analogy as an important consideration in causal inference. In epidemiology today, analogy is either completely ignored (e.g., in many textbooks), or equated with biologic plausibility or coherence, or aligned with the scientist's imagination. None of these examples, however, captures Hill's description of analogy. His words suggest that there may be something gained by contrasting two bodies of evidence, one from an established causal relationship, the other not. Coupled with developments in the methods of systematic assessments of evidence-including but not limited to meta-analysis-analogy can be restructured as a key component in causal inference. This new approach will require that a collection-a library-of known cases of causal inference (i.e., bodies of evidence involving established causal relationships) be developed. This library would likely include causal assessments by organizations such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, a process for describing key features of a causal relationship would need to be developed along with what will be considered paradigm cases of causation. Finally, it will be important to develop ways to objectively compare a "new" body of evidence with the relevant paradigm case of causation. Analogy, along with all other existing methods and causal considerations, may improve our ability to identify causal relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A general, multivariate definition of causal effects in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, W Dana; Klein, Mitchel

    2015-07-01

    Population causal effects are often defined as contrasts of average individual-level counterfactual outcomes, comparing different exposure levels. Common examples include causal risk difference and risk ratios. These and most other examples emphasize effects on disease onset, a reflection of the usual epidemiological interest in disease occurrence. Exposure effects on other health characteristics, such as prevalence or conditional risk of a particular disability, can be important as well, but contrasts involving these other measures may often be dismissed as non-causal. For example, an observed prevalence ratio might often viewed as an estimator of a causal incidence ratio and hence subject to bias. In this manuscript, we provide and evaluate a definition of causal effects that generalizes those previously available. A key part of the generalization is that contrasts used in the definition can involve multivariate, counterfactual outcomes, rather than only univariate outcomes. An important consequence of our generalization is that, using it, one can properly define causal effects based on a wide variety of additional measures. Examples include causal prevalence ratios and differences and causal conditional risk ratios and differences. We illustrate how these additional measures can be useful, natural, easily estimated, and of public health importance. Furthermore, we discuss conditions for valid estimation of each type of causal effect, and how improper interpretation or inferences for the wrong target population can be sources of bias.

  10. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  13. The Dynamic Causal Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in Ghana: A Trivariate Causality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard N. Iyke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Ghana within a trivariate ARDL framework, for the period 1971–2012.The paper obviates the variable omission bias, and the use of cross-sectional techniques that characterise most existing studies. The results show that there is a distinct causal flow from economic growth to electricity consumption: both in the short run and in the long run. This finding supports the growth-led electricity consumption hypothesis, as documented in the literature. The paper urges policymakers in Ghana to resort to alternative sources of electric power generation, in order to reduce any future pressures on the current sources of electricity production. Appropriate monetary policies must also be put in place, in order to accommodate potential inflation hikes stemming from excessive demands for electricity in the near future.

  14. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban

    2011-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: → This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). → The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. → The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. → The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  15. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  16. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  17. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Vietnam: Threshold Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINH Thanh PHUNG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy consumption-growth nexus in Vietnam. The causal relationship between the logarithm of per capita energy consumption (LPCEC and the logarithm of per capita GDP (LPCGDP during the 1976-2010 period is examined using the threshold cointegration and vector error correction models for Granger causality tests. The estimation results indicate that the LPCEC and LPCGDP for Vietnam are cointegrated and that there is a strong uni-directional causality running from LPCGDP to LPCEC, but not vice versa. It is also found that the effect of LPCGDP on LPCEC in Vietnam is time-varying (i.e. significantly different between before and after the structural breakpoint, 1992. The research results strongly support the neoclassical perspective that energy consumption is not a limiting factor to economic growth in Vietnam. Accordingly, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that government can pursue the conservation energy policies that aim at curtailing energy use for environmental friendly development purposes without creating severe effects on economic growth. In future, the energy should be efficiently allocated into more productive sectors of the economy.

  18. Causality between stock price and GDP in Turkey: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Tursoy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the dynamic relationship between stock prices and GDP in Turkey using quarterly data from 1989Q2-2014Q2. The study investigated the interrelationship between the variables via auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL framework and ECM to analyse the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between gross domestic product and stock prices. The results provide strong evidence that both the stock prices and GDP are strongly cointegrated in the long-run. The empirical estimation indicated a significantly positive relationship between GDP and stock prices. The robustness of the ARDL model was confirmed by using Johansen and Juselius’s cointegration test (1990. The Granger causality test results indicate a long-run bidirectional causality between stock prices and GDP, and also a uni-directional causality from GDP to stock prices in the short-run. Both the stock prices and the economic growth are directly linked with each other. The reliability and validity of our estimations are confirmed by the diagnostics and the CUSUM test.

  19. Joint sciences academies statement: global response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Taking into account that there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring, the Joint Science Academies, urge, by this statement, all nations in the line with the UNFCCC principles, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts and ensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. Some recommendations are also given. (A.L.B.)

  20. Causal Relations Drive Young Children's Induction, Naming, and Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, John E.; Bulloch, Megan J.

    2007-01-01

    A number of recent models and experiments have suggested that evidence of early category-based induction is an artifact of perceptual cues provided by experimenters. We tested these accounts against the prediction that different relations (causal versus non-causal) determine the types of perceptual similarity by which children generalize. Young…

  1. Theories of conduct disorder: a causal modelling analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, N.P.C.M.; Morton, J.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De

    2004-01-01

    Background: If a clinician has to make decisions on diagnosis and treatment, he or she is confronted with a variety of causal theories. In order to compare these theories a neutral terminology and notational system is needed. The Causal Modelling framework involving three levels of description –

  2. Thinking Fast and Slow about Causality: Response to Palinkas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Larry Palinkas advances the developing science of social work by providing an explanation of how social science research methods, both qualitative and quantitative, can improve our capacity to draw casual inferences. Understanding causal relations and making causal inferences--with the promise of being able to predict and control outcomes--is…

  3. Cause and Event: Supporting Causal Claims through Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to identify and support credible causal claims have received intense interest in the research community, particularly over the past few decades. In this paper, we focus on the use of statistical procedures designed to support causal claims for a treatment or intervention when the response variable of interest is dichotomous. We identify…

  4. Financial networks based on Granger causality: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papana, A.; Kyrtsou, C.; Kugiumtzis, D.; Diks, C.

    Connectivity analysis is performed on a long financial record of 21 international stock indices employing a linear and a nonlinear causality measure, the conditional Granger causality index (CGCI) and the partial mutual information on mixed embedding (PMIME), respectively. Both measures aim to

  5. An Information Processing Approach to Children's Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    This paper questions evidence for the thesis that causal reasoning of older children is more logical than that of younger ones, and describes two experiments which attempted to determine (1) whether there are true developmental differences in causal reasoning, and (2) what explanations for developmental differences can be supported. In the first…

  6. Causality in 1+1-dimensional Yukawa model-II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... shown that the effective model can be interpreted as a field theory of a bound state. We study causality in such a ... the motivation pertaining to causality violation in the bound states. In §3 condition of .... Consider a diagram with n external scalars, L fermion loops, V vertices, IF internal fermion lines and IB ...

  7. Forces and Motion: How Young Children Understand Causal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksun, Tilbe; George, Nathan R.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2013-01-01

    How do children evaluate complex causal events? This study investigates preschoolers' representation of "force dynamics" in causal scenes, asking whether (a) children understand how single and dual forces impact an object's movement and (b) this understanding varies across cause types (Cause, Enable, Prevent). Three-and-a half- to…

  8. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  9. Sartre's Contingency of Being and Asouzu's Principle of Causality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The position of this work is that all contingent beings have a causal agent. This position is taken as a result of trying to delve into the issue of contingency and causality of being which has been discussed by many philosophers of diverse epochs of philosophy. This work tries to participate in the debate of whether contingent ...

  10. A note on mental content in the Causal Theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A note on mental content in the Causal Theory. JP Smit. Department of Philosophy, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, 7600 Matieland, South Africa. E-mail: jps@sun.ac.za. Kripke's causal theory requires that downstream users of a name must have the intention to use the name in the same way that upstream users ...

  11. Identification of Mixed Causal-Noncausal Models in Finite Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecq, Alain; Lieb, Lenard; Telg, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Gouriéroux and Zakoïan (2013) propose to use noncausal models to parsimoniously capture nonlinear features often observed in financial time series and in particular bubble phenomena. In order to distinguish causal autoregressive processes from purely noncausal or mixed causal-noncausal ones, one has

  12. Causal Discourse Analyzer: Improving Automated Feedback on Academic ESL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Saricaoglu, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Expressing causal relations plays a central role in academic writing. While it is important that writing instructors assess and provide feedback on learners' causal discourse, it could be a very time-consuming task. In this respect, automated writing evaluation (AWE) tools may be helpful. However, to date, there have been no AWE tools capable of…

  13. Thinking in a Foreign language reduces the causality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Lago, Marcos; Matute, Helena

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of a foreign language on the causality bias (i.e., the illusion that two events are causally related when they are not). We predict that using a foreign language could reduce the illusions of causality. A total of 36 native English speakers participated in Experiment 1, 80 native Spanish speakers in Experiment 2. They performed a standard contingency learning task, which can be used to detect causal illusions. Participants who performed the task in their native tongue replicated the illusion of causality effect, whereas those performing the task in their foreign language were more accurate in detecting that the two events were causally unrelated. Our results suggest that presenting the information in a foreign language could be used as a strategy to debias individuals against causal illusions, thereby facilitating more accurate judgements and decisions in non-contingent situations. They also contribute to the debate on the nature and underlying mechanisms of the foreign language effect, given that the illusion of causality is rooted in basic associative processes.

  14. Is there a causal relationship between alcohol and HIV? Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is now conclusive evidence of a causal linkage between heavy drinking patterns and/or alcohol use disorders and the worsening of the disease course for HIV. However, while alcohol usage is consistently associated with the prevalence and incidence of HIV, further research is needed to substantiate causality in ...

  15. Temporal and Statistical Information in Causal Structure Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Teresa; Frosch, Caren; Patrick, Fiona; Lagnado, David

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined children's and adults' abilities to use statistical and temporal information to distinguish between common cause and causal chain structures. In Experiment 1, participants were provided with conditional probability information and/or temporal information and asked to infer the causal structure of a 3-variable mechanical…

  16. Weighting-Based Sensitivity Analysis in Causal Mediation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guanglei; Qin, Xu; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Through a sensitivity analysis, the analyst attempts to determine whether a conclusion of causal inference could be easily reversed by a plausible violation of an identification assumption. Analytic conclusions that are harder to alter by such a violation are expected to add a higher value to scientific knowledge about causality. This article…

  17. Non-Bayesian Inference: Causal Structure Trumps Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Benedicte; Sloman, Steven; Lucas, Christopher G.; Raufaste, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that conditional probability judgments can be influenced by causal links between the target event and the evidence even when the statistical relations among variables are held constant. Three experiments varied the causal structure relating three variables and found that (a) the target event was perceived as more…

  18. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: eostm@muon.kaist.ac.k, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-21

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  19. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so.

  20. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  1. Accounting Principles and Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel D.

    1973-01-01

    This document presents the background and analysis of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) guide to auditing colleges and universities. Highlights include the approval of the market value option, the treatment of endowment gains, debt services as transfers, the decisions on pledges, the use of financial statements, the…

  2. A Simple Method for Causal Analysis of Return on IT Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; Zargoush, Manaf; Oakes, James L.; Edrees, Hanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for examining the causal relationship among investment in information technology (IT) and the organization's productivity. In this method, first a strong relationship among (1) investment in IT, (2) use of IT and (3) organization's productivity is verified using correlations. Second, the assumption that IT investment preceded improved productivity is tested using partial correlation. Finally, the assumption of what may have happened in the absence of IT investment, the so called counterfactual, is tested through forecasting productivity at different levels of investment. The paper applies the proposed method to investment in the Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VISTA) system. Result show that the causal analysis can be done, even with limited data. Furthermore, because the procedure relies on overall organization's productivity, it might be more objective than when the analyst picks and chooses which costs and benefits should be included in the analysis. PMID:23019515

  3. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  4. Statistical causal inferences and their applications in public health research

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Pan; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles and presents new developments in statistical causal inference. The accompanying data and computer programs are publicly available so readers may replicate the model development and data analysis presented in each chapter. In this way, methodology is taught so that readers may implement it directly. The book brings together experts engaged in causal inference research to present and discuss recent issues in causal inference methodological development. This is also a timely look at causal inference applied to scenarios that range from clinical trials to mediation and public health research more broadly. In an academic setting, this book will serve as a reference and guide to a course in causal inference at the graduate level (Master's or Doctorate). It is particularly relevant for students pursuing degrees in Statistics, Biostatistics and Computational Biology. Researchers and data analysts in public health and biomedical research will also find this book to be an important reference.

  5. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship. Findings of this paper suggest that, because there is no long run relationship between Construction Production (Building and Non-Building and GDP and also in short run the causality runs from GDP to Construction Production, the growth strategy based on mainly Construction Sector growth is not a good idea for Turkey.

  6. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship. Findings of this paper suggest that, because there is no long run relationship between Construction Production (Building and Non-Building and GDP and also in short run the causality runs from GDP to Construction Production, the growth strategy based on mainly Construction Sector growth is not a good idea for Turkey.

  7. Causal Relationship Between Relative Price Variability and Inflation in Turkey:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yamak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causal relationship between inflation and relative price variability in Turkey for the period of January 2003-January 2014, by using panel data. In the study, a Granger (1969 non-causality test in heterogeneous panel data models developed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012 is utilized to determine the causal relations between inflation rate relative price variability. The panel data consists of 4123 observations: 133 time observations and 31 cross-section observations. The results of panel causality test indicate that there is a bidirectional causality between inflation rate and relative price variability by not supporting the imperfection information model of Lucas and the menu cost model of Ball and Mankiw.

  8. 75 FR 22577 - Proposed Privacy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... request for public comment on Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) seeks public comment on the Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. OMB Memorandum M-99- 18.... These statements are intended to inform the public of government- wide policies and how each agency...

  9. 16 CFR 455.4 - Contrary statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contrary statements. 455.4 Section 455.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.4 Contrary statements. You may not make any statements, oral or written, or take other actions...

  10. Biological Awareness: Statements for Self-Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, D.W.; Cunningham, Lee

    This guide to biological awareness through guided self-discovery is based on 51 single focus statements concerning the human body. For each statement there are explanations of the underlying physiological principles and suggested activities and discussion ideas to encourage understanding of the statement in terms of the human body's functions,…

  11. 12 CFR 611.515 - Information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... audited balance sheet and income statement and notes thereto of the bank or the association, as applicable... assets, a balance sheet and income statement of the bank and the association showing its financial condition before the transfer of authority and a pro forma balance sheet and income statement for the bank...

  12. Beyond Markov: Accounting for independence violations in causal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob

    2018-03-06

    Although many theories of causal cognition are based on causal graphical models, a key property of such models-the independence relations stipulated by the Markov condition-is routinely violated by human reasoners. This article presents three new accounts of those independence violations, accounts that share the assumption that people's understanding of the correlational structure of data generated from a causal graph differs from that stipulated by causal graphical model framework. To distinguish these models, experiments assessed how people reason with causal graphs that are larger than those tested in previous studies. A traditional common cause network (Y 1 ←X→Y 2 ) was extended so that the effects themselves had effects (Z 1 ←Y 1 ←X→Y 2 →Z 2 ). A traditional common effect network (Y 1 →X←Y 2 ) was extended so that the causes themselves had causes (Z 1 →Y 1 →X←Y 2 ←Z 2 ). Subjects' inferences were most consistent with the beta-Q model in which consistent states of the world-those in which variables are either mostly all present or mostly all absent-are viewed as more probable than stipulated by the causal graphical model framework. Substantial variability in subjects' inferences was also observed, with the result that substantial minorities of subjects were best fit by one of the other models (the dual prototype or a leaky gate models). The discrepancy between normative and human causal cognition stipulated by these models is foundational in the sense that they locate the error not in people's causal reasoning but rather in their causal representations. As a result, they are applicable to any cognitive theory grounded in causal graphical models, including theories of analogy, learning, explanation, categorization, decision-making, and counterfactual reasoning. Preliminary evidence that independence violations indeed generalize to other judgment types is presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physics Without Causality — Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The principle of cause and effect is deeply rooted in human experience, so much so that it is routinely and tacitly assumed throughout science, even by scientists working in areas where time symmetry is theoretically ingrained, as it is in both classical and quantum physics. Experiments are said to cause their results, not the other way around. In this informal paper, we argue that this assumption should be replaced with a more general notion of mutual influence — bi-directional relations or constraints on joint values of two or more variables. From an analysis based on quantum entropy, it is proposed that quantum measurement is a unitary three-interaction, with no collapse, no fundamental randomness, and no barrier to backward influence. Experimental results suggesting retrocausality are seen frequently in well-controlled laboratory experiments in parapsychology and elsewhere, especially where a random element is included. Certain common characteristics of these experiments give the appearance of contradicting well-established physical laws, thus providing an opportunity for deeper understanding and important clues that must be addressed by any explanatory theory. We discuss how retrocausal effects and other anomalous phenomena can be explained without major injury to existing physical theory. A modified quantum formalism can give new insights into the nature of quantum measurement, randomness, entanglement, causality, and time.

  14. A new test of multivariate nonlinear causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhidong; Hui, Yongchang; Jiang, Dandan; Lv, Zhihui; Wong, Wing-Keung; Zheng, Shurong

    2018-01-01

    The multivariate nonlinear Granger causality developed by Bai et al. (2010) (Mathematics and Computers in simulation. 2010; 81: 5-17) plays an important role in detecting the dynamic interrelationships between two groups of variables. Following the idea of Hiemstra-Jones (HJ) test proposed by Hiemstra and Jones (1994) (Journal of Finance. 1994; 49(5): 1639-1664), they attempt to establish a central limit theorem (CLT) of their test statistic by applying the asymptotical property of multivariate U-statistic. However, Bai et al. (2016) (2016; arXiv: 1701.03992) revisit the HJ test and find that the test statistic given by HJ is NOT a function of U-statistics which implies that the CLT neither proposed by Hiemstra and Jones (1994) nor the one extended by Bai et al. (2010) is valid for statistical inference. In this paper, we re-estimate the probabilities and reestablish the CLT of the new test statistic. Numerical simulation shows that our new estimates are consistent and our new test performs decent size and power.

  15. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  16. From causal dynamical triangulations to astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub

    2017-09-01

    This letter discusses phenomenological aspects of dimensional reduction predicted by the Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) approach to quantum gravity. The deformed form of the dispersion relation for the fields defined on the CDT space-time is reconstructed. Using the Fermi satellite observations of the GRB 090510 source we find that the energy scale of the dimensional reduction is E* > 0.7 \\sqrt{4-d\\text{UV}} \\cdot 1010 \\text{GeV} at (95% CL), where d\\text{UV} is the value of the spectral dimension in the UV limit. By applying the deformed dispersion relation to the cosmological perturbations it is shown that, for a scenario when the primordial perturbations are formed in the UV region, the scalar power spectrum PS \\propto kn_S-1 , where n_S-1≈ \\frac{3 r (d\\text{UV}-2)}{(d\\text{UV}-1)r-48} . Here, r is the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that within the considered model, the predicted from CDT deviation from the scale invariance (n_S=1) is in contradiction with the up to date Planck and BICEP2.

  17. Causality in noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.J.; Abreu, E.M.C. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Space-time noncommutativity has been investigated in the last years as a real possibility to describe physics at fundamental scale. This subject is associated with many tough issues in physics, i.e., strings, gravity, noncommutative field theories and others. The first formulation for a noncommutative spacetime was proposed by Snyder in 1947, where the object of noncommutativity is considered as a constant matrix that breaks the Lorentz symmetry. His objective was to get rid of the infinities that intoxicate quantum field theory. Unfortunately it was demonstrated not a success. Here we consider an alternative recent formulation known as Doplicher-Fredenhagen-Roberts-Amorim (DFRA) algebra in which the object of noncommutativity is treated as an ordinary coordinate by constructing an extended space-time with 4 + 6 dimensions (x + {phi}) - spacetime. In this way, the Lorentz symmetry is preserved in DFRA algebra. A quantum field theory is constructed in accordance with DFRA Poincare algebra, as well as a Lagrangian density formulation. By means of the Klein-Gordon equation in this (x + {phi}) - spacetime. We analyze the aspects of causality by studying the advanced and retarded Green functions. (author)

  18. Editorial Statement: Second Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yunus Eryaman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to present the second issue of the International Journal of Progressive Education (IJPE. Since the publication of the first issue in February 2005, an extensive amount of gratitude and positive feedbacks as well as an increasing number of paper submissions we have received from all parts of the academic world confirm that the existence of such an international and multilingual journal can be very beneficial to provide a platform for cross-cultural discussion and understanding of educational theory and practice. In addition, the contributions to the journal and the requests for special issues from across the globe such as from North America, Africa, Middle East, Europe and Eastern Asia convince us that IJPE is making a significant progress toward one of its mission of providing a glocal atmosphere and ongoing dialogue to globally represent multiple and local views on educational issues. Doubtlessly, such evidences have been given us additional confidence, power and strong belief to continue with what we are trying to accomplish. We would like to thank you for your encouragements and constructive suggestions and request that please continue to do so in order to make this journal successful and vibrant.

  19. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  20. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  1. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillou, Sofia; Lagani, Vincenzo; Heinze-Deml, Christina; Schmidt, Angelika; Tegner, Jesper; Tsamardinos, Ioannis

    2017-10-05

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  2. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  3. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-09-29

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  4. Causality and subjectivity in discourse : The meaning and use of causal connectives in spontaneous conversation, chat interactions and written text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, T.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075243911; Spooren, W.P.M.S.

    Many languages of the world have connectives to express causal relations at the discourse level. Often, language users systematically prefer one lexical item (because) over another (even highly similar) one (since) to express a causal relationship. Such choices provide a window on speakers'

  5. <strong>Size and local democracystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has been...... and investigated for each indicator in a successive, cumulative fashion employing a "funnel of causality" logic. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the size of the local political system has a significant negative effect on the character of local democracy in about half of the models estimated...

  6. Causation or only correlation? Application of causal inference graphs for evaluating causality in nano-QSAR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizochenko, Natalia; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we suggest that causal inference methods could be efficiently used in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) modeling as additional validation criteria within quality evaluation of the model. Verification of the relationships between descriptors and toxicity or other activity in the QSAR model has a vital role in understanding the mechanisms of action. The well-known phrase ``correlation does not imply causation'' reflects insight statistically correlated with the endpoint descriptor may not cause the emergence of this endpoint. Hence, paradigmatic shifts must be undertaken when moving from traditional statistical correlation analysis to causal analysis of multivariate data. Methods of causal discovery have been applied for broader physical insight into mechanisms of action and interpretation of the developed nano-QSAR models. Previously developed nano-QSAR models for toxicity of 17 nano-sized metal oxides towards E. coli bacteria have been validated by means of the causality criteria. Using the descriptors confirmed by the causal technique, we have developed new models consistent with the straightforward causal-reasoning account. It was proven that causal inference methods are able to provide a more robust mechanistic interpretation of the developed nano-QSAR models.In this paper, we suggest that causal inference methods could be efficiently used in Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) modeling as additional validation criteria within quality evaluation of the model. Verification of the relationships between descriptors and toxicity or other activity in the QSAR model has a vital role in understanding the mechanisms of action. The well-known phrase ``correlation does not imply causation'' reflects insight statistically correlated with the endpoint descriptor may not cause the emergence of this endpoint. Hence, paradigmatic shifts must be undertaken when moving from traditional statistical correlation analysis to causal

  7. Processing of Positive-Causal and Negative-Causal Coherence Relations in Primary School Children and Adults: A Test of the Cumulative Cognitive Complexity Approach in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepke, Julia; Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne; Weinert, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Establishing local coherence relations is central to text comprehension. Positive-causal coherence relations link a cause and its consequence, whereas negative-causal coherence relations add a contrastive meaning (negation) to the causal link. According to the cumulative cognitive complexity approach, negative-causal coherence relations are…

  8. Causal inference in neuronal time-series using adaptive decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João; Andrade, Alexandre

    2015-04-30

    The assessment of directed functional connectivity from neuronal data is increasingly common in neuroscience by applying measures based in the Granger causality (GC) framework. Although initially these consisted in simple analyses based on directionality strengths, current methods aim to discriminate causal effects both in time and frequency domain. We study the effect of adaptive data analysis on the GC framework by combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and causal analysis of neuronal signals. EMD decomposes data into simple amplitude and phase modulated oscillatory modes, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), from which it is possible to compute their instantaneous frequencies (IFs). Hence, we propose a method where causality is estimated between IMFs with comparable IFs, in a static or time-varying procedure, and then attributed to the frequencies corresponding to the IF of the driving IMF for improved frequency localization. We apply a thorough simulation framework involving all possible combinations of EMD algorithms with causality metrics and realistically simulated datasets. Results show that synchrosqueezing wavelet transform and noise-assisted multivariate EMD, paired with generalized partial directed coherence or with Geweke's GC, provide the highest sensitivity and specificity results. Compared to standard causal analysis, the output of selected representative instances of this methodology result in the fulfillment of performance criteria in a well-known benchmark with real animal epicranial recordings and improved frequency resolution for simulated neural data. This study presents empirical evidence that adaptive data analysis is a fruitful addition to the existing causal framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer involvement in the product with general causality orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matanović Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research relates to establish predictable values of causality orientation for types of consumer involvement in product. Beside that, the possible differences in expression of causality orientations and dimension of involvement within different groups of respondents were tested. The assumption is that it is possible to predict some of five types of consumer involvement: pleasure, importance, sign, risk importance, risk probability according to dominant type of causality orientation (autonomy, controlled, impersonal. The research were conducted on a sample of 178 consumers on the territory of Republic of Serbia on different types of sex, ages, married and working status, level of education and purchasing power. The General Causality Orientation Scale (Deci and Ryan,1985 and Profil involvement (Laurent and Kapferer, 1985 were used. Pleasure is the most expressed dimension of involvement. When we are talking about sociodemographic variable and the expression of single dimension involvement, there are differences in sex and education. The degree differences of general causality orientation exist only in sex. As important predictors of involvement type the next causality orientation were separated: autonomy for pleasure, controlled for importance and risk importance and impersonal for risk probability. It is not possible to predict the type of involvement on base of general causality orientation of respondents.

  10. Causality between Prices and Wages: VECM Analysis for EU-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik Hoxha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on causality as well as the empirical evidence clearly shows that there are two opposing groups of economists, who support different hypotheses with respect to the flow of causality in the price-wage causal relationship. The first group argues that causality runs from wages to prices, whereas the second argues that effect flows from prices to wages. Nonetheless, the literature review suggeststhat there is at least some consensus in that researcher’s conclusions may be contingent on the type of data employed, applied econometric model, or even that relationship may alter with economic cycles. This paper empirically examines theprice-wage causal relationship in EU-27, by using the OLS and VECM analysis, and it also provides robust evidence in support of a bilateral causal relationship between prices and wages, both in long-run as well as in the shortrun.Prior to designing and estimating the econometric model we have performed stationarity tests for the employed price, wage and productivity variables. Additionally, we have also specified the model taking into account the lag order as well as the rank of co-integration for the co-integrated variables. Furthermore, we have also applied respective restrictions on the parameters of estimatedVECM. The evidence resulting from model robustness checks indicates that results are statistically robust. Although far from closing the issue of causality between prices and wages, this paper at least provides some fresh evidence in the case of EU-27.

  11. New Insights into Signed Path Coefficient Granger Causality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Chong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Granger causality analysis, as a time series analysis technique derived from econometrics, has been applied in an ever-increasing number of publications in the field of neuroscience, including fMRI, EEG/MEG, and fNIRS. The present study mainly focuses on the validity of "signed path coefficient Granger causality," a Granger-causality-derived analysis method that has been adopted by many fMRI researches in the last few years. This method generally estimates the causality effect among the time series by an order-1 autoregression, and defines a positive or negative coefficient as an "excitatory" or "inhibitory" influence. In the current work we conducted a series of computations from resting-state fMRI data and simulation experiments to illustrate the signed path coefficient method was flawed and untenable, due to the fact that the autoregressive coefficients were not always consistent with the real causal relationships and this would inevitablely lead to erroneous conclusions. Overall our findings suggested that the applicability of this kind of causality analysis was rather limited, hence researchers should be more cautious in applying the signed path coefficient Granger causality to fMRI data to avoid misinterpretation.

  12. Causalidade e epidemiologia Causality and epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto trata da questão da causalidade em epidemiologia. Começa com um breve retrospecto histórico para recuperar os diversos sentidos dados ao conceito pelos principais filósofos ocidentais. Em seguida, considera as raízes históricas da epidemiologia enquanto disciplina científica e as transformações que o conceito de causa sofreu em seu âmbito. Estabelecidas essas premissas, analisa-se o desenvolvimento da epidemiologia no século XX e a crise de paradigma que enfrenta na atualidade. Como saídas para a crise, no que se refere à questão da causalidade, examina três alternativas: a epidemiologia social, a crítica popperiana a os aportes da biologia molecular. Finalmente, comenta a necessiclade de uma nova teoria epidemiológica construída a partir da teoria da complexidade.In examining the issue of causality whithin epidemiology, the text begins with a brief historical overview that reclaims the different meanings which the West's main philosophers have lent to this concept. It next delves into the historical roots of epidemiology as a scientific discipline and the transformations the concept of cause has undergone to within this realm. With these presuppositions in place, the text goes on to analyse the 20th century development of epidemiology and the crisis ít currently faces in terms of paradigm. Three alternatives are explored as ways out of this crisis: social epidemiology, Popperian criticism and the contributions of molecular biology. Lastly, the tent discusses the need for a new epidemiological theory grounded on the theory of complexity.

  13. A Complex Systems Approach to Causal Discovery in Psychiatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn N Saxe

    Full Text Available Conventional research methodologies and data analytic approaches in psychiatric research are unable to reliably infer causal relations without experimental designs, or to make inferences about the functional properties of the complex systems in which psychiatric disorders are embedded. This article describes a series of studies to validate a novel hybrid computational approach--the Complex Systems-Causal Network (CS-CN method-designed to integrate causal discovery within a complex systems framework for psychiatric research. The CS-CN method was first applied to an existing dataset on psychopathology in 163 children hospitalized with injuries (validation study. Next, it was applied to a much larger dataset of traumatized children (replication study. Finally, the CS-CN method was applied in a controlled experiment using a 'gold standard' dataset for causal discovery and compared with other methods for accurately detecting causal variables (resimulation controlled experiment. The CS-CN method successfully detected a causal network of 111 variables and 167 bivariate relations in the initial validation study. This causal network had well-defined adaptive properties and a set of variables was found that disproportionally contributed to these properties. Modeling the removal of these variables resulted in significant loss of adaptive properties. The CS-CN method was successfully applied in the replication study and performed better than traditional statistical methods, and similarly to state-of-the-art causal discovery algorithms in the causal detection experiment. The CS-CN method was validated, replicated, and yielded both novel and previously validated findings related to risk factors and potential treatments of psychiatric disorders. The novel approach yields both fine-grain (micro and high-level (macro insights and thus represents a promising approach for complex systems-oriented research in psychiatry.

  14. Consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The following overview and accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 to report the financial position and the results of operations of the Department of Energy. These statements include the consolidated Statement of Financial Position and the consolidated Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position. The statements have been prepared in accordance with the Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 94-01, Form and Content for Agency Financial Statements, and were developed in accordance with the hierarchy of accounting standards described therein. The overview provides a narrative on the Department of Energy`s mission, activities, and accomplishments. Utilizing performance measures as the primary vehicle for communicating Departmental accomplishments and results, this overview discusses the most significant measures while others are discussed in the supplemental information to the financial statements.

  15. Causal influence in linear Langevin networks without feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auconi, Andrea; Giansanti, Andrea; Klipp, Edda

    2017-04-01

    The intuition of causation is so fundamental that almost every research study in life sciences refers to this concept. However, a widely accepted formal definition of causal influence between observables is still missing. In the framework of linear Langevin networks without feedback (linear response models) we propose a measure of causal influence based on a new decomposition of information flows over time. We discuss its main properties and we compare it with other information measures like the transfer entropy. We are currently unable to extend the definition of causal influence to systems with a general feedback structure and nonlinearities.

  16. Causality Constraints on Hadron Production In High Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, P

    2014-01-01

    For hadron production in high energy collisions, causality requirements lead to the counterpart of the cosmological horizon problem: the production occurs in a number of causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) must be conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. This provides a theoretical basis for the observed suppression of strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e^+e^-). In contrast, the space-time superposition of many collisions in heavy ion interactions largely removes these causality constraints, resulting in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full equilibrium.

  17. Causality and prediction: differences and points of contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the differences between those variables that might play a causal role in a certain process and those only valuable for predicting the outcome. Some considerations are made about the core intervention of the association and the temporal precedence and biases in both cases, the study of causality and predictive modeling. In that context, several relevant aspects related to the design of the corresponding studies are briefly reviewed and some of the mistakes that are often committed in handling both, causality and prediction, are illustrated.

  18. Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aliaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the causes of deforestation for a representative set of Bolivian municipalities. The literature on environmental economics insists on the importance of physical and social factors. We focus on the last group of variables. Our objective is to identify causal mechanisms between these factors of risk and the problem of deforestation. To this end, we present a testing strategy for spatial causality, based on a sequence of Lagrange Multipliers. The results that we obtain for the Bolivian case confirm only partially the traditional view of the problem of deforestation. Indeed, we only find unequivocal signs of causality in relation to the structure of property rights.

  19. Dynamics and causalities of atmospheric and oceanic data identified by complex networks and Granger causality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charakopoulos, A. K.; Katsouli, G. A.; Karakasidis, T. E.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the underlying processes and extracting detailed characteristics of spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean and atmosphere as well as their interaction is of significant interest and has not been well thoroughly established. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of two main additional methodologies for the identification of spatiotemporal underlying dynamic characteristics and patterns among atmospheric and oceanic variables from Seawatch buoys from Aegean and Ionian Sea, provided by the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR). The first approach involves the estimation of cross correlation analysis in an attempt to investigate time-lagged relationships, and further in order to identify the direction of interactions between the variables we performed the Granger causality method. According to the second approach the time series are converted into complex networks and then the main topological network properties such as degree distribution, average path length, diameter, modularity and clustering coefficient are evaluated. Our results show that the proposed analysis of complex network analysis of time series can lead to the extraction of hidden spatiotemporal characteristics. Also our findings indicate high level of positive and negative correlations and causalities among variables, both from the same buoy and also between buoys from different stations, which cannot be determined from the use of simple statistical measures.

  20. The Causal Relationship between Urbanization, Economic Growth and Water Use Change in Provincial China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Bao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between urbanization, economic growth, and water use change is one of the key issues for China’s sustainable development, as rapid urbanization and continuous economic growth are accompanied by a steady water stress. Thus, we applied a cointegration test and a VECM (vector error correction model Granger causality test to investigate the causal relationship between the urbanization level, the economic development level, and the total water use in China and its 31 provincial administrative regions during 1997–2013. Results show that the three indicators have a long-run equilibrium relationship in most provincial administrative regions in China. However, the short-run effects and Granger causal relationship are insignificant for China and most provincial administrative regions. Therefore, that an idea such as urbanization as the engine or major driving force of economic growth, and that China’s urbanization and economic growth will bring a water crisis and will be strongly constrained by water resources, might be properly weakened. Targeted and relatively separate policies should be emphasized more for the coordinated development of China’s urbanization, economy, and water resources.

  1. Large-scale Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate an approach to measure the information flow between each pair of time series in resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data of the human brain and subsequently recover its underlying network structure. By integrating dimensionality reduction into predictive time series modeling, large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) analysis method can reveal directed information flow suggestive of causal influence at an individual voxel level, unlike other multivariate approaches. This method quantifies the influence each voxel time series has on every other voxel time series in a multivariate sense and hence contains information about the underlying dynamics of the whole system, which can be used to reveal functionally connected networks within the brain. To identify such networks, we perform non-metric network clustering, such as accomplished by the Louvain method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach to recover the motor and visual cortex from resting state human brain fMRI data and compare it with the network recovered from a visuomotor stimulation experiment, where the similarity is measured by the Dice Coefficient (DC). The best DC obtained was 0.59 implying a strong agreement between the two networks. In addition, we thoroughly study the effect of dimensionality reduction in lsGC analysis on network recovery. We conclude that our approach is capable of detecting causal influence between time series in a multivariate sense, which can be used to segment functionally connected networks in the resting-state fMRI.

  2. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two

  3. Sensitivity Analyses for Robust Causal Inference from Mendelian Randomization Analyses with Multiple Genetic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Bowden, Jack; Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik; Thompson, Simon G

    2017-01-01

    Mendelian randomization investigations are becoming more powerful and simpler to perform, due to the increasing size and coverage of genome-wide association studies and the increasing availability of summarized data on genetic associations with risk factors and disease outcomes. However, when using multiple genetic variants from different gene regions in a Mendelian randomization analysis, it is highly implausible that all the genetic variants satisfy the instrumental variable assumptions. This means that a simple instrumental variable analysis alone should not be relied on to give a causal conclusion. In this article, we discuss a range of sensitivity analyses that will either support or question the validity of causal inference from a Mendelian randomization analysis with multiple genetic variants. We focus on sensitivity analyses of greatest practical relevance for ensuring robust causal inferences, and those that can be undertaken using summarized data. Aside from cases in which the justification of the instrumental variable assumptions is supported by strong biological understanding, a Mendelian randomization analysis in which no assessment of the robustness of the findings to violations of the instrumental variable assumptions has been made should be viewed as speculative and incomplete. In particular, Mendelian randomization investigations with large numbers of genetic variants without such sensitivity analyses should be treated with skepticism.

  4. Eventos Quânticos e Reducionismo Causal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2013v17n3p365   This paper is the first step in an investigation of whether microscopic events can be reduced to a mereological composition of elementary events, especially in biological systems. The hypothesis is made that, between events in which quanta are exchanged, there is causal flow, but strictly speaking no events take place. A causal event is characterized by the possibility of an intervention or manipulation. Thus, three types of quantum mechanical events may be found: (1 detection of a quantum of energy; (2 confinement by an apparatus in a Glauber coherent state; (3 null result measurement (without exchange of quanta. The paper explores these three types of elementary causal events, e sets forth as the next step the investigation of the causal events involved in the action of a molecular motor.

  5. Is Host-Based Anomaly Detection + Temporal Correlation = Worm Causality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekar, Vyas; Xie, Yinglian; Reiter, Michael K; Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Epidemic-spreading attacks (e.g., worm and botnet propagation) have a natural notion of attack causality - a single network flow causes a victim host to get infected and subsequently spread the attack...

  6. Quantifying 'causality' in complex systems: understanding transfer entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abdul Razak

    Full Text Available 'Causal' direction is of great importance when dealing with complex systems. Often big volumes of data in the form of time series are available and it is important to develop methods that can inform about possible causal connections between the different observables. Here we investigate the ability of the Transfer Entropy measure to identify causal relations embedded in emergent coherent correlations. We do this by firstly applying Transfer Entropy to an amended Ising model. In addition we use a simple Random Transition model to test the reliability of Transfer Entropy as a measure of 'causal' direction in the presence of stochastic fluctuations. In particular we systematically study the effect of the finite size of data sets.

  7. Mixed Causal-Noncausal Autoregressions with Strictly Exogenous Regressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecq, Alain; Issler, J.V.; Telg, Sean

    2017-01-01

    The mixed autoregressive causal-noncausal model (MAR) has been proposed to estimate economic relationships involving explosive roots in their autoregressive part, as they have stationary forward solutions. In previous work, possible exogenous variables in economic relationships are substituted into

  8. Defining the Locus of Developmental Differences in Children's Causal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in the area of children's causal reasoning to validate a previously reported developmental difference, to examine the role of a possible mediating mechanism, and to test a number of competing theoretical interpretations. (GO)

  9. Management’s causal reasoning on performance and earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, W.A.A.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the association between the intensity of causal reasoning on performance in a firm’s annual management commentary and its earnings management propensity. Anticipated earnings management concerns are argued to constitute a significant accountability predicament, bringing management to

  10. On Storks and Babies: Correlation, Causality and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht Anja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of available data has created much excitement among marketing practitioners about their ability to better understand the impact of marketing investments. Big data allows for detecting patterns and often it seems plausible to interpret them as causal. While it is quite obvious that storks do not bring babies, marketing relationships are usually less clear. Apparent “causalities” often fail to hold up under examination. If marketers want to be sure not to walk into a causality trap, they need to conduct field experiments to detect true causal relationships. In the present digital environment, experiments are easier than ever to execute. However, they need to be prepared and interpreted with great care in order to deliver meaningful and genuinely causal results that help improve marketing decisions.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  12. First report of Chryseobacterium indologenes as causal agent for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First report of Chryseobacterium indologenes as causal agent for crown rot of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in peninsular Malaysia. B.N.M. Din, J Kadir, M.S. Hailmi, K Sijam, N.A. Badaluddin, Z Suhaili ...

  13. QED representation for the net of causal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolli, Fabio; Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2015-06-01

    The present work tackles the existence of local gauge symmetries in the setting of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The net of causal loops, previously introduced by the authors, is a model independent construction of a covariant net of local C*-algebras on any 4-dimensional globally hyperbolic space-time, aimed to capture structural properties of any reasonable quantum gauge theory. Representations of this net can be described by causal and covariant connection systems, and local gauge transformations arise as maps between equivalent connection systems. The present paper completes these abstract results, realizing QED as a representation of the net of causal loops in Minkowski space-time. More precisely, we map the quantum electromagnetic field Fμν, not free in general, into a representation of the net of causal loops and show that the corresponding connection system and the local gauge transformations find a counterpart in terms of Fμν.

  14. THE CAUSALITY RELATION BETWEEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN ANALYSIS FOR EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref BOZOKLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth employing panel Granger causality test developed by Dumitrescu ve Hurlin (2012for Brazil, Chile, China, Egypt, Hungry, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru,Philippines, South Korea, Thailand and Turkey. We used yearly data over the period 1988-2011. Domestic credits to Gross Domestic Product (GDP ratio and real GDP per capitaare used as indicators for financial development and economic growth respectively. Theempirical results strongly indicate that financial development Granger-causes economicgrowth and that these countries can accelerate their growth rates by improving theirfinancial systems. 

  15. Deconstructing events: the neural bases for space, time, and causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R; Schmidt, Gwenda L; Lehet, Matthew; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Space, time, and causality provide a natural structure for organizing our experience. These abstract categories allow us to think relationally in the most basic sense; understanding simple events requires one to represent the spatial relations among objects, the relative durations of actions or movements, and the links between causes and effects. The present fMRI study investigates the extent to which the brain distinguishes between these fundamental conceptual domains. Participants performed a 1-back task with three conditions of interest (space, time, and causality). Each condition required comparing relations between events in a simple verbal narrative. Depending on the condition, participants were instructed to either attend to the spatial, temporal, or causal characteristics of events, but between participants each particular event relation appeared in all three conditions. Contrasts compared neural activity during each condition against the remaining two and revealed how thinking about events is deconstructed neurally. Space trials recruited neural areas traditionally associated with visuospatial processing, primarily bilateral frontal and occipitoparietal networks. Causality trials activated areas previously found to underlie causal thinking and thematic role assignment, such as left medial frontal and left middle temporal gyri, respectively. Causality trials also produced activations in SMA, caudate, and cerebellum; cortical and subcortical regions associated with the perception of time at different timescales. The time contrast, however, produced no significant effects. This pattern, indicating negative results for time trials but positive effects for causality trials in areas important for time perception, motivated additional overlap analyses to further probe relations between domains. The results of these analyses suggest a closer correspondence between time and causality than between time and space.

  16. Informational and Causal Architecture of Continuous-time Renewal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the minimal maximally predictive models (ɛ {-machines }) of processes generated by certain hidden semi-Markov models. Their causal states are either discrete, mixed, or continuous random variables and causal-state transitions are described by partial differential equations. As an application, we present a complete analysis of the ɛ {-machines } of continuous-time renewal processes. This leads to closed-form expressions for their entropy rate, statistical complexity, excess entropy, and differential information anatomy rates.

  17. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Hume's Conception of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Slavov, Matias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between Hume’s causal philosophy and Newton’s philosophy of nature. I claim that Newton’s experimentalist methodology in gravity research is an important background for understanding Hume’s conception of causality: Hume sees the relation of cause and effect as not being founded on a priori reasoning, similar to the way that Newton criticized non-empirical hypotheses about the properties of gravity. However, according to Hume’s criteria of...

  18. Self Occlusion and Disocclusion in Causal Video Object Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-18

    Self-Occlusion and Disocclusion in Causal Video Object Segmentation Yanchao Yang1, Ganesh Sundaramoorthi2, and Stefano Soatto1 1University of...video segmentation (e.g., [14, 19, 36, 16]), tracking (e.g., [35, 3, 12, 20]), optical flow (e.g., [15, 6, 7, 39, 26]), and motion segmentation (e.g...without over- segmenting them. Other motion segmentation approaches perform clustering of optical flow, often non- causally [23, 14]. Although our goal is

  19. Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0112 Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media Natalie Cartwright RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE... Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0013 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When an electromagnetic pulse travels through a dispersive material each frequency of the transmitted pulse changes in both

  20. Tracking the evolution of causal cognition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Marlize; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2017-12-30

    We suggest a seven-grade model for the evolution of causal cognition as a framework that can be used to gauge variation in the complexity of causal reasoning from the panin-hominin split until the appearance of cognitively modern hunter-gatherer communities. The intention is to put forward a cohesive model for the evolution of causal cognition in humans, which can be assessed against increasingly fine-grained empirical data from the palaeoanthropological and archaeological records. We propose that the tracking behaviour (i.e., the ability to interpret and follow external, inanimate, visual clues of hominins) provides a rich case study for tracing the evolution of causal cognition in our lineage. The grades of causal cognition are tentatively linked to aspects of the Stone Age/Palaeolithic archaeological record. Our model can also be applied to current work in evolutionary psychology and research on causal cognition, so that an inter-disciplinary understanding and correlation of processes becomes increasingly possible.

  1. Causal quantum theory and the collapse locality loophole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Causal quantum theory is an umbrella term for ordinary quantum theory modified by two hypotheses: state vector reduction is a well-defined process, and strict local causality applies. The first of these holds in some versions of Copenhagen quantum theory and need not necessarily imply practically testable deviations from ordinary quantum theory. The second implies that measurement events which are spacelike separated have no nonlocal correlations. To test this prediction, which sharply differs from standard quantum theory, requires a precise definition of state vector reduction. Formally speaking, any precise version of causal quantum theory defines a local hidden variable theory. However, causal quantum theory is most naturally seen as a variant of standard quantum theory. For that reason it seems a more serious rival to standard quantum theory than local hidden variable models relying on the locality or detector efficiency loopholes. Some plausible versions of causal quantum theory are not refuted by any Bell experiments to date, nor is it evident that they are inconsistent with other experiments. They evade refutation via a neglected loophole in Bell experiments--the collapse locality loophole--which exists because of the possible time lag between a particle entering a measurement device and a collapse taking place. Fairly definitive tests of causal versus standard quantum theory could be made by observing entangled particles separated by ≅0.1 light seconds

  2. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  3. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer - Assessment of Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is "specificity." HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers.

  4. Cervical cancer precursors and hormonal contraceptive use in HIV-positive women: application of a causal model and semi-parametric estimation methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah H Leslie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the application of causal inference methods to observational data in the obstetrics and gynecology field, particularly causal modeling and semi-parametric estimation. BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women are at increased risk for cervical cancer and its treatable precursors. Determining whether potential risk factors such as hormonal contraception are true causes is critical for informing public health strategies as longevity increases among HIV-positive women in developing countries. METHODS: We developed a causal model of the factors related to combined oral contraceptive (COC use and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (CIN2+ and modified the model to fit the observed data, drawn from women in a cervical cancer screening program at HIV clinics in Kenya. Assumptions required for substantiation of a causal relationship were assessed. We estimated the population-level association using semi-parametric methods: g-computation, inverse probability of treatment weighting, and targeted maximum likelihood estimation. RESULTS: We identified 2 plausible causal paths from COC use to CIN2+: via HPV infection and via increased disease progression. Study data enabled estimation of the latter only with strong assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Of 2,519 women under 50 screened per protocol, 219 (8.7% were diagnosed with CIN2+. Marginal modeling suggested a 2.9% (95% confidence interval 0.1%, 6.9% increase in prevalence of CIN2+ if all women under 50 were exposed to COC; the significance of this association was sensitive to method of estimation and exposure misclassification. CONCLUSION: Use of causal modeling enabled clear representation of the causal relationship of interest and the assumptions required to estimate that relationship from the observed data. Semi-parametric estimation methods provided flexibility and reduced reliance on correct model form. Although selected results suggest an

  5. Limitations of individual causal models, causal graphs, and ignorability assumptions, as illustrated by random confounding and design unfaithfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-10-01

    We describe how ordinary interpretations of causal models and causal graphs fail to capture important distinctions among ignorable allocation mechanisms for subject selection or allocation. We illustrate these limitations in the case of random confounding and designs that prevent such confounding. In many experimental designs individual treatment allocations are dependent, and explicit population models are needed to show this dependency. In particular, certain designs impose unfaithful covariate-treatment distributions to prevent random confounding, yet ordinary causal graphs cannot discriminate between these unconfounded designs and confounded studies. Causal models for populations are better suited for displaying these phenomena than are individual-level models, because they allow representation of allocation dependencies as well as outcome dependencies across individuals. Nonetheless, even with this extension, ordinary graphical models still fail to capture distinctions between hypothetical superpopulations (sampling distributions) and observed populations (actual distributions), although potential-outcome models can be adapted to show these distinctions and their consequences.

  6. FEATURES OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KUCHER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the features of preparation and submission of the consolidated financial statements of the world countries of different systems of accounting standardization in order to identify the areas of accounting improvement for the process of consolidation of financial reporting indicators. The main problems of consolidated financial statements preparation by business entities in Ukraine are determined. The author determines the theoretical and practical problems of consolidation of financial statements of organizational and methodical character. The comparative analysis of the features of standardization process of financial statements consolidation in the world countries is carried out. The main differences in the requirements for the formation of consolidated financial statements indicators of such countries as the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Belarus and the People’s Republic of China are outlined. The main directions of scientific researches on the improvement of accounting and analytical support for the preparation of consolidated financial statements are formed.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  8. Genesis and Development of Consolidated Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Bezverkhiy

    2015-01-01

    In the context of economy globalization it is the mission of consolidated financial statements to meet demands of users for financial information about activities of a company group as one company. The article is devoted to study of genesis and development of consolidated financial statements of companies. Historical prerequisites of genesis of consolidated financial statements are shown as well as factors which conduced to their spreading. The approaches are elucidated to preparation of cons...

  9. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  10. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill

    2013-01-01

    Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information) i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement frau...

  11. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  12. Mirror Neurons in Monkey Premotor Area F5 Show Tuning for Critical Features of Visual Causality Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Fleischer, Falk; Pomper, Joern K; Giese, Martin A; Thier, Peter

    2016-11-21

    Humans derive causality judgments reliably from highly abstract stimuli, such as moving discs that bump into each other [1]. This fascinating visual capability emerges gradually during human development [2], perhaps as consequence of sensorimotor experience [3]. Human functional imaging studies suggest an involvement of the "action observation network" in the processing of such stimuli [4, 5]. In addition, theoretical studies suggest a link between the computational mechanisms of action and causality perception [6, 7], consistent with the fact that both functions require an analysis of sequences of spatiotemporal relationships between interacting stimulus elements. Single-cell correlates of the perception of causality are completely unknown. In order to find such neural correlates, we investigated the responses of "mirror neurons" in macaque premotor area F5 [8, 9]. These neurons respond during the observation as well as during the execution of actions and show interesting invariances, e.g., with respect to the stimulus view [10], occlusions [11], or whether an action is really executed or suppressed [12]. We investigated the spatiotemporal properties of the visual responses of mirror neurons to naturalistic hand action stimuli and to abstract stimuli, which specified the same causal relationships. We found a high degree of generalization between these two stimulus classes. In addition, many features that strongly reduced the similarity of the response patterns coincided with the ones that also destroy the perception of causality in humans. This implies an overlap of neural structures involved in the processing of actions and the visual perception of causality at the single-cell level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immediate causality network of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Qiu, Lu; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2018-02-01

    Extensive works show that a network of stocks within a single stock market stores rich information on evolutionary behaviors of the system, such as collapses and/or crises. But a financial event covers usually several markets or even the global financial system. This mismatch of scale leads to lack of concise information to coordinate the event. In this work by using the transfer entropy we reconstruct the influential network between ten typical stock markets distributed in the world. Interesting findings include, before a financial crisis the connection strength reaches a maximum, which can act as an early warning signal of financial crises. The markets in America are monodirectionally and strongly influenced by that in Europe and act as the center. Some strongly linked pairs have also close correlations. The findings are helpful in understanding the evolution and modelling the dynamical process of the global financial system. This method can be extended straightly to find early warning signals for physiological and ecological systems, etc.

  14. Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: I am glad to be here for this presentation this morning. As you know, the Republic of Korea has had much experience in the construction and operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs), but we have no experience in decommissioning. The first research reactor in the Republic of Korea, KRR-1 TRIGA Mark II, first started operation in 1962, and the second one, KRR-2 TRIGA Mark III, first started in 1972. Operation of both of these was phased out in 1995 when they reached the end of their life span and also due to the operation of a new research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor), at the site of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Taejon. The decommissioning project for both research reactors was launched in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2008. KAERI has to choose the immediate decommissioning approach because of the following reasons. First, the land and reactor buildings were sold to the Korea Electric Power Co. (KEPCO) in 1985. By the terms of the Atomic Energy Act, KAERI as the operator must decommission the reactor. Second, research and development related to decommissioning should be carried out for secure NPP decommissioning that is upcoming. Lastly, KAERI must prevent the spread of radiation hazards into the reactor building's environs, which is rapidly becoming a densely populated area because of urbanization. Most of the radioactive wastes produced during decommissioning will be packed in 4 m 3 ISO type containers, which will then be stored until they are transported to the national disposal site for low and intermediate level waste. Even though it is not certain when the disposal site will be operational, decommissioning should not be deferred. Both of the reactors and related facilities are not in good condition because of minimum budgeting for the maintenance of the facilities. The most important issue is how to keep radioactive materials in a safe and well controlled condition. Therefore, KAERI decided upon immediate decommissioning of both research reactors. Currently, the Republic of Korea has 17 NPPs in operation.They consist of 13 PWR and 4 CANDU type PHWR reactors.The first NPP in the Republic of Korea was Kori-1, which started operation in 1978. Taking into account its design life span of 30 years, it will be shut down in 2008. But the utility company for the NPP, the Korea Hydro-Nuclear Co. (KHNC), is promoting the extension of its life. However, it is expected that there will be many difficulties in obtaining public acceptance. In considering the decommissioning of the NPP, it is recommended that heavily populated countries such as the Republic of Korea choose immediate decommissioning. According to the power supply plan of Korea, 11 more NPPs are being planned for construction and operation until the year 2015. However, it is not easy to get new sites for them. Therefore, it is desirable to locate the new reactors at current sites. Most of the sites have duplicate reactors, but their life spans are not comparable with each other. Therefore, decommissioning should wait until both reactors at the site have reached the end of their life. After decommissioning of the retired reactor, it is desirable to install the Korean Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP), which has a capacity of 1400 MW(e). This will be one way of resolving the siting problem and reducing the cost of decommissioning and construction. If the Republic of Korea decides to start decommissioning NPPs in 2013, it is necessary to secure the necessary and related technologies for successful decommissioning through R and D. Therefore, during the decommissioning of KRR-1 and KRR-2, basic technologies will be developed and demonstrated under middle to long term R and D programmes. The object of the first stage of the programme, from August 2001 to March 2004, is technology development related to the decommissioning of the research reactor. During the second stage of the programme, April 2004 to March 2007, the basic techniques will be developed for the decommissioning of NPPs.Thank you for your attention. (author)

  15. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  16. Statement of the Pugwash council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the fiftieth year since the first and only use of nuclear weapons in war, the evidence of actual progress towards the elimination of such weapons is decidedly mixed. The statement of the Pugwash council involves the following issues: agenda for a nuclear-weapon-free world; reduction of proliferation risks; monitoring, control and reducing arms trade, transfer and production; global governance as a cooperative activity of states and non-governmental organisations to address the questions of global security; security in the Asia-Pacific region; and energy-environment-development interactions

  17. Modeling the mechanism of action of a DGAT1 inhibitor using a causal reasoning platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E Enayetallah

    Full Text Available Triglyceride accumulation is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Genetic disruption of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, which catalyzes the final reaction of triglyceride synthesis, confers dramatic resistance to high-fat diet induced obesity. Hence, DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the molecular events shaping the mechanism of action of DGAT1 pharmacological inhibition have not been fully explored yet. Here, we investigate the metabolic molecular mechanisms induced in response to pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 using a recently developed computational systems biology approach, the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE. The CRE algorithm utilizes microarray transcriptomic data and causal statements derived from the biomedical literature to infer upstream molecular events driving these transcriptional changes. The inferred upstream events (also called hypotheses are aggregated into biological models using a set of analytical tools that allow for evaluation and integration of the hypotheses in context of their supporting evidence. In comparison to gene ontology enrichment analysis which pointed to high-level changes in metabolic processes, the CRE results provide detailed molecular hypotheses to explain the measured transcriptional changes. CRE analysis of gene expression changes in high fat habituated rats treated with a potent and selective DGAT1 inhibitor demonstrate that the majority of transcriptomic changes support a metabolic network indicative of reversal of high fat diet effects that includes a number of molecular hypotheses such as PPARG, HNF4A and SREBPs. Finally, the CRE-generated molecular hypotheses from DGAT1 inhibitor treated rats were found to capture the major molecular characteristics of DGAT1 deficient mice, supporting a phenotype of decreased lipid and increased insulin sensitivity.

  18. Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained

  19. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Objectives of Financial Statements. Report of the Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Certified Public Accountants, New York, NY.

    This report discusses the objectives of financial statements. Emphasis is placed on the function of objectives; users, their goals, and their information needs; the primary enterprise goal and earning power; accountability and financial statements; financial statements--reporting on the goal attainment of business enterprises; financial…

  3. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  4. A Causal Model for Fluctuating Sugar Levels in Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinzang Chhogyal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Causal models of physiological systems can be immensely useful in medicine as they may be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning. Aims In this paper we investigate how an agent may use the theory of belief change to rectify simple causal models of changing blood sugar levels in diabetes patients. Method We employ the semantic approach to belief change together with a popular measure of distance called Dalal distance between different state descriptions in order to implement a simple application that simulates the effectiveness of the proposed method in helping an agent rectify a simple causal model. Results Our simulation results show that distance-based belief change can help in improving the agent’s causal knowledge. However, under the current implementation there is no guarantee that the agent will learn the complete model and the agent may at times get stuck in local optima. Conclusion Distance-based belief change can help in refining simple causal models such as the example in this paper. Future work will include larger state-action spaces, better distance measures and strategies for choosing actions.

  5. A causal model for fluctuating sugar levels in diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhogyal, Kinzang; Nayak, Abhaya; Schwitter, Rolf; Sattar, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Causal models of physiological systems can be immensely useful in medicine as they may be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning. In this paper we investigate how an agent may use the theory of belief change to rectify simple causal models of changing blood sugar levels in diabetes patients. We employ the semantic approach to belief change together with a popular measure of distance called Dalal distance between different state descriptions in order to implement a simple application that simulates the effectiveness of the proposed method in helping an agent rectify a simple causal model. Our simulation results show that distance-based belief change can help in improving the agent's causal knowledge. However, under the current implementation there is no guarantee that the agent will learn the complete model and the agent may at times get stuck in local optima. Distance-based belief change can help in refining simple causal models such as the example in this paper. Future work will include larger state-action spaces, better distance measures and strategies for choosing actions.

  6. Weighing the causal pies in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiologists are familiar with the concepts of Rothman's causal pies. Using real data the Hoffman study showed recently how to calculate the "proportion of diseased subjects who develop the disease due to classes of sufficient causes" (PDCs). The PDC is actually an attributable-fraction index. It may be specific to a particular risk factor profile but it does not correspond to any given class of causal pies. In this study, we show how to estimate the "causal-pie weights" (CPWs), so that each and every class of causal pies has one and only one CPW attached to it. To conform to Rothman's model, we apply a non-negative linear odds model to constrain all the odds ratios (ORs) to be equal to or greater than one, and the interactions between them to be additive or superadditive. Based on these constrained ORs, we calculate the population attributable fractions, and then the CPWs. We used a published case-control data to show the methodology. The CPWs succinctly quantify the relative importance of different classes of causal pies. The proposed method helps to clarify the multi-factorial and complex interactive effects in disease causation. It also provides important information for designing an efficient public health intervention strategy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the entanglement entropy of quantum fields in causal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Letizia, Marco; Liberati, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    In order to understand the detailed mechanism by which a fundamental discreteness can provide a finite entanglement entropy, we consider the entanglement entropy of two classes of free massless scalar fields on causal sets that are well approximated by causal diamonds in Minkowski spacetime of dimensions 2, 3 and 4. The first class is defined from discretised versions of the continuum retarded Green functions, while the second uses the causal set’s retarded nonlocal d’Alembertians parametrised by a length scale l k . In both cases we provide numerical evidence that the area law is recovered when the double-cutoff prescription proposed in Sorkin and Yazdi (2016 Entanglement entropy in causal set theory (arXiv:1611.10281)) is imposed. We discuss in detail the need for this double cutoff by studying the effect of two cutoffs on the quantum field and, in particular, on the entanglement entropy, in isolation. In so doing, we get a novel interpretation for why these two cutoff are necessary, and the different roles they play in making the entanglement entropy on causal sets finite.

  8. Causality analysis of diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Jean Gaston; Njomo, Donatien; Limanond, Thirayoot; Ntsafack, Borel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon by using a three-step modern time-series technique. Tests for unit roots, cointegration, and Granger-causality based on error correction model are employed on annual data covering the period 1975–2008. Empirical results of the study confirm the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth. The error correction model shows that an estimated 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30% in the long-run. The overall results show that there exists bidirectional causality in the long-run relationship and no causality in the short-run relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth at the 5% level of significance. Thus, the energy policies in Cameroon should place priority on the discovery of new oil field and building capacity additions of the refinery to increase production of petroleum products, as this would propel the economic growth of the country. - Highlights: ► We examine the causal relationship between diesel consumption and GDP in Cameroon. ► we analyze the petroleum products sector in Cameroon. ► 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30%. ► The policy aimed at improving diesel supply have a positive impact on economics.

  9. The causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, Guelistan; Erdal, Hilmi; Esenguen, Kemal

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies the causality test to examine the causal relationship between primary energy consumption (EC) and real Gross National Product (GNP) for Turkey during 1970-2006. We employ unit root tests, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and the Philips-Perron (PP), Johansen cointegration test, and Pair-wise Granger causality test to examine relation between EC and GNP. Our empirical results indicate that the two series are found to be non-stationary. However, first differences of these series lead to stationarity. Further, the results indicate that EC and GNP are cointegrated and there is bidirectional causality running from EC to GNP and vice versa. This means that an increase in EC directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further EC. This bidirectional causality relationship between EC and GNP determined for Turkey at 1970-2006 period is in accordance with the ones in literature reported for similar countries. Consequently, we conclude that energy is a limiting factor to economic growth in Turkey and, hence, shocks to energy supply will have a negative impact on economic growth

  10. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance Nexus: Any Bidirectional Causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alley Ibrahim S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on corporate governance recognize endogeneity in the nexus between corporate governance and financial performance. Little attention has, however, been paid to the direction of causality between the two phenomena, and hence the Vector Error Correction (VEC model, which allows for endogenous determination of the direction of causality, has not been widely employed. This study fills that gap by estimating the nexus and the direction of causality using the VEC model to analyze panel data on selected listed firms in Nigeria. The results agree with the findings of most previous studies that corporate governance significantly affects financial performance. Board skills, board composition and management skills enhanced financial performance indicators – return on equity (ROE, return on asset (ROA and net profit margin (NPM; in many occasions, significantly. Board size and audit committee size did not, and can actually undermine financial performance. More importantly, financial performance did not significantly affect corporate governance. On the basis of the lag structure of the VEC model, this study affirms unidirectional causality in the nexus, running from corporate governance to financial performance, nullifying the hypothesis of bidirectional causality in the nexus.

  11. The Causal Relationship between Health and Education Expenditures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Foon TANG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major macroeconomic policy in generating economic growth is to encourage investments on human capital such as health and education. This is because both health and education make significant contribution to increasing productivity of the labour force which ultimately exerts a positive effect on raising output levels. A question that arises is whether investments on health and education have a causal relationship and if so, what is the directional causality? The objective of this study is to examine the causal relationship between health and education expenditures in Malaysia. This study covered annual data from 1970 to 2007. Using Granger causality as well as Toda and Yamamoto MWALD causality approaches, this study suggests that education Granger-causes health expenditure in both the short run and long run. The findings of this study implied that the Malaysian society places preference on education expenditure rather than health. This preference is not unexpected as generally, an educated and knowledgeable society precedes a healthy one. Before a society has attained a relatively higher level of education, it is less aware of the importance of health. Thus, expenditure on education should lead expenditure on health.

  12. Formalizing Neurath's ship: Approximate algorithms for online causal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Neil R; Dayan, Peter; Griffiths, Thomas L; Lagnado, David A

    2017-04-01

    Higher-level cognition depends on the ability to learn models of the world. We can characterize this at the computational level as a structure-learning problem with the goal of best identifying the prevailing causal relationships among a set of relata. However, the computational cost of performing exact Bayesian inference over causal models grows rapidly as the number of relata increases. This implies that the cognitive processes underlying causal learning must be substantially approximate. A powerful class of approximations that focuses on the sequential absorption of successive inputs is captured by the Neurath's ship metaphor in philosophy of science, where theory change is cast as a stochastic and gradual process shaped as much by people's limited willingness to abandon their current theory when considering alternatives as by the ground truth they hope to approach. Inspired by this metaphor and by algorithms for approximating Bayesian inference in machine learning, we propose an algorithmic-level model of causal structure learning under which learners represent only a single global hypothesis that they update locally as they gather evidence. We propose a related scheme for understanding how, under these limitations, learners choose informative interventions that manipulate the causal system to help elucidate its workings. We find support for our approach in the analysis of 3 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. On the Temporal Causal Relationship Between Macroeconomic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Palamalai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the dynamic interactions among macroeconomic variables such as real output, prices, money supply, interest rate (IR, and exchange rate (EXR in India during the pre-economic crisis and economic crisis periods, using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds test for cointegration, Johansen and Juselius multivariate cointegration test, Granger causality/Block exogeneity Wald test based on Vector Error Correction Model, variance decomposition analysis and impulse response functions. The empirical results reveal a stronger long-run bilateral relationship between real output, price level, IR, and EXR during the pre-crisis sample period. Moreover, the empirical results confirm a unidirectional short-run causality running from price level to EXR, IR to price level, and real output to money supply during the pre-crisis period. Also, it is evident from the test results that there exist short-run bidirectional relationships running between real output and EXR, price level and IR, and IR and EXR in the pre-crisis era, respectively. Most importantly, long-run bidirectional causality is found between real output, EXR, and IR during the economic crisis period. And the study results indicate short-run bidirectional causality between money supply and EXR, IR and price level, and IR and output in India during the crisis era. Also, a short-run unidirectional causality runs from prices to real output in the crisis period.

  14. Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San

    2016-11-01

    Information flow or information transfer the widely applicable general physics notion can be rigorously derived from first principles, rather than axiomatically proposed as an ansatz. Its logical association with causality is firmly rooted in the dynamical system that lies beneath. The principle of nil causality that reads, an event is not causal to another if the evolution of the latter is independent of the former, which transfer entropy analysis and Granger causality test fail to verify in many situations, turns out to be a proven theorem here. Established in this study are the information flows among the components of time-discrete mappings and time-continuous dynamical systems, both deterministic and stochastic. They have been obtained explicitly in closed form, and put to applications with the benchmark systems such as the Kaplan-Yorke map, Rössler system, baker transformation, Hénon map, and stochastic potential flow. Besides unraveling the causal relations as expected from the respective systems, some of the applications show that the information flow structure underlying a complex trajectory pattern could be tractable. For linear systems, the resulting remarkably concise formula asserts analytically that causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation, providing a mathematical basis for the long-standing philosophical debate over causation versus correlation.

  15. Causal attributions in Brazilian children's reasoning about health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruchovitch Evely

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: At a time when a great number of diseases can be prevented by changing one's habits and life style, investigations have focused on understanding what adults and children believe to be desirable health practices and uncovering the factors associated with successful adherence to such practices. For these, causal attributions for health and illness were investigated among 96 Brazilian elementary school students. METHODS: Ninety six subjects, aged 6 to 14, were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well [healthy] because they are lucky. The relationship between the children's causal attributions and demographic characteristics were also examined. RESULTS: Overall, the results were consistent with previous researches. "Taking care of oneself" was considered the most important cause of good health. "Viruses and germs" and "lack of self-care" were the most selected causes of illness. Analyses revealed significant relationship between subjects' causal attribution and their age, school grade level, socioeconomic status and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities than differences in children's causal attributions for health and illness. Finding ways to help individuals engage in appropriate preventive-maintenance health practices without developing an exaggerated notion that the individuals can control their own health and illness is a challenge which remains to be addressed by further research.

  16. Report and financial statements 31 March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The directors submit their annual report and audited financial statements of the Company for the year ended 31 March 1992. The Company designs, engineers, constructs and acts as project manager and the larger part of its activities are connected with nuclear and conventional power generation. Substantial business is being undertaken by the Company's Defence and Process Divisions. The Company's Engineering Development Centre performs contract research and development and manufacturers specialist plant. The gas reactor business which services the requirements of Britain's three nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric, Scottish Nuclear and British Nuclear Fuels, continues to perform strongly. The PWR business division has continued to support the Sizewell B PWR construction and has pursued opportunities for new work in Eastern Europe. In the field of conventional power the Company secured a metering contract from National Power. The contract awarded by British Nuclear Fuels early in 1991 to construct a new 160 MW Combined Heat and Power gas turbine station at Sellafield is proceeding satisfactorily. Work on the AWE project management support contract at Aldermaston continues. Elsewhere safety and consultancy work for PSA Services and MoD remains an important part of the Company's defence business. The Company has obtained several contracts in the process area, notably in environmental engineering. (Author)

  17. Sensitivity Analysis and Bounding of Causal Effects with Alternative Identifying Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2011-01-01

    When identification of causal effects relies on untestable assumptions regarding nonidentified parameters, sensitivity of causal effect estimates is often questioned. For proper interpretation of causal effect estimates in this situation, deriving bounds on causal parameters or exploring the sensitivity of estimates to scientifically plausible…

  18. Opening the Black Box and Searching for Smoking Guns: Process Causality in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; McWhorter, Rochell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of qualitative research in causality, with particular emphasis on process causality. In one paper, it is not possible to discuss all the issues of causality, but the aim is to provide useful ways of thinking about causality and qualitative research. Specifically, a brief overview of the…

  19. Causal independence between energy consumption and economic growth in Liberia: Evidence from a non-parametric bootstrapped causality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseh, Presley K.; Zoumara, Babette

    2012-01-01

    This contribution investigates causal interdependence between energy consumption and economic growth in Liberia and proposes application of a bootstrap methodology. To better reflect causality, employment is incorporated as additional variable. The study demonstrates evidence of distinct bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and economic growth. Additionally, the results show that employment in Liberia Granger causes economic growth and apply irrespective of the short-run or long-run. Evidence from a Monte Carlo experiment reveals that the asymptotic Granger causality test suffers size distortion problem for Liberian data, suggesting that the bootstrap technique employed in this study is more appropriate. Given the empirical results, implications are that energy expansion policies like energy subsidy or low energy tariff for instance, would be necessary to cope with demand exerted as a result of economic growth in Liberia. Furthermore, Liberia might have the performance of its employment generation on the economy partly determined by adequate energy. Therefore, it seems fully justified that a quick shift towards energy production based on clean energy sources may significantly slow down economic growth in Liberia. Hence, the government’s target to implement a long-term strategy to make Liberia a carbon neutral country, and eventually less carbon dependent by 2050 is understandable. - Highlights: ► Causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Liberia investigated. ► There is bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth. ► Energy expansion policies are necessary to cope with demand from economic growth. ► Asymptotic Granger causality test suffers size distortion problem for Liberian data. ► The bootstrap methodology employed in our study is more appropriate.

  20. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  1. Causal assessment of occupational carrying and low back pain: results of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Eugene K; Roffey, Darren M; Bishop, Paul; Kwon, Brian K; Dagenais, Simon

    2010-07-01

    Occupational low back pain (LBP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder that results in high healthcare use and a heavy societal burden from morbidity and medical costs. The etiology of LBP is unclear, although numerous physical activities in the workplace have been implicated in its development. Determining the causal relationship between LBP and specific occupational activities requires a rigorous methodological approach. To conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature focused on establishing a causal relationship between occupational carrying and LBP. Systematic review of the literature was performed. Studies reporting an association between occupational carrying and LBP. Numerical association between different levels of exposure to occupational carrying and the presence or severity of LBP. A systematic review was performed to identify, evaluate, and summarize the literature related to establishing a causal relationship between occupational carrying and LBP by using the commonly used Bradford-Hill framework. The literature was searched using Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH-ROM) database, gray literature (eg, studies not published in peer-reviewed journals), hand-searching occupational health journals, reference lists of included studies, and content experts. Study quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Levels of evidence supporting specific Bradford-Hill criteria were evaluated for different categories of carrying and types of LBP outcomes. This search yielded 2,766 citations. A total of nine high-quality studies reported on occupational carrying and LBP, including four case-control studies and five prospective cohort studies. These nine studies reported strong and consistent evidence against a statistical association between carrying and LBP. Three studies assessed dose-response, of which only one reported a dose-response trend that was not statistically

  2. Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Claassen, Almudena; Wood, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rising obesity represents a serious, global problem. It is now well established that obesity is associated with poverty and wealth inequality, suggesting that these factors may promote caloric intake. Whereas previous work has examined these links from an epidemiological perspective, the current paper examined them experimentally. In Study 1 we found that people experimentally induced to view themselves as poor (v. wealthy) exhibited increased calorie intake. In Study 2, participants who believed that they were poorer or wealthier than their interaction partners exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to those in an equal partners condition; this anxiety in turn led to increased calorie consumption for people who had a strong need to belong. The findings provide causal evidence for the poverty-intake and inequality-intake links. Further, we identify social anxiety and a strong need to belong as important social psychological factors linking inequality to increased calorie intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. BioCreative V track 4: a shared task for the extraction of causal network information using the Biological Expression Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Ellendorff, Tilia Renate; Madan, Sumit; Clematide, Simon; van der Lek, Adrian; Mevissen, Theo; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Automatic extraction of biological network information is one of the most desired and most complex tasks in biological and medical text mining. Track 4 at BioCreative V attempts to approach this complexity using fragments of large-scale manually curated biological networks, represented in Biological Expression Language (BEL), as training and test data. BEL is an advanced knowledge representation format which has been designed to be both human readable and machine processable. The specific goal of track 4 was to evaluate text mining systems capable of automatically constructing BEL statements from given evidence text, and of retrieving evidence text for given BEL statements. Given the complexity of the task, we designed an evaluation methodology which gives credit to partially correct statements. We identified various levels of information expressed by BEL statements, such as entities, functions, relations, and introduced an evaluation framework which rewards systems capable of delivering useful BEL fragments at each of these levels. The aim of this evaluation method is to help identify the characteristics of the systems which, if combined, would be most useful for achieving the overall goal of automatically constructing causal biological networks from text. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. The causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania: Evidence from ARDL bound testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Acaravci, Ali [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between energy and economic growth in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 1980 to 2006 by employing energy use per capita, electric power consumption per capita and real GDP per capita variables. To examine this linkage, we use the two-step procedure from the Engle and Granger model: In first step, we explore the long-run relationships between the variables by using recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Secondly, we employ a dynamic vector error correction (VEC) model to test causal relationships between variables. The bounds test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between energy use per capita and real GDP per capita and evidence of two-way (bidirectional) strong Granger causality between these variables only in Hungary. On the other hand, the ARDL bounds test results show that there is no a unique long-term or equilibrium relationship between energy consumption variables and real GDP per capita in Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. In other words, no cointegration exists between these variables in these three countries. The econometric analysis suggests that any causal relationships within dynamic error correction model for Albania, Bulgaria and Romania cannot be estimated. (author)

  5. 18 CFR 706.405 - Supplementary statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee shall at all times avoid acquiring a financial interest that could result, or taking an action... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Statements of Employment and Financial Interests § 706.405... employment and financial interests shall be reported in a supplementary statement, in the format prescribed...

  6. ICCE Publishes Statement on Software Copyright Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic Learning, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Policy Statement on Network and Multiple Machine Software of the International Council for Computers in Education (ICCE) calls for cooperation between educators, software developers, and vendors in preventing software piracy. This summary includes a suggested district policy statement on software copyright. (MBR)

  7. 14 CFR 313.6 - Energy statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... action taken or to be taken upon energy efficiency and conservation. The administrative law judge or the... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.6 Energy statements. (a) Each major... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy statements. 313.6 Section 313.6...

  8. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9010-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through...

  9. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact...) for the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the disposition of the Bureau of Mines property...

  10. 7 CFR 4279.137 - Financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles will be required. (b) If specific circumstances... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial statements. 4279.137 Section 4279.137... § 4279.137 Financial statements. (a) The lender will determine the type and frequency of submission of...

  11. Accept & Reject Statement-Based Uncertainty Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Quaeghebeur (Erik); G. de Cooman; F. Hermans (Felienne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for modelling and reasoning with uncertainty based on accept and reject statements about gambles. It generalises the frameworks found in the literature based on statements of acceptability, desirability, or favourability and clarifies their relative position. Next

  12. Applying Statement 34's Capital Asset Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finden, Randal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses common issues and offers recommendations related to revisions in Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 34 wherein the financial reporting of the general fixed-assets account group is eliminated and instead a school district's general capital assets are reported and depreciated on the new statement of net assets and statement…

  13. ["We must relate to ourselves". Substance, causality, and narrative text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, P

    2006-11-01

    Since Aristotle the concept of "substance" has described those features of an object which remain constant over time despite varying additional stochastic factors (coincidences). "Causality" places several or more chronological events into a direct relationship. The change of stochastic factors on a substance always has a causal justification. Based on these metaphysical considerations the present contemplations will apply the concept of substance to people. The causal explanation for changes during the lifetime is achieved by narrative sentences. These are, therefore, decisive for the maintenance of the identity of individuals and collectives despite all time-linked changes. The conclusion is reached that speech and thought processes based on speech patterns are essential for humans.

  14. Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the Causal Entropic Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2007-05-01

    We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, the principle asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach-weighting by the number of"observers per baryon" -- is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.

  15. Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the CausalEntropic Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2007-02-20

    We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, it asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach--weighting by the number of ''observers per baryon''--is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.

  16. Capturing connectivity and causality in complex industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Shah, Sirish L; Chen, Tongwen

    2014-01-01

    This brief reviews concepts of inter-relationship in modern industrial processes, biological and social systems. Specifically ideas of connectivity and causality within and between elements of a complex system are treated; these ideas are of great importance in analysing and influencing mechanisms, structural properties and their dynamic behaviour, especially for fault diagnosis and hazard analysis. Fault detection and isolation for industrial processes being concerned with root causes and fault propagation, the brief shows that, process connectivity and causality information can be captured in two ways: ·      from process knowledge: structural modeling based on first-principles structural models can be merged with adjacency/reachability matrices or topology models obtained from process flow-sheets described in standard formats; and ·      from process data: cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian ne...

  17. The why of things: causality in science, medicine, and life

    CERN Document Server

    Rabins, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    Why was there a meltdown at the Fukushima power plant? Why do some people get cancer and not others? Why is global warming happening? Why does one person get depressed in the face of life's vicissitudes while another finds resilience? Questions like these -- questions of causality -- form the basis of modern scientific inquiry, posing profound intellectual and methodological challenges for researchers in the physical, natural, biomedical, and social sciences. In this groundbreaking book, noted psychiatrist and author Peter Rabins offers a conceptual framework for analyzing daunting questions of causality. Navigating a lively intellectual voyage between the shoals of strict reductionism and relativism, Rabins maps a three-facet model of causality and applies it to a variety of questions in science, medicine, economics, and more. Throughout this book, Rabins situates his argument within relevant scientific contexts, such as quantum mechanics, cybernetics, chaos theory, and epigenetics. A renowned communicator o...

  18. Causal Cognition, Force Dynamics and Early Hunting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gärdenfors

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With this contribution we analyze ancient hunting technologies as one way to explore the development of causal cognition in the hominin lineage. Building on earlier work, we separate seven grades of causal thinking. By looking at variations in force dynamics as a central element in causal cognition, we analyze the thinking required for different hunting technologies such as stabbing spears, throwing spears, launching atlatl darts, shooting arrows with a bow, and the use of poisoned arrows. Our interpretation demonstrates that there is an interplay between the extension of human body through technology and expanding our cognitive abilities to reason about causes. It adds content and dimension to the trend of including embodied cognition in evolutionary studies and in the interpretation of the archeological record. Our method could explain variation in technology sets between archaic and modern human groups.

  19. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational data within a causal inference framework. Our methods account for aggregation and potential bias of the numerical model simulation, and address uncertainty in the causal estimates. We apply the proposed method to estimation of ozone and fine particulate matter from wildland fires and the impact on health burden assessment. We develop a causal inference framework to assess contributions of fire to ambient PM in the presence of spatial interference.

  20. Informational and Causal Architecture of Discrete-Time Renewal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Marzen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewal processes are broadly used to model stochastic behavior consisting of isolated events separated by periods of quiescence, whose durations are specified by a given probability law. Here, we identify the minimal sufficient statistic for their prediction (the set of causal states, calculate the historical memory capacity required to store those states (statistical complexity, delineate what information is predictable (excess entropy, and decompose the entropy of a single measurement into that shared with the past, future, or both. The causal state equivalence relation defines a new subclass of renewal processes with a finite number of causal states despite having an unbounded interevent count distribution. We use the resulting formulae to analyze the output of the parametrized Simple Nonunifilar Source, generated by a simple two-state hidden Markov model, but with an infinite-state ϵ-machine presentation. All in all, the results lay the groundwork for analyzing more complex processes with infinite statistical complexity and infinite excess entropy.

  1. Tensor products of process matrices with indefinite causal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding; Sakharwade, Nitica

    2018-03-01

    Theories with indefinite causal structure have been studied from both the fundamental perspective of quantum gravity and the practical perspective of information processing. In this paper we point out a restriction in forming tensor products of objects with indefinite causal structure in certain models: there exist both classical and quantum objects the tensor products of which violate the normalization condition of probabilities, if all local operations are allowed. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for when such unrestricted tensor products of multipartite objects are (in)valid. This poses a challenge to extending communication theory to indefinite causal structures, as the tensor product is the fundamental ingredient in the asymptotic setting of communication theory. We discuss a few options to evade this issue. In particular, we show that the sequential asymptotic setting does not suffer the violation of normalization.

  2. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem.

  3. Intelligence and obesity: which way does the causal direction go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The negative association between intelligence and obesity has been well established, but the direction of causality is unclear. The present review surveys the recent studies on the topic with both cross-sectional and longitudinal data in an attempt to establish causality. Most studies in the area employ cross-sectional data and conclude (without empirical justification) that obesity causes intellectual impairment. The few studies that employ prospectively longitudinal data, however, uniformly conclude that lower intelligence leads to BMI gains and obesity. A close examination of three such studies, from three different nations (Sweden, New Zealand, and the UK), leaves little doubt that the causality runs from low intelligence to obesity. The conclusion in previous studies that obesity impairs cognitive function stems from improper interpretation of a negative association between intelligence and obesity from cross-sectional studies. Results from the analyses of high-quality, population-based, prospectively longitudinal data firmly establish that low intelligence increases the chances of obesity.

  4. Causal Analysis for Performance Modeling of Computer Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lemeire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal modeling and the accompanying learning algorithms provide useful extensions for in-depth statistical investigation and automation of performance modeling. We enlarged the scope of existing causal structure learning algorithms by using the form-free information-theoretic concept of mutual information and by introducing the complexity criterion for selecting direct relations among equivalent relations. The underlying probability distribution of experimental data is estimated by kernel density estimation. We then reported on the benefits of a dependency analysis and the decompositional capacities of causal models. Useful qualitative models, providing insight into the role of every performance factor, were inferred from experimental data. This paper reports on the results for a LU decomposition algorithm and on the study of the parameter sensitivity of the Kakadu implementation of the JPEG-2000 standard. Next, the analysis was used to search for generic performance characteristics of the applications.

  5. No simple dual to the causal holographic information?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Wall, Aron C. [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States)

    2017-04-21

    In AdS/CFT, the fine grained entropy of a boundary region is dual to the area of an extremal surface X in the bulk. It has been proposed that the area of a certain ‘causal surface’ C — i.e. the ‘causal holographic information’ (CHI) — corresponds to some coarse-grained entropy in the boundary theory. We construct two kinds of counterexamples that rule out various possible duals, using (1) vacuum rigidity and (2) thermal quenches. This includes the ‘one-point entropy’ proposed by Kelly and Wall, and a large class of related procedures. Also, any coarse-graining that fixes the geometry of the bulk ‘causal wedge’ bounded by C, fails to reproduce CHI. This is in sharp contrast to the holographic entanglement entropy, where the area of the extremal surface X measures the same information that is found in the ‘entanglement wedge’ bounded by X.

  6. Control of Bank Consolidated Financial Statements Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita S. Ambarchyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the multiple linear regression model of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The article considers six characteristics that can be used to estimate the level of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The multiple linear regression model was developed, using the results of point-based system of consolidated financial statements of thirty European bank and financial groups on the basis of the developed characteristics. The author offers to use the characteristic significance factor in the process of consolidated financial statements appraisal by points. The constructed regression model is checked on accuracy and statistical significance. The model can be used by internal auditors and financial analytics as an instrument for bank and non-bank consolidated financial statements quality control

  7. Quantum field theory and gravity in causal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Roman M.

    Causal set is a model of space time that allows to reconcile discreteness and manifest relativistic invariance. This is done by viewing space time as finite, partially ordered set. The elements of the set are viewed as points of space time, or events; the partial ordering between them is viewed as causal relations. It has been shown that, in discrete scenario, the information about causal relations between events can, indeed, approximate the metric. The goal of this thesis is to introduce matter fields and their Lagrangians into causal set context. This is a two step process. The first step is to re-define gauge fields, gravity, and distances in such a way that no reference to Lorentz index is made. This is done by defining gauge fields as two-point real valued functions, and gravitational field as causal structure itself. Once the above is done, Lagrangians have to be defined in a way that they don't refer to Lorentzian indices either. This is done by introducing a notion of type 1 and type 2 Lagrangian generators, coupled with respective machinery that "translates" each generator into corresponding Lagrangian. The fields that are subject to these generators are, respectively, defined as type 1 and type 2. The main difference between two kinds of fields is the prediction of different behavior in different dimensions of type 2 fields. However, despite our inability to travel to different dimensions, gravity was shown to be type 2 based on the erroneous predictions of its 4-dimensional behavior if it was viewed as type 1. However, no erroneous predictions are made if non-gravitational fields are viewed as either type 1 or type 2, thus the nature of the latter is still an open question. Finally, an attempt was made to provide interpretation of quantum mechanics that would allow to limit fluctuations of causal structure to allow some topological background. However, due to its controversial nature, it is placed in the Appendix.

  8. A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences . Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights

  9. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Liang

    Full Text Available Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD, to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i (Global association test Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii (Causal variant detection Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  10. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudel eSánchez-Campusano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and premotor spike-timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IP neurons may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality than to their generation and/or initiation.

  11. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-07-26

    Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD), to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i) (Global association test) Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii) (Causal variant detection) Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI) Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  12. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  13. Inferring connectivity in networked dynamical systems: Challenges using Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusch, Bethany; Maia, Pedro D.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2016-09-01

    Determining the interactions and causal relationships between nodes in an unknown networked dynamical system from measurement data alone is a challenging, contemporary task across the physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Statistical methods, such as the increasingly popular Granger causality, are being broadly applied for data-driven discovery of connectivity in fields from economics to neuroscience. A common version of the algorithm is called pairwise-conditional Granger causality, which we systematically test on data generated from a nonlinear model with known causal network structure. Specifically, we simulate networked systems of Kuramoto oscillators and use the Multivariate Granger Causality Toolbox to discover the underlying coupling structure of the system. We compare the inferred results to the original connectivity for a wide range of parameters such as initial conditions, connection strengths, community structures, and natural frequencies. Our results show a significant systematic disparity between the original and inferred network, unless the true structure is extremely sparse or dense. Specifically, the inferred networks have significant discrepancies in the number of edges and the eigenvalues of the connectivity matrix, demonstrating that they typically generate dynamics which are inconsistent with the ground truth. We provide a detailed account of the dynamics for the Erdős-Rényi network model due to its importance in random graph theory and network science. We conclude that Granger causal methods for inferring network structure are highly suspect and should always be checked against a ground truth model. The results also advocate the need to perform such comparisons with any network inference method since the inferred connectivity results appear to have very little to do with the ground truth system.

  14. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  15. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  16. A Bayesian nonparametric approach to causal inference on quantiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Daniels, Michael J; Winterstein, Almut G

    2018-02-25

    We propose a Bayesian nonparametric approach (BNP) for causal inference on quantiles in the presence of many confounders. In particular, we define relevant causal quantities and specify BNP models to avoid bias from restrictive parametric assumptions. We first use Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) to model the propensity score and then construct the distribution of potential outcomes given the propensity score using a Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) of normals model. We thoroughly evaluate the operating characteristics of our approach and compare it to Bayesian and frequentist competitors. We use our approach to answer an important clinical question involving acute kidney injury using electronic health records. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Temporal sequence in observational studies to establish causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a brief summary on the scope of the notions of causality and risk and considers some operational difficulties that arise when dealing with problems associated with them. It underscores the vital importance of timing and its link with the most commonly used observational research designs that address causal relationships. The article describes in detail the need to record the order in which the relevant events occur and how to consider this in the analysis. A detailed example of errors that are usually incurred in and their effect is provided.

  18. Determination of Causality between Remittance and Import: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muktadir-Al-Mukit

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between remittance and import for the economy of Bangladesh. The study used different econometric techniques of measuring the long and short term relationship between variables. The Johansen Cointegration test is used to determine the existence of a long term relationships between study variables. The normalized Cointegrating coefficients are found statistically significant and show a stable and positive relationship between study variables. Our Granger causality analysis suggests the existence of a unidirectional causality running from import to remittance. This confirms that remittances have no significant impact on the demand for imported goods rather import exerts a positive shock on the remittance of Bangladesh.

  19. The discourse of causal explanations in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

    Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created

  20. Enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes: factores causales y vigilancia

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Luisa Suárez Larreinaga; Denis Berdasquera Corcho

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo exponer los conceptos y algunos de los factores causales más importantes en la aparición y diseminación de las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes, así como presentar brevemente algunas de las actividades de vigilancia epidemiológica y su importancia en la detección y control de estas enfermedadesThe objective of this paper is to expound the concepts and some of the most important causal factors in the appearance and spreading of emergent and reemergent di...

  1. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  2. Guidelines for investigating causality of sequence variants in human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, D. G.; Manolio, T. A.; Dimmock, D. P.; Rehm, H. L.; Shendure, J.; Abecasis, G. R.; Adams, D. R.; Altman, R. B.; Antonarakis, S. E.; Ashley, E. A.; Barrett, J. C.; Biesecker, L. G.; Conrad, D. F.; Cooper, G. M.; Cox, N. J.; Daly, M. J.; Gerstein, M. B.; Goldstein, D. B.; Hirschhorn, J. N.; Leal, S. M.; Pennacchio, L. A.; Stamatoyannopoulos, J. A.; Sunyaev, S. R.; Valle, D.; Voight, B. F.; Winckler, W.; Gunter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of rare genetic variants is accelerating, and clear guidelines for distinguishing disease-causing sequence variants from the many potentially functional variants present in any human genome are urgently needed. Without rigorous standards we risk an acceleration of false-positive reports of causality, which would impede the translation of genomic research findings into the clinical diagnostic setting and hinder biological understanding of disease. Here we discuss the key challenges of assessing sequence variants in human disease, integrating both gene-level and variant-level support for causality. We propose guidelines for summarizing confidence in variant pathogenicity and highlight several areas that require further resource development. PMID:24759409

  3. Causal Analysis of Databases Concerning Electromagnetism and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Stenberg, Kristian; Lloret-Climent, Miguel; Nescolarde-Selva, Josué Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we conducted a causal analysis of a system extracted from a database of current data in the telecommunications domain, namely the Eurobarometer 73.3 database arose from a survey of 26,602 citizens EU on the potential health effects that electromagnetic fields can produce. To determine the cause-effect relationships between variables, we represented these data by a directed graph that can be applied to a qualitative version of the theory of discrete chaos to highlight causal c...

  4. Causal Analysis of Databases Concerning Electromagnetism and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alonso-Stenberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we conducted a causal analysis of a system extracted from a database of current data in the telecommunications domain, namely the Eurobarometer 73.3 database arose from a survey of 26,602 citizens EU on the potential health effects that electromagnetic fields can produce. To determine the cause-effect relationships between variables, we represented these data by a directed graph that can be applied to a qualitative version of the theory of discrete chaos to highlight causal circuits and attractors, as these are basic elements of system behavior.

  5. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Berry, Diane J; Lu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional ......Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi...

  6. The causal boundary of wave-type spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J.L.; Sanchez, M.

    2008-01-01

    A complete and systematic approach to compute the causal boundary of wave-type spacetimes is carried out. The case of a 1-dimensional boundary is specially analyzed and its critical appearance in pp-wave type spacetimes is emphasized. In particular, the corresponding results obtained in the framework of the AdS/CFT correspondence for holography on the boundary, are reinterpreted and very widely generalized. Technically, a recent new definition of causal boundary is used and stressed. Moreover, a set of mathematical tools is introduced (analytical functional approach, Sturm-Liouville theory, Fermat-type arrival time, Busemann-type functions)

  7. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  8. Persistence Statements: Describing Digital Stickiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kunze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a draft vocabulary for making “persistence statements.” These are simple tools for pragmatically addressing the concern that anyone feels upon experiencing a broken web link. Scholars increasingly use scientific and cultural assets in digital form, but choosing which among many objects to cite for the long term can be difficult. There are few well-defined terms to describe the various kinds and qualities of persistence that object repositories and identifier resolvers do or don’t provide. Given an object’s identifier, one should be able to query a provider to retrieve human- and machine-readable information to help judge the level of service to expect and help gauge whether the identifier is durable enough, as a sort of long-term bet, to include in a citation. The vocabulary should enable providers to articulate persistence policies and set user expectations.

  9. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  10. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  11. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  12. Electricity consumption-real GDP causality nexus: Evidence from a bootstrapped causality test for 30 OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Prasad, Arti

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine any causal effects between electricity consumption and real GDP for 30 OECD countries. We use a bootstrapped causality testing approach and unravel evidence in favour of electricity consumption causing real GDP in Australia, Iceland, Italy, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Korea, Portugal, and the UK. The implication is that electricity conservation policies will negatively impact real GDP in these countries. However, for the rest of the 22 countries our findings suggest that electricity conversation policies will not affect real GDP

  13. Stakeholder Orientation in Cruise Lines’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Penco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the mission statement in the strategic management of tourism firms has not been sufficiently highlighted. The present paper tries to bridge this literature gap and aims to (i analyze the content of mission statements; and (ii investigate the stakeholder orientation of cruise line mission statements. We apply a content analysis method to analyze the mission statements of 44 cruise lines, employing three different perspectives: (1 the inclusion of stakeholder groups; (2 mentions of specific “mission” components; (3 reference to four goals usually assigned to mission statements. The analysis was performed using the software package QDA-Miner. The results suggest that it is possible to identify four clusters of firms that present similar content in their mission statements, and that cruise companies tend to reserve a major attention to customers. This contribution presents some valuable research implications mainly useful for researchers and academics, but also maybe of benefit to professionals and investors.

  14. Statement of Claim under Kosovo Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehat Idrizi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available “Statement of Claim” represents a topic of special importance for civil proceedings law in the Republic of Kosovo, especially now that this institution is regulated by the provisions of the Law on Contested Procedure (LCP. In this regard, the role of the court (both in the contested and the execution procedure is emphasized in the implementation of this institution during the procedure of realization of subjective civil rights of the parties in the proceedings, or contesting them by the other party, as well as the implementation of the measures through which statement of claim is provided in the execution procedure. Statement of claim may arise if the claimant makes the existence of his claim or his subjective right credible, and if there is a risk that without the statement of claim or the imposition of the preliminary injunction, respondent (opponent of the statement of claim or the opposing party would significantly impede or hamper the realization of the claim in various forms. LCP has provided the conditions under which the statement of claim can be made in the contested procedure, the types of measures, the manner of imposing, as well as legal remedies against the decisions by which the proposed measures for statement of claim may be imposed or rejected. The court may impose a preliminary injunction only in the circumstances when the claimant (stating the claim within the time limit set by the court pays the imposed guarantee amount.

  15. Acute appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. Coincidence or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iván Latorre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is a common disease in clinical practice; some well-defined causes include luminal obstruction by fecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, foreign bodies and intestinal parasites. Closed abdominal trauma has been associated as an etiological factor, although, their causal relationship is still unclear. This paper presents the case of a patient with appendicitis after a closed abdominal trauma.

  16. Causality and cointegration analysis between macroeconomic variables and the Bovespa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fabiano Mello; Coronel, Daniel Arruda; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the causality relationship among a set of macroeconomic variables, represented by the exchange rate, interest rate, inflation (CPI), industrial production index as a proxy for gross domestic product in relation to the index of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa). The period of analysis corresponded to the months from January 1995 to December 2010, making a total of 192 observations for each variable. Johansen tests, through the statistics of the trace and of the maximum eigenvalue, indicated the existence of at least one cointegration vector. In the analysis of Granger (1988) causality tests via error correction, it was found that a short-term causality existed between the CPI and the Bovespa. Regarding the Granger (1988) long-term causality, the results indicated a long-term behaviour among the macroeconomic variables with the BOVESPA. The results of the long-term normalized vector for the Bovespa variable showed that most signals of the cointegration equation parameters are in accordance with what is suggested by the economic theory. In other words, there was a positive behaviour of the GDP and a negative behaviour of the inflation and of the exchange rate (expected to be a positive relationship) in relation to the Bovespa, with the exception of the Selic rate, which was not significant with that index. The variance of the Bovespa was explained by itself in over 90% at the twelfth month, followed by the country risk, with less than 5%.

  17. Causal Indicator Models Have Nothing to Do with Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Roy Howell, and Einar Breivik, congratulate Aguirre-Urreta, M. I., Rönkkö, M., & Marakas, G. M., for their work (2016) "Omission of Causal Indicators: Consequences and Implications for Measurement," Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 14(3), 75-97. doi:10.1080/15366367.2016.1205935. They call it…

  18. The mutual causality analysis between the stock and futures markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Qing-Wen

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we employ the conditional Granger causality model to estimate the information flow, and find that the improved model outperforms the Granger causality model in revealing the asymmetric correlation between stocks and futures in the Chinese market. First, we find that information flows estimated by Granger causality tests from futures to stocks are greater than those from stocks to futures. Additionally, average correlation coefficients capture some important characteristics between stock prices and information flows over time. Further, we find that direct information flows estimated by conditional Granger causality tests from stocks to futures are greater than those from futures to stocks. Besides, the substantial increases of information flows and direct information flows exhibit a certain degree of synchronism with the occurrences of important events. Finally, the comparative analysis with the asymmetric ratio and the bootstrap technique demonstrates the slight asymmetry of information flows and the significant asymmetry of direct information flows. It reveals that the information flows from futures to stocks are slightly greater than those in the reverse direction, while the direct information flows from stocks to futures are significantly greater than those in the reverse direction.

  19. A Causality Analysis of Financial Deepening and Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the causal relationship between financial deepening and performance of Nigerian economy using time series data (1990-2013). Secondary data was used and collected from the central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and national bureau of statistics. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using a ...

  20. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved) that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; (1)]. However, network approaches to symptom interaction [i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., (2), for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth non-linear dynamical systems theory (NLDST). The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (3) to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning) and universal (e.g., causal) processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments. PMID:26635639

  1. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  2. Clarity and causality needed in claims about Big Gods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    We welcome Norenzayan et al.'s claim that the prosocial effects of beliefs in supernatural agents extend beyond Big Gods. To date, however, supporting evidence has focused on the Abrahamic Big God, making generalisations difficult. We discuss a recent study that highlights the need for clarity about the causal path by which supernatural beliefs affect the evolution of big societies.

  3. Causality: School Libraries and Student Success (CLASS). White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Librarians, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On April 11 and 12, 2014, the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) held "Causality: School Libraries and Student Success" (CLASS), an IMLS-funded national forum. Dr. Thomas Cook, one of the most influential methodologists in education research, and a five member panel of expert scholars and practitioners led 50 established…

  4. Causal interactions in resting-state networks predict perceived loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yin; Yang, Li; Chen, Sifan; Guo, Daqing; Ding, Zechao; Tam, Kin Yip; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Loneliness is broadly described as a negative emotional response resulting from the differences between the actual and desired social relations of an individual, which is related to the neural responses in connection with social and emotional stimuli. Prior research has discovered that some neural regions play a role in loneliness. However, little is known about the differences among individuals in loneliness and the relationship of those differences to differences in neural networks. The current study aimed to investigate individual differences in perceived loneliness related to the causal interactions between resting-state networks (RSNs), including the dorsal attentional network (DAN), the ventral attentional network (VAN), the affective network (AfN) and the visual network (VN). Using conditional granger causal analysis of resting-state fMRI data, we revealed that the weaker causal flow from DAN to VAN is related to higher loneliness scores, and the decreased causal flow from AfN to VN is also related to higher loneliness scores. Our results clearly support the hypothesis that there is a connection between loneliness and neural networks. It is envisaged that neural network features could play a key role in characterizing the loneliness of an individual.

  5. Causal Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...

  6. Perceived causality, force, and resistance in the absence of launching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    In the launching effect, a moving object (the launcher) contacts a stationary object (the target), and upon contact, the launcher stops and the target begins moving in the same direction and at the same or slower velocity as previous launcher motion (Michotte, 1946/1963). In the study reported here, participants viewed a modified launching effect display in which the launcher stopped before or at the moment of contact and the target remained stationary. Participants rated perceived causality, perceived force, and perceived resistance of the launcher on the target or the target on the launcher. For launchers and for targets, increases in the size of the spatial gap between the final location of the launcher and the location of the target decreased ratings of perceived causality and ratings of perceived force and increased ratings of perceived resistance. Perceived causality, perceived force, and perceived resistance exhibited gradients or fields extending from the launcher and from the target and were not dependent upon contact of the launcher and target. Causal asymmetries and force asymmetries reported in previous studies did not occur, and this suggests that such asymmetries might be limited to typical launching effect stimuli. Deviations from Newton's laws of motion are noted, and the existence of separate radii of action extending from the launcher and from the target is suggested.

  7. On the non-causal link between volatility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf; Wälde, Klaus

    A model highlighting the endogeneity of both volatility and growth is presented. Volatility and growth are therefore correlated but there is no causal link from volatility to growth. This joint endogeneity is illustrated by working out the effects through which economies with different tax levels...... in the conditional variance equation. Otherwise an omitted variable bias is likely....

  8. Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2008-01-01

    Published as a chapter in Van Hezewijk, R. (2003). Psychology and evolutionary biology; Causal analysis, evidence, and nomothetic laws. In N. Stephenson, L. Radtke, R. Jorna & H. J. Stam (Eds.), Theoretical psychology; Critical contributions (pp. 405-415). Concord, Ontario: Captus Press.

  9. Towards a definition of locality in a manifoldlike causal set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaser, Lisa; Surya, Sumati

    2013-01-01

    It is a common misconception that spacetime discreteness necessarily implies a violation of local Lorentz invariance. In fact, in the causal set approach to quantum gravity, Lorentz invariance follows from the specific implementation of the discreteness hypothesis. However, this comes at the cost...

  10. Explanation in causal inference methods for mediation and interaction

    CERN Document Server

    VanderWeele, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of methods for mediation and interaction, VanderWeele's book is the first to approach this topic from the perspective of causal inference. Numerous software tools are provided, and the text is both accessible and easy to read, with examples drawn from diverse fields. The result is an essential reference for anyone conducting empirical research in the biomedical or social sciences.

  11. Revisiting Aristotle's causality: model for development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work critically examined the implications of Aristotle‟s theory of causality for development. Aristotle classified the causes of things into four categories: material cause, formal cause, efficient cause and final cause. The question confronting this work is, what is the material causes, formal causes, efficient causes and final ...

  12. Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of the causal agent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to confirm the identity of the causal agent of anthracnose, a major fungal disease of mango in Ghana. Forty-five isolates of the pathogen were obtained from diseased mango plant parts, and were identified using morphological, physiological and molecular methods. The results showed that the ...

  13. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  14. Fostering Deeper Critical Inquiry with Causal Layered Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Causal layered analysis (CLA) is a technique that enables deeper critical inquiry through a structured exploration of four layers of causation. CLA's layers reach down from the surface litany of media understanding, through the layer of systemic causes identified by conventional research, to underpinning worldviews, ideologies and philosophies,…

  15. Causality between the Amplitude and Frequency of Cardiac Oscillations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paluš, Milan; Stefanovska, A.; Veber, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 127-132 ISSN 1567-8822 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : causality * cardiac frequency * systolic pressure * information theory * mutual information * synchronization * direction of driving Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  16. k-Essence, superluminal propagation, causality and emergent geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The k-essence theories admit in general the superluminal propagation of the perturbations on classical backgrounds. We show that in spite of the superluminal propagation the causal paradoxes do not arise in these theories and in this respect they are not less safe than General Relativity

  17. Effects of Perceived Causality on Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  19. The causal relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the long run and short run dynamic relationships between macroeconomic variables and FDI in West Africa using recent econometric techniques for Granger non-causality and PMG/ARDL for period of 1990 to 2016. Controlling for the influence of trade openness and exchange rate, the long-run effect ...

  20. Causal approach to (2+1)-dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, G.; Wreszinski, W.F.; Pimentel, B.M.; Tomazelli, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    It is shown that the causal approach to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics yields a well-defined perturbative theory. In particular, and in contrast to renormalized perturbative quantum field theory, it is free of any ambiguities and ascribes a nonzero value to the dynamically generated, nonperturbative photon mass. (author). 12 refs