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Sample records for strong causal associations

  1. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Huang, Jie; Chasman, Daniel; Naitza, Silvia; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Teumer, Alexander; Reiner, Alex P; Folkersen, Lasse; Basu, Saonli; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Trompet, Stella; Mälarstig, Anders; Baumert, Jens; Bis, Joshua C; Guo, Xiuqing; Hottenga, Jouke J; Shin, So-Youn; Lopez, Lorna M; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Yanek, Lisa R; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Wilson, James F; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zemunik, Tatijana; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena; Pulanic, Drazen; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Wild, Sarah H; Campbell, Harry; Curb, J David; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin; Eaton, Charles B; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Bandinelli, Stefania; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Fornage, Myriam; Green, David; Gross, Myron; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Williams, Frances M K; Grant, Peter J; Spector, Timothy D; Strawbridge, Rona J; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Yao, Jie; Swords Jenny, Nancy; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Lumley, Thomas; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Grotevendt, Anne; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas; Goel, Anuj; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Clarke, Robert; Steri, Maristella; Tarasov, Kirill V; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Stott, David J; Sattar, Naveed; Buckley, Brendan M; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D; McArdle, Wendy L; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Song, Jaejoon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R; Rose, Lynda M; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Teichert, Martina; Ikram, M Arfan; Mosley, Thomas H; Bevan, Steve; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Hopewell, Jemma C; Chambers, John C; Saleheen, Danish; Kooner, Jaspal S; Danesh, John; Nelson, Christopher P; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Eriksson, Johan G; Jacobs, David; Deary, Ian J; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; de Geus, Eco J C; Tracy, Russell P; Hayward, Caroline; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cucca, Francesco; Jukema, J Wouter; Eriksson, Per; Seshadri, Sudha; Markus, Hugh S; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J; Wallaschofski, Henri; Smith, Nicholas L; Tregouet, David; Ridker, Paul M; Tang, Weihong; Strachan, David P; Hamsten, Anders; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2013-09-17

    Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (90 000 subjects of European ancestry, the first genome-wide association meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 studies in blacks totaling 8289 samples, and a genome-wide association study in Hispanics totaling 1366 samples. Evaluation for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with clinical outcomes included a total of 40 695 cases and 85 582 controls for coronary artery disease, 4752 cases and 24 030 controls for stroke, and 3208 cases and 46 167 controls for venous thromboembolism. Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10(-8)) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the 3 structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines, and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a few loci were significantly associated with coronary artery disease, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms was not significant for coronary artery disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism. We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and coronary artery disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism.

  2. A Multi-Ethnic Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Over 100,000 Subjects Identifies 23 Fibrinogen-Associated Loci but no Strong Evidence of a Causal Association between Circulating Fibrinogen and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Huang, Jie; Chasman, Daniel; Naitza, Silvia; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Teumer, Alexander; Reiner, Alex P; Folkersen, Lasse; Basu, Saonli; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Trompet, Stella; Mälarstig, Anders; Baumert, Jens; Bis, Joshua C.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hottenga, Jouke J; Shin, So-Youn; Lopez, Lorna M; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Yanek, Lisa R; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Wilson, James F; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zemunik, Tatijana; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena; Pulanic, Drazen; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Wild, Sarah H; Campbell, Harry; Curb, J David; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin; Eaton, Charles B.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Fornage, Myriam; Green, David; Gross, Myron; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Williams, Frances M.K.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Strawbridge, Rona J; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Yao, Jie; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Lumley, Thomas; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Grotevendt, Anne; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas; Goel, Anuj; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Clarke, Robert; Steri, Maristella; Tarasov, Kirill V; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Stott, David J; Sattar, Naveed; Buckley, Brendan M; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D; McArdle, Wendy L; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Song, Jaejoon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Teichert, Martina; Ikram, M Arfan; Mosley, Thomas H; Bevan, Steve; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Danesh, John; Nelson, Christopher P; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Eriksson, Johan G; Jacobs, David; Deary, Ian J; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; de Geus, Eco JC; Tracy, Russell P.; Hayward, Caroline; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cucca, Francesco; Jukema, J Wouter; Eriksson, Per; Seshadri, Sudha; Markus, Hugh S.; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J; Wallaschofski, Henri; Smith, Nicholas L.; Tregouet, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; Strachan, David P.; Hamsten, Anders; O’Donnell, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), range from 34 to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies only explain a small proportion (< 2%) of its variation. Methods and Results We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 GWA studies, including more than 90,000 subjects of European ancestry, the first GWA meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 African Americans studies totaling 8,289 samples, and a GWA study in Hispanic-Americans totaling 1,366 samples. Evaluation for association of SNPs with clinical outcomes included a total of 40,695 cases and 85,582 controls for coronary artery disease (CAD), 4,752 cases and 24,030 controls for stroke, and 3,208 cases and 46,167 controls for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the three structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead SNPs in a few loci were significantly associated with CAD, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead SNPs was not significant for CAD, stroke or VTE. Conclusion We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and CAD, stroke or VTE. PMID:23969696

  3. Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    2000-03-01

    Written by one of the pre-eminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artifical intelligence, business, epidemiology, social science and economics. Students in these areas will find natural models, simple identification procedures, and precise mathematical definitions of causal concepts that traditional texts have tended to evade or make unduly complicated. This book will be of interest to professionals and students in a wide variety of fields. Anyone who wishes to elucidate meaningful relationships from data, predict effects of actions and policies, assess explanations of reported events, or form theories of causal understanding and causal speech will find this book stimulating and invaluable.

  4. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabater-Lleal, M.; Huang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Naitza, S.; Dehghan, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Teumer, A.; Reiner, A.P.; Folkersen, L.; Basu, S.; Rudnicka, A.R.; Trompet, S.; Mälarstig, A.; Baumert, J.; Bis, J.C.; Guo, X.; Hottenga, J.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Lopez, L.M.; Lahti, J.; Tanaka, T.; Yanek, L.R.; Oudot-Mellakh, T.; Wilson, J.F.; Navarro, P.; Huffman, J.E.; Zemunik, T.; Redline, S.; Mehra, R.; Pulanic, D.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Kolcic, I.; Polasek, O.; Wild, S.H.; Campbell, H.; Curb, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Liu, S.; Eaton, C.B.; Becker, D.M.; Becker, L.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Räikkönen, K.; Widén, E.; Palotie, A.; Fornage, M.; Green, D.; Gross, M.; Davies, G.E.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Starr, J.M.; Williams, F.M.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, T.D.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Silveira, A.; Sennblad, B.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Hofman, A.; van Dongen, J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Yao, J.; Swords Jenny, N.; Haritunians, T.; McKnight, B.; Lumley, T.; Taylor, K.D.; Rotter, J.I.; Psaty, B.M.; Peters, A.; Gieger, C.; Illig, T.; Grotevendt, A.; Homuth, G.; Völzke, H.; Kocher, T.; Goel, A.; Franzosi, M.G.; Seedorf, U.; Clarke, R.; Steri, M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Stott, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Buckley, B.M.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.D.; McArdle, W.L.; Chen, M.H.; Tofler, G.H.; Song, J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Folsom, A.R.; Rose, L.M.; Franco-Cereceda, A.; Teichert, M.; Ikram, M.A.; Mosley, T.H.; Bevan, S.; Dichgans, M.; Rothwell, P.M.; Sudlow, C.L.; Hopewell, J.C.; Chambers, J.C.; Saleheen, D.; Kooner, J.S.; Danesh, J.; Nelson, C.P.; Erdmann, J.; Reilly, M.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Schunkert, H.; Morange, P.E.; Ferrucci, L.; Eriksson, J.G.; Jacobs, D.; Deary, I.J.; Soranzo, N.; Witteman, J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Tracy, R.P.; Hayward, C.; Koenig, W.; Cucca, F.; Jukema, J.W.; Eriksson, P.; Seshadri, S.; Markus, H.S.; Watkins, H.; Samani, N.J.; Wallaschofski, H.; Smith, N.L.; Tregouet, D.A.; Ridker, P.M.; Tang, W.; Strachan, D.P.; Hamsten, A.; O'Donnell, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND-: Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation. METHODS AND

  5. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabater-Lleal, M.; Huang, J.; Chasman, D.; Naitza, S.; Dehghan, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Teumer, A.; Reiner, A.P.; Folkersen, L.; Basu, S.; Rudnicka, A.R.; Trompet, S.; Malarstig, A.; Baumert, J.; Bis, J.C.; Guo, X.; Hottenga, J.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Lopez, L.M.; Lahti, J.; Tanaka, T.; Yanek, L.R.; Oudot-Mellakh, T.; Wilson, J.F.; Navarro, P.; Huffman, J.E.; Zemunik, T.; Redline, S.; Mehra, R.; Pulanic, D.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Kolcic, I.; Polasek, O.; Wild, S.H.; Campbell, H.; Curb, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Liu, S.; Eaton, C.B.; Becker, D.M.; Becker, L.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Raikkonen, K.; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Fornage, M.; Green, D.; Gross, M.; Davies, G.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Starr, J.M.; Williams, F.M.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, T.D.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Silveira, A.; Sennblad, B.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Hofman, A.; Dongen, J. Van; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Yao, J.; Jenny, N. Swords; Haritunians, T.; McKnight, B.; Lumley, T.; Taylor, K.D.; Rotter, J.I.; Psaty, B.M.; Peters, A.; Gieger, C.; Illig, T.; Grotevendt, A.; Homuth, G.; Volzke, H.; Kocher, T.; Goel, A.; Franzosi, M.G.; Seedorf, U.; Clarke, R.; Steri, M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Stott, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Buckley, B.M.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.D.; McArdle, W.L.; Chen, M.H.; Tofler, G.H.; Song, J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Folsom, A.R.; Teichert, M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  6. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  7. Hyponatremia and the Thyroid: Causality or Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Pantalone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, have historically been implicated in the development of serum hyponatremia. However, in more recent years, this paradigm has been challenged, and it has been suggested that the link between hypothyroidism and hyponatremia may merely be an association. This review will focus on the thyroid and its link with serum hyponatremia, and review the available literature on the topic.

  8. MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association.

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    Farrington, C P; Miller, E; Taylor, B

    2001-06-14

    The hypothesis that MMR vaccines cause autism was first raised by reports of cases in which developmental regression occurred soon after MMR vaccination. A previous study found no evidence to support this hypothesis. It has recently been suggested that MMR vaccine might cause autism, but that the induction interval need not be short. The data from the earlier study were reanalysed to test this second hypothesis. Our results do not support this hypothesis, and provide further evidence against a causal association between MMR vaccination and autism.

  9. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  10. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  11. Impaired causal awareness and associated cortical–basal ganglia structural changes in youth psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi R. Griffiths

    2016-01-01

    Discussion: Low causal awareness occurs across diagnoses and stages of illness and is associated with poor functional outcomes. Our results suggest that there may be shared neural underpinnings of its dysfunction in the early course of mood and psychotic disorders, however in more established illness, there is greater neurobiological divergence in causal awareness correlates between diagnoses.

  12. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M; Svendsen, M T; Habel, L A; Friedman, G D; Friis, S

    2017-10-01

    The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. To study the association between use of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined potential confounders obtained from demographic, prescription and patient registries. Ever-use of hydrochlorothiazide was associated with an adjusted OR for SCC lip cancer of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.6), increasing to 3.9 (95%CI: 3.0-4.9) for high use (≥25 000 mg). There was a clear dose-response effect (P hydrochlorothiazide (≥100 000 mg) presenting an OR of 7.7 (95%CI: 5.7-10.5). No association with lip cancer was seen with use of other diuretics or nondiuretic antihypertensives. Assuming causality, we estimated that 11% of the SCC lip cancer cases could be attributed to hydrochlorothiazide use. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with an increased risk of lip cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Impaired causal awareness and associated cortical-basal ganglia structural changes in youth psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kristi R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; Guastella, Adam J; Hickie, Ian B; Balleine, Bernard W

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairments contribute significantly to disease burden in young individuals presenting with major psychiatric disorders. The capacity to encode the consequences of one's actions may be of particular importance for real-world functioning due to its fundamental role in goal-directed behavior. Here, we investigated a dimensional measure of causal awareness during a probabilistic learning task in 92 young individuals with an admixture of major mood and psychotic illnesses, at early and more established stages. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted images, we estimated the volume and shapes of major subcortical structures and investigated their association with causal awareness. The low causal awareness (LCA) group (n = 35) reported increased social disability (p = .004) and reduced right pallidal size, specifically within the dorsolateral surfaces (p = .02), relative to the unimpaired high causal awareness (HCA) patients (n = 57). In early-stage illness, LCA had a smaller right thalamus (p = .002) relative to HCA. Exploratory investigations suggested that in developed psychotic syndromes, causal awareness was correlated with left hippocampal size (p = .006) whereas, in more persistent affective disorders, causal awareness was correlated with left amygdala size (p = .013), specifically within the anterior aspect. Low causal awareness occurs across diagnoses and stages of illness and is associated with poor functional outcomes. Our results suggest that there may be shared neural underpinnings of its dysfunction in the early course of mood and psychotic disorders, however in more established illness, there is greater neurobiological divergence in causal awareness correlates between diagnoses.

  14. Celiac disease : moving from genetic associations to causal variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrdlickova, B.; Westra, H-J; Franke, L.; Wijmenga, C.

    Genome-wide association studies are providing insight into the genetic basis of common complex diseases: more than 1150 genetic loci [2165 unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] have recently been associated to 159 complex diseases. The hunt for genes contributing to immune-related diseases

  15. Causal Association of Overall Obesity and Abdominal Obesity with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Xiaojing; Wang, Shiyun; He, Zhen; Huang, Yeping; Xu, Bo; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Feng; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the causal effect of overall obesity and abdominal obesity on type 2 diabetes among Chinese Han individuals. The causal relationship of BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of glucose deterioration and glycemic traits was compared using two different genetic instruments based on 30 BMI loci and 6 WHR loci with Mendelian randomization (MR) in three prospective cohorts (n = 6,476). Each 1-SD genetically instrumented higher WHR was associated with a 65.7% higher risk of glucose deterioration (95% CI = 1.069-2.569, P = 0.024), whereas no significant association of BMI with glucose deterioration was observed. Furthermore, a causal relationship was found only between BMI and homeostatic model assessment β-cell function (HOMA-B) (β = 0.143, P = 0.001), and there was a nominal association with Stumvoll second-phase insulin secretion traits (β = 0.074, P = 0.022). The significance level did not persist in sensitivity analyses, except in the causal estimate of WHR on the Gutt index in MR-Egger (β = -0.379, P = 0.022) and the causal estimate of BMI on homeostatic model assessment β-cell function in weighted median MR (β = 0.128, P = 0.017). The data from this study support the potential causal relationship between abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, which may be driven by aggravated insulin resistance, in contrast with the potential causal relationship between overall obesity and insulin secretion. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  16. Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with attention problems (AP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The etiology of this association is unclear. We investigate whether there is a causal influence of birth weight (BW) on AP and whether the BW effect is mediated by catch-up growth (CUG) in low-BW children. Method:…

  17. [Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. "Catch-up growth", "life course health", "disease", "child", "development", "early life", "perinatal programming", "epigenetics", "breastfeeding", "small baby syndrome", "phenotype", "micronutrients", "maternal nutrition", "obesity", and "adolescence" were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  18. Improved Personalized Recommendation Based on Causal Association Rule and Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wu; Qing, Fang; Zhou, Jin

    2016-01-01

    There are usually limited user evaluation of resources on a recommender system, which caused an extremely sparse user rating matrix, and this greatly reduce the accuracy of personalized recommendation, especially for new users or new items. This paper presents a recommendation method based on rating prediction using causal association rules.…

  19. Causality and Pleiotropy in the Association Between Bullying Victimization in Adolescence and Depressive Episodes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Tropf, Felix C; Niezink, Nynke M D

    2018-02-01

    Children and adolescents who are victims or perpetrators of bullying victimization are at elevated risk for maladjustment problems, concurrently and in the long run. Previous studies suggest that this correlation is partly explained by genetic influence. However, whether the genetic correlation is independent of a causal effect of victimization on maladjustment remains unclear. Using data from 2,510 females from the TwinsUK registry, we applied an innovative extension of the Cholesky decomposition to investigate to what extent the association between victimization in adolescence and self-reported depressive episodes in adulthood is caused by shared genetic effects (pleiotropy), and to what extent it is due to a phenotypic causal relationship. We find that around 60% of the association between victimization and self-reported depressive episodes is due to a causal effect of victimization on depressive episodes, and 40% is due to pleiotropic effects. These findings underline the importance of integrating genetic information into social science research and demonstrate a neat strategy to elucidate causal mechanisms in the absence of experimental designs.

  20. Associations between causal attributions and personal stigmatizing attitudes in untreated persons with current mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-11-06

    Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed. Biomedical causes, but also belief in childhood trauma or unhealthy behavior as a cause of the problem, were associated with stronger personal stigma and with more stigma-stress. Similarities and differences to findings among the general population and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between childhood ADHD, gender, and adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement: A causally informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Irene J; Saunders, Gretchen R B; Malone, Stephen M; Keyes, Margaret A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2018-03-01

    We report whether the etiology underlying associations of childhood ADHD with adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement is consistent with causal relationships or shared predispositions, and whether it differs by gender. In three population-based twin samples (N = 3762; 64% monozygotic), including one oversampling females with ADHD, regressions were conducted with childhood inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms predicting alcohol and marijuana outcomes by age 17. To determine whether ADHD effects were consistent with causality, twin difference analyses divided effects into those shared between twins in the pair and those differing within pairs. Adolescents with more severe childhood ADHD were more likely to initiate alcohol and marijuana use earlier, escalate to frequent or heavy use, and develop symptoms. While risks were similar across genders, females with more hyperactivity-impulsivity had higher alcohol consumption and progressed further toward daily marijuana use than did males. Monozygotic twins with more severe ADHD than their co-twins did not differ significantly on alcohol or marijuana outcomes, however, suggesting a non-causal relationship. When co-occurring use of other substances and conduct/oppositional defiant disorders were considered, hyperactivity-impulsivity remained significantly associated with both substances, as did inattention with marijuana, but not alcohol. Childhood ADHD predicts when alcohol and marijuana use are initiated and how quickly use escalates. Shared familial environment and genetics, rather than causal influences, primarily account for these associations. Stronger relationships between hyperactivity-impulsivity and heavy drinking/frequent marijuana use among adolescent females than males, as well as the greater salience of inattention for marijuana, merit further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chinese Herbs Containing Aristolochic Acid Associated with Renal Failure and Urothelial Carcinoma: A Review from Epidemiologic Observations to Causal Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA have been designated to be a strong carcinogen. This review summarizes major epidemiologic evidence to argue for the causal association between AA exposure and urothelial carcinoma as well as nephropathy. The exposure scenarios include the following: Belgian women taking slimming pills containing single material Guang Fang Ji, consumptions of mixtures of Chinese herbal products in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure in Taiwan, occupational exposure in Chinese herbalists, and food contamination in farming villages in valleys of the Danube River. Such an association is corroborated by detecting specific DNA adducts in the tumor tissue removed from affected patients. Preventive actions of banning such use and education to the healthcare professionals and public are necessary for the safety of herbal remedies.

  3. Does Sufficient Evidence Exist to Support a Causal Association between Vitamin D Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk? An Assessment Using Hill’s Criteria for Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Weyland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels have been found to be inversely associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors; dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This review looks for evidence of a causal association between low 25(OHD levels and increased CVD risk. We evaluated journal articles in light of Hill’s criteria for causality in a biological system. The results of our assessment are as follows. Strength of association: many randomized controlled trials (RCTs, prospective and cross-sectional studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OHD levels and CVD risk factors. Consistency of observed association: most studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OHD levels and CVD risk factors in various populations, locations and circumstances. Temporality of association: many RCTs and prospective studies found statistically significant inverse associations between 25(OHD levels and CVD risk factors. Biological gradient (dose-response curve: most studies assessing 25(OHD levels and CVD risk found an inverse association exhibiting a linear biological gradient. Plausibility of biology: several plausible cellular-level causative mechanisms and biological pathways may lead from a low 25(OHD level to increased risk for CVD with mediators, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence: some well-designed RCTs found increased CVD risk factors with decreasing 25(OHD levels. Analogy: the association between serum 25(OHD levels and CVD risk is analogous to that between 25(OHD levels and the risk of overall cancer, periodontal disease, multiple sclerosis and breast cancer. Conclusion: all relevant Hill criteria for a causal association in a biological system are satisfied to indicate a low 25(OHD level as a CVD risk factor.

  4. The association between contact and intellectual disability literacy, causal attributions and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, R; Das, R; Potts, H; Scior, K

    2016-03-01

    Contact is seen as a key route to tackling stigma and discrimination. Contact theory states that the quality and type of contact, as well as circumstance of the contact experience, influence the effect of contact on prejudice. The majority of research in intellectual disabilities though has focused on contact as present or absent only. A total of 1264 adult members of the UK general population completed measures of symptom recognition, social distance (as measure of external stigma) and causal beliefs in response to a diagnostically unlabelled vignette, depicting someone with intellectual disabilities. A nuanced contact variable, including frequency of contact and closeness and nature of the contact relationship, explained more of the variance in social distance, compared to the binary variable (contact as present or absent). Only the closeness of the relationship was individually predictive though, and the models explained only relatively small amounts of the variance. Structural equation modelling of contact, recognition, social distance and causal beliefs demonstrated that the model including the nuanced variable was an adequate fit for the data. Future research aimed at increasing our understanding of intellectual disability stigma should avoid assessing contact as a binary variable only, but consider other factors, particularly the closeness of contact relationships. Anti-stigma interventions may benefit from focussing on causal attributions as a method of reducing stigma. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    of this study could not support a causal association between FG and BP in healthy children and adolescents; however, it is possible that rs560887 has pleiotropic effects on unknown factors with a BP lowering effect or that these results were due to a lack of statistical power.Journal of Human Hypertension......The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single......-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the G6PC2 locus found to be robustly associated with FG in children and adolescents, as an instrument to associate FG with resting BP in 1506 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Rs560887 was associated with increased FG levels corresponding...

  6. Strong human association with plant invasion success for Trifolium introductions to New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravuer, Kelly; Sullivan, Jon J; Williams, Peter A; Duncan, Richard P

    2008-04-29

    It has proven difficult, when focused only on biological determinants, to explain why some plant species become naturalized in or invade new locations, whereas others fail. We analyzed the invasion of Trifolium (true clover) species into New Zealand, assessing a range of human, biogeographic, and biological influences at three key invasion stages: introduction, naturalization, and spread. We used sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) to define suites of related attributes and aggregated boosted trees to model relationships with invasion outcomes. Human and biogeographic attributes were strongly associated with success at all stages. Whereas biogeographic attributes, notably large native range, were consistently associated with success, different human factors appeared to favor success at different stages, such as presence in early trade/immigration hotspots (introduction), intentional large-scale planting (naturalization), and frequent presence as a seed contaminant (relative spread rate). Biological traits were less strongly associated with success for introduction and spread and little if at all for naturalization; we found that tall perennials with long flowering periods were more frequently selected for introduction, whereas species with extended flowering in New Zealand spread more rapidly. In addition to causal relationships, the importance of human factors may reflect indirect associations, including ecological traits associated with both human use and invasion. Nevertheless, our results highlight key roles that humans can play in facilitating plant invasion via two pathways: (i) commercial introduction leading to widespread planting and concomitant naturalization and spread and (ii) unintentional introduction and spread of species associated with human activities, such as seed contaminants.

  7. Causal associations between depression symptoms and cognition in a community-based cohort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, David; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the temporal association between depression symptoms and cognitive function in older adults over a 4-year period. Using a longitudinal, cross-lagged, population-based design, we studied depression symptoms and cognitive domains (including processing speed, verbal fluency, face and word recognition, episodic memory, and simple and choice reaction time) in 896 community-dwelling adults aged 70-97 years. Cross-lagged structural equation models suggested that initial depression symptoms affected subsequent processing speed and simple and choice reaction time but that cognition did not predict depression symptoms over time. The associations between depression and cognitive variables were attenuated when the models were adjusted for sensory impairment, physical health, and locus of control. The findings suggest that, causally, depression precedes cognitive impairment in this age group and that the association is related to physical health and perceptions of a lack of control. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: the CARTA consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Skorpen, Frank; Marioni, Riccardo E; Campbell, Archie; Engmann, Jorgen; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Loukola, Anu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Partonen, Timo; Kaakinen, Marika; Ducci, Francesca; Cavadino, Alana; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Skaaby, Tea; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Minica, Camelia C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Dale, Caroline E; Amuzu, Antoinette; Lennon, Lucy T; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; Wong, Andrew; Paternoster, Lavinia; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Horwood, L John; Murphy, Michael; Johnstone, Elaine C; Kennedy, Martin A; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Nohr, Ellen A; Kuh, Diana; Kivimaki, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G; Morris, Richard W; Casas, Juan P; Preisig, Martin; Boomsma, Dorret I; Linneberg, Allan; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Veijola, Juha; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Korhonen, Tellervo; Tiemeier, Henning; Kumari, Meena; Porteous, David J; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Smith, George Davey; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-10-07

    To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and observational meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress. Current, former and never smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 25 studies in the Consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Binary definitions of depression, anxiety and psychological distress assessed by clinical interview, symptom scales or self-reported recall of clinician diagnosis. The analytic sample included up to 58 176 never smokers, 37 428 former smokers and 32 028 current smokers (total N=127 632). In observational analyses, current smokers had 1.85 times greater odds of depression (95% CI 1.65 to 2.07), 1.71 times greater odds of anxiety (95% CI 1.54 to 1.90) and 1.69 times greater odds of psychological distress (95% CI 1.56 to 1.83) than never smokers. Former smokers also had greater odds of depression, anxiety and psychological distress than never smokers. There was evidence for positive associations of smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress (ORs per cigarette per day: 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) respectively). In Mendelian randomisation analyses, there was no strong evidence that the minor allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with depression (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.05), anxiety (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07) or psychological distress (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.06) in current smokers. Results were similar for former smokers. Findings from Mendelian randomisation analyses do not support a causal role of smoking heaviness in the development of depression and anxiety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  9. The causal direction in the association between respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob Brunbjerg; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have reported an increased risk of asthma after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization. Other studies found that asthmatic disposition and propensity to wheeze increase the risk of RSV hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the causal direction...... of the associations between RSV hospitalization and asthma in a population-based cohort of twins. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study examining the associations between RSV hospitalization and asthma by using registry information on RSV hospitalization and asthma among 18,614 Danish twins born 1994...... to 2003. The associations between RSV and asthma were examined in both directions: we examined the risk of asthma after RSV hospitalization, and the risk of RSV hospitalization in children with asthma in the same population-based cohort. RESULTS: Asthma hospitalization after RSV hospitalization...

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibition and VATER association: a causal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John D; Valeriano, Joanne; Vasey, Frank B

    2006-05-01

    Inflammatory conditions that may require the use of a tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) antagonist often involve women of child-bearing age. TNF-a antagonists are presumed to be safe in pregnancy based on animal data. However, this has never been formally studied in prospective trials involving humans. We describe a patient with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis who took etanercept 50 mg subcutaneously (SQ) twice weekly throughout her pregnancy. She gave birth to a child with VATER association. Animal and human data exist to suggest a possible causal relationship between the mother's use of etanercept and the child's development of VATER association. We propose that the TNF antagonists, specifically etanercept, be used with caution in pregnant women. Patient registries of women who take TNF-a antagonists during pregnancy also need to be followed to see if there is an increase in the birth defects that are part of VATER association.

  11. Comparing elemental and configural associative theories in human causal learning: a case for attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachnit, Harald; Schultheis, Holger; König, Stephan; Ungör, Metin; Melchers, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    In two causal learning experiments with human participants, the authors compared various associative theories that assumed either elemental (unique cue, modified unique cue, replaced elements model, and Harris' model) or configural processing of stimuli (Pearce's theory and a modification of it). The authors used modified patterning problems initially suggested by Redhead and Pearce (1995). Predictions for all theories were generated by computer simulations. Both configural theories and the unique cue approach failed to account for the observations. The replaced elements model was able to account for part of the data, but only if the replacement parameters could vary across discrimination problems. The Harris model and the modified unique cue approach, assuming that the salience of stimuli decreases with an increasing number of stimuli in a compound, successfully accounted for all of our data. This success implies that attentional factors should be explicitly taken into account in associative learning theory.

  12. Exploring causal associations between alcohol and coronary heart disease risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    pressure (BP), lipids, fibrinogen, and glucose. Analyses were undertaken in 54 604 Danes (mean age 56 years). Both confounder-adjusted multivariable and IV analyses suggested that a greater alcohol consumption among those who drank any alcohol resulted in a higher BP [mean difference in SBP per doubling...... of alcohol consumption among drinkers: 0.76 mmHg (95% CI: 0.63, 0.90) from multivariable analyses and 0.94 mmHg (-3.03, 4.69) from IV analyses; P-value for difference in these results = 0.95]. The positive association of alcohol with HDLc in the multivariable analyses [4.9% (4.7, 5.1)] appeared stronger than......AimsTo explore the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease risk factors.Methods and resultsWe used variants in ADH1B and ADH1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on body mass index (BMI), blood...

  13. Maximum Likelihood Joint Tracking and Association in Strong Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a maximum likelihood formulation for a joint detection, tracking and association problem. An efficient non-combinatorial algorithm for this problem is developed in case of strong clutter for radar data. By using an iterative procedure of the dynamic logic process “from vague-to-crisp” explained in the paper, the new tracker overcomes the combinatorial complexity of tracking in highly-cluttered scenarios and results in an orders-of-magnitude improvement in signal-to-clutter ratio.

  14. The association between caffeine and cognitive decline: examining alternative causal hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, K; Ancelin, M L; Amieva, H; Rouaud, O; Carrière, I

    2014-04-01

    Numerous studies suggest that higher coffee consumption may reduce the rate of aging-related cognitive decline in women. It is thus potentially a cheap and widely available candidate for prevention programs provided its mechanism may be adequately understood. The assumed effect is that of reduced amyloid deposition, however, alternative pathways notably by reducing depression and diabetes type 2 risk have not been considered. A population study of 1,193 elderly persons examining depressive symptomatology, caffeine consumption, fasting glucose levels, type 2 diabetes onset, serum amyloid, and factors known to affect cognitive performance was used to explore alternative causal models. Higher caffeine consumption was found to be associated with decreased risk of incident diabetes in men (HR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.97) and increased risk in women (HR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.08-2.11). No association was found with incident depression. While in the total sample lower ratio Aβ42/Aβ40 levels (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.77, p = 0.02) were found in high caffeine consumers, this failed to reach significance when the analyses were stratified by gender. We found no evidence that reduced risk of cognitive decline in women with high caffeine consumption is moderated or confounded by diabetes or depression. The evidence of an association with plasma beta amyloid could not be clearly demonstrated. Insufficient proof of causal mechanisms currently precludes the recommendation of coffee consumption as a public health measure. Further research should focus on the high estrogen content of coffee as a plausible alternative explanation.

  15. Body-image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with chronic dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Josefsson, Kim; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Heinonen, Erkki; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-09-05

    Individual depressive symptoms may contribute to the risk of chronic depression. This study aimed to explore which symptoms predict chronic dysphoria, a hallmark of depression. 1057 participants from the population-based Young Finns study were examined for four times during a 16-year period. Those with a modified Beck's Depression Inventory score in the upper third at all four screenings were considered to have chronic dysphoria (n=135). Participants with only one high depression score formed the reference group of transient dysphoria (n=179). Individual items of the Inventory were analyzed in terms of their association with dysphoria status and chronicity, controlling for potential confounding factors, such as personality assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Body-image dissatisfaction was strongly associated with chronically elevated dysphoria (Bonferroni-corrected p=0.006). The degree of body-image dissatisfaction was associated with the probability for chronic dysphoria in a dose-response manner, with the estimated probability ranging from 0.01 to 0.60 as a function of item response. The association remained after adjustments for a wide range of personality characteristics. The study relied on self-reports of mood and personality, and lacked information on external opinion on participants appearances. The requirement of full time-series data may have resulted in attrition-related bias. Body-image dissatisfaction was a strong predictor of chronic depression characterized by dysphoria. This finding suggests that dysfunctional attitude towards oneself might represent a potentially important target for cognitive therapies and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong association between earlier abuse and revictimization in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2014-07-14

    Violence victimization among youth is recognized as a public health problem. The objective was to analyze the risk pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse during the past 12 months by gender, sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviors, and exposure to abuse before the age of 15, among young men and women attending youth health centers in Sweden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a nationally representative sample of youth health centers. A total of 2,250 young women and 920 young men aged 15-23 completed a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% CI were calculated. A consistent and strong association was noted between exposure to all types of violence during the past year and victimization before the age of 15 for all types of violence for both women and men. The only exceptions were childhood sexual victimization and sexual violence during the past year for men. Younger age was associated with all violence exposure for the women and with emotional violence for the men. For the women, drug use was associated with all types of violence, while the association with hazardous alcohol use and not living with parents was restricted to physical and sexual violence exposure, present smoking was restricted to emotional and physical violence exposure, and partnership and living in urban areas were restricted to sexual violence. For men, not being partnered, hazardous alcohol consumption, and drug use meant increased risk for physical violence, while smoking and living in urban areas were associated with sexual violence. After adjustment, immigration had no association with violence exposure. Violence victimization in young men and women is often not a single experience. Findings underline the importance of early interventions among previously abused youth.

  17. De Novo Coding Variants Are Strongly Associated with Tourette Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; Fernandez, Thomas V; Yu, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    damaging missense) are overrepresented in probands (RR 1.37, p = 0.003). We identify four likely risk genes with multiple de novo damaging variants in unrelated probands: WWC1 (WW and C2 domain containing 1), CELSR3 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3), NIPBL (Nipped-B-like), and FN1...... trios from the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium on Genetics (511 total). We observe strong and consistent evidence for the contribution of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants (rate ratio [RR] 2.32, p = 0.002). Additionally, de novo damaging variants (LGD and probably...... (fibronectin 1). Overall, we estimate that de novo damaging variants in approximately 400 genes contribute risk in 12% of clinical cases. VIDEO ABSTRACT....

  18. Images of illness: how causal claims and racial associations influence public preferences toward diabetes research spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Despite the salience of health disparities in media and policy discourse, little previous research has investigated if imagery associating an illness with a certain racial group influences public perceptions. This study evaluated the influence of the media's presentation of the causes of type 2 diabetes and its implicit racial associations on attitudes toward people with diabetes and preferences toward research spending. Survey participants who viewed an article on genetic causation or social determinants of diabetes were more likely to support increased government spending on research than those viewing an article with no causal language, while participants viewing an article on behavioral choices were more likely to attribute negative stereotypes to people with diabetes. Participants who viewed a photo of a black woman accompanying the article were less likely to endorse negative stereotypes than those viewing a photo of a white woman, but those who viewed a photo of a glucose-testing device expressed the lowest negative stereotypes. The effect of social determinants language was significantly different for blacks and whites, lowering stereotypes only among blacks. Emphasizing the behavioral causes of diabetes, as is common in media coverage, may perpetuate negative stereotypes. While drawing attention to the social determinants that shape these behaviors could mitigate stereotypes, this strategy is unlikely to influence the public uniformly.

  19. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  20. Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and observational...

  1. Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: The CARTA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Taylor (Amy E.); M.E. Fluharty (Meg E.); J.H. Bjørngaard (Johan H.); M.E. Gabrielsen (Maiken Elvestad); F. Skorpen (Frank); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); A. Campbell (Archie); J. Engmann (Jorgen); S.S. Mirza (Saira); A. Loukola (Anu); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); T. Partonen (Timo); M. Kaakinen (Marika); F. Ducci (Francesca); A. Cavadino (Alana); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R.K. Jacobsen (Rikke Kart); T. Skaaby (Tea); J.F. Ebstrup (Jeanette Frost); E.L. Mortensen (Erik); C.C. Minica (Camelia C.); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); C.E. Dale (Caroline E.); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); L.T. Lennon (Lucy T.); J. Lahti (Jari); A. Palotie (Aarno); K. Räikkönen (Katri); A. Wong (Andrew); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A.P.-Y. Wong (Angelita Pui-Yee); L.J. Horwood (L. John); M. Murphy (Michael); E.C. Johnstone (Elaine C.); M.A. Kennedy (Martin A.); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); T. Paus (Tomáš); Y. Ben-Shlomo; C. Nohr (Christian); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Kivimaki (Mika); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); R. Morris (Richard); J.P. Casas (Juan); M. Preisig (Martin); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Linneberg (Allan); C. Power (Christopher); E. Hypponen (Elina); J. Veijola (Juha); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); T. Korhonen (Tellervo); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M. Kumari (Meena); D.J. Porteous (David J.); C. Hayward (Caroline); P.R. Romundstad (Pa˚l R.); G.D. Smith; M.R. Munafò (Marcus)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and

  2. An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Everson

    Full Text Available The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA. In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10-11 that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10-19. In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls, the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a ~20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10-27. Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.

  3. Causality in the association between P300 and alpha event-related desynchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Peng

    Full Text Available Recent findings indicated that both P300 and alpha event-related desynchronization (α-ERD were associated, and similarly involved in cognitive brain functioning, e.g., attention allocation and memory updating. However, an explicit causal influence between the neural generators of P300 and α-ERD has not yet been investigated. In the present study, using an oddball task paradigm, we assessed the task effect (target vs. non-target on P300 and α-ERD elicited by stimuli of four sensory modalities, i.e., audition, vision, somatosensory, and pain, estimated their respective neural generators, and investigated the information flow among their neural generators using time-varying effective connectivity in the target condition. Across sensory modalities, the scalp topographies of P300 and α-ERD were similar and respectively maximal at parietal and occipital regions in the target condition. Source analysis revealed that P300 and α-ERD were mainly generated from posterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe respectively. As revealed by time-varying effective connectivity, the cortical information was consistently flowed from α-ERD sources to P300 sources in the target condition for all four sensory modalities. All these findings showed that P300 in the target condition is modulated by the changes of α-ERD, which would be useful to explore neural mechanism of cognitive information processing in the human brain.

  4. Explaining Compound Generalization in Associative and Causal Learning Through Rational Principles of Dimensional Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Fabian A.; Gershman, Samuel J.; Niv, Yael

    2014-01-01

    How do we apply learning from one situation to a similar, but not identical, situation? The principles governing the extent to which animals and humans generalize what they have learned about certain stimuli to novel compounds containing those stimuli vary depending on a number of factors. Perhaps the best studied among these factors is the type of stimuli used to generate compounds. One prominent hypothesis is that different generalization principles apply depending on whether the stimuli in a compound are similar or dissimilar to each other. However, the results of many experiments cannot be explained by this hypothesis. Here we propose a rational Bayesian theory of compound generalization that uses the notion of consequential regions, first developed in the context of rational theories of multidimensional generalization, to explain the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization. The model explains a large number of results from the compound generalization literature, including the influence of stimulus modality and spatial contiguity on the summation effect, the lack of influence of stimulus factors on summation with a recovered inhibitor, the effect of spatial position of stimuli on the blocking effect, the asymmetrical generalization decrement in overshadowing and external inhibition, and the conditions leading to a reliable external inhibition effect. By integrating rational theories of compound and dimensional generalization, our model provides the first comprehensive computational account of the effects of stimulus factors on compound generalization, including spatial and temporal contiguity between components, which have posed longstanding problems for rational theories of associative and causal learning. PMID:25090430

  5. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  6. Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.

  7. Strong association between myotonic dystrophy type 2 and autoimmune diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Broeder, A. den; Logt, A. van de; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder, characterised by progressive proximal weakness, myotonia, cataracts and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Our clinical impression of an association between DM2 and autoimmune diseases or autoantibody

  8. Is ovarian hyperstimulation associated with higher blood pressure in 4-year-old IVF offspring? Part II: an explorative causal inference approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Schendelaar, Pamela; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2014-01-01

    What causal relationships underlie the associations between ovarian stimulation, the IVF procedure, parental-, fertility- and child characteristics, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics of 4-year-old IVF children? Causal models compatible with the data suggest the presence of positive direct

  9. Is ovarian hyperstimulation associated with higher blood pressure in 4-year-old IVF offspring? Part II : an explorative causal inference approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Schendelaar, Pamela; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    STUDY QUESTION: What causal relationships underlie the associations between ovarian stimulation, the IVF procedure, parental-, fertility- and child characteristics, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics of 4-year-old IVF children? SUMMARY ANSWER: Causal models compatible with the data suggest

  10. Causal universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George FR; Pabjan, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Written by philosophers, cosmologists, and physicists, this collection of essays deals with causality, which is a core issue for both science and philosophy. Readers will learn about different types of causality in complex systems and about new perspectives on this issue based on physical and cosmological considerations. In addition, the book includes essays pertaining to the problem of causality in ancient Greek philosophy, and to the problem of God's relation to the causal structures of nature viewed in the light of contemporary physics and cosmology.

  11. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisjahbana, B.; Crevel, R. van; Sahiratmadja, E.; Heijer, M. den; Maya, A.; Istriana, E.; Danusantoso, H.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Nelwan, R.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but no studies have been reported from South-East Asia, which has a high burden of TB and a rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To examine if and to what extent diabetes is associated with an increased risk of TB

  12. Increasing the Power to Detect Causal Associations by Combining Genotypic and Expression Data in Segregating Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jun; Wiener, Matthew C; Zhang, Chunsheng; Fridman, Arthur; Minch, Eric; Lum, Pek Y; Sachs, Jeffrey R; Schadt, Eric E

    2007-01-01

    To dissect common human diseases such as obesity and diabetes, a systematic approach is needed to study how genes interact with one another, and with genetic and environmental factors, to determine clinical end points or disease phenotypes. Bayesian networks provide a convenient framework for extracting relationships from noisy data and are frequently applied to large-scale data to derive causal relationships among variables of interest. Given the complexity of molecular networks underlying c...

  13. From genome-wide association studies to Mendelian randomization: Novel opportunities for understanding cardiovascular disease causality, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-02-19

    The Mendelian randomization approach is an epidemiologic study design incorporating genetic information into traditional epidemiologic studies to infer causality of biomarkers, risk factors, or lifestyle factors on disease risk. Mendelian randomization studies often draw on novel information generated in genome-wide association studies on causal associations between genetic variants and a risk factor or lifestyle factor. Such information can then be used in a largely unconfounded study design free of reverse causation to understand if and how risk factors and lifestyle factors cause cardiovascular disease. If causation is demonstrated, an opportunity for prevention of disease is identified; importantly however, before prevention or treatment can be implemented, randomized intervention trials altering risk factor levels or improving deleterious lifestyle factors needs to document reductions in cardiovascular disease in a safe and side-effect sparse manner. Documentation of causality can also inform on potential drug targets, more likely to be successful than prior approaches often relying on animal or cell studies mainly.The present review summarizes the history and background of Mendelian randomization, the study design, assumptions for using the design, and the most common caveats, followed by a discussion on advantages and disadvantages of different types of Mendelian randomization studies using one or more samples and different levels of information on study participants. The review also provides an overview of results on many of the risk factors and lifestyle factors for cardiovascular disease examined to date using the Mendelian randomization study design.

  14. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with strong wind events in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of having a daily synoptic weather type catalogue and even more, a detailed catalogue for high impact weather events is well recognised by both climatologist and meteorologist communities. In this way the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC has produced some accurate classifications for extreme events, such as hailstorms or strong winds (SW. Within the framework of the MEDEX project, the SMC has been collaborating to increase the level of awareness about these events. Following this line of work, the aim of this study is to characterise the SW events in Catalonia.

    According to the guidelines of the MEDEX project we worked with its SW event database for the period June 1995 to May 2004. We also used the period 2005–2009 to test the methodology. The methodology is based on principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses and applied to four variables: SLP, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa on a synoptic-scale and local gust wind. We worked with ERA-Interim reanalysis and applied discriminant analysis to test the quality of the methodology and to classify the events of the validation period.

    We found seven patterns for the SW events. The strongest event corresponds to NW-Flow with the Azores Anticyclone and the passing of a low pressure through the Pyrenees. This methodology has distinguished the summer events in an independent cluster. The results obtained encourage us to follow this line of work.

  15. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use of hydrochlorothia......Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use...... of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Methods: We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk......-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined...

  16. Network-assisted investigation of combined causal signals from genome-wide association studies in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Jia

    Full Text Available With the recent success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, a wealth of association data has been accomplished for more than 200 complex diseases/traits, proposing a strong demand for data integration and interpretation. A combinatory analysis of multiple GWAS datasets, or an integrative analysis of GWAS data and other high-throughput data, has been particularly promising. In this study, we proposed an integrative analysis framework of multiple GWAS datasets by overlaying association signals onto the protein-protein interaction network, and demonstrated it using schizophrenia datasets. Building on a dense module search algorithm, we first searched for significantly enriched subnetworks for schizophrenia in each single GWAS dataset and then implemented a discovery-evaluation strategy to identify module genes with consistent association signals. We validated the module genes in an independent dataset, and also examined them through meta-analysis of the related SNPs using multiple GWAS datasets. As a result, we identified 205 module genes with a joint effect significantly associated with schizophrenia; these module genes included a number of well-studied candidate genes such as DISC1, GNA12, GNA13, GNAI1, GPR17, and GRIN2B. Further functional analysis suggested these genes are involved in neuronal related processes. Additionally, meta-analysis found that 18 SNPs in 9 module genes had P(meta<1 × 10⁻⁴, including the gene HLA-DQA1 located in the MHC region on chromosome 6, which was reported in previous studies using the largest cohort of schizophrenia patients to date. These results demonstrated our bi-directional network-based strategy is efficient for identifying disease-associated genes with modest signals in GWAS datasets. This approach can be applied to any other complex diseases/traits where multiple GWAS datasets are available.

  17. On strongly J -clean rings associated with polynomial identity g ( x =0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haj seyyed javadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we introduce the new notion of strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$‎, ‎as a generalization of strongly $ J $-clean rings‎. ‎We denote strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$ by strongly $ g(x $-$J $-clean rings‎. ‎Next‎, ‎we investigate some properties of strongly $ g(x $-$ J $-clean.

  18. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing......*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P ... ratio = 0.02; P HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility....

  20. Improving Personalized Clinical Risk Prediction Based on Causality-Based Association Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Wang, May D

    2015-09-01

    Developing clinical risk prediction models is one of the main tasks of healthcare data mining. Advanced data collection techniques in current Big Data era have created an emerging and urgent need for scalable, computer-based data mining methods. These methods can turn data into useful, personalized decision support knowledge in a flexible, cost-effective, and productive way. In our previous study, we developed a tool, called icuARM- II, that can generate personalized clinical risk prediction evidence using a temporal rule mining framework. However, the generation of final risk prediction possibility with icuARM-II still relied on human interpretation, which was subjective and, most of time, biased. In this study, we propose a new mechanism to improve icuARM-II's rule selection by including the concept of causal analysis. The generated risk prediction is quantitatively assessed using calibration statistics. To evaluate the performance of the new rule selection mechanism, we conducted a case study to predict short-term intensive care unit mortality based on personalized lab testing abnormalities. Our results demonstrated a better-calibrated ICU risk prediction using the new causality-base rule selection solution by comparing with conventional confidence-only rule selection methods.

  1. In search of causal variants: refining disease association signals using cross-population contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice John P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association (GWA using large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is now a powerful, state-of-the-art approach to mapping human disease genes. When a GWA study detects association between a SNP and the disease, this signal usually represents association with a set of several highly correlated SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium. The challenge we address is to distinguish among these correlated loci to highlight potential functional variants and prioritize them for follow-up. Results We implemented a systematic method for testing association across diverse population samples having differing histories and LD patterns, using a logistic regression framework. The hypothesis is that important underlying biological mechanisms are shared across human populations, and we can filter correlated variants by testing for heterogeneity of genetic effects in different population samples. This approach formalizes the descriptive comparison of p-values that has typified similar cross-population fine-mapping studies to date. We applied this method to correlated SNPs in the cholinergic nicotinic receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, in a case-control study of cocaine dependence composed of 504 European-American and 583 African-American samples. Of the 10 SNPs genotyped in the r2 ≥ 0.8 bin for rs16969968, three demonstrated significant cross-population heterogeneity and are filtered from priority follow-up; the remaining SNPs include rs16969968 (heterogeneity p = 0.75. Though the power to filter out rs16969968 is reduced due to the difference in allele frequency in the two groups, the results nevertheless focus attention on a smaller group of SNPs that includes the non-synonymous SNP rs16969968, which retains a similar effect size (odds ratio across both population samples. Conclusion Filtering out SNPs that demonstrate cross-population heterogeneity enriches for variants more likely to be important and

  2. Lipoprotein(a) and ischemic heart disease-A causal association? A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    and animal studies in support of pathophysiological effects of the risk factor, and preferably evidence from randomized clinical trials documenting reduced morbidity in response to interventions targeting the risk factor. Elevated and in particular extreme lipoprotein(a) levels have in prospective studies...... atherosclerosis and thrombosis, including accumulation of lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic plaques and attenuation of t-PA mediated plasminogen activation. No randomized clinical trial of the effect of lowering lipoprotein(a) levels on IHD prevention has ever been conducted. Lacking evidence from randomized...... clinical trials, genetic studies, such as Mendelian randomization studies, can also support claims of causality. Levels of lipoprotein(a) are primarily determined by variation in the LPA gene coding for the apolipoprotein(a) moiety of lipoprotein(a), and genetic epidemiologic studies have documented...

  3. Identifying HIV associated neurocognitive disorder using large-scale Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the applicability of large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) for extracting a measure of multivariate information flow between pairs of regional brain activities from resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and test the effectiveness of these measures for predicting a disease state. Such pairwise multivariate measures of interaction provide high-dimensional representations of connectivity profiles for each subject and are used in a machine learning task to distinguish between healthy controls and individuals presenting with symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Cognitive impairment in several domains can occur as a result of HIV infection of the central nervous system. The current paradigm for assessing such impairment is through neuropsychological testing. With fMRI data analysis, we aim at non-invasively capturing differences in brain connectivity patterns between healthy subjects and subjects presenting with symptoms of HAND. To classify the extracted interaction patterns among brain regions, we use a prototype-based learning algorithm called Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ). Our approach to characterize connectivity using lsGC followed by GMLVQ for subsequent classification yields good prediction results with an accuracy of 87% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of up to 0.90. We obtain a statistically significant improvement (p<0.01) over a conventional Granger causality approach (accuracy = 0.76, AUC = 0.74). High accuracy and AUC values using our multivariate method to connectivity analysis suggests that our approach is able to better capture changes in interaction patterns between different brain regions when compared to conventional Granger causality analysis known from the literature.

  4. Antidepressants and, suicide and self-injury: Causal or casual association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Marco; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Molteni, Massimo; Nobile, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The causal relationship between antidepressants and the increase of self-injury and suicide in the paediatric age is highly debated. The black-box warnings about increased risks of suicidal thinking and behaviour in children and young adults, led to a reduction in both treatment and diagnosis of depression also in adults, in the face of an increasing need for therapies. The debate originates also from contrasting reports in the literature. We carried out an interpretative review of the most recent reports (2012-2014), from which three topics emerged. First, the presence of populations with different baseline risks of self-injury among published works introduced bias in the results. Second, the application of inappropriate or excessively variegated outcome measures for self-injury introduced confounding factors that prevent the successful conduction of meta-analyses. This hinders constructive debate involving different groups, as shown in the correspondence by senior authors in the field. Third, the regulatory actions that limited the prescription of antidepressants were taken in perspective of scientific advances, not yet due. This turned temporary cautions into long-lasting limitations. While some clinical improvements can already be suggested, only the fulfilment of this debate will allow to revise the black-box warnings and to improve the antidepressant therapies.

  5. The Causal Factors Associated with the Loving Care of the Mothers of Children with Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Salehzade, Hamze; Hemmati, Soroor; Darvish, Manijeh; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Tabrizi, Reza

    2015-10-01

    Families with disabled children need more psycho-social considerations. Motherhood care of the children with multiple disabilities is difficult. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to investigate the causal factors affecting loving care of mothers of children with multiple disabilities. The study used a cross-sectional method in which 75 mothers of exceptional children with multiple disabilities (physical and mental) in elementary schools in Shiraz, Iran. The data were collected through questionnaires which, besides demographical factors, evaluated the relationship between mothers' loving care of children with multiple disabilities and four other variables including purpose in life, life satisfaction, religious attitude, and sense of coherence. Mann-Whitney U was used for comparison between mothers' loving care and other variables. Results revealed that demographic variables did not have a significant relationship with loving care. In the case of social variables, there was a significant relationship between mothers' loving care and purpose in life (Pdisabled children is a unique phenomenon which is due to attachment of mother-child situation. Nevertheless, these mothers are vulnerable and marginalized people who need more attention and social supports provided by related governmental institutions and also NGOs actors.

  6. Tobacco smoking is causally associated with antipsychotic medication use and schizophrenia, but not with antidepressant medication use or depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more common among patients with schizophrenia and depression than among healthy individuals. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco smoking intensity is causally associated with antipsychotic medication use, schizophrenia, antidepressant medication use and.......60). Correspondingly, ORs were 1.60 (0.74-3.47) and 1.02 (0.11-9.10) for schizophrenia (P-interaction: 0.85), 1.02 (0.93-1.13) and 0.99 (0.85-1.15) for antidepressant medication (P-interaction: 0.87), 0.85 (0.66-1.10) and 1.26 (0.87-1.83) for depression (P-interaction: 0.30) and 1.31 (1.16-1.47) and 0.89 (0...... OR for schizophrenia was 1.06 (1.04-1.08) in ever- and never-smokers combined. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that tobacco smoking could influence the development of psychotic conditions causally, whereas an influence on depression seems unlikely....

  7. Increasing the power to detect causal associations by combining genotypic and expression data in segregating populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To dissect common human diseases such as obesity and diabetes, a systematic approach is needed to study how genes interact with one another, and with genetic and environmental factors, to determine clinical end points or disease phenotypes. Bayesian networks provide a convenient framework for extracting relationships from noisy data and are frequently applied to large-scale data to derive causal relationships among variables of interest. Given the complexity of molecular networks underlying common human disease traits, and the fact that biological networks can change depending on environmental conditions and genetic factors, large datasets, generally involving multiple perturbations (experiments, are required to reconstruct and reliably extract information from these networks. With limited resources, the balance of coverage of multiple perturbations and multiple subjects in a single perturbation needs to be considered in the experimental design. Increasing the number of experiments, or the number of subjects in an experiment, is an expensive and time-consuming way to improve network reconstruction. Integrating multiple types of data from existing subjects might be more efficient. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that combining genotypic and gene expression data in a segregating population leads to improved network reconstruction, which in turn may lead to better predictions of the effects of experimental perturbations on any given gene. Here we simulate data based on networks reconstructed from biological data collected in a segregating mouse population and quantify the improvement in network reconstruction achieved using genotypic and gene expression data, compared with reconstruction using gene expression data alone. We demonstrate that networks reconstructed using the combined genotypic and gene expression data achieve a level of reconstruction accuracy that exceeds networks reconstructed from expression data alone, and that

  8. Increasing the power to detect causal associations by combining genotypic and expression data in segregating populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Wiener, Matthew C; Zhang, Chunsheng; Fridman, Arthur; Minch, Eric; Lum, Pek Y; Sachs, Jeffrey R; Schadt, Eric E

    2007-04-13

    To dissect common human diseases such as obesity and diabetes, a systematic approach is needed to study how genes interact with one another, and with genetic and environmental factors, to determine clinical end points or disease phenotypes. Bayesian networks provide a convenient framework for extracting relationships from noisy data and are frequently applied to large-scale data to derive causal relationships among variables of interest. Given the complexity of molecular networks underlying common human disease traits, and the fact that biological networks can change depending on environmental conditions and genetic factors, large datasets, generally involving multiple perturbations (experiments), are required to reconstruct and reliably extract information from these networks. With limited resources, the balance of coverage of multiple perturbations and multiple subjects in a single perturbation needs to be considered in the experimental design. Increasing the number of experiments, or the number of subjects in an experiment, is an expensive and time-consuming way to improve network reconstruction. Integrating multiple types of data from existing subjects might be more efficient. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that combining genotypic and gene expression data in a segregating population leads to improved network reconstruction, which in turn may lead to better predictions of the effects of experimental perturbations on any given gene. Here we simulate data based on networks reconstructed from biological data collected in a segregating mouse population and quantify the improvement in network reconstruction achieved using genotypic and gene expression data, compared with reconstruction using gene expression data alone. We demonstrate that networks reconstructed using the combined genotypic and gene expression data achieve a level of reconstruction accuracy that exceeds networks reconstructed from expression data alone, and that fewer subjects may be

  9. Building a Strong Library Association: A Case of the Ghana Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author explores ways of building a strong library association with specific reference to the Ghana Library Association. The paper states that library associations represent librarians and libraries that provide valuable services to them and their communities. The different types of library associations are discussed.

  10. The association between autism and errors in early embryogenesis: what is the causal mechanism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Galis, F.

    2010-01-01

    The association between embryonic errors and the development of autism has been recognized in the literature, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unknown. We propose that pleiotropic effects during a very early and specific stage of embryonic development—early organogenesis—can

  11. Causal associations between risk factors and common diseases inferred from GWAS summary data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhihong; Zheng, Zhili; Zhang, Futao

    2018-01-01

    Health risk factors such as body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol are associated with many common diseases. It often remains unclear whether the risk factors are cause or consequence of disease, or whether the associations are the result of confounding. We develop and apply a method (called...

  12. Primary Sjögren's Syndrome and Celiac Disease: Causal Association or Serendipity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Celorio, M D; Angeles-Angeles, A; Kraus, A

    2000-08-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease associated with other autoimmune diseases like thymoma, hypothyroidism or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten sensitive enteropathy that causes small bowel mucosal damage in genetically susceptible individuals. Several immunologic alterations and immune-associated diseases, for example, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, and connective tissue disorders, have been described in CD. We report 3 of 141 pSS patients who also had CD and review literature that suggests that CD is increased in patients with pSS. Successful treatment of CD did not relieve sicca symptoms or signs; thus, the two diseases must be treated independently. Although intestinal inflammation can occur in patients with pSS, diarrhea should be evaluated for CD and other causes. Because of the occasional severity of CD, clinicians must be aware of the possible association with pSS.

  13. Identifying temporal and causal contributions of neural processes underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Edward Forbes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength IAT blocks were separately analyzed using EEG (event-related potentials, or ERPs, and coherence; Study 1 and lesion (Study 2 methodologies. Compared to incongruent blocks, performance on congruent IAT blocks was associated with more positive ERPs that manifested in frontal and occipital regions at automatic processing speeds, occipital regions at more controlled processing speeds and was compromised by volume loss in the anterior temporal lobe, insula and medial PFC. Performance on incongruent blocks was associated with volume loss in supplementary motor areas, cingulate gyrus and a region in medial PFC similar to that found for congruent blocks. Greater coherence was found between frontal and occipital regions to the extent individuals exhibited more bias. This suggests there are separable neural contributions to congruent and incongruent blocks of the IAT but there is also a surprising amount of overlap. Given the temporal and regional neural distinctions, these results provide converging evidence that stereotypic associative strength assessed by the IAT indexes automatic processing to a degree.

  14. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  15. Association of Crohn’s Disease and Celiac Disease: Causal link or only coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Duzenli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly terminal ileum and proximal colon; and Celiac Disease (CeD is immuno-mediated systemic disease caused by gluten and similar prolamins in genetically susceptible individuals. Concomitant occurrence of CD and CeD is rare and there are limited literature data regarding the association of CeD to CD. Although, recent findings propose shared mechanisms, genetics and functional pathways. Herein, we report a case that has co-occurrence of CD and CeD and rewiew the literature of the association between these two diseases. [Dis Mol Med 2016; 4(4.000: 77-80

  16. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Holmes, John; Studer, Joseph

    2015-06-29

    There have been reviews on the association between density of alcohol outlets and harm including studies published up to December 2008. Since then the number of publications has increased dramatically. The study reviews the more recent studies with regard to their utility to inform policy. A systematic review found more than 160 relevant studies (published between January 2009 and October 2014). The review focused on: (i) outlet density and assaultive or intimate partner violence; (ii) studies including individual level data; or (iii) 'natural experiments'. Despite overall evidence for an association between density and harm, there is little evidence on causal direction (i.e. whether demand leads to more supply or increased availability increases alcohol use and harm). When outlet types (e.g. bars, supermarkets) are analysed separately, studies are too methodologically diverse and partly contradictory to permit firm conclusions besides those pertaining to high outlet densities in areas such as entertainment districts. Outlet density commonly had little effect on individual-level alcohol use, and the few 'natural experiments' on restricting densities showed little or no effects. Although outlet densities are likely to be positively related to alcohol use and harm, few policy recommendations can be given as effects vary across study areas, outlet types and outlet cluster size. Future studies should examine in detail outlet types, compare different outcomes associated with different strengths of association with alcohol, analyse non-linear effects and compare different methodologies. Purely aggregate-level studies examining total outlet density only should be abandoned. [Gmel G, Holmes J, Studer J. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. A strong association between non-musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal pain symptoms: results from a population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschudi-Madsen Hedda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of knowledge about the pattern of symptom reporting in the general population as most research focuses on specific diseases or symptoms. The number of musculoskeletal pain sites is a strong predictor for disability pensioning and, hence, is considered to be an important dimension in symptom reporting. The simple method of counting symptoms might also be applicable to non-musculoskeletal symptoms, rendering further dimensions in describing individual and public health. In a general population, we aimed to explore the association between self-reported non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites. Methods With a cross-sectional design, the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory were used to record pain at ten different body sites and 13 non-musculoskeletal symptoms, respectively, among seven age groups in Ullensaker, Norway (n = 3,227. Results Results showed a strong, almost linear relationship between the number of non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites (r = 0.55. The number and type of non-musculoskeletal symptoms had an almost equal explanatory power in the number of pain sites reported (27.1% vs. 28.2%. Conclusion The linear association between the number of non-musculoskeletal and musculoskeletal symptoms might indicate that the symptoms share common characteristics and even common underlying causal factors. The total burden of symptoms as determined by the number of symptoms reported might be an interesting generic indicator of health and well-being, as well as present and future functioning. Research on symptom reporting might also be an alternative pathway to describe and, possibly, understand the medically unexplained multisymptom conditions.

  18. The role of oxidative damage in poor scalp health: ramifications to causality and associated hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J R; Henry, J P; Kerr, K M; Mizoguchi, H; Li, L

    2015-12-01

    The oxidative stress element of unhealthy scalp leads to compromised pre-emergent hair formation and poorly formed hair as it grows. Only cosmetic solutions can minimize the impact of unhealthy hair and to achieve healthy looking and feeling hair, the scalp health must be normalized first. The objectives of this research were to both investigate whether oxidative stress was a relevant aetiological element in scalp dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis and whether scalp condition affects the quality of hair that grows from it. Further, this research was designed to determine whether an effective anti-dandruff shampoo would repair and protect the scalp and pre-emergent hair from oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress is an aetiological element relevant to the dandruff condition and that a potentiated ZPT shampoo effectively improves scalp condition, including a reduction in oxidative stress. The compromised hair condition associated with dandruff is concomitantly improved when the scalp condition is improved. It appears that there is a direct link between hair quality and scalp health. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypothyroidism - merely concurrence or causal association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, Wojciech; Gabryelska, Agata; Mokros, Łukasz; Białasiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) ranges from 4 to 7% in men and from 2 to 5% in women. Its deleterious consequences such as traffic accidents, cardiovascular complications increasing morbidity and mortality, make it a major health problem. Apart from obesity (a major risk factor for OSAHS), hypothyroid patients are prone to reveal this phenotype. Although hypothyroidism seems an acknowledged risk factor for OSAHS, some authors report the lack of clinically relevant association. The argument partly depends on the increased prevalence of hypothyroidism in OSAHS patients, but the epidemiological data is limited and somehow inconsistent; even less is known about sub-clinical hypothyroidism in OSAHS patients. Even if frequency of overt and sub-clinical hypothyroidism in OSAHS patients is comparable to the general population, screening for it seems beneficial, as hormone replacement therapy may improve sleep disordered breathing. Unfortunately, this favorable outcome was found only in a few studies with limited number of patients with hypothyroidism. Yet, despite the lack of international guidelines and no large multicentre studies on the topic available, we think that TSH screening might prove beneficial in vast majority of OSAHS patients.

  20. Mendelian randomization study of B-type natriuretic peptide and type 2 diabetes: evidence of causal association from population studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pfister

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in blood and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but the prospective association of BNP with T2D is uncertain, and it is unclear whether the association is confounded.We analysed the association between levels of the N-terminal fragment of pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP in blood and risk of incident T2D in a prospective case-cohort study and genotyped the variant rs198389 within the BNP locus in three T2D case-control studies. We combined our results with existing data in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we compared the observed association between rs198389 and T2D to that expected from the NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association and the NT-pro-BNP difference per C allele of rs198389. In participants of our case-cohort study who were free of T2D and cardiovascular disease at baseline, we observed a 21% (95% CI 3%-36% decreased risk of incident T2D per one standard deviation (SD higher log-transformed NT-pro-BNP levels in analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of T2D, history of hypertension, and levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The association between rs198389 and T2D observed in case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.94 per C allele, 95% CI 0.91-0.97 was similar to that expected (0.96, 0.93-0.98 based on the pooled estimate for the log-NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association derived from a meta-analysis of our study and published data (hazard ratio = 0.82 per SD, 0.74-0.90 and the difference in NT-pro-BNP levels (0.22 SD, 0.15-0.29 per C allele of rs198389. No significant associations were observed between the rs198389 genotype and potential confounders.Our results provide evidence for a potential causal role of the BNP system in the aetiology of T2D. Further studies

  1. Mendelian randomization study of B-type natriuretic peptide and type 2 diabetes: evidence of causal association from population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roman; Sharp, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Welsh, Paul; Barroso, Inês; Salomaa, Veikko; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sattar, Naveed; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2011-10-01

    Genetic and epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in blood and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the prospective association of BNP with T2D is uncertain, and it is unclear whether the association is confounded. We analysed the association between levels of the N-terminal fragment of pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) in blood and risk of incident T2D in a prospective case-cohort study and genotyped the variant rs198389 within the BNP locus in three T2D case-control studies. We combined our results with existing data in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we compared the observed association between rs198389 and T2D to that expected from the NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association and the NT-pro-BNP difference per C allele of rs198389. In participants of our case-cohort study who were free of T2D and cardiovascular disease at baseline, we observed a 21% (95% CI 3%-36%) decreased risk of incident T2D per one standard deviation (SD) higher log-transformed NT-pro-BNP levels in analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of T2D, history of hypertension, and levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The association between rs198389 and T2D observed in case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.94 per C allele, 95% CI 0.91-0.97) was similar to that expected (0.96, 0.93-0.98) based on the pooled estimate for the log-NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association derived from a meta-analysis of our study and published data (hazard ratio = 0.82 per SD, 0.74-0.90) and the difference in NT-pro-BNP levels (0.22 SD, 0.15-0.29) per C allele of rs198389. No significant associations were observed between the rs198389 genotype and potential confounders. Our results provide evidence for a potential causal role of the BNP system in the aetiology of T2D. Further studies are needed

  2. Association between lipoprotein(a) level and type 2 diabetes: no evidence for a causal role of lipoprotein(a) and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Scholz, Markus; Lill, Christina M; Burkhardt, Ralph; Eckardt, Rahel; Norman, Kristina; Loeffler, Markus; Bertram, Lars; Thiery, Joachim; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2017-11-01

    Inverse relationships have been described between the largely genetically determined levels of serum/plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fasting insulin. Here, we aimed to evaluate the nature of these relationships with respect to causality. We tested whether we could replicate the recent negative findings on causality between Lp(a) and T2D by employing the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach using cross-sectional data from three independent cohorts, Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II; n = 2012), LIFE-Adult (n = 3281) and LIFE-Heart (n = 2816). Next, we explored another frequently discussed hypothesis in this context: Increasing insulin levels during the course of T2D disease development inhibits hepatic Lp(a) synthesis and thereby might explain the inverse Lp(a)-T2D association. We used two fasting insulin-associated variants, rs780094 and rs10195252, as instrumental variables in MR analysis of n = 4937 individuals from BASE-II and LIFE-Adult. We further investigated causality of the association between fasting insulin and Lp(a) by combined MR analysis of 12 additional SNPs in LIFE-Adult. While an Lp(a)-T2D association was observed in the combined analysis (meta-effect of OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.87-0.96] per quintile, p = 1.3x10 -4 ), we found no evidence of causality in the Lp(a)-T2D association (p = 0.29, fixed effect model) when using the variant rs10455872 as the instrumental variable in the MR analyses. Likewise, no evidence of a causal effect of insulin on Lp(a) levels was found. While these results await confirmation in larger cohorts, the nature of the inverse Lp(a)-T2D association remains to be elucidated.

  3. Is ovarian hyperstimulation associated with higher blood pressure in 4-year-old IVF offspring? Part II: an explorative causal inference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J; Roseboom, Tessa J; Schendelaar, Pamela; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-03-01

    What causal relationships underlie the associations between ovarian stimulation, the IVF procedure, parental-, fertility- and child characteristics, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics of 4-year-old IVF children? Causal models compatible with the data suggest the presence of positive direct effects of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation as applied in IVF (COH-IVF) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) percentiles and subscapular skinfold thickness. Increasing evidence suggests that IVF is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body fat distribution in offspring, but underlying mechanisms describing the causal relationships between the variables are largely unknown. In this assessor-blinded follow-up study, 194 children were assessed. The attrition rate until the 4-year-old assessment was 10%. We measured blood pressure and anthropometrics of 4-year-old singletons born following COH-IVF (n = 63), or born following modified natural cycle IVF (MNC-IVF, n = 52) or born to subfertile couples who conceived naturally (Sub-NC, n = 79). Primary outcome measures were the SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) percentiles. Anthropometrics included triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Causal inference search algorithms and structural equation modeling were applied. Explorative analyses suggested a direct effect of COH on SBP percentiles and on subscapular skinfold thickness. This hypothesis needs confirmation with additional, preferably larger, studies. Search algorithms were used as explorative tools to generate hypotheses on the causal mechanisms underlying fertility treatment, blood pressure, anthropometrics and other variables. More studies using larger groups are needed to draw firm conclusions. Our findings are in line with other studies describing adverse effects of IVF on cardiometabolic outcome, but this is the first study suggesting a causal mechanism underlying this association. Perhaps ovarian hyperstimulation negatively influences

  4. <strong/>Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released DrosophilaAssociating laboratory and field results<strong>. strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; A. Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-01-01

    Physiological and evolutionary responses to thermal variation are often investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. However, this approach may fail to account for the complexity of natural environments. Here we investigated the costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation...... that the ability to locate a field resource has a genetic basis with a high heritability since only round of selection on parental flies (F0) revealed clear differences in the ability of offspring (F1 and F2) to locate field resources at cold temperatures. Again we found a poor association between field...... and laboratory performance emphasising the importance of testing thermal resistance under relevant/natural conditions....

  5. Strong association of the SNP rs17822931 with wet earwax and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, People's Republic of China. 3Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. [Shang D., Zhang X., Sun M., Wei Y. and Wen Y. 2013 Strong association of the SNP rs17822931 with wet earwax and bromhidrosis in a.

  6. Strong but variable associations between social dominance and clutch sex ratio in a colonial corvid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, H. M.; Dijkstra, C.; Verhulst, S.

    2008-01-01

    We studied primary sex ratio of clutches in relation to social dominance for 6 years in a colony of free-living jackdaws, a small corvid. Social dominance was strongly associated with clutch sex ratio, with the difference in clutch sex ratio between the most and least dominant pairs being 30-40%. To

  7. Momentary and integrative response strategies in causal judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Darrell J; Shanks, David R

    2002-10-01

    Associative models of causal learning predict recency effects. Judgments at the end of a trial series should be strongly biased by recently presented information. Prior research, however, presents a contrasting picture of human performance. López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) observed recency, whereas Dennis and Ahn (2001) found the opposite, primacy. Here we replicate both of these effects and provide an explanation for this paradox. Four experiments show that the effect of trial order on judgments is a function of judgment frequency, where incremental judgments lead to recency while single final judgments abolish recency and lead instead to integration of information across trials (i.e., primacy). These results challenge almost all existing accounts of causal judgment. We propose a modified associative account in which participants can base their causal judgments either on current associative strength (momentary strategy) or on the cumulative change in associative strength since the previous judgment (integrative strategy).

  8. The Nature of the Association between Moral Neutralization and Aggression: A Systematic Test of Causality in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This article examines possible causal linkages between moral neutralization--a generic term for the related concepts of neutralization techniques, moral disengagement, and self-serving cognitive distortions--and aggressive behavior by using a set of repeated measures in a culturally diverse urban sample at ages 11.4 and 13.7 (N = 1,032). First,…

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in an ant with strong caste-genotype association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Alexandre; Darras, Hugo; Aron, Serge

    2018-01-01

    Caste determination in social Hymenoptera (whether a female egg develops into a reproductive queen or a sterile worker) is a remarkable example of phenotypic plasticity where females with highly similar genomes exhibit striking differences in morphology and behaviour. This phenotypic dichotomy is typically influenced by environmental factors. However, recent studies have revealed a strong caste-genotype association in hybridogenetic ants: workers are all interlineage hybrids while queens are all purebred, suggesting that female caste fate is genetically determined. Using the hybridogenetic ant Cataglyphis mauritanica , we show that under laboratory conditions, purebred offspring develop into reproductive queens but occasionally give rise to workers. Moreover, while hybrids typically become workers, juvenile hormone treatment can switch their developmental pathway to the reproductive caste. These results indicate that phenotypic plasticity has been retained in an ant with a strong caste-genotype association, despite its lack of expression in natural conditions. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Causally nonseparable processes admitting a causal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Caslav

    2016-01-01

    A recent framework of quantum theory with no global causal order predicts the existence of ‘causally nonseparable’ processes. Some of these processes produce correlations incompatible with any causal order (they violate so-called ‘causal inequalities’ analogous to Bell inequalities ) while others do not (they admit a ‘causal model’ analogous to a local model ). Here we show for the first time that bipartite causally nonseparable processes with a causal model exist, and give evidence that they have no clear physical interpretation. We also provide an algorithm to generate processes of this kind and show that they have nonzero measure in the set of all processes. We demonstrate the existence of processes which stop violating causal inequalities but are still causally nonseparable when mixed with a certain amount of ‘white noise’. This is reminiscent of the behavior of Werner states in the context of entanglement and nonlocality. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the existence of causally nonseparable processes which have a causal model even when extended with an entangled state shared among the parties. (paper)

  11. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  12. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  13. Scabies is strongly associated with acute rheumatic fever in a cohort study of Auckland children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger; Jarrett, Paul; Sundborn, Gerhard; Reynolds, Edwin; Schofield, Grant

    2018-02-14

    This study sought to determine whether scabies infection is associated with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) or chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). A cohort study was undertaken using health records of children aged 3-12 years attending an oral health service for the first time. Subjects were then linked to hospital diagnoses of scabies and ARF or CRHD. A total of 213 957 children free of rheumatic heart disease at baseline were available for analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 5.1 years, 440 children were diagnosed with ARF or CRHD in hospital records. Children diagnosed with scabies during follow-up were 23 times more likely to develop ARF or CRHD, compared with children who had no scabies diagnosis. After adjustment for confounders in a Cox model, the association reduced but remained strong (adjusted hazard ratio: 8.98; 95% confidence interval: 6.33-20.2). In an analysis restricted to children hospitalised at least once during follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for the same comparison was 3.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-6.37). A recent diagnosis of scabies from hospital records is strongly associated with a subsequent diagnosis of ARF. Further investigation of the role that scabies infestation may play in the aetiology of ARF is warranted. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Strong ion gap is associated with mortality in pediatric burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Wiktor, Arek; Berndtson, Allison; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Severe burn injury produces significant tissue damage, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Current methods of acid-base evaluation are based on dependent variables that may not be accurate after burn injury. The strong ion method of acid-base evaluation is based on independent variables and may accurately predict outcomes in severely burn-injured patients. The authors hypothesize that an increased strong ion gap present on admission will be associated with mortality in severely burn-injured pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review was performed of burn-injured pediatric patients with a TBSA 20% or greater. Data collected included age, TBSA burn injury, mechanism of injury, survival, ventilator days, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, and admission laboratory values. Apparent and effective strong ion difference (SIDa, SIDe) were calculated. The strong ion gap (SIG) was determined as the difference between SIDa and SIDe. A total of 48 patients were included in the study. Mean age (years) and TBSA were 7.9 ± 0.8 years and 56.8 ± 2.6%. Eleven patients (23%) died. Mean TBSA for survivors (54.2 ± 2.9%) did not significantly differ from that of nonsurvivors (65.7 ± 5.34%). Ten patients suffered inhalation injury, which was associated with an odds ratio of 10.1* for mortality. Mean SIDa was 44.2 ± 3.2 for the entire study population. Survivors had a significantly lower SIDa (36.6 ± 0.5) than nonsurvivors (59.7 ± 13*). Mean SIDe for all patients was (25 ± 0.7) and did not differ significantly between survivors (24.7 ± 0.7) and nonsurvivors (25.8 ± 2). SIG for nonsurvivors (33.91 ± 14*) was significantly higher than for survivors (14.9 ± 0.3). Controlling for both TBSA and inhalation injury, death was associated with both an increased SIDa (B = 19.3*) and SIG (B = 17.3*). SIG is increased in severely burn-injured pediatric patients, indicating the presence of metabolic acidosis. Furthermore, an increased SIG is significantly

  15. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  16. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; Vissers, Debby C J; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia; White, Richard G; de Vlas, Sake J; Habbema, J Dik F

    2010-04-01

    Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration. We performed a linear regression to analyze the association between the proportion of recent in-migrants and HIV prevalence for men and women in urban areas, using 60 data points from 28 sub-Saharan African countries between 1987 and 2005. We found a strong association between recent in-migration and HIV prevalence for women (Pearson R = 57%, P Africa (R = 50%, P = 0.003). For both genders, the association was strongest between 1985 and 1994, slightly weaker between 1995 and 1999, and nonexistent as from 2000. The overall association for both men and women was not confounded by the developmental indicators GNI per capita, income inequalities, or adult literacy. Migration explains much of the variation in HIV spread in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially before the year 2000, after which HIV prevalences started to level off in many countries. Our findings suggest that migration is an important factor in the spread of HIV, especially in rapidly increasing epidemics. This may be of relevance to the current HIV epidemics in China and India.

  17. Primary study authors of significant studies are more likely to believe that a strong association exists in a heterogeneous meta-analysis compared with methodologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Ioannidis, John P A

    2012-07-01

    To assess the interpretation of a highly heterogeneous meta-analysis by authors of primary studies and by methodologists. We surveyed the authors of studies on the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and prostate cancer, and 20 meta-analysis methodologists. Authors and methodologists presented with the respective meta-analysis results were queried about the effect size and potential causality of the association. We evaluated whether author responses correlated with the number of IGF-related articles they had published and their study results included in the meta-analysis. We also compared authors' and methodologists' responses. Authors who had published more IGF-related papers offered more generous effect size estimates for the association (ρ(s)=0.61, P=0.01) and higher likelihood that the odds ratio (OR) was greater than 1.20 (ρ(s)=0.63, P=0.01). Authors who had published themselves studies with statistically significant effects for a positive association were more likely to believe that the true OR is greater than 1.20 compared with methodologists (median likelihood 50% versus 2.5%, P=0.01). Researchers are influenced by their own investment in the field, when interpreting a meta-analysis that includes their own study. Authors who published significant results are more likely to believe that a strong association exists compared with methodologists. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Somatic Variation of T-Cell Receptor Genes Strongly Associate with HLA Class Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Klarenbeek

    Full Text Available Every person carries a vast repertoire of CD4+ T-helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells for a healthy immune system. Somatic VDJ recombination at genomic loci that encode the T-cell receptor (TCR is a key step during T-cell development, but how a single T cell commits to become either CD4+ or CD8+ is poorly understood. To evaluate the influence of TCR sequence variation on CD4+/CD8+ lineage commitment, we sequenced rearranged TCRs for both α and β chains in naïve T cells isolated from healthy donors and investigated gene segment usage and recombination patterns in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Our data demonstrate that most V and J gene segments are strongly biased in the naïve CD4+ and CD8+ subsets with some segments increasing the odds of being CD4+ (or CD8+ up to five-fold. These V and J gene associations are highly reproducible across individuals and independent of classical HLA genotype, explaining ~11% of the observed variance in the CD4+ vs. CD8+ propensity. In addition, we identified a strong independent association of the electrostatic charge of the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3 in both α and β chains, where a positively charged CDR3 is associated with CD4+ lineage and a negatively charged CDR3 with CD8+ lineage. Our findings suggest that somatic variation in different parts of the TCR influences T-cell lineage commitment in a predominantly additive fashion. This notion can help delineate how certain structural features of the TCR-peptide-HLA complex influence thymic selection.

  19. Tools for Detecting Causality in Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Wing, S.

    2017-12-01

    Complex systems such as the solar and magnetospheric envivonment often exhibit patterns of behavior that suggest underlying organizing principles. Causality is a key organizing principle that is particularly difficult to establish in strongly coupled nonlinear systems, but essential for understanding and modeling the behavior of systems. While traditional methods of time-series analysis can identify linear correlations, they do not adequately quantify the distinction between causal and coincidental dependence. We discuss tools for detecting causality including: granger causality, transfer entropy, conditional redundancy, and convergent cross maps. The tools are illustrated by applications to magnetospheric and solar physics including radiation belt, Dst (a magnetospheric state variable), substorm, and solar cycle dynamics.

  20. Causality in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puente Águeda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Causality is a fundamental notion in every field of science. Since the times of Aristotle, causal relationships have been a matter of study as a way to generate knowledge and provide for explanations. In this paper I review the notion of causality through different scientific areas such as physics, biology, engineering, etc. In the scientific area, causality is usually seen as a precise relation: the same cause provokes always the same effect. But in the everyday world, the links between cause and effect are frequently imprecise or imperfect in nature. Fuzzy logic offers an adequate framework for dealing with imperfect causality, so a few notions of fuzzy causality are introduced.

  1. Erectile dysfunction among men with diabetes is strongly associated with premature ejaculation and reduced libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavige, Lasantha S; Jayaratne, Shanthilal D; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Fernando, Devaka J; Levy, Jonathan C

    2008-09-01

    = 3.3, CI = 1.2-8.8). ED was strongly associated with PE and reduced libido. Diabetic patients presenting with one of these three conditions should be screened for the other two.

  2. Stool consistency is strongly associated with gut microbiota richness and composition, enterotypes and bacterial growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Doris; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Tito, Raul Y; Joossens, Marie; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of potentially confounding factors affecting colon microbiota composition is essential to the identification of robust microbiome based disease markers. Here, we investigate the link between gut microbiota variation and stool consistency using Bristol Stool Scale classification, which reflects faecal water content and activity, and is considered a proxy for intestinal colon transit time. Through 16S rDNA Illumina profiling of faecal samples of 53 healthy women, we evaluated associations between microbiome richness, Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, enterotypes, and genus abundance with self-reported, Bristol Stool Scale-based stool consistency. Each sample's microbiota growth potential was calculated to test whether transit time acts as a selective force on gut bacterial growth rates. Stool consistency strongly correlates with all known major microbiome markers. It is negatively correlated with species richness, positively associated to the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, and linked to Akkermansia and Methanobrevibacter abundance. Enterotypes are distinctly distributed over the BSS-scores. Based on the correlations between microbiota growth potential and stool consistency scores within both enterotypes, we hypothesise that accelerated transit contributes to colon ecosystem differentiation. While shorter transit times can be linked to increased abundance of fast growing species in Ruminococcaceae-Bacteroides samples, hinting to a washout avoidance strategy of faster replication, this trend is absent in Prevotella-enterotyped individuals. Within this enterotype adherence to host tissue therefore appears to be a more likely bacterial strategy to cope with washout. The strength of the associations between stool consistency and species richness, enterotypes and community composition emphasises the crucial importance of stool consistency assessment in gut metagenome-wide association studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  3. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and term low birth weight: estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B

    2012-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000-2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants.

  4. Strong allelic association between Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome and D17S805

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, M.; Jagell, S.; Sillen, A. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Sjoegren-Larsson Syndrom (SLS) is characterized by congenital ichthyosis, spastic di- or tetraplegia and mental retardation. It is an autosomal recessive trait that has been described in many populations, but is particularly frequent in the northern part of Sweden. A defect in the enzyme fatty alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAD) has been suggested, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Based on linkage analysis and allelic association, the disorder has now been mapped to chromosome 17. Meiotic recombinations suggests that the gene is flanked by D17S805 on the centromeric and D17S783 and D17S925 on the telomeric side. These three markers map to the same location in reference pedigrees. Strong allelic association (chi-square 60.28, p<0.0003) to D17S805 suggests that the mutation is located at a limited distance on the telomeric side of this marker. It is possible that the gene can be identified by functional complementation of SLS cells using YACs from this region. Alternatively, positional cloning should be possible in this presumable small area. The markers identified are close and informative enough to allow accurate genetic diagnosis.

  5. Mendelian Randomisation Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants...

  6. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...... of discursive causalities towards more substantive claims of causality between EU policy and institutional initiatives and domestic change....

  7. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P; Cruz, Lisa N; Paterno, Danielle; Silverstein, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Past studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale) have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs) since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction. Using the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA) patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset. Increased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning. A brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  9. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55 568 individuals, but not with short telomeres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren

    2014-01-01

    randomization study, we conducted observational, genetic, and mediation analyses. RESULTS: First, tobacco consumption was 21.1 pack-years in non-carriers, 22.8 in heterozygotes and 24.8 in homozygotes (P-trendcause mortality was 1......BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55...... in tobacco consumption. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the estimate was +3 base pairs (-10, +15) per minor CHRNA3 allele. Finally, individuals with the shortest vs longest telomeres had a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 1.30 (1.13, 1.50) for all-cause mortality; however, in mediation analysis...

  10. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2018-05-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  11. Strong and consistent natural selection associated with armour reduction in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Rouzic, Arnaud; Østbye, Kjartan; Klepaker, Tom O; Hansen, Thomas F; Bernatchez, Louis; Schluter, Dolph; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-06-01

    Measuring the strength of natural selection is tremendously important in evolutionary biology, but remains a challenging task. In this work, we analyse the characteristics of selection for a morphological change (lateral-plate reduction) in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Adaptation to freshwater, leading with the reduction or loss of the bony lateral armour, has occurred in parallel on numerous occasions in this species. Completely-plated and low-plated sticklebacks were introduced into a pond, and the phenotypic changes were tracked for 20 years. Fish from the last generation were genotyped for the Ectodysplasin-A (Eda) locus, the major gene involved in armour development. We found a strong fitness advantage for the freshwater-type fish (on average, 20% fitness advantage for the freshwater morph, and 92% for the freshwater genotype). The trend is best explained by assuming that this fitness advantage is maximum at the beginning of the invasion and decreases with time. Such fitness differences provide a quantifiable example of rapid selection-driven phenotypic evolution associated with environmental change in a natural population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?—A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

  13. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  14. Causal feedbacks in climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.; Brovkin, V.; Lenton, T.M.; Ye, H.; Deyle, E.; Sugihara, G.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical association between temperature and greenhouse gases over glacial cycles is well documented1, but causality behind this correlation remains difficult to extract directly from the data. A time lag of CO2 behind Antarctic temperature—originally thought to hint at a driving role for

  15. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  16. Mature habitats associated with genetic divergence despite strong dispersal ability in an arthropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Derek J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations may be bound by contemporary gene flow, selective sweeps, and extinction-recolonization processes. Indeed, existing molecular estimates indicate that species with low levels of gene flow are rare. However, strong priority effects and local selective regimes may hinder gene flow (despite dispersal sending populations on independent evolutionary trajectories. In this scenario (the monopolization hypothesis, population differentiation will increase with time and genealogical evidence should yield ample private haplotypes. Cyclical parthenogens (e.g. rotifers and cladocerans such as Daphnia have an increased capacity for rapid local adaptation and priority effects because sexual reproduction is followed by multiple generations of clonal selection and massive egg bank formation. We aimed to better understand the history of population differentiation and ongoing gene flow in Daphnia rosea s.l., by comparing population and regional divergences in mature unglaciated areas and younger previously glaciated areas. We also examined the timing and paths of colonization of previously-glaciated areas to assess the dispersal limitations of D. rosea s.l. We used DNA sequence variation (84 populations and >400 individuals at the mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear HSP90 loci from Holarctic populations for our genetic analyses. Results The genetic evidence indicated pronounced historical structure. Holarctic mtDNA phylogenies of D. rosea s.l. revealed three geographically restricted and divergent clades: European, Siberian and Japanese/American. The Japanese/American clade showed marked population genetic structure (FST > 0.8 that was weakly associated with geographic distance, and a high proportion of private haplotypes. Populations from older unglaciated habitats (i.e., Japan showed higher DNA sequence divergences than populations from presumed younger habitats (i.e. non-Beringian North America with nDNA and with mtDNA. Mismatch

  17. Causal Associations of Adiposity and Body Fat Distribution With Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke Subtypes, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Caroline E; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Palmer, Tom M; White, Jon; Prieto-Merino, David; Zabaneh, Delilah; Engmann, Jorgen E L; Shah, Tina; Wong, Andrew; Warren, Helen R; McLachlan, Stela; Trompet, Stella; Moldovan, Max; Morris, Richard W; Sofat, Reecha; Kumari, Meena; Hyppönen, Elina; Jefferis, Barbara J; Gaunt, Tom R; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Zhou, Ang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Mutsert, Renée de; Noordam, Raymond; Caulfield, Mark J; Jukema, J Wouter; Worrall, Bradford B; Munroe, Patricia B; Menon, Usha; Power, Chris; Kuh, Diana; Lawlor, Debbie A; Humphries, Steve E; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Sattar, Naveed; Kivimaki, Mika; Price, Jacqueline F; Davey Smith, George; Dudbridge, Frank; Hingorani, Aroon D; Holmes, Michael V; Casas, Juan P

    2017-06-13

    The implications of different adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease etiology remain unclear. In this article, we quantify and contrast causal associations of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index [WHRadjBMI]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) with cardiometabolic disease. Ninety-seven independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms for BMI and 49 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for WHRadjBMI were used to conduct Mendelian randomization analyses in 14 prospective studies supplemented with coronary heart disease (CHD) data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics; combined total 66 842 cases), stroke from METASTROKE (12 389 ischemic stroke cases), type 2 diabetes mellitus from DIAGRAM (Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis; 34 840 cases), and lipids from GLGC (Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; 213 500 participants) consortia. Primary outcomes were CHD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and major stroke subtypes; secondary analyses included 18 cardiometabolic traits. Each one standard deviation (SD) higher WHRadjBMI (1 SD≈0.08 U) associated with a 48% excess risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] for CHD, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.71), similar to findings for BMI (1 SD≈4.6 kg/m 2 ; OR for CHD, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.22-1.52). Only WHRadjBMI increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70). For type 2 diabetes mellitus, both measures had large effects: OR, 1.82 (95% CI, 1.38-2.42) and OR, 1.98 (95% CI, 1.41-2.78) per 1 SD higher WHRadjBMI and BMI, respectively. Both WHRadjBMI and BMI were associated with higher left ventricular hypertrophy, glycemic traits, interleukin 6, and circulating lipids. WHRadjBMI was also associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (39%; 95% CI, 9%-77% per 1 SD). Both general and central adiposity have causal effects on CHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus

  18. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes, and that a ......The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes...

  19. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (pPNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Violence in psychosis: conceptualizing its causal relationship with risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamsma, J.; Harte, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While statistically robust, the association between psychosis and violence remains causally unexplained. Objective: To provide an overview of possible causal pathways between risk factors and violence in psychosis. Methods: A structured narrative review of relevant studies published

  1. The association between atopy and factors influencing folate metabolism: is low folate status causally related to the development of atopy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Toft, U.; Fenger, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    aimed at examining the association between atopy and markers of impaired folate metabolism, i.e. MTHFR(C677T) genotype, plasma total homocysteine, and dietary intakes of methionine, folates, and vitamins B12, B6, and B2. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study of 1,671 male and female residents...... homocysteine was measured by fluorescent polarization immunoassay. Dietary vitamin intakes were estimated from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of atopy was associated with MTHFR(C677T) genotype. TT individuals had a significantly higher risk of atopy compared with CC....../CT individuals [odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-2.60]. Additionally, gene-diet interaction effects were identified. Dietary markers were negatively associated with risk of atopy in persons with the TT genotype. Total homocysteine was not related to atopy (odds ratio per 5 mumol/l = 1...

  2. Working with MRI: An investigation of occupational exposure to strong static magnetic fields and associated symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of electromagnetic fields in the non-ionizing radiation frequency ranges. One of them is a continuously present strong static magnetic field (SMF), which extends up to several meters around the scanner. Each time an MRI worker performs tasks near the

  3. The association between atopy and factors influencing folate metabolism: is low folate status causally related to the development of atopy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Toft, U.; Fenger, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    homocysteine was measured by fluorescent polarization immunoassay. Dietary vitamin intakes were estimated from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of atopy was associated with MTHFR(C677T) genotype. TT individuals had a significantly higher risk of atopy compared with CC...

  4. Causality in Classical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Classical physics encompasses the study of phys- ical phenomena which range from local (a point) to nonlocal (a region) in space and/or time. We discuss the concept of spatial and temporal non- locality. However, one of the likely implications pertaining to nonlocality is non-causality. We study causality in the context of ...

  5. Causality in Classical Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…

  6. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  7. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological......This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  8. Non-Causal Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ämin Baumeler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Computation models such as circuits describe sequences of computation steps that are carried out one after the other. In other words, algorithm design is traditionally subject to the restriction imposed by a fixed causal order. We address a novel computing paradigm beyond quantum computing, replacing this assumption by mere logical consistency: We study non-causal circuits, where a fixed time structure within a gate is locally assumed whilst the global causal structure between the gates is dropped. We present examples of logically consistent non-causal circuits outperforming all causal ones; they imply that suppressing loops entirely is more restrictive than just avoiding the contradictions they can give rise to. That fact is already known for correlations as well as for communication, and we here extend it to computation.

  9. Evidence for Reverse Causality in the Association Between Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, William; Staplin, Natalie; Judge, Parminder K; Mafham, Marion; Emberson, Jonathan; Haynes, Richard; Wheeler, David C; Walker, Robert; Tomson, Charlie; Agodoa, Larry; Wiecek, Andrzej; Lewington, Sarah; Reith, Christina A; Landray, Martin J; Baigent, Colin

    2017-02-01

    Among those with moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease, the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease seems U shaped but is loglinear in apparently healthy adults. The SHARP (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) randomized 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease to ezetimibe/simvastatin versus matching placebo and measured BP at each follow-up visit. Cox regression was used to assess the association between BP and risk of cardiovascular disease among (1) those with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and (2) those with no such history and, based on plasma troponin-I concentration, a low probability of subclinical cardiac disease. A total of 8666 participants had a valid baseline BP and troponin-I measurement, and 2188 had at least 1 cardiovascular event during follow-up. After adjustment for relevant confounders, the association between systolic BP and cardiovascular events was U shaped, but among participants without evidence of previous cardiovascular disease, there was a positive loglinear association throughout the range of values studied. Among those with the lowest probability of subclinical cardiac disease, each 10 mm Hg higher systolic BP corresponded to a 27% increased risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.44). In contrast, the relationship between diastolic BP and cardiovascular risk remained U shaped irrespective of cardiovascular disease history or risk of subclinical disease. In conclusion, the lack of a clear association between systolic BP and cardiovascular risk in this population seems attributable to confounding, suggesting that more intensive systolic BP reduction may be beneficial in such patients. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00125593. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Trends and group differences in the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality: implications for understanding education's causal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Mark D; Hummer, Robert A; Sasson, Isaac

    2015-02-01

    Has the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality changed in recent decades? If so, is it changing consistently across demographic groups? What can changes in the shape of the association tell us about the possible mechanisms in play for improving health and lowering mortality risk over the adult life course? This paper develops the argument that societal technological change may have had profound effects on the importance of educational attainment - particularly advanced education - in the U.S. adult population for garnering health advantages and that these changes should be reflected in changes in the functional form of the association between educational attainment and mortality. We review the historical evidence on the changing functional form of the association, drawing on studies based in the United States, to assess whether these changes are consistent with our argument about the role of technological change. We also provide an updated analysis of these functional form patterns and trends, contrasting data from the early 21st Century with data from the late 20th Century. This updated evidence suggests that the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality appears to be reflecting lower and lower adult mortality for very highly educated Americans compared to their low-educated counterparts in the 21st Century. We draw on this review and updated evidence to reflect on the question whether education's association with adult mortality has become increasingly causal in recent decades, why, and the potential research, policy, and global implications of these changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends and Group Differences in the Association between Educational Attainment and U.S. Adult Mortality: Implications for Understanding Education’s Causal Influence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Mark D.; Hummer, Robert A.; Sasson, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Has the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality changed in recent decades? If so, is it changing consistently across demographic groups? What can changes in the shape of the association tell us about the possible mechanisms in play for improving health and lowering mortality risk over the adult life course? This paper develops the argument that societal technological change may have had profound effects on the importance of educational attainment – particularly advanced education – in the U.S. adult population for garnering health advantages and that these changes should be reflected in changes in the functional form of the association between educational attainment and mortality. We review the historical evidence on the changing functional form of the association, drawing on studies based in the United States, to assess whether these changes are consistent with our argument about the role of technological change. We also provide an updated analysis of these functional form patterns and trends, contrasting data from the early 21st Century with data from the late 20th Century. This updated evidence suggests that the shape of the association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality appears to be reflecting lower and lower adult mortality for very highly educated Americans compared to their low-educated counterparts in the 21st Century. We draw on this review and updated evidence to reflect on the question whether education’s association with adult mortality has become increasingly causal in recent decades, why, and the potential research, policy, and global implications of these changes. PMID:25440841

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing ...

  13. Strong association of the SNP rs17822931 with wet earwax and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wet earwax is a dominant Mendelian trait associated with the. GA/GG genotype of SNP rs17822931 in the ABCC11 gene. It is also often associated with the axillary odour (bromhidro- sis). To investigate their possible relationship we genotyped rs17822931 in a Chinese family affected with axillary odour. Direct sequencing ...

  14. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  15. Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-06-30

    Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly.

  16. The gambler's fallacy is associated with weak affective decision making but strong cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF. The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.

  17. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler’s fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals’ use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making. PMID:23071701

  18. Psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are frequent, diverse and strongly associated with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenfeld, Samantha Aliza; Wasim, Syed; McNiven, Vanda; Parikh, Manasi; Majewski, Paula; Faghfoury, Hanna; So, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, widespread musculoskeletal pain and tissue fragility. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment are common, yet poorly characterized, findings in EDS patients. We investigated the frequency and types of psychiatric disorders and their relationship to systemic manifestations in a cohort of 106 classic and hypermobility type EDS patients. In this retrospective study, extensive medical chart review was performed for patients referred at two genetics clinics who were diagnosed with EDS. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and association with systemic findings. Psychiatric disorders were found in 42.5% of the EDS cohort, with 22.7% of patients affected with 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Anxiety and depression were most commonly reported, with frequencies of 23.6 and 25.5%, respectively. A variety of other psychiatric diagnoses were also identified. Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 7.38], neuropathic pain (OR 4.07), migraines (OR 5.21), joint pain (OR 2.85) and fatigue (OR 5.55) were significantly associated with the presence of a psychiatric disorder. The presence of any pain symptom was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder (OR 9.68). Muscle pain (OR 2.79), abdominal pain (OR 5.78), neuropathic pain (OR 3.91), migraines (OR 2.63) and fatigue (OR 3.78) were significantly associated with having an anxiety or mood disorder. Joint hypermobility and the classic dermatological features of EDS showed no significant association with having a psychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate a high frequency of psychiatric disorders and an association with pain symptoms in EDS.

  19. Regular exercise is strongly associated with anticipated success for reducing health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is a healthy behavior associated with desirable benefits. Regular exercise also makes manifest 2 fundamental behaviors-a choice and the discipline to continuously act on that choice. This cross-sectional analysis of more than 10 000 adults examines the association of regular exercise with unhealthy behaviors. Compared with people who are more regularly exercising, nonexercisers are less likely to choose to change an unhealthy habit. Nonexercisers are also much less likely to be confident of their success when they do choose a habit to change. Regular exercise seems to be a gateway behavior for reducing other unhealthy habits.

  20. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  1. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  2. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Bender

    Full Text Available We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check.The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work and individual socioeconomic position were retrieved from national administrative registers. Multilevel regression analyses with log links and binary distributions were conducted to obtain relative risks, intraclass correlation coefficients and proportional change in variance.Large differences between neighborhoods existed in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%. In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose-response fashion. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had up to 37% decreased probability of participating compared to those living in the least deprived neighborhoods. Inclusion of individual socioeconomic position in the model attenuated the neighborhood deprivation coefficients, but all except for income deprivation remained statistically significant.Neighborhood deprivation was associated with participation in a population-based health check in a dose-response manner, in which

  3. Causal aspects of diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis is directed at a causal description of photon diffraction, which is explained in terms of a wave exerting real forces and providing actual guidance to each quantum of energy. An undulatory PSI wave is associated with each photon, and this wave is assumed to imply more than an informative probability function, so that it actually carries real energy, in much the same way as does an electro-magnetic wave. Whether or not it may be in some way related to the electromagnetic wave is left as a matter of on-going concern. A novel application of the concept of a minimum energy configuration is utilized; that is, a system of energy quanta seeks out relative positions and orientations of least mutual energy, much as an electron seeks its Bohr radius as a position of least mutual energy. Thus the concept implies more a guiding interaction of the PSI waves than an interfering cancellation of these waves. Similar concepts have been suggested by L. de Broglie and D. Bohm

  4. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  5. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have....... The outcome for the cross-sectional study was presence of LBP during the last year. The outcome for the longitudinal study was days to recurrence of activity limiting LBP. In both data sets we created an aggregate score of the number of different MRI findings present in each individual and assessed...... investigated the associations between single MRI findings and back pain rather than investigating combinations of MRI findings. If different individuals have different pathoanatomic sources contributing to their pain, then combinations of MRI findings may be more strongly associated with LBP. METHODS...

  6. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...... in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%). In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose...

  7. A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2013-07-01

    Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks.

  8. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  9. Onset polarity in bipolar disorder: A strong association between first depressive episode and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Laura; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Vismara, Matteo; Dobrea, Cristina; Buoli, Massimiliano; Ketter, Terence A; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The role of onset polarity (OP) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) has been increasingly investigated over the last few years, for its clinical, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The present study sought to assess whether OP was associated with specific correlates, in particular with a differential suicidal risk in BD patients. A sample of 362 recovered BD patients was dichotomized by OP: depressed (DO) or elevated onset (EO: hypomanic/manic/mixed). Socio-demographic and clinical variables were compared between the subgroups. Additionally, binary logistic regression was performed to assess features associated with OP. DO compared with EO patients had older current age and were more often female, but less often single and unemployed. Clinically, DO versus EO had a more than doubled rate of suicide attempts, as well as significantly higher rates of BD II diagnosis, lifetime stressful events, current psychotropics and antidepressants use, longer duration of the most recent episode (more often depressive), but lower rates of psychosis and involuntary commitments. Retrospective design limiting the accurate assessment of total number of prior episodes of each polarity. Our results support the influence of OP on BD course and outcome. Moreover, in light of the relationship between DO and a higher rate of suicide attempts, further investigation may help clinicians in identifying patients at higher risk of suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N.; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M.; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A. G.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed “ATCCT interruptions,” experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confers a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

  11. Dynamics Of Causal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Rideout, D P

    2001-01-01

    The Causal Set approach to quantum gravity asserts that spacetime, at its smallest length scale, has a discrete structure. This discrete structure takes the form of a locally finite order relation, where the order, corresponding with the macroscopic notion of spacetime causality, is taken to be a fundamental aspect of nature. After an introduction to the Causal Set approach, this thesis considers a simple toy dynamics for causal sets. Numerical simulations of the model provide evidence for the existence of a continuum limit. While studying this toy dynamics, a picture arises of how the dynamics can be generalized in such a way that the theory could hope to produce more physically realistic causal sets. By thinking in terms of a stochastic growth process, and positing some fundamental principles, we are led almost uniquely to a family of dynamical laws (stochastic processes) parameterized by a countable sequence of coupling constants. This result is quite promising in that we now know how to speak of dynamics ...

  12. Severity of rhinitis and wheezing is strongly associated in preschoolers: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Margarida; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Santos, Natacha; Nunes, Carlos; Bousquet, Jean; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2015-11-01

    In preschool children, no study assessed the relation between wheezing and rhinitis severity. Our aims were to estimate the prevalence of current wheezing (CW) in preschoolers and to study the association between CW and current rhinitis (CR), considering its severity/persistency. This is a cross-sectional, nationwide, population-based study including a representative sample of 5003 Portuguese children aged 3-5 years. Data were collected by a face-to-face interview with caregivers using an adapted ISAAC questionnaire. CW was defined as presence of ≥1 wheezing episode in the previous 12 months. Rhinitis severity/persistency was classified according to Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma. Current wheezing prevalence was 24.5% [95% CI 23.3-25.7]; 9.4% of the participants had ≥4 wheezing episodes in the previous year. Children with CR had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.0 [95% CI 3.4-4.5] for CW; it was highest for children with moderate-severe persistent rhinitis (11.5 [95% CI 8.1-16.3]), even after adjusting for possible confounders. Wheezers with CR reported more wheezing treatment use (p = 0.024) than those without CR. There was a trend for a higher number of wheezing episodes with more persistent and severe nasal disease - 48.4% of children with moderate-severe persistent rhinitis had >4 wheezing episodes vs. 28.9% in moderate-severe intermittent, 20.0% in mild persistent, 10.8% in mild intermittent, and 3.6% in those without CR; p rhinitis, especially moderate-severe persistent disease. Preschoolers with both CW and rhinitis seem to have a more severe phenotype, emphasizing the need for concurrent evaluation of nasal and bronchial symptoms even in small children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The 8.1 ancestral MHC haplotype is strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eva Katalin; Kocsis, Judit; Madaras, Balázs; Bíró, Adrienn; Pocsai, Zsuzsa; Fust, George; Blaskó, Bernadett; Karádi, István; Adány, Róza; Laki, Judit

    2007-10-15

    Many recent data indicate that some alleles encoded in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (Class III) of short arm of chromosome 6 may modify the risk of cancer development. Therefore we determined 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this region (TNF-alpha -308 G > A, RAGE -429 T > C, HSP70-2 -1267 A > G, LTA 252 A > G) in genomic DNA samples from 183 Hungarian patients with colorectal cancer and 141 age matched control subjects representing the Hungarian population of the same age and gender. No significant differences were found in either SNP tested. When, however, three- or four-locus haplotypes consisting of known constituents of the so-called 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1AH) were considered, marked differences were observed. Frequency of TNF-alpha -308A, RAGE -429C, HSP70-2 -1267G, LTA 252G (8.1AH) haplotype was significantly (p = 0.006) more frequent (19.1%) among patients than in the controls (7.7%). Age- and gender-adjusted ratio of the 8.1AH carriers vs. non-carriers to have colorectal cancer was 2.514 (1.130-5.594). This risk was higher in cancer-indicate that carriers of the 8.1AH, encoding for an altered immune response and known to be associated with alterations of several immune functions and autoimmune diseases have an increased risk for some cancer types. These findings may contribute to better understanding how the defense mechanisms against tumors could be enhanced/strengthened. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A Simple Test for Causality in Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An early development in testing for causality (technically, Granger non-causality in the conditional variance (or volatility associated with financial returns was the portmanteau statistic for non-causality in the variance of Cheng and Ng (1996. A subsequent development was the Lagrange Multiplier (LM test of non-causality in the conditional variance by Hafner and Herwartz (2006, who provided simulation results to show that their LM test was more powerful than the portmanteau statistic for sample sizes of 1000 and 4000 observations. While the LM test for causality proposed by Hafner and Herwartz (2006 is an interesting and useful development, it is nonetheless arbitrary. In particular, the specification on which the LM test is based does not rely on an underlying stochastic process, so the alternative hypothesis is also arbitrary, which can affect the power of the test. The purpose of the paper is to derive a simple test for causality in volatility that provides regularity conditions arising from the underlying stochastic process, namely a random coefficient autoregressive process, and a test for which the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimates have valid asymptotic properties under the null hypothesis of non-causality. The simple test is intuitively appealing as it is based on an underlying stochastic process, is sympathetic to Granger’s (1969, 1988 notion of time series predictability, is easy to implement, and has a regularity condition that is not available in the LM test.

  15. Type 2 diabetes associated variants of KCNQ1 strongly confer the risk of cardiovascular disease among the Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha S. Al-Shammari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Polymorphisms within the KCNQ1 (potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 gene are consistently associated with T2D in a number of populations. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the association of 3 polymorphisms of KCNQ1 (rs2237892, rs151290 and rs2237895 with T2D and/or CVD. Patients diagnosed with either T2D (320 patients, CVD (250 patients or both (60 patients and 516 healthy controls were genotyped by TaqMan assay run on a real time PCR thermocycler. A statistically significant association was found for SNPs rs151290 (OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.02-3.05; p = 0.0435 and rs2237895 (OR = 2.49; 95%CI = 1.72-3.61; p < 0.0001 with CVD. SNP rs151290 (OR = 7.43; 95%CI = 1.00-55.22; p = 0.0499 showed a strong association in patients with both T2D and CVD. None of the SNPs showed any significant association with T2D. Haploview analysis showed that the ACC (rs151290, rs2237892 and rs2237895 haplotype is the most significant risk allele combination for CVD, while CCA is the most significant risk haplotype for co-morbidity with T2D. KCNQ1 polymorphism at SNPs rs151290 and rs2237895 is strongly associated with CVD in this population, but presented no association with T2D.

  16. A quantum causal discovery algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmatzi, Christina; Costa, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Finding a causal model for a set of classical variables is now a well-established task—but what about the quantum equivalent? Even the notion of a quantum causal model is controversial. Here, we present a causal discovery algorithm for quantum systems. The input to the algorithm is a process matrix describing correlations between quantum events. Its output consists of different levels of information about the underlying causal model. Our algorithm determines whether the process is causally ordered by grouping the events into causally ordered non-signaling sets. It detects if all relevant common causes are included in the process, which we label Markovian, or alternatively if some causal relations are mediated through some external memory. For a Markovian process, it outputs a causal model, namely the causal relations and the corresponding mechanisms, represented as quantum states and channels. Our algorithm opens the route to more general quantum causal discovery methods.

  17. Causal inference in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of causal inference which is one of the most difficult tasks in data analysis: when two phenomena are observed to be related, it is often difficult to decide whether one of them causally influences the other one, or whether these two phenomena have a common cause. This analysis is the main focus of this volume. To get a good understanding of the causal inference, it is important to have models of economic phenomena which are as accurate as possible. Because of this need, this volume also contains papers that use non-traditional economic models, such as fuzzy models and models obtained by using neural networks and data mining techniques. It also contains papers that apply different econometric models to analyze real-life economic dependencies.

  18. Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I

    2015-01-01

    Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.

  19. Perceptual causality in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Anne; Allen, Deborah; Linderoth, Carina; Hesketh, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments considered the development of perceptual causality in children from 3 to 9 years of age (N = 176 in total). Adults tend to see cause and effect even in schematic, two-dimensional motion events: Thus, if square A moves toward B, which moves upon contact, they report that A launches B--physical causality. If B moves before contact, adults report that B tries to escape from A--social or psychological causality. A brief pause between movements eliminates such impressions. Even infants in the first year of life are sensitive to causal structure in both contact and no-contact events, but previous research with talking-age children found poor verbal reports. The present experiments used a picture-based forced-choice task to reduce linguistic demands. Observers saw eight different animations involving squares A and B. Events varied in whether or not these agents made contact; whether or not there was a delay at the closest point; and whether they moved rigidly or with a rhythmic, nonrigid "caterpillar" motion. Participants of all ages assigned events with contact to the physical domain and events without contact to the psychological domain. In addition, participants of all ages chose causality more often for events without delay than with delay, but these events became more distinct over the preschool range. The manipulation of agent motion had only minor and inconsistent effects across studies, even though children of all ages considered only the nonrigid motion to be animal-like. These results agree with the view that perceptual causality is available early in development.

  20. Regression to Causality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordacconi, Mats Joe; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally primed for making causal attributions based on correlations. This implies that researchers must be careful to present their results in a manner that inhibits unwarranted causal attribution. In this paper, we present the results of an experiment that suggests regression...... more likely. Our experiment drew on a sample of 235 university students from three different social science degree programs (political science, sociology and economics), all of whom had received substantial training in statistics. The subjects were asked to compare and evaluate the validity...

  1. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  2. Household income is strongly associated with health-related quality of life among Japanese men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Fukuhara, S; Suzukamo, Y

    2005-07-01

    As socio-economic status (SES) strongly reflects individual economic status, evaluating the association between SES and health could provide information that is important for planning integrated economic and public health policies. We examined the association between annual household income as a measure of SES and the eight scale scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a quantifier of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Data were from the SF-36 national survey in Japan. A total of 4500 people aged 16 years or older were selected from the entire population of Japan using stratified-random sampling, and 3395 responded to the survey. Men with lower levels of annual household income had lower scores in all SF-36 domains. However, only 'general health perceptions' and 'social functioning' showed statistically significant trends among the women surveyed. In the subgroup of women working full-time, there were no domains that showed significant trends. A strong association exists between annual household income and SF-36 scores among men, but there is only a limited association among women. The employment and economic policies that affect annual household income potentially influence HRQOL.

  3. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, ppelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, ppelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  4. Causal pathways between substance use disorders and personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.

    2005-01-01

    A high co-occurrence between personality and substance use disorders suggests causal relationships between these conditions. Most empirical evidence strongly supports causal pathways in which (pathological) personality traits contribute to the development of a substance use disorder (i.e., primary

  5. Causality and Free Will

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, Supp.2 (2012), s. 64-69 ISSN 1335-0668 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/12/0833 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : conciousness * free will * determinism * causality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Explaining through causal mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, Robbert; Dupuis, Johann; Wellstead, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper synthesizes and builds on recent critiques of the resilience literature; namely that the field has largely been unsuccessful in capturing the complexity of governance processes, in particular cause–effects relationships. We demonstrate that absence of a causal model is reflected in the

  7. Cystatin C Is Not Causally Related to Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson-Färbom, Patrik; Almgren, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Persson, Margaretha; Christensson, Anders; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Strong and independent associations between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) suggests causal involvement of cystatin C. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a causal relationship between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) using a Mendelian Randomization approach. We estimated the strength of association of plasma cystatin C on CAD risk and the strength of association of the strongest GWAS derived cystatin C SNP (rs13038305) on plasma cystatin C in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC) and thereafter the association between rs13038305 and CAD in the MDC (3200 cases of CAD and 24418 controls) and CARDIOGRAM (22233 cases of CAD and 64762 controls). Each standard deviation (SD) increment of plasma cystatin C was associated with increased risk of CAD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34) after full adjustment. Each copy of the major allele of rs13038305 was associated with 0.34 SD higher plasma concentration of cystatin C (P98% to detect a significant relationship between rs13038305 and CAD in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. The odds ratio for CAD (per copy of the major rs13038305 allele) was 1.00 (0.94-1.07); P = 0.92 in MDC, 0.99 (0.96-1.03); P = 0.84 in CARDIOGRAM and 1.00 (0.97-1.03); P = 0.83 in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. Genetic elevation of plasma cystatin C is not related to altered risk of CAD, suggesting that there is no causal relationship between plasma cystatin C and CAD. Rather, the association between cystatin C and CAD appears to be due to the association of eGFR and CAD.

  8. Cystatin C Is Not Causally Related to Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svensson-Färbom

    Full Text Available Strong and independent associations between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD suggests causal involvement of cystatin C.The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a causal relationship between plasma concentration of cystatin C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD using a Mendelian Randomization approach.We estimated the strength of association of plasma cystatin C on CAD risk and the strength of association of the strongest GWAS derived cystatin C SNP (rs13038305 on plasma cystatin C in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC and thereafter the association between rs13038305 and CAD in the MDC (3200 cases of CAD and 24418 controls and CARDIOGRAM (22233 cases of CAD and 64762 controls.Each standard deviation (SD increment of plasma cystatin C was associated with increased risk of CAD (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 after full adjustment. Each copy of the major allele of rs13038305 was associated with 0.34 SD higher plasma concentration of cystatin C (P98% to detect a significant relationship between rs13038305 and CAD in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled. The odds ratio for CAD (per copy of the major rs13038305 allele was 1.00 (0.94-1.07; P = 0.92 in MDC, 0.99 (0.96-1.03; P = 0.84 in CARDIOGRAM and 1.00 (0.97-1.03; P = 0.83 in MDC and CARDIOGRAM pooled.Genetic elevation of plasma cystatin C is not related to altered risk of CAD, suggesting that there is no causal relationship between plasma cystatin C and CAD. Rather, the association between cystatin C and CAD appears to be due to the association of eGFR and CAD.

  9. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  10. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Karhunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.

  11. The causal link between energy and output growth: Evidence from Markov switching Granger causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir Kocaaslan, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we empirically investigate the causal link between energy consumption and economic growth employing a Markov switching Granger causality analysis. We carry out our investigation using annual U.S. real GDP, total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption data which cover the period between 1968 and 2010. We find that there are significant changes in the causal relation between energy consumption and economic growth over the sample period under investigation. Our results show that total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption have significant predictive content for real economic activity in the U.S. economy. Furthermore, the causality running from energy consumption to output growth seems to be strongly apparent particularly during the periods of economic downturn and energy crisis. We also document that output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. Furthermore, the power of output growth in predicting total energy consumption is found to diminish after the mid of 1980s. - Highlights: • Total energy consumption has predictive content for real economic activity. • The causality from energy to output growth is apparent in the periods of recession. • The causality from energy to output growth is strong in the periods of energy crisis. • Output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. • The power of output growth in explaining energy diminishes after the mid of 1980s

  12. Random number generators and causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrondo, H.A.; Martin, M.T.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O.A.

    2006-01-01

    We advance a prescription to randomize physical or algorithmic Random Number Generators (RNG's) that do not pass Marsaglia's DIEHARD test suite and discuss a special physical quantifier, based on an intensive statistical complexity measure, that is able to adequately assess the improvements produced thereby. Eight RNG's are evaluated and the associated results are compared to those obtained by recourse to Marsaglia's DIEHARD test suite. Our quantifier, which is evaluated using causality arguments, can forecast whether a given RNG will pass the above mentioned test

  13. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Surya, Sumati

    2011-08-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  14. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrikar, Onkar [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa campus, Goa 403 726 (India); Surya, Sumati, E-mail: ssurya@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2011-08-07

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  15. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight...... factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.......-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During theWM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets...

  16. Normalizing the causality between time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  17. Smoking and caffeine consumption: a genetic analysis of their association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Taylor, A.E.; Ware, J.J.; Nivard, M.G.; Neale, M.C.; McMahon, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Munafò, M.; Vink, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Smoking and caffeine consumption show a strong positive correlation, but the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Explanations include shared genetic/environmental factors or causal effects. This study employed three methods to investigate the association between smoking and caffeine.

  18. Optimal causal inference: estimating stored information and approximating causal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Crutchfield, James P; Ellison, Christopher J

    2010-09-01

    We introduce an approach to inferring the causal architecture of stochastic dynamical systems that extends rate-distortion theory to use causal shielding--a natural principle of learning. We study two distinct cases of causal inference: optimal causal filtering and optimal causal estimation. Filtering corresponds to the ideal case in which the probability distribution of measurement sequences is known, giving a principled method to approximate a system's causal structure at a desired level of representation. We show that in the limit in which a model-complexity constraint is relaxed, filtering finds the exact causal architecture of a stochastic dynamical system, known as the causal-state partition. From this, one can estimate the amount of historical information the process stores. More generally, causal filtering finds a graded model-complexity hierarchy of approximations to the causal architecture. Abrupt changes in the hierarchy, as a function of approximation, capture distinct scales of structural organization. For nonideal cases with finite data, we show how the correct number of the underlying causal states can be found by optimal causal estimation. A previously derived model-complexity control term allows us to correct for the effect of statistical fluctuations in probability estimates and thereby avoid overfitting.

  19. A missense mutation in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 is strongly associated with litter size in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Våge Dag I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome wide association study for litter size in Norwegian White Sheep (NWS was conducted using the recently developed ovine 50K SNP chip from Illumina. After genotyping 378 progeny tested artificial insemination (AI rams, a GWAS analysis was performed on estimated breeding values (EBVs for litter size. Results A QTL-region was identified on sheep chromosome 5, close to the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, which is known to be a strong candidate gene for increased ovulation rate/litter size. Sequencing of the GDF9 coding region in the most extreme sires (high and low BLUP values revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.1111G>A, responsible for a Val→Met substitution at position 371 (V371M. This polymorphism has previously been identified in Belclare and Cambridge sheep, but was not found to be associated with fertility. In our NWS-population the c.1111G>A SNP showed stronger association with litter size than any other single SNP on the Illumina 50K ovine SNP chip. Based on the estimated breeding values, daughters of AI rams homozygous for c.1111A will produce minimum 0.46 - 0.57 additional lambs compared to daughters of wild-type rams. Conclusion We have identified a missense mutation in the bioactive part of the GDF9 protein that shows strong association with litter size in NWS. Based on the NWS breeding history and the marked increase in the c.1111A allele frequency in the AI ram population since 1983, we hypothesize that c.1111A allele originate from Finnish landrace imported to Norway around 1970. Because of the widespread use of Finnish landrace and the fact that the ewes homozygous for the c.1111A allele are reported to be fertile, we expect the commercial impact of this mutation to be high.

  20. Preschoolers prefer to learn causal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubry eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Young children, in general, appear to have a strong drive to explore the environment in ways that reveal its underlying causal structure. But are they really attuned specifically to casual information in this quest for understanding, or do they show equal interest in other types of non-obvious information about the world? To answer this question, we introduced 20 three-year-old children to two puppets who were anxious to tell the child about a set of novel artifacts and animals. One puppet consistently described causal properties of the items while the other puppet consistently described carefully matched non-causal properties of the same items. After a familiarization period in which children learned which type of information to expect from each informant, children were given the opportunity to choose which they wanted to hear describe each of eight pictured test items. On average, children chose to hear from the informant that provided causal descriptions on 72% of the trials. This preference for causal information has important implications for explaining the role of conceptual information in supporting early learning and may suggest means for maximizing interest and motivation in young children.

  1. Space, time and causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Originating from lectures given to first year undergraduates reading physics and philosophy or mathematics and philosophy, formal logic is applied to issues and the elucidation of problems in space, time and causality. No special knowledge of relativity theory or quantum mechanics is needed. The text is interspersed with exercises and each chapter is preceded by a suggested 'preliminary reading' and followed by 'further reading' references. (U.K.)

  2. Operator ordering and causality

    OpenAIRE

    Plimak, L. I.; Stenholm, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that causality violations [M. de Haan, Physica 132A, 375, 397 (1985)], emerging when the conventional definition of the time-normal operator ordering [P.L.Kelley and W.H.Kleiner, Phys.Rev. 136, A316 (1964)] is taken outside the rotating wave approximation, disappear when the amended definition [L.P. and S.S., Annals of Physics, 323, 1989 (2008)] of this ordering is used.

  3. Strong association of MRI meniscal derangement and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, G H; Hunter, D J; Nevitt, M; Lynch, J; McAlindon, T E

    2009-06-01

    Meniscal damage is common in knee Osteoarthritis (OA) and predictive of structural progression, suggesting that their disruption plays a role in the development of OA. The bone marrow lesion (BML) is associated with pain and is a strong risk factor for structural progression. These lesions are associated with abnormal loading in a knee joint. Therefore, our hypothesis was that in those with symptomatic knee OA, large BMLs would be associated with ipsi-compartmental meniscal derangement. This was a cross-sectional study of a subsample of the Osteoarthritis Initiative where one set of magnetic resonance (MR) images from each participant was scored for tibiofemoral BMLs and meniscal derangement. We performed chi-squared tests comparing the prevalence of large BMLs in those with ipsi-compartmental meniscal derangement and those without. 160 Participants had a mean age of 61 (+/-9.9), mean BMI of 30.3 (+/-4.7) and 50% were female. 79% of medial and 39% of lateral menisci showed MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) derangement. In those with medial meniscal MRI derangement, 44% had large medial BMLs while in those without medial meniscal derangement, 0% had large BMLs. Similar results were seen in the lateral compartment. Medial and lateral MRI meniscal derangement are highly prevalent in symptomatic knee OA and BMLs are highly associated with ipsi-compartmental MRI meniscal derangement.

  4. Skin colonisation at the catheter exit site is strongly associated with catheter colonisation and catheter-related sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vennila; Perperoglou, Aris; Venkatesh, Vidheya; Curley, Anna; Brown, Nicholas; Tremlett, Catherine; Clarke, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The commonest mode of catheter colonisation is via the extraluminal route with skin bacteria. Catheter-related sepsis causes significant mortality and morbidity in neonates. Our aim was to study the relationships between culture-positive catheter exit site skin swabs, percutaneous central venous catheter segments and blood to determine the magnitude of associations between exit site skin colonisation, catheter colonisation and catheter-related sepsis. In a prospective study, an exit site skin swab and three formerly in vivo catheter segments (proximal, middle and tip) were taken for culture at catheter removal. In those neonates who were clinically unwell at catheter removal, a peripheral blood culture was also collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study associations. Skin swabs were culture positive in 39 (21%) of 187 catheter removals. With a culture-positive skin swab, the risk of associated catheter colonisation was nearly eight times higher (OR: 7.84, 95% CI: 3.59-17.15) and the risk of definite catheter-related sepsis with the same organism was nearly 10 times higher (OR 9.86, 95% CI: 3.13-31.00). Culture-positive skin swabs from the catheter exit site were strongly associated with catheter colonisation and with definite catheter-related sepsis with the same organism. These data provide further evidence supporting catheter colonisation via the extraluminal route and highlight the importance of optimising skin disinfection before catheter insertion. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3–5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8–10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09×10−13). To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total) and controls (n = 101 total) and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS–guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders. PMID:23028339

  6. Variation in genes related to cochlear biology is strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in border collies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years. Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09 × 10(-13. To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total and controls (n = 101 total and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS-guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders.

  7. Causal Entropic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  8. Consumption of preserved egg, a high-lead-containing food, is strongly associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Shao, Junwei; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Liu, Huijun; Wu, Yuntang; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.

  9. Marriage and Anomie: A Causal Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary R.

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 394 married couples is employed to test the possibility of an association between marital satisfaction and personal (attitudinal) anomie. The hypothesis is supported. Conclusions are offered relevant to anomie theory, and to utilization of marital and family phenomena as independent variables in causal explanations of nonfamily events.…

  10. Probable autoimmune causal relationship between periodontitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease with microbial dental plaque as the initiator of periodontal disease. However, the manifestation and progression of the disease is influenced by a wide variety of determinants and factors. The strongest type of causal relationship is the association of systemic and periodontal disease.

  11. Spatial hypersurfaces in causal set cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Seth A; Rideout, David; Surya, Sumati

    2006-01-01

    Within the causal set approach to quantum gravity, a discrete analogue of a spacelike region is a set of unrelated elements, or an antichain. In the continuum approximation of the theory, a moment-of-time hypersurface is well represented by an inextendible antichain. We construct a richer structure corresponding to a thickening of this antichain containing non-trivial geometric and topological information. We find that covariant observables can be associated with such thickened antichains and transitions between them, in classical sequential growth models of causal sets. This construction highlights the difference between the covariant measure on causal set cosmology and the standard sum-over-histories approach: the measure is assigned to completed histories rather than to histories on a restricted spacetime region. The resulting re-phrasing of the sum-over-histories may be fruitful in other approaches to quantum gravity

  12. Specious causal attributions in the social sciences: the reformulated stepping-stone theory of heroin use as exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, D

    1983-12-01

    The claims based on causal models employing either statistical or experimental controls are examined and found to be excessive when applied to social or behavioral science data. An exemplary case, in which strong causal claims are made on the basis of a weak version of the regularity model of cause, is critiqued. O'Donnell and Clayton claim that in order to establish that marijuana use is a cause of heroin use (their "reformulated stepping-stone" hypothesis), it is necessary and sufficient to demonstrate that marijuana use precedes heroin use and that the statistically significant association between the two does not vanish when the effects of other variables deemed to be prior to both of them are removed. I argue that O'Donnell and Clayton's version of the regularity model is not sufficient to establish cause and that the planning of social interventions both presumes and requires a generative rather than a regularity causal model. Causal modeling using statistical controls is of value when it compels the investigator to make explicit and to justify a causal explanation but not when it is offered as a substitute for a generative analysis of causal connection.

  13. Causal inference based on counterfactuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfler M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept.

  14. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Anomalous ULF Emissions and Their Possible Association with the Strong Earthquakes in Sumatra, Indonesia, during 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaidi Ahadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eleven strong Sumatran earthquakes, with their epicenter less than 550 km away from the Kototabang (KTB geomagnetic station (2007-2012, were studied to examine the occurrence of anomalous ultra-low frequency emissions (ULF-EM. Anomalous ULF signals, possibly associated with the earthquake’s precursors, were determined by the Welch ratio SZ/SH at 0.06 Hz at the KTB station. These ULF anomalies were then compared with geomagnetic data observed from two reference stations in Darwin and Davao, to prevent misinterpretation of global geomagnetic disturbances as precursors. This study aims to analyze the relationship between earthquake magnitude and hypocenter radius, and seismic index against lead time during ULF-EM anomalies. We used the polarization ratio Welch method in terms of power spectrum density to evaluate the geomagnetic data by overlapping windows and applying fast Fourier transform (FFT. The results showed anomalous variations in onset and lead time, determined using the standard deviation controlling the SZ/SH power pattern. Our positive correlation between lead time of ULF emission and earthquake magnitude as well as between lead time and seismic index. It shows a negative correlation between hypocenter distances to KTB station against lead time.

  16. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p motor ability and muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Strong Association between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Munyua, Peninah; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ade, Fredrick; Mbatha, Peter; Mbabu, Murithi; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Kairu, Salome; Maritim, Marybeth; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Bitek, Austine; Gaichugi, Stella; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki; Guerra, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–4.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.5–3.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5–2.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.3–0.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level. PMID:26101275

  18. Initial epidemic area is strongly associated with the yearly extent of soybean rust spread in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Christopher C; Wallace, Larae D; Allen, Tom W; Hollier, Clayton A; Kemerait, Robert C; Sikora, Edward J

    2013-07-01

    Hosts of soybean rust ( Phakopsora pachyrhizi ) are sensitive to low temperatures, limiting this obligate parasite in the United States to overwintering sites in a restricted area along the Gulf Coast. This temperature sensitivity of soybean rust hosts allowed us to study spatial spread of epidemic invasions over similar territory for seven sequential years, 2005-2011. The epidemic front expanded slowly from early April through July, with the majority of expansion occurring from August through November. There was a 7.4-fold range of final epidemic extent (0.4 to 3.0 million km 2 ) from the year of smallest final disease extent (2011) to that of the largest (2007). The final epidemic area of each year was regressed against epidemic areas recorded at one-week intervals to determine the association of final epidemic extent with current epidemic extent. Coefficients of determination for these regressions varied between 0.44 to 0.62 during April and May. The correlation coefficients varied between 0.70 and 0.96 from early June through October, and then increased monotonically to 1.0 by year's end. Thus, the spatial extent of disease when the epidemics began rapid expansion may have been a crucial contributor to subsequent spread of soybean rust. Our analyses used presence/absence data at the county level to evaluate the spread of the epidemic front only; the subsequent local intensification of disease could be strongly influenced by other factors, including weather.

  19. Causal Reasoning with Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    mreasoner/. 445 In broad terms, three strands of evidence corroborate the model theory of causal deductions. The 446 first strand of evidence bears ...models and causal reasoning Sangeet Khemlani et al. 13 She will not gain weight. 459 Will she not eat protein? 460 The results therefore bear out the... Adele Goldberg, Catrinel Haught, Max Lotstein, Marco Ragni, and Greg 821 Trafton for helpful criticisms. 822 Khemlani et al. Causal reasoning with

  20. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55,568 individuals, but not with short telomeres: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-10-01

    High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We studied 55,568 individuals including 32,823 ever smokers from the Danish general population, of whom 3430 died during 10 years of follow-up. All had telomere length measured, detailed information on smoking history, and CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype, which is associated with tobacco consumption, determined. In a Mendelian randomization study, we conducted observational, genetic, and mediation analyses. First, tobacco consumption was 21.1 pack-years in non-carriers, 22.8 in heterozygotes and 24.8 in homozygotes (P-trendMendelian randomization analysis, the hazard ratio was 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) per minor CHRNA3 allele in ever smokers. Third, in observational analysis telomeres shortened with -13 base pairs (-18, -8) per doubling in tobacco consumption. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the estimate was +3 base pairs (-10, +15) per minor CHRNA3 allele. Finally, individuals with the shortest vs longest telomeres had a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 1.30 (1.13, 1.50) for all-cause mortality; however, in mediation analysis short telomeres explained only +0.4% (-3.5%, +4.3%) of the association between high tobacco consumption and increased all-cause mortality. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality. High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres observationally, but there is no clear genetic association. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Is there a causal relationship between alcohol and HIV? Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is now conclusive evidence of a causal linkage between heavy drinking patterns and/or alcohol use disorders and the worsening of the disease course for HIV. However, while alcohol usage is consistently associated with the prevalence and incidence of HIV, further research is needed to substantiate causality in ...

  2. Path integrals on causal sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We describe a quantum mechanical model for particle propagation on a causal set. The model involves calculating a particle propagator by summing amplitudes assigned to trajectories within the causal set. This 'discrete path integral' is calculated using a matrix geometric series. Amplitudes are given which, when the causal set is generated by sprinkling points into 1+1 or 3+1 Minkowski spacetime, ensure the particle propagator agrees in a suitable sense, with the retarded causal propagator for the Klein-Gordon equation.

  3. Causality Statistical Perspectives and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Berzuini, Carlo; Bernardinell, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    A state of the art volume on statistical causality Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications presents a wide-ranging collection of seminal contributions by renowned experts in the field, providing a thorough treatment of all aspects of statistical causality. It covers the various formalisms in current use, methods for applying them to specific problems, and the special requirements of a range of examples from medicine, biology and economics to political science. This book:Provides a clear account and comparison of formal languages, concepts and models for statistical causality. Addr

  4. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  5. Cervical cancer precursors and hormonal contraceptive use in HIV-positive women: application of a causal model and semi-parametric estimation methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah H Leslie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the application of causal inference methods to observational data in the obstetrics and gynecology field, particularly causal modeling and semi-parametric estimation. BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women are at increased risk for cervical cancer and its treatable precursors. Determining whether potential risk factors such as hormonal contraception are true causes is critical for informing public health strategies as longevity increases among HIV-positive women in developing countries. METHODS: We developed a causal model of the factors related to combined oral contraceptive (COC use and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (CIN2+ and modified the model to fit the observed data, drawn from women in a cervical cancer screening program at HIV clinics in Kenya. Assumptions required for substantiation of a causal relationship were assessed. We estimated the population-level association using semi-parametric methods: g-computation, inverse probability of treatment weighting, and targeted maximum likelihood estimation. RESULTS: We identified 2 plausible causal paths from COC use to CIN2+: via HPV infection and via increased disease progression. Study data enabled estimation of the latter only with strong assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Of 2,519 women under 50 screened per protocol, 219 (8.7% were diagnosed with CIN2+. Marginal modeling suggested a 2.9% (95% confidence interval 0.1%, 6.9% increase in prevalence of CIN2+ if all women under 50 were exposed to COC; the significance of this association was sensitive to method of estimation and exposure misclassification. CONCLUSION: Use of causal modeling enabled clear representation of the causal relationship of interest and the assumptions required to estimate that relationship from the observed data. Semi-parametric estimation methods provided flexibility and reduced reliance on correct model form. Although selected results suggest an

  6. Improved Ventilatory Efficiency with Locomotor Muscle Afferent Inhibition is Strongly Associated with Leg Composition in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Ross, Manda L; Johnson, Bruce D; Carter, Rickey E; Joyner, Michael J; Eisenach, John H; Curry, Timothy B; Olson, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy contributes to increased afferent feedback (group III and IV) and may influence ventilatory control (high VE/VCO2 slope) in heart failure (HF). This study examined the influence of muscle mass on the change in VE/VCO2 with afferent neural block during exercise in HF. 17 participants [9 HF (60±6 yrs) and 8 controls (CTL) (63±7 yrs, mean±SD)] completed 3 sessions. Session 1: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and graded cycle exercise to volitional fatigue. Sessions 2 and 3: 5 min of constant-work cycle exercise (65% of peak power) randomized to lumbar intrathecal injection of fentanyl (afferent blockade) or placebo. Ventilation (VE) and gas exchange (oxygen consumption, VO2; carbon dioxide production, VCO2) were measured. Peak work and VO2 were lower in HF (pLeg fat was greater in HF (34.4±3.0 and 26.3±1.8%) and leg muscle mass was lower in HF (63.0±2.8 and 70.4±1.8%, respectively, pleg muscle mass (r2=0.58, pleg fat mass (r2=0.73, pleg muscle mass had the greatest improvement in VE/VCO2 with afferent blockade with leg fat mass being the only predictor for the improvement in VE/VCO2 slope. Both leg muscle mass and fat mass are important contributors to ventilatory abnormalities and strongly associated to improvements in VE/VCO2 slope with locomotor afferent inhibition in HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  8. Height and sex is strongly associated with radial augmentation index in Korean patients with never-treated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kye Taek Ahn, Kwang-In Park, Mi Joo Kim, Jin Kyung Oh, Ji Hye Han, Hee Jin Kwon, Seon-Ah Jin, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Jae-Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, In-Whan Seong, Jin-Ok Jeong Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Objectives: Central hemodynamics may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Patients who had confirmed hypertension as assessed by daytime 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (≥135/85 mmHg were enrolled. Central blood pressure and radial augmentation index (AIx corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (radial AIx 75 were measured for all patients. We evaluated the association of age, height, and sex with central hemodynamics in patients with never-treated hypertension. Results: A total of 203 patients were enrolled, of whom men numbered 101 (49.7%. The median height of all patients was 162 cm, and mean age was 53.2 years. In the Pearson correlation analysis, regardless of sex difference (R=-0.627 for height, R=0.035 for age, P-value =0.005, a stronger relationship was observed between height and radial AIx 75 than between age and radial AIx 75. In the multiple regression analysis, the sex difference and height were strongly associated with elevated radial AIx 75 in all patients (adjusted R2=0.428, β=6.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] for women 1.480–10.995, P-value =0.011 and β=-0.632, 95% CI for height -0.929 to -0.335, P-value =0.009, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with never-treated hypertension, female sex and shorter height are the important risk factors of elevated radial AIx 75. Keywords: hypertension, augmentation index, height, sex

  9. Re-thinking local causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell's criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the

  10. Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…

  11. Introduction to causal dynamical triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görlich, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The method of causal dynamical triangulations is a non-perturbative and background-independent approach to quantum theory of gravity. In this review we present recent results obtained within the four dimensional model of causal dynamical triangulations. We describe the phase structure of the mode...

  12. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  13. A genome-wide association study points out the causal implication of SOX9 in the sex-reversal phenotype in XX pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Sarah; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Mercat, Marie-José; Naylies, Claire; Thouly, Jean-Claude; Servin, Bertrand; Milan, Denis; Pailhoux, Eric; Riquet, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Among farm animals, pigs are known to show XX sex-reversal. In such cases the individuals are genetically female but exhibit a hermaphroditism, or a male phenotype. While the frequency of this congenital disease is quite low (less than 1%), the economic losses are significant for pig breeders. These losses result from sterility, urogenital infections and the carcasses being downgraded because of the risk of boar taint. It has been clearly demonstrated that the SRY gene is not involved in most cases of sex-reversal in pigs, and that autosomal recessive mutations remain to be discovered. A whole-genome scan analysis was performed in the French Large-White population to identify candidate genes: 38 families comprising the two non-affected parents and 1 to 11 sex-reversed full-sib piglets were genotyped with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A Transmission Disequilibrium Test revealed a highly significant candidate region on SSC12 (most significant p-valueTesco. However, no causal mutations could be identified in either of the two sequenced regions. Further haplotype analyses did not identify a shared homozygous segment between the affected pigs, suggesting either a lack of power due to the SNP properties of the chip, or a second causative locus. Together with information from humans and mice, this study in pigs adds to the field of knowledge, which will lead to characterization of novel molecular mechanisms regulating sexual differentiation and dysregulation in cases of sex reversal.

  14. Paradoxical Behavior of Granger Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Annette; Battaglia, Demian; Gail, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Granger causality is a standard tool for the description of directed interaction of network components and is popular in many scientific fields including econometrics, neuroscience and climate science. For time series that can be modeled as bivariate auto-regressive processes we analytically derive an expression for spectrally decomposed Granger Causality (SDGC) and show that this quantity depends only on two out of four groups of model parameters. Then we present examples of such processes whose SDGC expose paradoxical behavior in the sense that causality is high for frequency ranges with low spectral power. For avoiding misinterpretations of Granger causality analysis we propose to complement it by partial spectral analysis. Our findings are illustrated by an example from brain electrophysiology. Finally, we draw implications for the conventional definition of Granger causality. Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Goettingen

  15. Clear message for causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Aephraim M. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Experiment confirms that information cannot be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Ever since Einstein stated that nothing can travel faster than light, physicists have delighted in finding exceptions. One after another, observations of such 'superluminal' propagation have been made. However, while some image or pattern- such as the motion of a spotlight projected on a distant wall - might have appeared to travel faster than light, it seemed that there was no way to use the superluminal effect to transmit energy or information. In recent years, the superluminal propagation of light pulses through certain media has led to renewed controversy. In 1995, for example, Guenther Nimtz of the University of Cologne encoded Mozart's 40th Symphony on a microwave beam, which he claimed to have transmitted at a speed faster than light. Others maintain that such a violation of Einstein's speed limit would wreak havoc on our most fundamental ideas about causality, allowing an effect to precede its cause. Relativity teaches us that sending a signal faster than light would be equivalent to sending it backwards in time. (U.K.)

  16. A genome-wide association study points out the causal implication of SOX9 in the sex-reversal phenotype in XX pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rousseau

    Full Text Available Among farm animals, pigs are known to show XX sex-reversal. In such cases the individuals are genetically female but exhibit a hermaphroditism, or a male phenotype. While the frequency of this congenital disease is quite low (less than 1%, the economic losses are significant for pig breeders. These losses result from sterility, urogenital infections and the carcasses being downgraded because of the risk of boar taint. It has been clearly demonstrated that the SRY gene is not involved in most cases of sex-reversal in pigs, and that autosomal recessive mutations remain to be discovered. A whole-genome scan analysis was performed in the French Large-White population to identify candidate genes: 38 families comprising the two non-affected parents and 1 to 11 sex-reversed full-sib piglets were genotyped with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A Transmission Disequilibrium Test revealed a highly significant candidate region on SSC12 (most significant p-value<4.65.10(-10 containing the SOX9 gene. SOX9, one of the master genes involved in testis differentiation, was sequenced together with one of its main regulatory region Tesco. However, no causal mutations could be identified in either of the two sequenced regions. Further haplotype analyses did not identify a shared homozygous segment between the affected pigs, suggesting either a lack of power due to the SNP properties of the chip, or a second causative locus. Together with information from humans and mice, this study in pigs adds to the field of knowledge, which will lead to characterization of novel molecular mechanisms regulating sexual differentiation and dysregulation in cases of sex reversal.

  17. What are the causal effects of breastfeeding on IQ, obesity and blood pressure? Evidence from comparing high-income with middle-income cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Lawlor, Debbie A; Matijasevich, Alicia; Horta, Bernardo; Anselmi, Luciana; Araújo, Cora L; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Victora, Cesar G; Smith, George Davey

    2011-01-01

    Background A novel approach is explored for improving causal inference in observational studies by comparing cohorts from high-income with low- or middle-income countries (LMIC), where confounding structures differ. This is applied to assessing causal effects of breastfeeding on child blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Methods Standardized approaches for assessing the confounding structure of breastfeeding by socio-economic position were applied to the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N ≃ 5000) and Brazilian Pelotas 1993 cohorts (N ≃ 1000). This was used to improve causal inference regarding associations of breastfeeding with child BP, BMI and IQ. Analyses were extended to include results from a meta-analysis of five LMICs (N ≃ 10 000) and compared with a randomized trial of breastfeeding promotion. Findings Although higher socio-economic position was strongly associated with breastfeeding in ALSPAC, there was little such patterning in Pelotas. In ALSPAC, breastfeeding was associated with lower BP, lower BMI and higher IQ, adjusted for confounders, but in the directions expected if due to socioeconomic patterning. In contrast, in Pelotas, breastfeeding was not strongly associated with BP or BMI but was associated with higher IQ. Differences in associations observed between ALSPAC and the LMIC meta-analysis were in line with those observed between ALSPAC and Pelotas, but with robust evidence of heterogeneity detected between ALSPAC and the LMIC meta-analysis associations. Trial data supported the conclusions inferred by the cross-cohort comparisons, which provided evidence for causal effects on IQ but not for BP or BMI. Conclusion While reported associations of breastfeeding with child BP and BMI are likely to reflect residual confounding, breastfeeding may have causal effects on IQ. Comparing associations between populations with differing confounding structures can be used

  18. Principal stratification in causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B

    2002-03-01

    Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority.

  19. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two

  20. Causal boundary for stably causal space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1987-12-01

    The usual boundary constructions for space-times often yield an unsatisfactory boundary set. This problem is reviewed and a new solution is proposed. An explicit identification rule is given on the set of the ideal points of the space-time. This construction leads to a satisfactory boundary point set structure for stably causal space-times. The topological properties of the resulting causal boundary construction are examined. For the stably causal space-times each causal curve has a unique endpoint on the boundary set according to the extended Alexandrov topology. The extension of the space-time through the boundary is discussed. To describe the singularities the defined boundary sets have to be separated into two disjoint sets. (D.Gy.) 8 refs

  1. Discrete causal theory emergent spacetime and the causal metric hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dribus, Benjamin F

    2017-01-01

    This book evaluates and suggests potentially critical improvements to causal set theory, one of the best-motivated approaches to the outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Spacetime structure is of central importance to physics beyond general relativity and the standard model. The causal metric hypothesis treats causal relations as the basis of this structure. The book develops the consequences of this hypothesis under the assumption of a fundamental scale, with smooth spacetime geometry viewed as emergent. This approach resembles causal set theory, but differs in important ways; for example, the relative viewpoint, emphasizing relations between pairs of events, and relationships between pairs of histories, is central. The book culminates in a dynamical law for quantum spacetime, derived via generalized path summation.

  2. Platinum nanoparticles strongly associated with graphitic carbon nitride as efficient co-catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Kofuji, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Hirokatsu; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirai, Takayuki

    2014-12-14

    Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles with C3N4) by reduction at 673 K behave as efficient co-catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light (λ >420 nm). This is achieved by strong Pt-support interaction due to the high temperature treatment, which facilitates efficient transfer of photoformed conduction band electrons on g-C3N4 to Pt particles.

  3. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  4. Functional equations with causal operators

    CERN Document Server

    Corduneanu, C

    2003-01-01

    Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.

  5. Management’s causal reasoning on performance and earnings management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, W.A.A.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the association between the intensity of causal reasoning on performance in a firm’s annual management commentary and its earnings management propensity. Anticipated earnings management concerns are argued to constitute a significant accountability predicament, bringing management to

  6. Causal Learning in Gambling Disorder: Beyond the Illusion of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, José C; Navas, Juan F; Ruiz de Lara, Cristian M; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés

    2017-06-01

    Causal learning is the ability to progressively incorporate raw information about dependencies between events, or between one's behavior and its outcomes, into beliefs of the causal structure of the world. In spite of the fact that some cognitive biases in gambling disorder can be described as alterations of causal learning involving gambling-relevant cues, behaviors, and outcomes, general causal learning mechanisms in gamblers have not been systematically investigated. In the present study, we compared gambling disorder patients against controls in an instrumental causal learning task. Evidence of illusion of control, namely, overestimation of the relationship between one's behavior and an uncorrelated outcome, showed up only in gamblers with strong current symptoms. Interestingly, this effect was part of a more complex pattern, in which gambling disorder patients manifested a poorer ability to discriminate between null and positive contingencies. Additionally, anomalies were related to gambling severity and current gambling disorder symptoms. Gambling-related biases, as measured by a standard psychometric tool, correlated with performance in the causal learning task, but not in the expected direction. Indeed, performance of gamblers with stronger biases tended to resemble the one of controls, which could imply that anomalies of causal learning processes play a role in gambling disorder, but do not seem to underlie gambling-specific biases, at least in a simple, direct way.

  7. Thinking in a Foreign language reduces the causality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Lago, Marcos; Matute, Helena

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of a foreign language on the causality bias (i.e., the illusion that two events are causally related when they are not). We predict that using a foreign language could reduce the illusions of causality. A total of 36 native English speakers participated in Experiment 1, 80 native Spanish speakers in Experiment 2. They performed a standard contingency learning task, which can be used to detect causal illusions. Participants who performed the task in their native tongue replicated the illusion of causality effect, whereas those performing the task in their foreign language were more accurate in detecting that the two events were causally unrelated. Our results suggest that presenting the information in a foreign language could be used as a strategy to debias individuals against causal illusions, thereby facilitating more accurate judgements and decisions in non-contingent situations. They also contribute to the debate on the nature and underlying mechanisms of the foreign language effect, given that the illusion of causality is rooted in basic associative processes.

  8. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  9. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    for understanding the structure of task-oriented dialogues. Such dialogues locate conversational acts in contexts containing both pending tasks and the acts which bring them about. The ability to infer causal implicatures lets us interleave decisions about "how to sequence actions" with decisions about "when......In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  10. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillou, Sofia; Lagani, Vincenzo; Heinze-Deml, Christina; Schmidt, Angelika; Tegner, Jesper; Tsamardinos, Ioannis

    2017-10-05

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  11. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Causal Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-09-29

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated  causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  12. Consciousness and the "Causal Paradox"

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Max

    1996-01-01

    Viewed from a first-person perspective consciousness appears to be necessary for complex, novel human activity - but viewed from a third-person perspective consciousness appears to play no role in the activity of brains, producing a "causal paradox". To resolve this paradox one needs to distinguish consciousness of processing from consciousness accompanying processing or causing processing. Accounts of consciousness/brain causal interactions switch between first- and third-person perspectives...

  13. Pharmacy study of natural health product adverse reactions (SONAR): a cross-sectional study using active surveillance in community pharmacies to detect adverse events associated with natural health products and assess causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necyk, Candace; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Boon, Heather; Foster, Brian C; Legatt, Don; Cembrowski, George; Murty, Mano; Barnes, Joanne; Charrois, Theresa L; Arnason, John T; Ware, Mark A; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-03-28

    To investigate the rates and causality of adverse event(s) (AE) associated with natural health product (NHP) use, prescription drug use and concurrent NHP-drug use through active surveillance in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study of screened patients. 10 community pharmacies across Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from 14 January to 30 July 2011. The participating pharmacy staff screened consecutive patients, or agents of patients, who were dropping or picking up prescription medications. Patients were screened to determine the proportions of them using prescription drugs and/or NHPs, as well as their respective AE rates. All AEs reported by the screened patients who took a NHP, consented to, and were available for, a detailed telephone interview (14%) were adjudicated fully to assess for causality. Over a total of 105 pharmacy weeks and 1118 patients screened, 410 patients reported taking prescription drugs only (36.7%; 95% CI 33.9% to 39.5%), 37 reported taking NHPs only (3.3%; 95% CI 2.4% to 4.5%) and 657 reported taking prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently (58.8%; 95% CI 55.9% to 61.6%). In total, 54 patients reported an AE, representing 1.2% (95% CI 0.51% to 2.9%), 2.7% (95% CI 0.4% to 16.9%) and 7.3% (95% CI 5.6% to 9.6%) of each population, respectively. Compared with patients who reported using prescription drugs, the patients who reported using prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently were 6.4 times more likely to experience an AE (OR; 95% CI 2.52 to 16.17; ppharmacies take NHPs and prescription drugs concurrently, and of those, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) report an AE. A substantial proportion of community pharmacy patients use prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently; these patients are at a greater risk of experiencing an AE. Active surveillance provides a means of detecting such AEs and collecting high-quality data on which causality assessment can be based.

  14. Pharmacy study of natural health product adverse reactions (SONAR): a cross-sectional study using active surveillance in community pharmacies to detect adverse events associated with natural health products and assess causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necyk, Candace; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Boon, Heather; Foster, Brian C; LeGatt, Don; Cembrowski, George; Murty, Mano; Barnes, Joanne; Charrois, Theresa L; Arnason, John T; Ware, Mark A; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the rates and causality of adverse event(s) (AE) associated with natural health product (NHP) use, prescription drug use and concurrent NHP-drug use through active surveillance in community pharmacies. Design Cross-sectional study of screened patients. Setting 10 community pharmacies across Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from 14 January to 30 July 2011. Participants The participating pharmacy staff screened consecutive patients, or agents of patients, who were dropping or picking up prescription medications. Primary outcome measures Patients were screened to determine the proportions of them using prescription drugs and/or NHPs, as well as their respective AE rates. All AEs reported by the screened patients who took a NHP, consented to, and were available for, a detailed telephone interview (14%) were adjudicated fully to assess for causality. Results Over a total of 105 pharmacy weeks and 1118 patients screened, 410 patients reported taking prescription drugs only (36.7%; 95% CI 33.9% to 39.5%), 37 reported taking NHPs only (3.3%; 95% CI 2.4% to 4.5%) and 657 reported taking prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently (58.8%; 95% CI 55.9% to 61.6%). In total, 54 patients reported an AE, representing 1.2% (95% CI 0.51% to 2.9%), 2.7% (95% CI 0.4% to 16.9%) and 7.3% (95% CI 5.6% to 9.6%) of each population, respectively. Compared with patients who reported using prescription drugs, the patients who reported using prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently were 6.4 times more likely to experience an AE (OR; 95% CI 2.52 to 16.17; p<0.001). Combined with data from Ontario, Canada, a national proportion was calculated, which found that 45.4% (95% CI 43.8% to 47.0%) of Canadians who visit community pharmacies take NHPs and prescription drugs concurrently, and of those, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) report an AE. Conclusions A substantial proportion of community pharmacy patients use prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently; these patients are at a

  15. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  16. Is preschool executive function causally related to academic achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to reevaluate the well-established result that preschoolers' performance on executive function tasks are positively associated with their performance on academic achievement tests. The current study replicated the previously established concurrent associations between children's performance on EF tasks and academic achievement tests. Specifically, children's performance on measures of inhibitory and motor control were positively associated with their performance on tests of reading, writing, and mathematics achievement (rs = .2-.5); moreover, although diminished in magnitude, most of these associations held up even after including an earlier measure of academic achievement as a covariate (rs = .1-.3). However, the application of an alternative analytic method, fixed effects analysis, a method that capitalizes on repeated measures data to control for all time stable measured and unmeasured covariates, rendered the apparent positive associations between executive function and academic achievement nonsignificant (rs = .0-.1). Taken together, these results suggest that the well-replicated association between executive function abilities and academic achievement may be spurious. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of utilizing analytic methods and research designs that facilitate strong causal inferences between executive function and academic achievement in early childhood, as well as the limitations of making curriculum development recommendations and/or public policy decisions based on studies that have failed to do so.

  17. Development of high-brightness ultrafast electron microscope for studying nanoscale dynamics associated with strongly correlated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhensheng

    Strongly correlated-electron materials are a class of materials that exhibit numerous intriguing emergent phenomena, including metal-to-insulator transition, colossal magnetoresistance, high-temperature superconductivity, etc. These phenomena are beyond the reach of the conventional solid state physics, which is based on the band theory. Instead, strong electron-electron correlations are found to play important roles, which leads to complicated interplay between different degrees of freedoms (charge, lattice, spins...). In this thesis, ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is used to investigate the photo-induced ultrafast structural dynamics of strongly correlated materials, among which VO2 is taken as an exemplar system, one that reveals the fundamental physics behind photo-induced phase transitions, electron-electron correlation on nanometer scales, and the electron-phonon coupling in this exotic class of materials. The phenomena presented here are expected to have more general significance as they may reflect the physics to which other strongly correlated materials also conform. In polycrystalline VO2 thin films, the structural changes resulting from photoexcitation with femtosecond laser pulses with different wavelengths are observed to lead to non-thermal phase transitions, which require less energy compared to the phase transitions induced by thermal excitation. The details of the structural change are extracted from the UED results revealing stepwise atomic movements after photoexcitation, which suggests the phase transition starts with a dilation of the correlated d electrons. On the other hand, the structural phase transition is found to be decoupled from the metal-to-insulator transition when the sample dimension is reduced to the sub-micrometer scale, which is attributed to the interface charge doping effects from different substrates. A new phase (M3, monoclinic metallic phase) is distinguished, which has not been discussed by the existing theoretical

  18. Causality and prediction: differences and points of contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the differences between those variables that might play a causal role in a certain process and those only valuable for predicting the outcome. Some considerations are made about the core intervention of the association and the temporal precedence and biases in both cases, the study of causality and predictive modeling. In that context, several relevant aspects related to the design of the corresponding studies are briefly reviewed and some of the mistakes that are often committed in handling both, causality and prediction, are illustrated.

  19. Genome-wide association study provides strong evidence of genes affecting the reproductive performance of Nellore beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Thaise Pinto de; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Carvalheiro, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive traits are economically important for beef cattle production; however, these traits are still a bottleneck in indicine cattle since these animals typically reach puberty at older ages when compared to taurine breeds. In addition, reproductive traits are complex phenotypes, i.e., they are controlled by both the environment and many small-effect genes involved in different pathways. In this study, we conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) and functional analyses to identify important genes and pathways associated with heifer rebreeding (HR) and with the number of calvings at 53 months of age (NC53) in Nellore cows. A total of 142,878 and 244,311 phenotypes for HR and NC53, respectively, and 2,925 animals genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD panel (Illumina®, San Diego, CA, USA) were used in GWAS applying the weighted single-step GBLUP (WssGBLUP) method. Several genes associated with reproductive events were detected in the 20 most important 1Mb windows for both traits. Significant pathways for HR and NC53 were associated with lipid metabolism and immune processes, respectively. MHC class II genes, detected on chromosome 23 (window 25-26Mb) for NC53, were significantly associated with pregnancy success of Nellore cows. These genes have been proved previously to be associated with reproductive traits such as mate choice in other breeds and species. Our results suggest that genes associated with the reproductive traits HR and NC53 may be involved in embryo development in mammalian species. Furthermore, some genes associated with mate choice may affect pregnancy success in Nellore cattle.

  20. Absence of Granzyme B Positive Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Primary Melanoma Excisional Biopsies is Strongly Associated with the Presence of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. van Houdt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs and SLN status in clinically stage I/II melanoma patients.

  1. Property Values Associated with the Failure of Individual Links in a System with Multiple Weak and Strong Links.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations are developed and illustrated for the distribution of link property values at the time of link failure in the presence of aleatory uncertainty in link properties. The following topics are considered: (i) defining properties for weak links and strong links, (ii) cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, (iii) integral-based derivation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (iv) sampling-based approximation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (v) verification of integral-based and sampling-based determinations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (vi) distributions of link properties conditional on time of link failure, and (vii) equivalence of two different integral-based derivations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure.

  2. Evidence for Lettuce big-vein associated virus as the causal agent of a syndrome of necrotic rings and spots in lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Bekkum, van P.J.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV, genus Varicosavirus) was shown to be responsible for characteristic necrotic symptoms observed in combination with big-vein symptoms in lettuce breeding lines when tested for their susceptibility to lettuce big-vein disease (BVD) using viruliferous Olpidium

  3. Causality and analyticity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    In order to provide an overall picture of the broad range of optical phenomena that are directly linked with the concepts of causality and analyticity, the following topics are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent developments: 1) Derivation of dispersion relations for the optical constants of general linear media from causality. Application to the theory of natural optical activity. 2) Derivation of sum rules for the optical constants from causality and from the short-time response function (asymptotic high-frequency behavior). Average spectral behavior of optical media. Applications. 3) Role of spectral conditions. Analytic properties of coherence functions in quantum optics. Reconstruction theorem.4) Phase retrieval problems. 5) Inverse scattering problems. 6) Solution of nonlinear evolution equations in optics by inverse scattering methods. Application to self-induced transparency. Causality in nonlinear wave propagation. 7) Analytic continuation in frequency and angular momentum. Complex singularities. Resonances and natural-mode expansions. Regge poles. 8) Wigner's causal inequality. Time delay. Spatial displacements in total reflection. 9) Analyticity in diffraction theory. Complex angular momentum theory of Mie scattering. Diffraction as a barrier tunnelling effect. Complex trajectories in optics. (Author) [pt

  4. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  5. Lean Mass Appears to Be More Strongly Associated with Bone Health than Fat Mass in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotunde, O F; Kruger, H S; Wright, H H; Havemann-Nel, L; Kruger, I M; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Kruger, A; Tieland, M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), habitual physical activity (Activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured using an accelerometer with combined heart rate monitor and physical activity questionnaire) and bone health (BMD using dual-energy X ray absorptiometry, DXA and fracture risk). Urban community dwellers from Ikageng in the North-West Province of South Africa. One hundred and eighty nine (189) healthy postmenopausal women aged ≥43 years. Fat mass and lean mass were significantly associated with BMD and fracture risk when adjusted for potential confounders. However, lean mass and not fat mass remained significantly associated with femoral neck BMD (β = 0.49, p South African women. Our finding suggests that increasing lean mass rather than fat mass is beneficial to bone health. Our study emphasises the importance of positive lifestyle changes, intake of calcium from dairy and adequate weight to maintain and improve bone health of postmenopausal women.

  6. Causality as a Rigorous Notion and Quantitative Causality Analysis with Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. S.

    2017-12-01

    Given two time series, can one faithfully tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Here we show that this important and challenging question (one of the major challenges in the science of big data), which is of interest in a wide variety of disciplines, has a positive answer. Particularly, for linear systems, the maximal likelihood estimator of the causality from a series X2 to another series X1, written T2→1, turns out to be concise in form: T2→1 = [C11 C12 C2,d1 — C112 C1,d1] / [C112 C22 — C11C122] where Cij (i,j=1,2) is the sample covariance between Xi and Xj, and Ci,dj the covariance between Xi and ΔXj/Δt, the difference approximation of dXj/dt using the Euler forward scheme. An immediate corollary is that causation implies correlation, but not vice versa, resolving the long-standing debate over causation versus correlation. The above formula has been validated with touchstone series purportedly generated with one-way causality that evades the classical approaches such as Granger causality test and transfer entropy analysis. It has also been applied successfully to the investigation of many real problems. Through a simple analysis with the stock series of IBM and GE, an unusually strong one-way causality is identified from the former to the latter in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a "Giant" for the computer market. Another example presented here regards the cause-effect relation between the two climate modes, El Niño and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In general, these modes are mutually causal, but the causality is asymmetric. To El Niño, the information flowing from IOD manifests itself as a propagation of uncertainty from the Indian Ocean. In the third example, an unambiguous one-way causality is found between CO2 and the global mean temperature anomaly. While it is confirmed that CO2 indeed drives the recent global warming

  7. Comparison of simultaneous variations of the ionospheric total electron content and geomagnetic field associated with strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Naaman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, perturbations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC are compared with geomagnetic oscillations. Comparison is made for a few selected periods, some during earthquakes in California and Japan and others at quiet periods in Israel and California. Anomalies in TEC were extracted using Global Positioning System (GPS observations collected by GIL (GPS in Israel and the California permanent GPS networks. Geomagnetic data were collected in some regions where geomagnetic observatories and the GPS network overlaps. Sensitivity of the GPS method and basic wave characteristics of the ionospheric TEC perturbations are discussed. We study temporal variations of ionospheric TEC structures with highest reasonable spatial resolution around 50 km. Our results show no detectable TEC disturbances caused by right-lateral strike-slip earthquakes with minor vertical displacement. However, geomagnetic observations obtained at two observatories located in the epicenter zone of a strong dip-slip earthquake (Kyuchu, M = 6.2, 26 March 1997 revealed geomagnetic disturbances occurred 6–7 h before the earthquake.

  8. A new goniothalamin N-acylated aza-derivative strongly downregulates mediators of signaling transduction associated with pancreatic cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Rosimeire Coura; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; Pastre, Julio Cezar; Dias, Marina Pereira; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise

    2014-11-24

    In this study, a novel concise series of molecules based on the structure of goniothalamin (1) was synthesized and evaluated against a highly metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1). Among them, derivative 8 displayed a low IC50 value (2.7 μM) and its concentration for decreasing colony formation was 20-fold lower than goniothalamin (1). Both compounds reduced the levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) and cyclin D1 which are known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells. Importantly, despite the fact that goniothalamin (1) and derivative 8 caused pancreatic cancer cell cycle arrest and cell death, only derivative 8 was able to downregulate pro-survival and proliferation pathways mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase ERK1/2. Another interesting finding was that Panc-1 cells treated with derivative 8 displayed a strong decrease in the transcription factor (c-Myc), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. Notably, the molecular effects caused by derivative 8 might not be related to ROS generation, since no significant production of ROS was observed in low concentrations of this compound (from 1.5 up to 3 μM). Therefore, the downregulation of important mediators of pancreatic cancer aggressiveness by derivative 8 reveals its great potential for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Entropy for theories with indefinite causal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markes, Sonia; Hardy, Lucien

    2011-01-01

    Any theory with definite causal structure has a defined past and future, be it defined by light cones or an absolute time scale. Entropy is a concept that has traditionally been reliant on a definite notion of causality. However, without a definite notion of causality, the concept of entropy is not all lost. Indefinite causal structure results from combining probabilistic predictions and dynamical space-time. The causaloid framework lays the mathematical groundwork to be able to treat indefinite causal structure. In this paper, we build on the causaloid mathematics and define a causally-unbiased entropy for an indefinite causal structure. In defining a causally-unbiased entropy, there comes about an emergent idea of causality in the form of a measure of causal connectedness, termed the Q factor.

  10. A Causal Theory of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Alvarado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a causal conception of metaphysical modality in which a state of affairs is metaphysically possible if and only if it can be caused (in the past, the present or the future by current entities. The conception is contrasted with what is called the “combinatorial” conception of modality, in which everything can co-exist with anything else. This work explains how the notion of ‘causality’ should be construed in the causal theory, what difference exists between modalities thus defined from nomological modality, how accessibility relations between possible worlds should be interpreted, and what is the relation between the causal conception and the necessity of origin.

  11. Introductive remarks on causal inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana A. Romio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the more challenging issues in epidemiological research is being able to provide an unbiased estimate of the causal exposure-disease effect, to assess the possible etiological mechanisms and the implication for public health. A major source of bias is confounding, which can spuriously create or mask the causal relationship. In the last ten years, methodological research has been developed to better de_ne the concept of causation in epidemiology and some important achievements have resulted in new statistical models. In this review, we aim to show how a technique the well known by statisticians, i.e. standardization, can be seen as a method to estimate causal e_ects, equivalent under certain conditions to the inverse probability treatment weight procedure.

  12. Quantum theory and local causality

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes the results of research the authors have pursued in the past years on the problem of implementing Bell's notion of local causality in local physical theories and relating it to other important concepts and principles in the foundations of physics such as the Common Cause Principle, Bell's inequalities, the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) scenario, and various other locality and causality concepts. The book is intended for philosophers of science with an interest in the formal background of sciences, philosophers of physics and physicists working in foundation of physics.

  13. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Lam, Ernest T.; Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in huma...

  14. Production of the effector cytokine interleukin-17, rather than interferon-γ, is more strongly associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew M.; Zamzami, Omar M.; Whibley, Natasha; Hampsey, Daniel P.; Haggart, Anne M.; Vickers, Mark A.; Barker, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17A is the signature cytokine of the Th17 subset and drives inflammatory pathology, but its relevance to autoantibody-mediated diseases is unclear. Th1 cells secreting interferon-γ have been implicated in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, so the aim was to determine which cytokine is more closely associated with disease severity. Design and Methods Interferon-γ and interleukin-17A were measured in the sera of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and healthy donors, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with autologous red blood cells, or a panel of peptides spanning red blood cell autoantigen. Results Serum interleukin-17A, but not interferon-γ, was significantly raised in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (P anemia. Interleukin-17A was also more prominent in the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia to red blood cells, and, again unlike interferon-γ, significantly associated with more severe anemia (P hemolytic anemia, challenging the model that the disease is driven primarily by Th1 cells. This raises the possibility that Th17, rather than Th1, cells should be the target for therapy. PMID:22419580

  15. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  16. Strong associations between national prevalence of various STIs suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2017-10-12

    If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers. Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV. The prevalence of all the STIs was highest in the sub-Saharan African region excluding chlamydia. The prevalence of all seven STIs were positively correlated excluding chlamydia. The correlations were strongest for HIV-HSV-2 (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and HSV-2-trichomoniasis (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). Our results of a generally positive association between the prevalences of a range of STIs suggests that higher prevalences were driven by common underlying determinants. We review different types of evidence which suggest that differential sexual connectivity is a plausible common determinant.

  17. Obesity is more strongly associated with inappropriate eating behaviors than with mental health in older adults receiving congregate meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn N; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of inappropriate eating behaviors and mental health with obesity in congregate meal participants in Georgia (N = 120, mean age = 75 years, 75% female, 43% African American). Inappropriate eating behaviors were evaluated with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (18 questions); mental health was assessed with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (21 questions); history of depression was assessed with the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; and height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and obesity (52% ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). In bivariate analyses, obesity was associated with cognitive restraint (rho = 0.49, p eating (rho = 0.22; p emotional eating (rho = 0.32, p eating behavior and mental health indices, only cognitive restraint and emotional eating were consistently associated with obesity (p eating behaviors, particularly cognitive restraint and emotional eating, may be important targets for future research and intervention. Additional research is needed to better understand how cognitive restraint and emotional eating contribute to obesity in this population so that interdisciplinary research and health care teams can appropriately prevent and manage obesity in congregate meal participants.

  18. Sensitivity Analyses for Robust Causal Inference from Mendelian Randomization Analyses with Multiple Genetic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Bowden, Jack; Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik; Thompson, Simon G

    2017-01-01

    Mendelian randomization investigations are becoming more powerful and simpler to perform, due to the increasing size and coverage of genome-wide association studies and the increasing availability of summarized data on genetic associations with risk factors and disease outcomes. However, when using multiple genetic variants from different gene regions in a Mendelian randomization analysis, it is highly implausible that all the genetic variants satisfy the instrumental variable assumptions. This means that a simple instrumental variable analysis alone should not be relied on to give a causal conclusion. In this article, we discuss a range of sensitivity analyses that will either support or question the validity of causal inference from a Mendelian randomization analysis with multiple genetic variants. We focus on sensitivity analyses of greatest practical relevance for ensuring robust causal inferences, and those that can be undertaken using summarized data. Aside from cases in which the justification of the instrumental variable assumptions is supported by strong biological understanding, a Mendelian randomization analysis in which no assessment of the robustness of the findings to violations of the instrumental variable assumptions has been made should be viewed as speculative and incomplete. In particular, Mendelian randomization investigations with large numbers of genetic variants without such sensitivity analyses should be treated with skepticism.

  19. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which...... a factor is in agreement with a statement, we propose the Discrete Level Support Vector Machine (DILSVM) where the feature scores can only take on a discrete number of values, defined by the so-called feature rating levels. The DILSVM classifier benefits from interpretability and it has visual appeal...

  20. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  1. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  2. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Cointegration and dynamic causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir Alam, Mohammad; Ara Begum, Ismat; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the possible existence of dynamic causality between energy consumption, electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Bangladesh. First, we have tested cointegration relationships using the Johansen bi-variate cointegration model. This is complemented with an analysis of an auto-regressive distributed lag model to examine the results' robustness. Then, the Granger short-run, the long-run and strong causality are tested with a vector error correction modelling framework. The results indicate that uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth both in the short and the long-run while a bi-directional long-run causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth but no causal relationship exists in short-run. The strong causality results indicate bi-directional causality for both the cases. A uni-directional causality runs from energy consumption to CO 2 emission for the short-run but feedback causality exists in the long-run. CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run. An important policy implication is that energy (electricity as well) can be considered as an important factor for the economic growth in Bangladesh. Moreover, as higher energy consumption also means higher pollution in the long-run, policy makers should stimulate alternative energy sources for meeting up the increasing energy demand. - Highlights: ► Dynamic causality among energy and electricity consumption, CO 2 and economic growth. ► Uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth. ► Bi-directional causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth. ► Feedback causality exists between CO 2 emission to energy consumption. ► CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run.

  3. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  4. Aberrant immune response with consequent vascular and connective tissue remodeling - causal to scleroderma and associated syndromes such as Raynaud phenomenon and other fibrosing syndromes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Nedim; Park, Sung-Hyun; Reibman, Joan; Grunig, Gabriele

    2016-11-01

    Scleroderma and other autoimmune-induced connective tissue diseases are characterized by dysfunctions in the immune system, connective tissue and the vasculature. We are focusing on systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated pulmonary hypertension, which remains a leading cause of death with only a 50-60% of 2-year survival rate. Much research and translational efforts have been directed at understanding the immune response that causes SSc and the networked interactions with the connective tissue and the vasculature. One of the unexpected findings was that in some cases the pathogenic immune response in SSc resembles the immune response to helminth parasites. During coevolution, means of communication were developed which protect the host from over-colonization with parasites and which protect the parasite from excessive host responses. One explanation for the geographically clustered occurrence of SSc is that environmental exposures combined with genetic predisposition turn on triggers of molecular and cellular modules that were once initiated by parasites. Future research is needed to further understand the parasite-derived signals that dampen the host response. Therapeutic helminth infection or treatment with parasite-derived response modifiers could be promising new management tools for autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

  5. Aberrant Immune Response with Consequent Vascular and Connective Tissue Remodeling – Causal to Scleroderma and Associated Syndromes such as Raynaud Phenomenon and Other Fibrosing Syndromes ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Nedim; Park, Sung-Hyun; Reibman, Joan; Grunig, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Scleroderma and other autoimmune induced connective tissue diseases are characterized by dysfunctions in the immune system, connective tissue and the vasculature. We are focusing on systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated pulmonary hypertension, which remains a leading cause of death with only a 50–60% two-year survival rate. Recent findings Much research and translational efforts have been directed at understanding the immune response that causes SSc and the networked interactions with the connective tissue and the vasculature. One of the unexpected findings was that in some cases the pathogenic immune response in SSc resembles the immune response to helminth parasites. During co-evolution, means of communication were developed which protect the host from over-colonization with parasites and which protect the parasite from excessive host responses. One explanation for the geographically clustered occurrence of SSc is that environmental exposures combined with genetic predisposition turn on triggers of molecular and cellular modules that were once initiated by parasites. Summary Future research is needed to further understand the parasite-derived signals that dampen the host response. Therapeutic helminth infection or treatment with parasite-derived response modifiers could be promising new management tools for autoimmune connective tissue diseases. PMID:27548652

  6. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  7. Identification of Principal Causal Effects Using Additional Outcomes in Concentration Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealli, Fabrizia; Pacini, Barbara; Stanghellini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Unless strong assumptions are made, nonparametric identification of principal causal effects can only be partial and bounds (or sets) for the causal effects are established. In the presence of a secondary outcome, recent results exist to sharpen the bounds that exploit conditional independence assumptions. More general results, though not embedded…

  8. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer - Assessment of Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is "specificity." HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers.

  9. Granger Causality and Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    , eventually rejecting the null hypothesis, even when the series are independent of each other. Moreover, controlling for these deterministic elements (in the auxiliary regressions of the test) does not preclude the possibility of drawing erroneous inferences. Granger-causality tests should not be used under...... stochastic nonstationarity, a property typically found in many macroeconomic variables....

  10. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  11. Seismogenic ionospheric anomalies associated with the strong Indonesian earthquake occurred on 11 April 2012 (M = 8.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with a major earthquake (EQ) (M = 8.5) which occurred in India-Oceania region are investigated by monitoring subionospheric propagation of VLF signals transmitted from the NWC transmitter (F = 19.8 kHz), Australia to a receiving station at Varanasi (geographic lat. 25.3°N, long 82.99°E), India. The EQ occurred on 11 April 2012 at 08:38:35 h UT (magnitude ≈ 8.5, depth = 10 km, and lat. = 2.3°N, long. = 93.0°E). A significant increase of few days before the EQ has been observed by using the VLF nighttime amplitude fluctuation method (fixed frequency transmitter signal). The analysis of total electron contents (TEC) derived from the global positioning system (GPS) at three different stations namely, Hyderabad (latitude 17.38°N, longitude 78.48°E), Singapore (latitude 1.37°N, longitude 103.84°E) and Port Blair (latitude 11.62°N, longitude 92.72°E) due to this EQ has also been presented. Significant perturbation in TEC data (enhancements and depletion) is noted before and after the main shock of the EQ. The possible mechanisms behind these perturbations due to EQ have also been discussed.

  12. hs-CRP is strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD): A data mining approach using decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayefi, Maryam; Tajfard, Mohammad; Saffar, Sara; Hanachi, Parichehr; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Taghipour, Ali; Ferns, Gordon A; Moohebati, Mohsen; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important public health problem globally. Algorithms incorporating the assessment of clinical biomarkers together with several established traditional risk factors can help clinicians to predict CHD and support clinical decision making with respect to interventions. Decision tree (DT) is a data mining model for extracting hidden knowledge from large databases. We aimed to establish a predictive model for coronary heart disease using a decision tree algorithm. Here we used a dataset of 2346 individuals including 1159 healthy participants and 1187 participant who had undergone coronary angiography (405 participants with negative angiography and 782 participants with positive angiography). We entered 10 variables of a total 12 variables into the DT algorithm (including age, sex, FBG, TG, hs-CRP, TC, HDL, LDL, SBP and DBP). Our model could identify the associated risk factors of CHD with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 96%, 87%, 94% and respectively. Serum hs-CRP levels was at top of the tree in our model, following by FBG, gender and age. Our model appears to be an accurate, specific and sensitive model for identifying the presence of CHD, but will require validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  14. Deconstructing events: the neural bases for space, time, and causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R; Schmidt, Gwenda L; Lehet, Matthew; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Space, time, and causality provide a natural structure for organizing our experience. These abstract categories allow us to think relationally in the most basic sense; understanding simple events requires one to represent the spatial relations among objects, the relative durations of actions or movements, and the links between causes and effects. The present fMRI study investigates the extent to which the brain distinguishes between these fundamental conceptual domains. Participants performed a 1-back task with three conditions of interest (space, time, and causality). Each condition required comparing relations between events in a simple verbal narrative. Depending on the condition, participants were instructed to either attend to the spatial, temporal, or causal characteristics of events, but between participants each particular event relation appeared in all three conditions. Contrasts compared neural activity during each condition against the remaining two and revealed how thinking about events is deconstructed neurally. Space trials recruited neural areas traditionally associated with visuospatial processing, primarily bilateral frontal and occipitoparietal networks. Causality trials activated areas previously found to underlie causal thinking and thematic role assignment, such as left medial frontal and left middle temporal gyri, respectively. Causality trials also produced activations in SMA, caudate, and cerebellum; cortical and subcortical regions associated with the perception of time at different timescales. The time contrast, however, produced no significant effects. This pattern, indicating negative results for time trials but positive effects for causality trials in areas important for time perception, motivated additional overlap analyses to further probe relations between domains. The results of these analyses suggest a closer correspondence between time and causality than between time and space.

  15. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  16. Dysfunctions of mitochondria in close association with strong perturbation of long noncoding RNAs expression in down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jia-Jun; Liu, Yan-Na; Ren, Zhao-Rui; Yan, Jing-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and underlies Down syndrome. Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications, plays a vital role in Down syndrome. However, the functions of epigenetics-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), found to have an impact on neural diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, remain unknown in Down syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data from Down syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and normal iPSCs. A large number of lncRNAs were identified differentially expressed in Down syndrome-iPSCs. Notably, stronger perturbation was shown in the expression of lncRNAs compared to protein coding genes (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, PDown syndrome. Through gene set enrichment analysis and bi-clustering, we also found that most of the differential expressed lncRNAs were closely associated with mitochondrial functions (e.g. mitochondrion organization, P=3.21×10 -17 ; mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport, P=1.73×10 -19 and mitochondrial membrane organization, P=4.04×10 -8 ). PCR-array and qRT-PCR results revealed that almost all genes related to mitochondria were down-regulated in Down syndrome-iPSCs, implying that mitochondria were dysfunctional in Down syndrome (e.g. ATP5B, Fold Change=-8.2317; COX6A1, Fold Change=-12.7788 and SLC25A17, Fold Change=-22.1296). All in all, our study indicated that a stronger perturbation of lncRNAs expression may lead to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Down syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Causality tests between stock market development and economic growth in West African Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Tachiwou ABOUDOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for the West African Monetary Union economy over the last decade or so. By applying the techniques of unit–root tests and the long–run Granger noncausality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995, the causal relationships between the real GDP growth rate and two stock market development proxies are tested. The results are in line with the supply leading hypothesis in the sense that there is strong causal flow from the stock market development to economic growth. A unidirectional causal relationship is also observed between real market capitalization ratio and economic growth.

  18. Directed information graphs for the Granger causality of multivariate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Cui, Wanqi; Ye, Wenna

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the links between (strong) Granger causality and directed information theory for multivariate time series. Based on the decomposition of conditional directed information, we propose a definition of Granger causality including instantaneous variables in the conditional set, which can avoid the spurious causality. The directed information graphs are presented to describe the Granger causality and instantaneous coupling. The structure learning of the graph models is based on the Leonenko's k-nn estimator of the statistics and a permutation test of the significant. Finally, we demonstrate the numerical implementation of these techniques on linear and nonlinear time series.

  19. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Liang

    Full Text Available Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD, to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i (Global association test Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii (Causal variant detection Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  20. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2013-07-26

    Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD), to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i) (Global association test) Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii) (Causal variant detection) Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI) Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  1. Inferring Causalities in Landscape Genetics: An Extension of Wright's Causal Modeling to Distance Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtune, Lisa; Prunier, Jérôme G; Paz-Vinas, Ivan; Loot, Géraldine; Veyssière, Charlotte; Blanchet, Simon

    2018-04-01

    Identifying landscape features that affect functional connectivity among populations is a major challenge in fundamental and applied sciences. Landscape genetics combines landscape and genetic data to address this issue, with the main objective of disentangling direct and indirect relationships among an intricate set of variables. Causal modeling has strong potential to address the complex nature of landscape genetic data sets. However, this statistical approach was not initially developed to address the pairwise distance matrices commonly used in landscape genetics. Here, we aimed to extend the applicability of two causal modeling methods-that is, maximum-likelihood path analysis and the directional separation test-by developing statistical approaches aimed at handling distance matrices and improving functional connectivity inference. Using simulations, we showed that these approaches greatly improved the robustness of the absolute (using a frequentist approach) and relative (using an information-theoretic approach) fits of the tested models. We used an empirical data set combining genetic information on a freshwater fish species (Gobio occitaniae) and detailed landscape descriptors to demonstrate the usefulness of causal modeling to identify functional connectivity in wild populations. Specifically, we demonstrated how direct and indirect relationships involving altitude, temperature, and oxygen concentration influenced within- and between-population genetic diversity of G. occitaniae.

  2. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness (TRASC) and Functional Impairment II: Perceived Causal Relationships in an Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannidakis, Nicole C A; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research supports the existence of a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, although studies have not directly compared the perceived impact of dissociative versus nondissociative posttraumatic symptoms on social and occupational functioning. In addition, research is beginning to differentiate between posttraumatic distress associated with normal waking consciousness (NWC) and dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along multiple phenomenological dimensions. The current study investigated perceived causal relationships between posttraumatic symptoms associated with NWC-distress and TRASC on the one hand and interpersonal and occupational functioning on the other. Although both TRASC and NWC-distress independently accounted for variance in self-reported interpersonal and occupational problems, perceived causal relationship results showed that individuals tended to attribute their social and work-related problems more strongly to NWC-distress than to TRASC. Future research directions are discussed.

  3. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  4. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  5. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L; Work, Thierry M; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-18

    Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  6. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Gruber, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bickel, H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Duffy, S. [Queen Mary University of London, Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Schernthaner, M. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Pluschnig, U. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, M. [Medical University Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS {sup registered} classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p < 0.001), irregular margin (p < 0.001), heterogeneous enhancement (p < 0.001), Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.02), increasing patient age (p = 0.02) and larger lesion size (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, significant associations with malignancy remained for mass shape (p = 0.06), mass margin (p < 0.001), internal enhancement pattern (p = 0.03) and Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.06). The ACR BI-RADS {sup registered} breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  7. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  8. Two roads to noncommutative causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    We review the physical motivations and the mathematical results obtained so far in the isocone-based approach to noncommutative causality. We also give a briefer account of the alternative framework of Franco and Eckstein which is based on Lorentzian spectral triples. We compare the two theories on the simple example of the product geometry of the Minkowski plane by the finite noncommutative space with algebra M 2 (C). (paper)

  9. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...

  10. Concept of statistical causality and local martingales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a statistical concept of causality in continuous time in filtered probability spaces which is based on Granger's definitions of causality. The given causality concept is closely connected to the preservation of the property being a local martingale if the filtration is getting larger. Namely, the local martingale remains unpredictable if the amount of information is increased. We proved that the preservation of this property is equivalent with the concept of causality.

  11. Behavioural Pattern of Causality Parameter of Autoregressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a causal form of Autoregressive Moving Average process, ARMA (p, q) of various orders and behaviour of the causality parameter of ARMA model is investigated. It is deduced that the behaviour of causality parameter ψi depends on positive and negative values of autoregressive parameter φ and moving ...

  12. Causal knowledge and reasoning in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will

  13. The argumentative impact of causal relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    1996-01-01

    such as causality, explanation and justification. In certain types of discourse, causal relations also imply an intentional element. This paper describes the way in which the semantic and pragmatic functions of causal markers can be accounted for in terms of linguistic and rhetorical theories of argumentation....

  14. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Penke, Lars; Wicherts, Jelte M; Zeiler, Michael; Voracek, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IL23R and IL12B SNPs and Haplotypes Strongly Associate with Crohn's Disease Risk in a New Zealand Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Han, Dug Yeo; Fraser, Alan G.; Huebner, Claudia; Lam, Wen Jiun; Morgan, Angharad R.

    2010-01-01

    DNA samples from 339 Crohn's disease (CD) and 407 randomly selected controls from the Auckland (New Zealand) IBD project, were genotyped for five common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-23R (rs11805303, rs7517847, rs1343151, rs11209026, and rs10889677) and two in IL-12B (rs1363670 and rs6887695). While the IL-12B variants did not show an overall association and other IL23R variants led to minor changes in the risk of CD, rs1343151 and/or rs7517847 variants in the IL-23R gene strongly re...

  16. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Berry, Diane J; Lu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional ......Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi...

  17. Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.

  18. A theory of causal learning in children: causal maps and Bayes nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M; Schulz, Laura E; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David

    2004-01-01

    The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children construct new causal maps and that their learning is consistent with the Bayes net formalism.

  19. Causality links among renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Africa: evidence from a panel ARDL-PMG approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attiaoui, Imed; Toumi, Hassen; Ammouri, Bilel; Gargouri, Ilhem

    2017-05-01

    This research examines the causality (For the remainder of the paper, the notion of causality refers to Granger causality.) links among renewable energy consumption (REC), CO 2 emissions (CE), non-renewable energy consumption (NREC), and economic growth (GDP) using an autoregressive distributed lag model based on the pooled mean group estimation (ARDL-PMG) and applying Granger causality tests for a panel consisting of 22 African countries for the period between 1990 and 2011. There is unidirectional and irreversible short-run causality from CE to GDP. The causal direction between CE and REC is unobservable over the short-term. Moreover, we find unidirectional, short-run causality from REC to GDP. When testing per pair of variables, there are short-run bidirectional causalities among REC, CE, and GDP. However, if we add CE to the variables REC and NREC, the causality to GDP is observable, and causality from the pair REC and NREC to economic growth is neutral. Likewise, if we add NREC to the variables GDP and REC, there is causality. There are bidirectional long-run causalities among REC, CE, and GDP, which supports the feedback assumption. Causality from GDP to REC is not strong for the panel. If we test per pair of variables, the strong causality from GDP and CE to REC is neutral. The long-run PMG estimates show that NREC and gross domestic product increase CE, whereas REC decreases CE.

  20. Intelligence and obesity: which way does the causal direction go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The negative association between intelligence and obesity has been well established, but the direction of causality is unclear. The present review surveys the recent studies on the topic with both cross-sectional and longitudinal data in an attempt to establish causality. Most studies in the area employ cross-sectional data and conclude (without empirical justification) that obesity causes intellectual impairment. The few studies that employ prospectively longitudinal data, however, uniformly conclude that lower intelligence leads to BMI gains and obesity. A close examination of three such studies, from three different nations (Sweden, New Zealand, and the UK), leaves little doubt that the causality runs from low intelligence to obesity. The conclusion in previous studies that obesity impairs cognitive function stems from improper interpretation of a negative association between intelligence and obesity from cross-sectional studies. Results from the analyses of high-quality, population-based, prospectively longitudinal data firmly establish that low intelligence increases the chances of obesity.

  1. Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    In this thesis, we investigate the connections between the geometry of spacetime and aspects of quantum field theory such as entanglement entropy and causality. This work is motivated by the idea that spacetime geometry is an emergent phenomenon in quantum gravity, and that the physics responsible for this emergence is fundamental to quantum field theory. Part I of this thesis is focused on the interplay between spacetime and entropy, with a special emphasis on entropy due to entanglement. In general spacetimes, there exist locally-defined surfaces sensitive to the geometry that may act as local black hole boundaries or cosmological horizons; these surfaces, known as holographic screens, are argued to have a connection with the second law of thermodynamics. Holographic screens obey an area law, suggestive of an association with entropy; they are also distinguished surfaces from the perspective of the covariant entropy bound, a bound on the total entropy of a slice of the spacetime. This construction is shown to be quite general, and is formulated in both classical and perturbatively quantum theories of gravity. The remainder of Part I uses the Anti-de Sitter/ Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to both expand and constrain the connection between entanglement entropy and geometry. The AdS/CFT correspondence posits an equivalence between string theory in the "bulk" with AdS boundary conditions and certain quantum field theories. In the limit where the string theory is simply classical General Relativity, the Ryu-Takayanagi and more generally, the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) formulae provide a way of relating the geometry of surfaces to entanglement entropy. A first-order bulk quantum correction to HRT was derived by Faulkner, Lewkowycz and Maldacena. This formula is generalized to include perturbative quantum corrections in the bulk at any (finite) order. Hurdles to spacetime emergence from entanglement entropy as described by HRT and its quantum

  2. Disease causality extraction based on lexical semantics and document-clause frequency from biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Shin, Hyunjung

    2017-05-18

    Recently, research on human disease network has succeeded and has become an aid in figuring out the relationship between various diseases. In most disease networks, however, the relationship between diseases has been simply represented as an association. This representation results in the difficulty of identifying prior diseases and their influence on posterior diseases. In this paper, we propose a causal disease network that implements disease causality through text mining on biomedical literature. To identify the causality between diseases, the proposed method includes two schemes: the first is the lexicon-based causality term strength, which provides the causal strength on a variety of causality terms based on lexicon analysis. The second is the frequency-based causality strength, which determines the direction and strength of causality based on document and clause frequencies in the literature. We applied the proposed method to 6,617,833 PubMed literature, and chose 195 diseases to construct a causal disease network. From all possible pairs of disease nodes in the network, 1011 causal pairs of 149 diseases were extracted. The resulting network was compared with that of a previous study. In terms of both coverage and quality, the proposed method showed outperforming results; it determined 2.7 times more causalities and showed higher correlation with associated diseases than the existing method. This research has novelty in which the proposed method circumvents the limitations of time and cost in applying all possible causalities in biological experiments and it is a more advanced text mining technique by defining the concepts of causality term strength.

  3. Strong association between serological status and probability of progression to clinical visceral leishmaniasis in prospective cohort studies in India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epco Hasker

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We assessed the risk of progression from infection to disease as a function of DAT and rK39 serological titers.We used available data on four cohorts from villages in India and Nepal that are highly endemic for Leishmania donovani. In each cohort two serosurveys had been conducted. Based on results of initial surveys, subjects were classified as seronegative, moderately seropositive or strongly seropositive using both DAT and rK39. Based on the combination of first and second survey results we identified seroconvertors for both markers. Seroconvertors were subdivided in high and low titer convertors. Subjects were followed up for at least one year following the second survey. Incident VL cases were recorded and verified.We assessed a total of 32,529 enrolled subjects, for a total follow-up time of 72,169 person years. Altogether 235 incident VL cases were documented. The probability of progression to disease was strongly associated with initial serostatus and with seroconversion; this was particularly the case for those with high titers and most prominently among seroconvertors. For high titer DAT convertors the hazard ratio reached as high as 97.4 when compared to non-convertors. The strengths of the associations varied between cohorts and between markers but similar trends were observed between the four cohorts and the two markers.There is a strongly increased risk of progressing to disease among DAT and/or rK39 seropositives with high titers. The options for prophylactic treatment for this group merit further investigation, as it could be of clinical benefit if it prevents progression to disease. Prophylactic treatment might also have a public health benefit if it can be corroborated that these asymptomatically infected individuals are infectious for sand flies.

  4. High-density lipoprotein levels are strongly associated with the recovery rate of insulin sensitivity during the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a study by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Martins, Naiara V; Moura, Filipe A; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osorio L R; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest that in individuals under stable conditions, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may improve IS. To date, the role of HDL in the modulation of IS in acute metabolic stress conditions such as MI remains unknown. To explore the association between plasma HDL-C and the change in IS during the acute phase of MI. Consecutive nondiabetic patients with ST-segment elevation MI (n = 22) underwent direct measurement of IS through the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp on the first morning and on the fifth day after onset of MI. Patients were grouped according to HDL-C levels at admission above and below the median value (35 mg/dL). At admission, there was no significant difference in baseline IS index, clinical, anthropometric, or treatment characteristics between low and high HDL groups. Between admission and fifth day, there was a decrease of 8% in IS index in the low HDL group and an 11% increase in the high HDL group (P = .001 for intragroup and P = .012 for intergroup difference). This difference remained significant after we controlled for the sex, age, waist circumference, triglycerides, baseline IS index, and statin dose during hospitalization. This is the first study to provide evidence that plasma levels of HDL-C are strongly associated with the recovery rate of IS during the acute phase of MI. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  6. A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets

    OpenAIRE

    Gopnik, A; Glymour, C; Sobel, D M; Schulz, L E; Kushnir, T; Danks, D

    2004-01-01

    The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computatio...

  7. Causal assessment of occupational carrying and low back pain: results of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Eugene K; Roffey, Darren M; Bishop, Paul; Kwon, Brian K; Dagenais, Simon

    2010-07-01

    Occupational low back pain (LBP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder that results in high healthcare use and a heavy societal burden from morbidity and medical costs. The etiology of LBP is unclear, although numerous physical activities in the workplace have been implicated in its development. Determining the causal relationship between LBP and specific occupational activities requires a rigorous methodological approach. To conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature focused on establishing a causal relationship between occupational carrying and LBP. Systematic review of the literature was performed. Studies reporting an association between occupational carrying and LBP. Numerical association between different levels of exposure to occupational carrying and the presence or severity of LBP. A systematic review was performed to identify, evaluate, and summarize the literature related to establishing a causal relationship between occupational carrying and LBP by using the commonly used Bradford-Hill framework. The literature was searched using Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH-ROM) database, gray literature (eg, studies not published in peer-reviewed journals), hand-searching occupational health journals, reference lists of included studies, and content experts. Study quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Levels of evidence supporting specific Bradford-Hill criteria were evaluated for different categories of carrying and types of LBP outcomes. This search yielded 2,766 citations. A total of nine high-quality studies reported on occupational carrying and LBP, including four case-control studies and five prospective cohort studies. These nine studies reported strong and consistent evidence against a statistical association between carrying and LBP. Three studies assessed dose-response, of which only one reported a dose-response trend that was not statistically

  8. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  9. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  10. Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Heinrich, Joachim; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Hu, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 10 ) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM 10 ). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM 10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03-1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33-0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Identifying Causality from Alarm Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    on an abstracted model of the mass and energy flows in the system. The application of MFM for root cause analysis based alarm grouping has been demonstrated and can be extended to reason about the direction of causality considering the entirety of the alarms present in the system for more comprehensive decision...... support. This contribution presents the foundation for combining the cause and consequence propagation of multiple observations from the system based on an MFM model. The proposed logical reasoning matches actually observed alarms to the propagation analysis in MFM to distinguish plausible causes...

  13. Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained

  14. Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Claassen, Almudena; Wood, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rising obesity represents a serious, global problem. It is now well established that obesity is associated with poverty and wealth inequality, suggesting that these factors may promote caloric intake. Whereas previous work has examined these links from an epidemiological perspective, the current paper examined them experimentally. In Study 1 we found that people experimentally induced to view themselves as poor (v. wealthy) exhibited increased calorie intake. In Study 2, participants who believed that they were poorer or wealthier than their interaction partners exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to those in an equal partners condition; this anxiety in turn led to increased calorie consumption for people who had a strong need to belong. The findings provide causal evidence for the poverty-intake and inequality-intake links. Further, we identify social anxiety and a strong need to belong as important social psychological factors linking inequality to increased calorie intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An Algorithmic Information Calculus for Causal Discovery and Reprogramming Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2017-09-08

    We introduce a conceptual framework and an interventional calculus to steer and manipulate systems based on their intrinsic algorithmic probability using the universal principles of the theory of computability and algorithmic information. By applying sequences of controlled interventions to systems and networks, we estimate how changes in their algorithmic information content are reflected in positive/negative shifts towards and away from randomness. The strong connection between approximations to algorithmic complexity (the size of the shortest generating mechanism) and causality induces a sequence of perturbations ranking the network elements by the steering capabilities that each of them is capable of. This new dimension unmasks a separation between causal and non-causal components providing a suite of powerful parameter-free algorithms of wide applicability ranging from optimal dimension reduction, maximal randomness analysis and system control. We introduce methods for reprogramming systems that do not require the full knowledge or access to the system\\'s actual kinetic equations or any probability distributions. A causal interventional analysis of synthetic and regulatory biological networks reveals how the algorithmic reprogramming qualitatively reshapes the system\\'s dynamic landscape. For example, during cellular differentiation we find a decrease in the number of elements corresponding to a transition away from randomness and a combination of the system\\'s intrinsic properties and its intrinsic capabilities to be algorithmically reprogrammed can reconstruct an epigenetic landscape. The interventional calculus is broadly applicable to predictive causal inference of systems such as networks and of relevance to a variety of machine and causal learning techniques driving model-based approaches to better understanding and manipulate complex systems.

  16. Visceral adipose tissue is more strongly associated with insulin resistance than subcutaneous adipose tissue in Chinese subjects with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Feng, Jitao; Zhang, Gong; Yuan, Xiaodan; Li, Fan; Yang, Tingting; Hao, Shujie; Huang, Dejian; Hsue, Cunyi; Lou, Qinging

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the value of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in a cohort of a community's residents who were diagnosed as pre-diabetes, and to evaluate the association of VAT and SAT with insulin resistance. This study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 107 adults. VAT and SAT were assessed by computed tomography. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance >2.69. The relationship of VAT and SAT with insulin resistance were examined by linear regression. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of VAT and SAT with insulin resistance. A total of 87 subjects had VAT ≥100 cm 2 . Thirty-six out of 107 (33.6%) subjects were detected to have insulin resistance, 71 were normal (66.4%), and all had insulin resistance with VAT ≥100 cm 2 . VAT (r = 0.378, p VAT and SAT were simultaneously included after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and WC, the association between VAT and insulin resistance was still maintained (p = .003), but that of SAT was lost. Pre-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance had elevated levels of VAT. VAT was more strongly associated with insulin resistance than SAT in Chinese subjects with pre-diabetes.

  17. CADDIS Volume 1. Stressor Identification: About Causal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An introduction to the history of our approach to causal assessment, A chronology of causal history and philosophy, An introduction to causal history and philosophy, References for the Causal Assessment Background section of Stressor Identification

  18. Predicting Causal Relationships from Biological Data: Applying Automated Casual Discovery on Mass Cytometry Data of Human Immune Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafillou, Sofia

    2017-03-31

    Learning the causal relationships that define a molecular system allows us to predict how the system will respond to different interventions. Distinguishing causality from mere association typically requires randomized experiments. Methods for automated causal discovery from limited experiments exist, but have so far rarely been tested in systems biology applications. In this work, we apply state-of-the art causal discovery methods on a large collection of public mass cytometry data sets, measuring intra-cellular signaling proteins of the human immune system and their response to several perturbations. We show how different experimental conditions can be used to facilitate causal discovery, and apply two fundamental methods that produce context-specific causal predictions. Causal predictions were reproducible across independent data sets from two different studies, but often disagree with the KEGG pathway databases. Within this context, we discuss the caveats we need to overcome for automated causal discovery to become a part of the routine data analysis in systems biology.

  19. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  20. Oil prices and the world business cycle: A causal investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oil shocks have been often considered as exogenous factors responsible of economic downturns. In this paper the hypothesized exogeneity of oil prices is investigated by using running cross-correlations, distributed lag-regressions, Granger causality tests and VAR models applied to annual data 1960-2014 of oil prices and global economic activity—as measured by world GDP. Strong evidence is found that (a) the relation between oil prices and the global economy has significantly changed since th...

  1. Probabilistic causality and radiogenic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    A review and scrutiny of the literature on probability and probabilistic causality shows that it is possible under certain assumptions to estimate the probability that a certain type of cancer diagnosed in an individual exposed to radiation prior to diagnosis was caused by this exposure. Diagnosis of this causal relationship like diagnosis of any disease - malignant or not - requires always some subjective judgments by the diagnostician. It is, therefore, illusory to believe that tables based on actuarial data can provide objective estimates of the chance that a cancer diagnosed in an individual is radiogenic. It is argued that such tables can only provide a base from which the diagnostician(s) deviate in one direction or the other according to his (their) individual (consensual) judgment. Acceptance of a physician's diagnostic judgment by patients is commonplace. Similar widespread acceptance of expert judgment by claimants in radiation compensation cases does presently not exist. Judicious use of the present radioepidemiological tables prepared by the Working Group of the National Institutes of Health or of updated future versions of similar tables may improve the situation. 20 references

  2. The Causal Effect of Vitamin D Binding Protein (DBP) Levels on Calcemic and Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Aaron; Rehman, Waheed; Dastani, Zari; Greenwood, Celia; Timpson, Nicholas; Langsetmo, Lisa; Berger, Claudie; Fu, Lei; Wong, Betty Y. L.; Malik, Suneil; Malik, Rainer; Hanley, David A.; Cole, David E. C.; Goltzman, David; Richards, J. Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have shown that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) levels, a key determinant of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels, and 25OHD levels themselves both associate with risk of disease. If 25OHD levels have a causal influence on disease, and DBP lies in this causal pathway, then DBP levels should likewise be causally associated with disease. We undertook a Mendelian randomization study to determine whether DBP levels have causal effects on common calcemic and cardiometabolic disease. Methods and Findings We measured DBP and 25OHD levels in 2,254 individuals, followed for up to 10 y, in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2282679 as an instrumental variable, we applied Mendelian randomization methods to determine the causal effect of DBP on calcemic (osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism) and cardiometabolic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke) and related traits, first in CaMos and then in large-scale genome-wide association study consortia. The effect allele was associated with an age- and sex-adjusted decrease in DBP level of 27.4 mg/l (95% CI 24.7, 30.0; n = 2,254). DBP had a strong observational and causal association with 25OHD levels (p = 3.2×10−19). While DBP levels were observationally associated with calcium and body mass index (BMI), these associations were not supported by causal analyses. Despite well-powered sample sizes from consortia, there were no associations of rs2282679 with any other traits and diseases: fasting glucose (0.00 mmol/l [95% CI −0.01, 0.01]; p = 1.00; n = 46,186); fasting insulin (0.01 pmol/l [95% CI −0.00, 0.01,]; p = 0.22; n = 46,186); BMI (0.00 kg/m2 [95% CI −0.01, 0.01]; p = 0.80; n = 127,587); bone mineral density (0.01 g/cm2 [95% CI −0.01, 0.03]; p = 0.36; n = 32,961); mean arterial pressure (−0.06 mm Hg [95% CI −0.19, 0.07]); p = 0.36; n

  3. Space and time in perceptual causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Straube

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte’s view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks.

  4. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  5. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  6. Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. San

    2016-11-01

    Information flow or information transfer the widely applicable general physics notion can be rigorously derived from first principles, rather than axiomatically proposed as an ansatz. Its logical association with causality is firmly rooted in the dynamical system that lies beneath. The principle of nil causality that reads, an event is not causal to another if the evolution of the latter is independent of the former, which transfer entropy analysis and Granger causality test fail to verify in many situations, turns out to be a proven theorem here. Established in this study are the information flows among the components of time-discrete mappings and time-continuous dynamical systems, both deterministic and stochastic. They have been obtained explicitly in closed form, and put to applications with the benchmark systems such as the Kaplan-Yorke map, Rössler system, baker transformation, Hénon map, and stochastic potential flow. Besides unraveling the causal relations as expected from the respective systems, some of the applications show that the information flow structure underlying a complex trajectory pattern could be tractable. For linear systems, the resulting remarkably concise formula asserts analytically that causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation, providing a mathematical basis for the long-standing philosophical debate over causation versus correlation.

  7. Causal attributions in Brazilian children's reasoning about health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruchovitch Evely

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: At a time when a great number of diseases can be prevented by changing one's habits and life style, investigations have focused on understanding what adults and children believe to be desirable health practices and uncovering the factors associated with successful adherence to such practices. For these, causal attributions for health and illness were investigated among 96 Brazilian elementary school students. METHODS: Ninety six subjects, aged 6 to 14, were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well [healthy] because they are lucky. The relationship between the children's causal attributions and demographic characteristics were also examined. RESULTS: Overall, the results were consistent with previous researches. "Taking care of oneself" was considered the most important cause of good health. "Viruses and germs" and "lack of self-care" were the most selected causes of illness. Analyses revealed significant relationship between subjects' causal attribution and their age, school grade level, socioeconomic status and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities than differences in children's causal attributions for health and illness. Finding ways to help individuals engage in appropriate preventive-maintenance health practices without developing an exaggerated notion that the individuals can control their own health and illness is a challenge which remains to be addressed by further research.

  8. Economic Growth, Foreign Direct Investment and CO2 Emissions in China: A Panel Granger Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of province-level panel data, this paper investigates the Granger causality associations among economic growth (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI and CO2 emissions in China. By applying the bootstrap Granger panel causality approach (Kónya, 2006, we consider both cross-sectional dependence and homogeneity of different regions in China. The empirical results support that the causality direction not only works in a single direction either from GDP to FDI (in Yunnan or from FDI to GDP (in Beijing, Neimenggu, Jilin, Shanxi and Gansu, but it also works in both directions (in Henan. Moreover, we document that GDP is Granger-causing CO2 emissions in Neimenggu, Hubei, Guangxi and Gansu while there is bidirectional causality between these two variables in Shanxi. In the end, we identify the unidirectional causality from FDI to CO2 emissions in Beijing, Henan, Guizhou and Shanxi, and the bidirectional causality between FDI and CO2 emissions in Neimenggu.

  9. Temporal sequence in observational studies to establish causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a brief summary on the scope of the notions of causality and risk and considers some operational difficulties that arise when dealing with problems associated with them. It underscores the vital importance of timing and its link with the most commonly used observational research designs that address causal relationships. The article describes in detail the need to record the order in which the relevant events occur and how to consider this in the analysis. A detailed example of errors that are usually incurred in and their effect is provided.

  10. Tests of the power PC theory of causal induction with negative contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R

    2002-01-01

    The power PC theory of causal induction (Cheng, 1997) proposes that causal estimates are based on the power p of a potential cause, where p is the contingency between the cause and effect normalized by the base rate of the effect. Previous tests of this theory have concentrated on generative causes that have positive contingencies with their associated outcomes. Here we empirically test this theory in two experiments using preventive causes that have negative contingencies for their outcomes. Contrary to the power PC theory, the results show that causal judgments vary with contingency across conditions of constant power p. This pattern is consistent, however, with several alternative accounts of causal judgment.

  11. The connexion of duality and causal properties for generalized free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the time-slice axiom and the diamond property are equivalent for the generalized free field. If, in addition, there is a mass gap, duality is equivalent to either causality requirement. It is further shown that the local rings associated with certain space-time regions are factors in the case of causal generalized free fields with mass gap. Necessary and sufficient conditions for causality and duality and some examples for causal and acausal generalized free fields are also given. (orig.) [de

  12. IL23R and IL12B SNPs and Haplotypes Strongly Associate with Crohn's Disease Risk in a New Zealand Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA samples from 339 Crohn's disease (CD and 407 randomly selected controls from the Auckland (New Zealand IBD project, were genotyped for five common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-23R (rs11805303, rs7517847, rs1343151, rs11209026, and rs10889677 and two in IL-12B (rs1363670 and rs6887695. While the IL-12B variants did not show an overall association and other IL23R variants led to minor changes in the risk of CD, rs1343151 and/or rs7517847 variants in the IL-23R gene strongly reduced the risk of developing CD at both allelic and genotype levels. A significantly decreased risk of first diagnosis of childhood CD was observed in individuals carrying the A allele of rs1343151, or between 17–40 y in individuals carrying the G allele in rs7517847 of IL-23R. A significantly decreased risk of ileocolonic or structuring disease was observed in individuals carrying the A allele in either rs11209026 or rs1343151, or the G allele in rs7517847 of IL-23R, and when such individuals did develop the disease, they were unlikely to require a bowel resection. Certain haplotypes very strongly modified risk. There was evidence for interactions of IL-23R variants with the NOD2 wild-type (d/d genotype. Down-regulating the function of the IL-23R gene may decrease CD risk in the normal population.

  13. Quantitative analysis of species specificity of two anti-parvalbumin antibodies for detecting southern hemisphere fish species demonstrating strong phylogenetic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Tan, Chui Choo; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Lopata, Andreas L; Lee, N Alice

    2017-12-15

    This study aimed to develop a novel approach to determine the correlation between the parvalbumin (PAV) contents and their corresponding immunoreactivity (detectability) in southern hemisphere fish species. The immuno-detected PAV contents of the test fish species were estimated by a quantitative SDS-PAGE. A quantitative Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) was formatted to assess relative immunoreactivity of PAV. Sixteen species (forty-three percent) displayed a positive correlation with the anti-cod PAV polyclonal antibody, but no correlation with the anti-carp PAV monoclonal antibody. There was a strong phylogenetic association of the PAV immunoreactivity. Species from the order of Perciformes showed strong binding with both antibodies; whereas species from Salmoniformes, Ophidiiformes, Scombriformes, Scorpaeniformes, and Tetraodontiformes showed weak or no binding. This approach showed for the first time a statistical correlation between the PAV content and the immunoreactivity and allowed to rank the relative species/order specificity of the two antibodies for the southern hemisphere fish PAV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. Coincidence or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iván Latorre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is a common disease in clinical practice; some well-defined causes include luminal obstruction by fecoliths, lymphoid hyperplasia, foreign bodies and intestinal parasites. Closed abdominal trauma has been associated as an etiological factor, although, their causal relationship is still unclear. This paper presents the case of a patient with appendicitis after a closed abdominal trauma.

  15. Causality: School Libraries and Student Success (CLASS). White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Librarians, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On April 11 and 12, 2014, the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) held "Causality: School Libraries and Student Success" (CLASS), an IMLS-funded national forum. Dr. Thomas Cook, one of the most influential methodologists in education research, and a five member panel of expert scholars and practitioners led 50 established…

  16. Genetics of HDL-C: a causal link to atherosclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Bochem, Andrea E.; Motazacker, M. Mahdi; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently reported an inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, large intervention trials on HDL-C-increasing drugs and recent Mendelian randomization studies have questioned a causal

  17. Peripheral Zone Inflammation is Not Strongly Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Incidence and Progression in the Placebo Arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulac, Ibrahim; Gumuskaya, Berrak; Drake, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Beverly; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Kristal, Alan R.; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Isaacs, William B.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Intraprostatic inflammation has been associated with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) progression. However, prior studies used tissue removed for clinical indications, potentially skewing inflammation extent or biasing the association. We, therefore, evaluated inflammation and LUTS incidence and progression in men who underwent biopsy of the prostate peripheral zone irrespective of indication. Material and Methods We developed nested case-control sets in men in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial who were free of clinical BPH and had a protocol-directed year 7 biopsy. Cases had baseline IPSS 75th percentile (N = 46) and controls had a slope 75th percentile (N = 46) and controls had a slope inflammation and mean extent (%) of tissue area with inflammation. Results Inflammation prevalence in low cases (64%) was similar to controls (66%), but higher in moderate (69%) and high (73%) cases (P-trend = 0.4). Extent did not differ across LUTS categories (P-trend = 0.5). For progression from IPSS inflammation (10.1% versus 4.6%, P = 0.06). Conclusion Peripheral zone intraprostatic inflammation is not strongly associated with LUTS incidence or progression. PMID:27325488

  18. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies.We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522 and confirmed fertile (N = 315 individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2. The frequency of mutant (T allele (p = 0.0025 and genotypes (CT+TT (p = 0.0187 was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000, 1.310 (p = 0.000, respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility.677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  19. Causality and skies: is non-refocussing necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A.; Ibort, A.; Lafuente, J.

    2015-05-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal, null pseudo-convex, space-time M is completely characterized in terms of a partial order on its space of skies defined by means of a class of non-negative Legendrian isotopies called sky isotopies. It is also shown that such partial order is determined by the class of future causal celestial curves, that is, curves in the space of light rays which are tangent to skies and such that they determine non-negative sky isotopies. It will also be proved that the space of skies Σ equipped with Low’s (or reconstructive) topology is homeomorphic and diffeomorphic to M under the only additional assumption that M separates skies, that is, that different events determine different skies. The sky-separating property of M is sharp and the previous result provides an answer to the question about the class of space-times whose causal structure, topological and differentiable structure can be reconstructed from their spaces of light rays and skies. These results can be understood as a Malament-Hawking-like theorem stated in terms of the partial order defined on the space of skies.

  20. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  1. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  2. Is arson the crime most strongly associated with psychosis?--A national case-control study of arson risk in schizophrenia and other psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sophia; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Fazel, Seena

    2011-05-01

    The association of psychosis with certain serious crimes, such as homicide, has been clearly demonstrated, but it is uncertain to what extent psychotic disorders are associated with arson. We used a case-control design to investigate the association of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychoses and committing arson. Data were obtained from Swedish national registers for criminal convictions, hospital discharge diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9], and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision [ICD-10]), and sociodemographic factors for 1988-2000. We included all convicted arson offenders of both sexes in Sweden (N=1689) and compared them with a random sample of general population control subjects (N=40,560). After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, arson offenders were more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (in men, adjusted odds ratio [OR]=22.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]=14.8-34.4; in women, adjusted OR=38.7, 95% CI=20.4-73.5) or other psychoses (in men, adjusted OR=17.4, 95% CI=11.1-27.5; in women, adjusted OR=30.8, 95% CI=18.8-50.6). Individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses have significantly increased risks of an arson conviction. These risk estimates are higher than those reported for other violent crimes and place arson in the same category as homicide as crimes that are most strongly associated with psychotic disorders. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Low Educational Achievement: Evidence Supporting A Causal Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, E.L.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina EM; Ehli, Erik A; de Geus, J.C.N.; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the

  4. Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2018-01-01

    We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.

  5. Space-time as a causal set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombelli, L.; Lee, J.; Meyer, D.; Sorkin, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    We propose that space-time at the smallest scales is in reality a causal set: a locally finite set of elements endowed with a partial order corresponding to the macroscopic relation that defines past and future. We explore how a Lorentzian manifold can approximate a causal set, noting in particular that the thereby defined effective dimensionality of a given causal set can vary with length scale. Finally, we speculate briefly on the quantum dynamics of causal sets, indicating why an appropriate choice of action can reproduce general relativity in the classical limit

  6. Does causal action facilitate causal perception in infants younger than 6 months of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakison, David H; Krogh, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has established that infants are unable to perceive causality until 6¼ months of age. The current experiments examined whether infants' ability to engage in causal action could facilitate causal perception prior to this age. In Experiment 1, 4½-month-olds were randomly assigned to engage in causal action experience via Velcro sticky mittens or not engage in causal action because they wore non-sticky mittens. Both groups were then tested in the visual habituation paradigm to assess their causal perception. Infants who engaged in causal action - but not those without this causal action experience - perceived the habituation events as causal. Experiment 2 used a similar design to establish that 4½-month-olds are unable to generalize their own causal action to causality observed in dissimilar objects. These data are the first to demonstrate that infants under 6 months of age can perceive causality, and have implications for the mechanisms underlying the development of causal perception. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  8. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.

  9. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Matheus R.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Martins, Roberto S.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Krieger, José E.; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS

  10. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.

  11. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudel eSánchez-Campusano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and premotor spike-timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IP neurons may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality than to their generation and/or initiation.

  12. Childhood ADHD is strongly associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders during adolescence: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Voigt, Robert G; Killian, Jill M; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we identified 379 ADHD incident cases and 758 age-gender matched non-ADHD controls, passively followed to age 19 years. All psychiatric diagnoses were identified and abstracted, but only those confirmed by qualified medical professionals were included in the analysis. For each psychiatric disorder, cumulative incidence rates for subjects with and without ADHD were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Corresponding hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for gender and mother's age and education at the subject's birth. The association between ADHD and the likelihood of having an internalizing or externalizing disorder was summarized by estimating odds ratios (OR). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with a significantly increased risk of adjustment disorders (HR = 3.88), conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (HR = 9.54), mood disorders (HR = 3.67), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.94), tic disorders (HR = 6.53), eating disorders (HR = 5.68), personality disorders (HR = 5.80), and substance-related disorders (HR = 4.03). When psychiatric comorbidities were classified on the internalization-externalization dimension, ADHD was strongly associated with coexisting internalizing/externalizing (OR = 10.6), or externalizing-only (OR = 10.0) disorders. This population-based study confirms that children with ADHD are at significantly increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Besides treating the ADHD, clinicians should identify and provide appropriate treatment for psychiatric comorbidities. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  13. Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A.H.; Hunt, G.R.; Medina, F.S.; Gray, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which animals other than humans can reason about physical problems is contentious. The benchmark test for this ability has been the trap-tube task. We presented New Caledonian crows with a series of two-trap versions of this problem. Three out of six crows solved the initial trap-tube. These crows continued to avoid the trap when the arbitrary features that had previously been associated with successful performances were removed. However, they did not avoid the trap when a hole and a functional trap were in the tube. In contrast to a recent primate study, the three crows then solved a causally equivalent but visually distinct problem—the trap-table task. The performance of the three crows across the four transfers made explanations based on chance, associative learning, visual and tactile generalization, and previous dispositions unlikely. Our findings suggest that New Caledonian crows can solve complex physical problems by reasoning both causally and analogically about causal relations. Causal and analogical reasoning may form the basis of the New Caledonian crow's exceptional tool skills. PMID:18796393

  14. A new topology for curved space--time which incorporates the causal, differential, and conformal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.; King, A.R.; McCarthy, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A new topology is proposed for strongly causal space--times. Unlike the standard manifold topology (which merely characterizes continuity properties), the new topology determines the causal, differential, and conformal structures of space--time. The topology is more appealing, physical, and manageable than the topology previously proposed by Zeeman for Minkowski space. It thus seems that many calculations involving the above structures may be made purely topological

  15. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  16. Causal random geometry from stochastic quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Loll, R.; Westra, W.

    2010-01-01

     in this short note we review a recently found formulation of two-dimensional causal quantum gravity defined through Causal Dynamical Triangulations and stochastic quantization. This procedure enables one to extract the nonperturbative quantum Hamiltonian of the random surface model including the...... the sum over topologies. Interestingly, the generally fictitious stochastic time corresponds to proper time on the geometries...

  17. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics-2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 2. Guruprasad Kar Samir Kunkri Sujit K Choudhary. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 ... Keywords. Causality; quantum entanglement; cloning; local realism; completely positive maps.

  18. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Tingley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  19. Causal Mediation Analysis: Warning! Assumptions Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Luke

    2015-01-01

    In policy evaluations, interest may focus on why a particular treatment works. One tool for understanding why treatments work is causal mediation analysis. In this essay, I focus on the assumptions needed to estimate mediation effects. I show that there is no "gold standard" method for the identification of causal mediation effects. In…

  20. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; He, Jinyan; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Xu, Jian; Li, Xia; Li, Peng; Wu, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT) of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  1. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel; Jennische, Eva; Odén, Anders; Holm, Göran; Hellström, Mikael; Lönn, Lars; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lönn, Malin

    2011-02-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  2. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Jiang

    Full Text Available Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  3. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  4. Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2017-07-01

    Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B208.

  5. highly prevalent hyperuricaemia is associated with adverse clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... SUMMARY. Background: Although a direct causal relationship between hyperuricaemia and stroke continues to be debated, strong associations between serum uric acid. (SUA) and cerebrovascular disease exist. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the frequency and association between ...

  6. Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Neelamkavil, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That

  7. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio anomaly is an unknown radio emission that has no characteristics (duration

  8. Causal systems categories: differences in novice and expert categorization of causal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the relevant domains. This prediction was borne out: the novice groups sorted primarily by domain and the expert group sorted by causal category. These results suggest that science training facilitates insight about causal structures. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eYoung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, network approaches to symptom interaction (i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., McNally, Robinaugh, Wu, Wang, Deserno, & Borsboom, 2014, for PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NLDST. The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (Young, 2011 to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning and universal (e.g., causal processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments.

  10. Causal attributions of cleft lip and palate across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Lauren; Snyder, Julie; Schook, Carolyn; Blood, Emily A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Weatherley-White, R C A

    2013-11-01

    Objective : To describe and compare the causal beliefs associated with cleft lips and/or palates across several different countries. Design : Cross-sectional survey. Setting : Operation Smile surgery screenings in six developing countries. Participants : Two hundred seventy-nine adult patients and parents of children with cleft lips and/or palates in Kenya, Russia, Cambodia, India, Egypt, and Peru. Interventions : In person interviews were conducted with interpreters. Main Outcome Measure : As part of a larger study, a semistructured questionnaire was created to explore cleft perceptions, belief systems that affect these perceptions, and social reactions to individuals with clefts. Results : Causal attributions were grouped by category (environment, self-blame, supernatural, chance, unknown, or other) and type of locus of control (external, internal, or unknown). Results indicate significant difference by country for both causal attribution category (P < .001) and type (P < .001). This difference was maintained in multivariate analyses, which controlled for differences by demographic variables between countries. Conclusions : This study provides evidence that causal attributions for clefts are influenced by culture. As harmful beliefs about cause may continue to impact affected individuals and their families even after a repair, it is insufficient to provide surgical care alone. Care of the entire person must include attempts to change misinformed cultural beliefs through educating the broader community.

  11. Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2013-11-10

    Causal inference from observational studies is a fundamental topic in biostatistics. The causal graph literature typically views probability theory as insufficient to express causal concepts in observational studies. In contrast, the view here is that probability theory is a desirable and sufficient basis for many topics in causal inference for the following two reasons. First, probability theory is generally more flexible than causal graphs: Besides explaining such causal graph topics as M-bias (adjusting for a collider) and bias amplification and attenuation (when adjusting for instrumental variable), probability theory is also the foundation of the paired availability design for historical controls, which does not fit into a causal graph framework. Second, probability theory is the basis for insightful graphical displays including the BK-Plot for understanding Simpson's paradox with a binary confounder, the BK2-Plot for understanding bias amplification and attenuation in the presence of an unobserved binary confounder, and the PAD-Plot for understanding the principal stratification component of the paired availability design. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  13. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  14. Causality and Time in Historical Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahoney, James; Mohamedali, Khairunnisa; Nguyen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the dual concern with causality and time in historical institutionalism using a graphical approach. The analysis focuses on three concepts that are central to this field: critical junctures, gradual change, and path dependence. The analysis makes explicit and formal the logic...... underlying studies that use these “causal-temporal” concepts. The chapter shows visually how causality and temporality are linked to one another in varying ways depending on the particular pattern of change. The chapter provides new tools for describing and understanding change in historical- institutional...

  15. Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Walter J

    2017-03-01

    Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.

  16. Causal Attributions about Disease-Onset and Relapse in Patients with Systemic Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Amudala, Naomi A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Leduc, Renée L.; Shereff, Denise; Richesson, Rachel; Fraenkel, Liana; Merkel, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients vary in their beliefs related to the cause of serious illness. The impact of these beliefs among patients with systemic vasculitis is not known. This study aimed to describe causal attributions about disease-onset and relapse in systemic vasculitis and to examine whether causal beliefs a) differ by type of vasculitis; and b) are associated with negative health outcomes. Methods Patients with vasculitis were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Categories of causal beliefs were assessed with the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Differences in beliefs about disease-onset versus relapse were compared across different forms of vasculitis. Causal beliefs were assessed in association with several health outcomes including fatigue, functional impairments, and personal understanding of the condition. Results 692 patients representing 9 forms of vasculitis completed the questionnaire. The majority (90%) of patients had beliefs about the cause of their illness. Causal attributions were highly variable, but altered immunity and stress were the most commonly agreed upon causal beliefs. Frequencies of causal beliefs were strikingly similar across different forms of vasculitis, with few notable exceptions primarily in Behçet’s disease. Beliefs differed about causes of disease-onset versus relapse. Specific beliefs about disease-onset and relapse were weakly associated with fatigue, functional impairments, and understanding of the condition. Conclusion Patient beliefs related to the cause of systemic vasculitis are highly variable. Patterns of causal beliefs are associated with important negative health outcomes. Clinicians who care for patients with vasculitis should be mindful of these associations and consider asking about patients’ causal beliefs. PMID:24634202

  17. Genetic Obesity and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation- Causal Estimates from Mendelian Randomization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjee, Neal A; Giulianini, Franco; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Niemeijer, Maartje N; Rienstra, Michiel; Rose, Lynda M; Smith, Albert V; Arking, Dan E; Ellinor, Patrick T; Heeringa, Jan; Lin, Honghuang; Lubitz, Steven A; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Verweij, Niek; Alonso, Alvaro; Benjamin, Emelia J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Stricker, Bruno H; van der Harst, Pim; Chasman, Daniel I; Albert, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Observational studies have identified an association between body mass index (BMI) and incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Inferring causality from observational studies, however, is subject to residual confounding, reverse causation, and bias. The primary objective of this study was to

  18. Investigating cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice: genetic pleiotropy rather than causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ullén, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    The idea of far transfer effects in the cognitive sciences has received much attention in recent years. One domain where far transfer effects have frequently been reported is music education, with the prevailing idea that music practice entails an increase in cognitive ability (IQ). While cross-sectional studies consistently find significant associations between music practice and IQ, randomized controlled trials, however, report mixed results. An alternative to the hypothesis of cognitive transfer effects is that some underlying factors, such as shared genes, influence practice behaviour and IQ causing associations on the phenotypic level. Here we explored the hypothesis of far transfer within the framework of music practice. A co-twin control design combined with classical twin-modelling based on a sample of more than 10,500 twins was used to explore causal associations between music practice and IQ as well as underlying genetic and environmental influences. As expected, phenotypic associations were moderate (r = 0.11 and r = 0.10 for males and females, respectively). However, the relationship disappeared when controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences using the co-twin control method, indicating that a highly practiced twin did not have higher IQ than the untrained co-twin. In line with that finding, the relationship between practice and IQ was mostly due to shared genetic influences. Findings strongly suggest that associations between music practice and IQ in the general population are non-causal in nature. The implications of the present findings for research on plasticity, modularity, and transfer are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Causal inference regarding infectious aetiology of chronic conditions: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Orrskog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global burden of disease has shifted from communicable diseases in children to chronic diseases in adults. This epidemiologic shift varies greatly by region, but in Europe, chronic conditions account for 86% of all deaths, 77% of the disease burden, and up to 80% of health care expenditures. A number of risk factors have been implicated in chronic diseases, such as exposure to infectious agents. A number of associations have been well established while others remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the body of evidence regarding the infectious aetiology of chronic diseases in the peer-reviewed literature over the last decade. Causality was assessed with three different criteria: First, the total number of associations documented in the literature between each infectious agent and chronic condition; second, the epidemiologic study design (quality of the study; third, evidence for the number of Hill's criteria and Koch's postulates that linked the pathogen with the chronic condition. We identified 3136 publications, of which 148 were included in the analysis. There were a total of 75 different infectious agents and 122 chronic conditions. The evidence was strong for five pathogens, based on study type, strength and number of associations; they accounted for 60% of the associations documented in the literature. They were human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus, and Chlamydia pneumoniae and were collectively implicated in the aetiology of 37 different chronic conditions. Other pathogens examined were only associated with very few chronic conditions (≤ 3 and when applying the three different criteria of evidence the strength of the causality was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and treatment of these five pathogens lend themselves as effective public health intervention entry points. By concentrating research efforts on these promising areas, the human, economic, and societal

  20. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  1. Selecting appropriate cases when tracing causal mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed resurgence in the interest in studying the causal mechanisms linking causes and outcomes in the social sciences. This article explores the overlooked implications for case selection when tracing mechanisms using in-depth case studies. Our argument is that existing case...... selection guidelines are appropriate for research aimed at making cross-case claims about causal relationships, where case selection is primarily used to control for other causes. However, existing guidelines are not in alignment with case-based research that aims to trace mechanisms, where the goal...... is to unpack the causal mechanism between X and Y, enabling causal inferences to be made because empirical evidence is provided for how the mechanism actually operated in a particular case. The in-depth, within-case tracing of how mechanisms operate in particular cases produces what can be termed mechanistic...

  2. Causality Between Urban Concentration and Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population is concentrated in urban areas can cause the external diseconomies on environment if it exceeds the carrying capacity of the space and the urban economy. Otherwise the quality of the environment is getting better, led to the concentration of population in urban areas are increasingly high. This study aims to analyze the relationship of causality between the urban concentration and environmental quality in urban agglomeration areas. The data used in the study of secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of statistics and the City Government from 2000 to 2013. The analytical method used is the Granger causality and descriptive. Granger causality study results showed no pattern of reciprocal causality, between urban concentration and the quality of the environment, but there unidirectional relationship between the urban concentration and environmental quality. This means that increasing urban concentration led to decreased environmental quality.

  3. Risk and causality in newspaper reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max

    2009-11-01

    The study addresses the textual representation of risk and causality in news media reporting. The analytical framework combines two theoretical perspectives: media frame analysis and the philosophy of causality. Empirical data derive from selected newspaper articles on risks in the Göta älv river valley in southwest Sweden from 1994 to 2007. News media content was coded and analyzed with respect to causal explanations of risk issues. At the level of individual articles, this study finds that the media provide simple causal explanations of risks such as water pollution, landslides, and flooding. Furthermore, these explanations are constructed, or framed, in various ways, the same risk being attributed to different causes in different articles. However, the study demonstrates that a fairly complex picture of risks in the media emerges when extensive material is analyzed systematically.

  4. Rate-Agnostic (Causal) Structure Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plis, Sergey; Danks, David; Freeman, Cynthia; Calhoun, Vince

    2015-12-01

    Causal structure learning from time series data is a major scientific challenge. Extant algorithms assume that measurements occur sufficiently quickly; more precisely, they assume approximately equal system and measurement timescales. In many domains, however, measurements occur at a significantly slower rate than the underlying system changes, but the size of the timescale mismatch is often unknown. This paper develops three causal structure learning algorithms, each of which discovers all dynamic causal graphs that explain the observed measurement data, perhaps given undersampling. That is, these algorithms all learn causal structure in a "rate-agnostic" manner: they do not assume any particular relation between the measurement and system timescales. We apply these algorithms to data from simulations to gain insight into the challenge of undersampling.

  5. Causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sandoval Fernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ocupa de las causales de ausencia de responsabilidad penal, especialmente de aquellas que tienen efecto en el injusto. Como subtemas se delimita el concepto de responsabilidad penal y su ausencia. Se estudian las principales teorias a cerca de la relación tipicidad-antijuridicidad y su incidencia en el derecho penal colombiano. Por último contiene una propuesta acerca de cómo deberian agruparse las causales del arto 32 C. PlOO.

  6. Kant on causal laws and powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschen, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the paper is threefold. Its first aim is to defend Eric Watkins's claim that for Kant, a cause is not an event but a causal power: a power that is borne by a substance, and that, when active, brings about its effect, i.e. a change of the states of another substance, by generating a continuous flow of intermediate states of that substance. The second aim of the paper is to argue against Watkins that the Kantian concept of causal power is not the pre-critical concept of real ground but the category of causality, and that Kant holds with Hume that causal laws cannot be inferred non-inductively (that he accordingly has no intention to show in the Second analogy or elsewhere that events fall under causal laws). The third aim of the paper is to compare the Kantian position on causality with central tenets of contemporary powers ontology: it argues that unlike the variants endorsed by contemporary powers theorists, the Kantian variants of these tenets are resistant to objections that neo-Humeans raise to these tenets.

  7. Causality in noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.J.; Abreu, E.M.C. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Space-time noncommutativity has been investigated in the last years as a real possibility to describe physics at fundamental scale. This subject is associated with many tough issues in physics, i.e., strings, gravity, noncommutative field theories and others. The first formulation for a noncommutative spacetime was proposed by Snyder in 1947, where the object of noncommutativity is considered as a constant matrix that breaks the Lorentz symmetry. His objective was to get rid of the infinities that intoxicate quantum field theory. Unfortunately it was demonstrated not a success. Here we consider an alternative recent formulation known as Doplicher-Fredenhagen-Roberts-Amorim (DFRA) algebra in which the object of noncommutativity is treated as an ordinary coordinate by constructing an extended space-time with 4 + 6 dimensions (x + {phi}) - spacetime. In this way, the Lorentz symmetry is preserved in DFRA algebra. A quantum field theory is constructed in accordance with DFRA Poincare algebra, as well as a Lagrangian density formulation. By means of the Klein-Gordon equation in this (x + {phi}) - spacetime. We analyze the aspects of causality by studying the advanced and retarded Green functions. (author)

  8. Detecting causal drivers and empirical prediction of the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, G.; Vellore, R.; Raghavan, K.; Coumou, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is crucial for the economy, society and natural ecosystems on the Indian peninsula. Predict the total seasonal rainfall at several months lead time would help to plan effective water management strategies, improve flood or drought protection programs and prevent humanitarian crisis. However, the complexity and strong internal variability of the ISM circulation system make skillful seasonal forecasting challenging. Moreover, to adequately identify the low-frequency, and far-away processes which influence ISM behavior novel tools are needed. We applied a Response-Guided Causal Precursor Detection (RGCPD) scheme, which is a novel empirical prediction method which unites a response-guided community detection scheme with a causal discovery algorithm (CEN). These tool allow us to assess causal pathways between different components of the ISM circulation system and with far-away regions in the tropics, mid-latitudes or Arctic. The scheme has successfully been used to identify causal precursors of the Stratospheric polar vortex enabling skillful predictions at (sub) seasonal timescales (Kretschmer et al. 2016, J.Clim., Kretschmer et al. 2017, GRL). We analyze observed ISM monthly rainfall over the monsoon trough region. Applying causal discovery techniques, we identify several causal precursor communities in the fields of 2m-temperature, sea level pressure and snow depth over Eurasia. Specifically, our results suggest that surface temperature conditions in both tropical and Arctic regions contribute to ISM variability. A linear regression prediction model based on the identified set of communities has good hindcasting skills with 4-5 months lead times. Further we separate El Nino, La Nina and ENSO-neutral years from each other and find that the causal precursors are different dependent on ENSO state. The ENSO-state dependent causal precursors give even higher skill, especially for La Nina years when the ISM is relatively strong. These

  9. Evidence and causality assessment in environmental epidemiology: methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valleron, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    There are usually three major steps in the study of the possible impact of environmental factors on health: 1) to demonstrate that there is an association between exposure to the factor and the disease under study; 2) to demonstrate that this association is causal; 3) to evaluate the health benefit that could be obtained by removing the source of exposure. Statistical methods are commonly assumed to provide an objective way of achieving these three steps. This paper reviews some of the conditions that have to be met to allow proper interpretations and to avoid some of the controversies that are often found in health-environment studies. First, it should be remembered that the so-called P value which is used to qualify 'statistically significant' associations between risk factors and diseases does not give any indication of the probability that this association is actual, while far too often it is believed that it does. The probability that an association between an environmental factor and a disease is real could, however, be estimated by using Bayesian methods. These methods require that the a priori probabilities be stated, which is difficult to do in practice. Some directions to overcome this difficulty are presented. Second, the analysis of causality cannot be carried out on statistical grounds alone and the so-called 'causality criteria' are of limited practical interest. Definition of what is a cause, and upon which conditions a candidate factor of a disease can be considered as a cause, deserves much research effort, and careful consideration of the huge literature (mostly outside of the epidemiological field, for example in logic) which is devoted to this subject. Finally, the measurement of the role of a factor in a disease is very often assessed through the use of 'attributable fraction' or 'attributable mortality'. This should be done only when it is demonstrated that the considered factor is causal. Moreover, the interpretation of attributable fractions

  10. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wang, X. Christine; Chui, Wai Yip

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM) ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI) across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries. PMID:28559863

  11. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries.

  12. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  13. The causal nexus between oil prices and equity market in the U.S.: A regime switching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcilar, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the causal link between monthly oil futures price changes and a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock index changes. The causal linkage between oil and stock markets is modelled using a vector autoregressive model with time-varying parameters so as to reflect changes in Granger causality over time. A Markov switching vector autoregressive (MS-VAR) model, in which causal link between the series is stochastic and governed by an unobservable Markov chain, is used for inferring time-varying causality. Although we do not find any lead–lag type Granger causality, the results based on the MS-VAR model clearly show that oil futures price has strong regime prediction power for a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock index during various sub-periods in the sample, while there is a weak evidence for the regime prediction power of a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock indexes. The regime-prediction non-causality tests on the MS-VAR model show that both variables are useful for making inference about the regime process and that the evidence on regime-prediction causality is primarily found in the equation describing a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock market returns. The evidence from the conditional non-causality tests shows that past information on the other series fails to improve the one step ahead prediction for both oil futures and stock returns. - Highlights: • We analyse the causal links between oil futures price and a sub-grouping of S and P 500 index. • The causal links are modelled using a regime switching model. • We do not find any lead–lag type Granger causality between the series. • The results show that oil futures price has regime prediction power for a sub-grouping of S and P 500 stock index

  14. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly: Evidence for a Causal Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Na; Ling, Feng

    2016-10-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association. To summarize the most recent evidence on this issue and provide perspectives for future studies, we reviewed the literature to identify existing evidence of the causal link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly within research related to the epidemics, laboratory diagnosis, and possible mechanisms.

  15. "Couch-potatoeism" and childhood obesity: The inverse causality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The bulk of cross-sectional studies suggests that lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. Although this has led to the general understanding that "couch-potatoes" are fat on account of their inactive lifestyles, cross-sectional studies do not imply causality. On the contrary, the contribution of physical activity to obesity during childhood is currently unclear, and lately, studies have suggested that "couch-potatoeism" could be the result of obesity rather than its cause. Coupled with evidence suggesting that interventions have had little effect on children's physical activity levels as well as on obesity, this inverse causality challenges the role of physical activity in childhood obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Entanglement entropy in causal set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Rafael D.; Yazdi, Yasaman K.

    2018-04-01

    Entanglement entropy is now widely accepted as having deep connections with quantum gravity. It is therefore desirable to understand it in the context of causal sets, especially since they provide in a natural manner the UV cutoff needed to render entanglement entropy finite. Formulating a notion of entanglement entropy in a causal set is not straightforward because the type of canonical hypersurface-data on which its definition typically relies is not available. Instead, we appeal to the more global expression given in Sorkin (2012 (arXiv:1205.2953)) which, for a Gaussian scalar field, expresses the entropy of a spacetime region in terms of the field’s correlation function within that region (its ‘Wightman function’ W(x, x') ). Carrying this formula over to the causal set, one obtains an entropy which is both finite and of a Lorentz invariant nature. We evaluate this global entropy-expression numerically for certain regions (primarily order-intervals or ‘causal diamonds’) within causal sets of 1  +  1 dimensions. For the causal-set counterpart of the entanglement entropy, we obtain, in the first instance, a result that follows a (spacetime) volume law instead of the expected (spatial) area law. We find, however, that one obtains an area law if one truncates the commutator function (‘Pauli–Jordan operator’) and the Wightman function by projecting out the eigenmodes of the Pauli–Jordan operator whose eigenvalues are too close to zero according to a geometrical criterion which we describe more fully below. In connection with these results and the questions they raise, we also study the ‘entropy of coarse-graining’ generated by thinning out the causal set, and we compare it with what one obtains by similarly thinning out a chain of harmonic oscillators, finding the same, ‘universal’ behaviour in both cases.

  17. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity and causal disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; de Jonge, Peter; Schoevers, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In psychiatry, comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. Up to 45% of all patients are classified as having more than one psychiatric disorder. These high rates of comorbidity have led to a debate concerning the interpretation of this phenomenon. Some authors emphasize the problematic character of the high rates of comorbidity because they indicate absent zones of rarities. Others consider comorbid conditions to be a validator for a particular reclassification of diseases. In this paper we will show that those at first sight contrasting interpretations of comorbidity are based on similar assumptions about disease models. The underlying ideas are that firstly high rates of comorbidity are the result of the absence of causally defined diseases in psychiatry, and second that causal disease models are preferable to non-causal disease models. We will argue that there are good reasons to seek after causal understanding of psychiatric disorders, but that causal disease models will not rule out high rates of comorbidity--neither in psychiatry, nor in medicine in general. By bringing to the fore these underlying assumptions, we hope to clear the ground for a different understanding of comorbidity, and of models for psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  20. No evidence of a causal relationship between plasma homocysteine and type 2 diabetes: A Mendelian randomization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender eKumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several observational studies have shown an association between increased circulating homocysteine and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. We aimed to assess whether this relation is causal using genetic data from large populations of individuals of European descent.Methods: We investigated the association of between homocysteine concentrations with and blood glucose, plasma insulin, T2D in the PIVUS cohort (n=1,016. A score of five previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from genes involved in homocysteine metabolism were utilized as genetic instrument for homocysteine concentrations. The effect estimate of this genetic score with T2D was determined using results from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM consortium (including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls. Further, the effects of the genetic score with fasting glucose and insulin were determined using results from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC (up to 38,238 non-diabetic participants. Results: The genetic score provided a strong instrument for homocysteine concentrations (P=2.7x10-143, F=650. In the PIVUS cohort, we found an association of homocysteine with fasting insulin (β=0.0564 [95% CI 0.0210, 0.09088], P=0.001, but not with incident diabetes. We did not find any evidence of a causal effect of homocysteine onwith fasting glucose, fasting insulin or T2D (P>0.05 for all analyses when using data from DIAGRAM or MAGIC studies.Conclusion: No evidence of a causal relationship of levels of plasma homocysteine with fasting glucose, fasting insulin or T2D was observed.

  1. How causal analysis can reveal autonomy in models of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William; Kim, Hyunju; Walker, Sara I.; Tononi, Giulio; Albantakis, Larissa

    2017-11-01

    Standard techniques for studying biological systems largely focus on their dynamical or, more recently, their informational properties, usually taking either a reductionist or holistic perspective. Yet, studying only individual system elements or the dynamics of the system as a whole disregards the organizational structure of the system-whether there are subsets of elements with joint causes or effects, and whether the system is strongly integrated or composed of several loosely interacting components. Integrated information theory offers a theoretical framework to (1) investigate the compositional cause-effect structure of a system and to (2) identify causal borders of highly integrated elements comprising local maxima of intrinsic cause-effect power. Here we apply this comprehensive causal analysis to a Boolean network model of the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) cell cycle. We demonstrate that this biological model features a non-trivial causal architecture, whose discovery may provide insights about the real cell cycle that could not be gained from holistic or reductionist approaches. We also show how some specific properties of this underlying causal architecture relate to the biological notion of autonomy. Ultimately, we suggest that analysing the causal organization of a system, including key features like intrinsic control and stable causal borders, should prove relevant for distinguishing life from non-life, and thus could also illuminate the origin of life problem. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  2. Causal binding of actions to their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, Marc J; Humphreys, Gruffydd R

    2009-10-01

    According to widely held views in cognitive science harking back to David Hume, causality cannot be perceived directly, but instead is inferred from patterns of sensory experience, and the quality of these inferences is determined by perceivable quantities such as contingency and contiguity. We report results that suggest a reversal of Hume's conjecture: People's sense of time is warped by the experience of causality. In a stimulus-anticipation task, participants' response behavior reflected a shortened experience of time in the case of target stimuli participants themselves had generated, relative to equidistant, equally predictable stimuli they had not caused. These findings suggest that causality in the mind leads to temporal binding of cause and effect, and extend and generalize beyond earlier claims of intentional binding between action and outcome.

  3. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  4. Entropy and information causality in general probabilistic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, Howard; Leifer, Matthew; Spekkens, Robert; Barrett, Jonathan; Clark, Lisa Orloff; Stepanik, Nicholas; Wilce, Alex; Wilke, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the concept of entropy in probabilistic theories more general than quantum mechanics, with particular reference to the notion of information causality (IC) recently proposed by Pawlowski et al (2009 arXiv:0905.2292). We consider two entropic quantities, which we term measurement and mixing entropy. In the context of classical and quantum theory, these coincide, being given by the Shannon and von Neumann entropies, respectively; in general, however, they are very different. In particular, while measurement entropy is easily seen to be concave, mixing entropy need not be. In fact, as we show, mixing entropy is not concave whenever the state space is a non-simplicial polytope. Thus, the condition that measurement and mixing entropies coincide is a strong constraint on possible theories. We call theories with this property monoentropic. Measurement entropy is subadditive, but not in general strongly subadditive. Equivalently, if we define the mutual information between two systems A and B by the usual formula I(A: B)=H(A)+H(B)-H(AB), where H denotes the measurement entropy and AB is a non-signaling composite of A and B, then it can happen that I(A:BC)< I(A:B). This is relevant to IC in the sense of Pawlowski et al: we show that any monoentropic non-signaling theory in which measurement entropy is strongly subadditive, and also satisfies a version of the Holevo bound, is informationally causal, and on the other hand we observe that Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, which violate IC, also violate strong subadditivity. We also explore the interplay between measurement and mixing entropy and various natural conditions on theories that arise in quantum axiomatics.

  5. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences : How strong are they and what do they mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietschnig, J.; Penke, L.; Wicherts, J.M.; Zeiler, M.; Voracek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of

  6. Tachyon kinematics and causality: A systematic, thorough analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1985-01-01

    The chronological order of the events along a space-like path is not invariant under Lorentz transformations, as wellknown. This led to an early conviction that tachyons would give rise to causal anomalies. A relativistic version of the Stuckelberg-Feynman 'switching procedure' (SWP) has been invoked as the suitable tool to eliminate those anomalies. The application of the 'SWP' does eliminate the motions backwards in time, but interchanges the roles of source and detector. This fact triggered the proposal of a host of causal 'paradoxes'. Till now, however, it has not been recognized that such paradoxes can be sensibly discussed (and completely solved, at least 'in microphysics') only after having properly developed the tachyon relativistic mechanics. It is shown how to apply the 'SWP', both in the case of ordinary Special Relativity, and in the case with tachyons. Then, the kinematics of the tachyon-exchange between two (ordinary) bodies is carrefully exploited. Being finally able to tackle the tachyon-causality problem, the paradoxes are sucessively solved: (i) by Tolman-Regge; (ii) by Pirani; (iii) by Edmonds; (iv) by Bell. At last, a further new paradox associated with the transmission of signals by modulated tachyon beams is discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  8. Inferring causality from noisy time series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Convergent Cross-Mapping (CCM) has shown high potential to perform causal inference in the absence of models. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of the method by varying coupling strength and noise levels in coupled logistic maps. We find that CCM fails to infer accurate coupling strength...... and even causality direction in synchronized time-series and in the presence of intermediate coupling. We find that the presence of noise deterministically reduces the level of cross-mapping fidelity, while the convergence rate exhibits higher levels of robustness. Finally, we propose that controlled noise...

  9. Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2014-01-01

    We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....

  10. Relativistic Causality and Quasi-Orthomodular Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Renato

    2006-05-01

    The concept of fractionability or decomposability in parts of a physical system has its mathematical counterpart in the lattice--theoretic concept of orthomodularity. Systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom can be decomposed in different ways, corresponding to different groupings of the degrees of freedom. The orthomodular structure of these simple systems is trivially manifest. The problem then arises as to whether the same property is shared by physical systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, in particular by the quantum relativistic ones. The latter case was approached several years ago by Haag and Schroer (1962; Haag, 1992) who started from noting that the causally complete sets of Minkowski spacetime form an orthomodular lattice and posed the question of whether the subalgebras of local observables, with topological supports on such subsets, form themselves a corresponding orthomodular lattice. Were it so, the way would be paved to interpreting spacetime as an intrinsic property of a local quantum field algebra. Surprisingly enough, however, the hoped property does not hold for local algebras of free fields with superselection rules. The possibility seems to be instead open if the local currents that govern the superselection rules are driven by gauge fields. Thus, in the framework of local quantum physics, the request for algebraic orthomodularity seems to imply physical interactions! Despite its charm, however, such a request appears plagued by ambiguities and criticities that make of it an ill--posed problem. The proposers themselves, indeed, concluded that the orthomodular correspondence hypothesis is too strong for having a chance of being practicable. Thus, neither the idea was taken seriously by the proposers nor further investigated by others up to a reasonable degree of clarification. This paper is an attempt to re--formulate and well--pose the problem. It will be shown that the idea is viable provided that the algebra of

  11. BioCause: Annotating and analysing causality in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihăilă, Claudiu; Ohta, Tomoko; Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2013-01-16

    Biomedical corpora annotated with event-level information represent an important resource for domain-specific information extraction (IE) systems. However, bio-event annotation alone cannot cater for all the needs of biologists. Unlike work on relation and event extraction, most of which focusses on specific events and named entities, we aim to build a comprehensive resource, covering all statements of causal association present in discourse. Causality lies at the heart of biomedical knowledge, such as diagnosis, pathology or systems biology, and, thus, automatic causality recognition can greatly reduce the human workload by suggesting possible causal connections and aiding in the curation of pathway models. A biomedical text corpus annotated with such relations is, hence, crucial for developing and evaluating biomedical text mining. We have defined an annotation scheme for enriching biomedical domain corpora with causality relations. This schema has subsequently been used to annotate 851 causal relations to form BioCause, a collection of 19 open-access full-text biomedical journal articles belonging to the subdomain of infectious diseases. These documents have been pre-annotated with named entity and event information in the context of previous shared tasks. We report an inter-annotator agreement rate of over 60% for triggers and of over 80% for arguments using an exact match constraint. These increase significantly using a relaxed match setting. Moreover, we analyse and describe the causality relations in BioCause from various points of view. This information can then be leveraged for the training of automatic causality detection systems. Augmenting named entity and event annotations with information about causal discourse relations could benefit the development of more sophisticated IE systems. These will further influence the development of multiple tasks, such as enabling textual inference to detect entailments, discovering new facts and providing new

  12. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  13. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  14. CausalTrail: Testing hypothesis using causal Bayesian networks [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stöckel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Causal Bayesian Networks are a special class of Bayesian networks in which the hierarchy directly encodes the causal relationships between the variables. This allows to compute the effect of interventions, which are external changes to the system, caused by e.g. gene knockouts or an administered drug. Whereas numerous packages for constructing causal Bayesian networks are available, hardly any program targeted at downstream analysis exists. In this paper we present CausalTrail, a tool for performing reasoning on causal Bayesian networks using the do-calculus. CausalTrail's features include multiple data import methods, a flexible query language for formulating hypotheses, as well as an intuitive graphical user interface. The program is able to account for missing data and thus can be readily applied in multi-omics settings where it is common that not all measurements are performed for all samples. Availability and Implementation CausalTrail is implemented in C++ using the Boost and Qt5 libraries. It can be obtained from https://github.com/dstoeckel/causaltrail

  15. Somatoform disorders and causal attributions in patients with suspected allergies: Do somatic causal attributions matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groben, Sylvie; Hausteiner, Constanze

    2011-03-01

    Somatic causal illness attributions are being considered as potential positive criteria for somatoform disorders (SFDs) in DSM-V. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients diagnosed with SFDs tend towards a predominantly somatic attribution style. We compared the causal illness attributions of 48 SFD and 149 non-somatoform disorder patients, in a sample of patients presenting for an allergy diagnostic work-up, and those of 47 controls hospitalised for allergen-specific venom immunotherapy. The SFD diagnosis was established by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Both spontaneous and prompted causal illness attributions were recorded through interview and by means of the causal dimension of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), respectively. Patients' spontaneous and prompted responses were assigned to a psychosocial, somatic, or mixed attribution style. Both in the free-response task and in their responses to the IPQ-R, SFD patients were no more likely than their nonsomatoform counterparts to focus on somatic explanations for their symptoms. They were just as likely to make psychosocial or mixed causal attributions. However, patients with SFDs were significantly more likely to find fault with medical care in the past. Our data do not support the use of somatic causal illness attributions as positive criteria for SFDs. They confirm the dynamic and multidimensional nature of causal illness attributions. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  17. Mendelian Randomization for the Identification of Causal Pathways in Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Henning; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have identified many physiological traits and biomarkers that are statistically associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). For some of these traits and biomarkers it is well established that they represent true causal risk factors for CAD. For other biomarkers, however, the distinct character of association is still a matter of debate. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) had a pivotal role in establishing causal associations between risk factors and biomarkers and CAD in some settings by demonstrating that therapeutic intervention targeting risk factors/biomarkers also affect the risk for clinical outcomes, such as CAD. In other scenarios, however, RCTs did not demonstrate clear benefits associated with lowering biomarker levels and therefore suggest that the association between these biomarkers (like C reactive protein) and CAD was driven by confounding or reverse causation. Even accurately conducted RCTs are not immune against incorrect causal inference. Moreover, the extensive costs and efforts required to conduct RCTs asked for alternative study designs to elucidate potential causal associations. Mendelian Randomization studies represent one such alternative by using genetic variants as proxies for specific biomarkers to investigate potential causal relations between biomarkers and clinical outcomes. In this review, we briefly describe the principles of MR studies and summarize recent MR studies in the context of CAD.

  18. On the notion of causality in medicine: addressing Austin Bradford Hill and John L. Mackie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando S. C. de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost 50 years ago appeared the seminal article by Austin Bradford Hill where he presented parameters for inferring causes from statistical associations, which became known as Hill’s causal criteria. This was a milestone for the renewal of the idea of cause in medicine. Our article revisits his contribution in light of the ideas from the Australian philosopher John L. Mackie, whose important works on causality reached an audience distinct from Hill’s. We suggest that both the British epidemiologist and the Australian philosopher share the purpose of articulating probabilistic determinism and multi-causality, the first with a predominantly probabilistic model and the second with an analytical approach. This article explores the possible consequences of addressing these authors jointly in regard to causal inferences in medicine, especially in respect to mental disorders.

  19. Functional Analysis of a Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Locus Implicates BCAR1 and Suggests a Causal Variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boardman-Pretty, Freya; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Cooper, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis that can predict cardiovascular disease events over traditional risk factors. This study examined the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus on chromosome 16, associated with carotid IMT and coronary artery disease in the IMT...... with slower IMT progression in women (P=0.04) but not in men. Meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies also supported a protective effect of the A allele on common carotid IMT in women only (women: β=-0.0047, P=1.63×10-4; men: β=-0.0029, P=0.0678). Two hundred fourteen noncoding variants in strong linkage...... associations of rs4888378 with BCAR1 in vascular tissues. Molecular studies suggest the lead SNP as a potentially causal SNP at the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus, and expression quantitative trait loci studies implicate BCAR1 as the causal gene. This variant showed stronger effects on common carotid IMT in women...

  20. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  1. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... was sustained. There was no association between plasma viral load and the increase in naive CD4 + cell count. Importantly, baseline naive CD4 + cell count was significantly associated with the change in naive CD4 + cell count, suggesting that the naive cell count at baseline does influence the immunological...

  2. Localization and causality in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.F.; Wilde, I.F.

    It is shown that in relativistic quantum mechanics there is no criterion for the strict localization of a state in a bounded space-time region compatible with causality, translation covariance and the spectral condition (or positivity of energy together with Lorentz covariance) [pt

  3. Catastrophizing and Causal Beliefs in Whiplash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; de Jong, P. J.; Jaspers, J. P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. This study investigates the role of pain catastrophizing and causal beliefs with regard to severity and persistence of neck complaints after motor vehicle accidents. Summary of Background Data. In previous research on low back pain, somatoform

  4. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information theory in general and quantum non-locality and entanglement in particular. Right. S Kunkri - current research interest is the role of entanglement in quantum information processing and the connection between quantum operations and causality. Centre. S K Choudhary - current research interest is the study of ...

  5. Causal Measurement Models: Can Criticism Stimulate Clarification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In their 2016 work, Aguirre-Urreta et al. provided a contribution to the literature on causal measurement models that enhances clarity and stimulates further thinking. Aguirre-Urreta et al. presented a form of statistical identity involving mapping onto the portion of the parameter space involving the nomological net, relationships between the…

  6. Causal Meta-Analysis : Methodology and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical method to summarize research data from multiple studies in a quantitative manner. This dissertation addresses a number of methodological topics in causal meta-analysis and reports the development and validation of meta-analysis software. In the first (methodological)

  7. A Causal Model of Faculty Turnover Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A causal model assesses the relative influence of individual attributes, institutional characteristics, contextual-work environment variables, and multiple measures of job satisfaction on faculty intentions to leave their current institutions. Factors considered include tenure status, age, institutional status, governance style, organizational…

  8. Black Hole Complementarity and Violation of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenblit, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of a massive shell collapsing on a solid sphere shows that black hole complementarity (BHC) violates causality in its effort to save information conservation. In particular, this note describes a hypothetical contraption based on BHC that would allow the transfer of information from the future to the present.

  9. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  10. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion (‘the bite’) are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query ‘Bruxism [Majr

  11. Sequential causal learning in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Rojas, R.R.; Beckers, T.; Yuille, A.; Love, B.C.; McRae, K.; Sloutsky, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments (Beckers, De Houwer, Pineño, & Miller, 2005;Beckers, Miller, De Houwer, & Urushihara, 2006) have shown that pretraining with unrelated cues can dramatically influence the performance of humans in a causal learning paradigm and rats in a standard Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.

  12. Dimensional reduction in causal set gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S.

    2015-12-01

    Results from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity suggest that the effective dimension of spacetime may drop to d = 2 at small scales. I show that two different dimensional estimators in causal set theory display the same behavior, and argue that a third, the spectral dimension, may exhibit a related phenomenon of ‘asymptotic silence.’

  13. The Causal Relationship between Financial Development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study employs cointegration, vector error correction model and Granger causality test to ascertain causation between financial development and economic performance in Tanzania. Economic performance is measured by the real GDP, whereas proxies for financial development are: the ratio of money supply to nominal ...

  14. Causal and Teleological Explanations in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2009-01-01

    A causal explanation in biology focuses on the mechanism by which a biological process is brought about, whereas a teleological explanation considers the end result, in the context of the survival of the organism, as a reason for certain biological processes or structures. There is a tendency among students to offer a teleological explanation…

  15. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peaceful Coexistence of Special Relativity and. Quantum Mechanics. As discussed in Part 1, in the framework of the special theory of relativity, causality holds. This can be stated as follows: there is a finite speed for any signal, i.e. , for anything that carries information, and the highest speed for any signal is identical to the ...

  16. Causal Relationship between Teachers' Job Performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated teachers' job performance and students' academic achievement in secondary schools for the existence of bi-causal relationship in Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was adopted in the study. The population of the study covered all the Economic teachers and senior school students in class ...

  17. Introducing mechanics by tapping core causal knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, C.W.J.M.; Westra, A.S.; Emmett, K.M.; Eijkelhof, H.M.C.; Lijnse, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns an outline of an introductory mechanics course. It is based on the argument that various uses of the concept of force (e.g. from Kepler, Newton and everyday life) share an explanatory strategy based on core causal knowledge. The strategy consists of (a) the idea that a force

  18. Causality and analyticity in quantum fields theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1992-01-01

    This is a presentation of results on the causal and analytical structure of Green functions and on the collision amplitudes in fields theories, for massive particles of one type, with a positive mass and a zero spin value. (A.B.)

  19. Causality relationship between energy demand and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the causal relationship between electricity demand and economic growth in Nigeria using data for 1970 – 2003. The study uses the Johansen cointegration VAR approach. The ADF and Phillips – Perron test statistics were used to test for stationarity of the data. It was found that the data were ...

  20. The Causal Priority of Form in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Koslicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In various texts (e.g., Met. Z.17, Aristotle assigns priority to form, in its role as a principle and cause, over matter and the matter-form compound. Given the central role played by this claim in Aristotle's search for primary substance in the Metaphysics, it is important to understand what motivates him in locating the primary causal responsibility for a thing's being what it is with the form, rather than the matter. According to Met. Theta.8, actuality [energeia/entelecheia] in general is prior to potentiality [dunamis] in three ways, viz., in definition, time and substance. I propose an explicitly causal reading of this general priority claim, as it pertains to the matter-form relationship. The priority of form over matter in definition, time and substance, in my view, is best explained by appeal to the role of form as the formal, efficient and final cause of the matter-form compound, respectively, while the posteriority of matter to form according to all three notions of priority is most plausibly accounted for by the fact that the causal contribution of matter is limited to its role as material cause. When approached from this angle, the work of Met. Theta.8 can be seen to lend direct support to the more specific and explicitly causal priority claim we encounter in Met. Z.17, viz., that form is prior to matter in its role as the principle and primary cause of a matter-form compound's being what it is.

  1. A quantum probability model of causal reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Trueblood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People can often outperform statistical methods and machine learning algorithms in situations that involve making inferences about the relationship between causes and effects. While people are remarkably good at causal reasoning in many situations, there are several instances where they deviate from expected responses. This paper examines three situations where judgments related to causal inference problems produce unexpected results and describes a quantum inference model based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory that can explain these effects. Two of the three phenomena arise from the comparison of predictive judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of an effect given a cause with diagnostic judgments (i.e., the conditional probability of a cause given an effect. The third phenomenon is a new finding examining order effects in predictive causal judgments. The quantum inference model uses the notion of incompatibility among different causes to account for all three phenomena. Psychologically, the model assumes that individuals adopt different points of view when thinking about different causes. The model provides good fits to the data and offers a coherent account for all three causal reasoning effects thus proving to be a viable new candidate for modeling human judgment.

  2. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the significance of Einstein's second postulate of the special theory of relativity (STR) stipulating the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. The causality that follows from the. STR may be a more general principle to orga- nize our knowledge of all phenomena. In partic- ular, quantum dynamics can be derived ...

  3. Special Relativity, Causality and Quantum Mechanics - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tum world. An example of a game which can be won exploiting quantum entanglement, but which can never be won classically, is described. Peaceful Coexistence of Special Relativity and. Quantum Mechanics. As discussed in Part 1, in the framework of the special theory of relativity, causality holds. This can be stated.

  4. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  5. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  6. Elevated skin autofluorescence is strongly associated with foot ulcers in patients with diabetes : a cross-sectional, observational study of Chinese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Hang; Han, Chun-mao; Hu, Xin-lei; Ye, Wan-lan; Huang, Wen-juan; Smit, Andries J.

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between skin autofluorescence (AF), an indicator of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and foot ulcers in subjects with diabetes. In this study, 195 Chinese diabetic subjects were examined. Their feet were examined regardless of whether an

  7. Strong Associations Exist among Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Biomarkers in the Circulating, Cellular and Urinary Anatomical Compartments in Guatemalan Children from the Western Highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Soto-Méndez

    Full Text Available A series of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds act to protect cells from uncontrolled propagation of free radicals. It is poorly understood, though, to what extent and how their interaction is harmonized.To explore associative interactions among a battery of urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of the antioxidant defense system in children from low income households.For this cross-sectional descriptive study, urine, red cells, and plasma were sampled in 82 preschool children attending three daycare centers in Quetzaltenango Guatemala. The urinary oxidative stress biomarkers studied were F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine. Red cell enzyme activities measured were: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Circulating non-enzymatic antioxidants selected were: retinol, tocopherols, β-carotene and coenzymes Q9 and Q10.In a Spearman rank-order correlation hemi-matrix, of 55 paired combinations of the 11 biomarkers, 28 (51% were significantly correlated among each other (p ≤ 0.05, with the strongest association being retinol and tocopherols (r = 0.697, p 0.5 to ≤ 0.10. F2-isoprostanes showed the greatest number of cross-associations, having significant interactions with 8 of the 10 remaining biomarkers. Goodness-of-fit modeling improved or maintained the r value for 24 of the significant interactions and for one of the 5 borderline associations. Multiple regression backward stepwise analysis indicated that plasma retinol, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 were independent predictors of urinary F2-isoprostanes.Numerous significant associations resulted among biomarkers of oxidation and responders to oxidation. Interesting findings were the apparent patterns of harmonious interactions among the elements of the oxidation-antioxidation systems in this population.

  8. Spatiotemporal causal modeling for the management of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Huang, Tailin; Lee, Chieh-Han

    2015-04-01

    Increasing climatic extremes have caused growing concerns about the health effects and disease outbreaks. The association between climate variation and the occurrence of epidemic diseases play an important role on a country's public health systems. Part of the impacts are direct casualties associated with the increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons, the proliferation of disease vectors and the short-term increase of clinic visits on gastro-intestinal discomforts, diarrhea, dermatosis, or psychological trauma. Other impacts come indirectly from the influence of disasters on the ecological and socio-economic systems, including the changes of air/water quality, living environment and employment condition. Previous risk assessment studies on dengue fever focus mostly on climatic and non-climatic factors and their association with vectors' reproducing pattern. The public-health implication may appear simple. Considering the seasonal changes and regional differences, however, the causality of the impacts is full of uncertainties. Without further investigation, the underlying dengue fever risk dynamics may not be assessed accurately. The objective of this study is to develop an epistemic framework for assessing dynamic dengue fever risk across space and time. The proposed framework integrates cross-departmental data, including public-health databases, precipitation data over time and various socio-economic data. We explore public-health issues induced by typhoon through literature review and spatiotemporal analytic techniques on public health databases. From those data, we identify relevant variables and possible causal relationships, and their spatiotemporal patterns derived from our proposed spatiotemporal techniques. Eventually, we create a spatiotemporal causal network and a framework for modeling dynamic dengue fever risk.

  9. <strong>Project proposal:strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    The Standard Template Library (STL) is a collection of generic algorithms and data structures that is part of the standard run-time environment of the C++ programming language. The STL provides four kinds of associative element containers: set, multiset, map, and multimap. In this project the goal...

  10. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varani, Stefania; Gelsomino, Francesco; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Antonio; Briganti, Elisabetta; Ortolani, Patrizia; Albertini, Francesco; Calzetti, Carlo; Prati, Francesca; Cenni, Patrizia; Castellani, Gastone; Morini, Silvia; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS) cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:26569288

  11. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  12. Nine supramolecular assemblies from 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine and carboxylic acids by strong classical H-bonds and other noncovalent associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Shide; Guo, Ming; Liu, Hui; Guo, Jianzhong; Wang, Daqi

    2017-12-01

    This article demonstrates 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine based organic salt formation in nine crystalline solids 1-9, in which the carboxylates have been integrated. Addition of equivalents of the COOH to the solution of 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine generates the singly protonated cationic species which direct the carboxylates. The nine compounds crystallize as their organic salts with the COOH proton transferred to the aromatic N of the 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine. All salts have been characterized by IR, mp, EA and XRD technique. The major driving force in 1-9 is the classical H-bonds from 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine and the acids, here the Nsbnd H⋯O H-bonds were found in all salts. Other extensive non-covalent interactions also exhibit great functions in space association of the molecular counterparts in relevant crystals. Except 4, all salts had the CHsbnd O, or CH3sbnd O interactions or both. Except 9, the common R22 (8) graph set has been observed in all salts due to the H-bonds and the non-covalent associations. For the synergistic interactions of the classical H-bonds and the various non-covalent associations, the salts displayed 1D-3D structures.

  13. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p water quality were not associated with individual household latrine ownership. The relationship between community latrine coverage and child height was strongest among households without a latrine; for these households, each 10% increase in latrine coverage was associated with a 0.031 (p-value = 0.040) increase in height-for-age z-score. In this study, the level of sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health. PMID:28514143

  14. Einstein causal quantum fields on lattices with discrete Lorentz invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, H.

    1986-01-01

    Results on rigorous construction of quantum fields on the hypercubic lattice Z 4 considered as a lattice in the Minkowski space R 4 are presented. Two associated fields are constructed: The first one having on the lattice points of Z 4 is causal and Poincare invariant in the discrete sense. The second one is an interpolating field over R 4 which is pointlike, translationally covariant and spectral in such a manner that the 'real' lattices field is the restriction of the interpolating field to Z 4 . Furthermore, results on a rigorous perturbation theory of such fields are mentioned

  15. Obesity as a causal risk factor for deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Benn, M; Nordestgaard, B G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that obesity is causally associated with deep venous thrombosis (DVT). DESIGN: A Mendelian randomization design. SETTING: The Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study combined. SUBJECTS: Body mass index (BMI) measurements were...... available for 87, 574 individuals of Danish descent from the adult general population. All subjects completed questionnaires and were genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: First events of DVT with or without pulmonary embolism (PE). ANALYSIS: The results were assessed using Cox...... regression, instrumental variable analysis and Poisson regression. RESULTS: Observationally, the risk of DVT increased with increasing BMI (P-trend obese...

  16. Framework for assessing causality in disease management programs: principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas; MacDowell, Martin

    2003-01-01

    To credibly state that a disease management (DM) program "caused" a specific outcome it is required that metrics observed in the DM population be compared with metrics that would have been expected in the absence of a DM intervention. That requirement can be very difficult to achieve, and epidemiologists and others have developed guiding principles of causality by which credible estimates of DM impact can be made. This paper introduces those key principles. First, DM program metrics must be compared with metrics from a "reference population." This population should be "equivalent" to the DM intervention population on all factors that could independently impact the outcome. In addition, the metrics used in both groups should use the same defining criteria (ie, they must be "comparable" to each other). The degree to which these populations fulfill the "equivalent" assumption and metrics fulfill the "comparability" assumption should be stated. Second, when "equivalence" or "comparability" is not achieved, the DM managers should acknowledge this fact and, where possible, "control" for those factors that may impact the outcome(s). Finally, it is highly unlikely that one study will provide definitive proof of any specific DM program value for all time; thus, we strongly recommend that studies be ongoing, at multiple points in time, and at multiple sites, and, when observational study designs are employed, that more than one type of study design be utilized. Methodologically sophisticated studies that follow these "principles of causality" will greatly enhance the reputation of the important and growing efforts in DM.

  17. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  18. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  19. Fibrinogen and coronary heart disease: test of causality by 'Mendelian randomization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keavney, Bernard; Danesh, John; Parish, Sarah; Palmer, Alison; Clark, Sarah; Youngman, Linda; Delépine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Peto, Richard; Collins, Rory

    2006-08-01

    Blood concentrations of fibrinogen have been associated with coronary heart disease risk in epidemiological studies, but it is uncertain whether this association is causal or reflects residual confounding by other risk factors. We investigated the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphism at position -148 in the beta-fibrinogen gene promoter (beta - 148C/T), blood fibrinogen levels, and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in sufficiently large numbers of coronary disease cases to reliably address this question. Genotyping and measurement of blood fibrinogen concentration were carried out in 4,685 cases of confirmed MI and 3,460 controls with no history of coronary disease. A meta-analysis of ISIS and 19 other studies of beta-fibrinogen genotypes involving a total of 12,220 coronary disease cases and 18,716 controls was conducted. Among the ISIS controls, mean plasma fibrinogen concentrations with the C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes were 3.34 (SE 0.015), 3.48 (0.022), and 3.60 (0.064) g/l, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 0.14 (0.024) g/l per T allele (trend P Mendelian randomization), this association is not likely to be confounded by other factors. Consequently, these genetic results provide strong evidence that long-term differences in fibrinogen concentrations are not a major determinant of coronary disease risk.

  20. Contours of a causal feedback mechanism between adaptive personality and psychosocial function in patients with personality disorders: a secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungsøyr, Ole; Antonsen, Bjørnar; Wilberg, Theresa

    2017-06-05

    Patients with personality disorders commonly exhibit impairment in psychosocial function that persists over time even with diagnostic remission. Further causal knowledge may help to identify and assess factors with a potential to alleviate this impairment. Psychosocial function is associated with personality functioning which describes personality disorder severity in DSM-5 (section III) and which can reportedly be improved by therapy. The reciprocal association between personality functioning and psychosocial function was assessed, in 113 patients with different personality disorders, in a secondary longitudinal analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, over six years. Personality functioning was represented by three domains of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems: Relational Capacity, Identity Integration, and Self-control. Psychosocial function was measured by Global Assessment of Functioning. The marginal structural model was used for estimation of causal effects of the three personality functioning domains on psychosocial function, and vice versa. The attractiveness of this model lies in the ability to assess an effect of a time - varying exposure on an outcome, while adjusting for time - varying confounding. Strong causal effects were found. A hypothetical intervention to increase Relational Capacity by one standard deviation, both at one and two time-points prior to assessment of psychosocial function, would increase psychosocial function by 3.5 standard deviations (95% CI: 2.0, 4.96). Significant effects of Identity Integration and Self-control on psychosocial function, and from psychosocial function on all three domains of personality functioning, although weaker, were also found. This study indicates that persistent impairment in psychosocial function can be addressed through a causal pathway of personality functioning, with interventions of at least 18 months duration.

  1. First and second trimester gestational weight gains are most strongly associated with cord blood levels of hormones at delivery important for glycemic control and somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Fleisch, Abby; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights. Outcomes were levels of umbilical cord blood hormones related to fetal and postnatal growth. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, education, pregnancy smoking status and child sex; 2nd and 3rd trimester models were additionally adjusted for GWG in prior trimesters. Mean±SD pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.9±5.5kg/m 2 , 30% were non-white, and 63% were college graduates. Mean±SD cord blood hormone levels were insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1 (56.4±24.3ng/mL), IGF-2 (408.5±92.7ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (1084±318ng/mL), insulin (6.5±7.2 uU/mL), C-peptide (1.0±0.6ng/mL), leptin (9.0±6.6ng/mL) and adiponectin (28.7±6.8μg/mL). Mean±SD 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates were 0.22±0.22, 0.49±0.19 and 0.46±0.22kg/wk. Greater 1st trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher insulin (0.5 uU/mL; 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) and C-peptide (0.06ng/mL; 95% CI 0.02, 0.09) and lower adiponectin (-0.4μg/mL; 95% CI -0.9, 0.0). Greater 2nd trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher IGF-1 (2.3ng/mL; 95% CI 0.6, 4.0), IGF-2 (7.9ng/mL; 95% CI 1.2, 14.6), IGFBP-3 (41.6ng/mL; 95% CI 19.4, 63.7) and leptin (0.9ng/mL; 0.4, 1.4). 3rd trimester GWG was not associated with cord blood hormones. 1st trimester weight gain appears to matter more for cord blood hormones related to offspring glucose/insulin regulation, whereas 2nd trimester gain matters more for hormones related to growth and adiposity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performing high-level sport is strongly associated with urinary incontinence in elite athletes: a comparative study of 372 elite female athletes and 372 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Alice; Natal Jorge, Renato; Bø, Kari

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female elite athletes compared with controls and to investigate potential risk factors for UI among elite athletes. This cross-sectional study included 372 elite athletes (athletes group, AG) and 372 age-matched controls (control group, CG). The median age was low (19 years) and the vast majority were nulliparous. Potential risk factors, including clinical, demographic and sports practice characteristics, were collected by using a questionnaire. The International Consultation on Urinary Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form was applied to estimate the prevalence of UI. OR with 95% CIs were used to estimate the association with UI. The final model was adjusted for constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infection. The prevalence of UI was 29.6% and 13.4% in AG and CG, respectively (psport (adjusted (adj) OR=3.31; 95% CI 2.20 to 4.97), family history of UI (adj OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.29), history of urinary infection (adj OR=1.53; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.23) and constipation (adj OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.98) were associated with UI. The prevalence of UI among Portuguese female elite athletes is high and the odds of UI were three times higher than in controls. Also, constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infections were significantly associated with UI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Does self-efficacy causally influence initial smoking cessation? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Cervone, Daniel; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-10-01

    Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking. Participants in the Average Chances of Quitting (ACQ) condition took a computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had the same chances of quitting as everyone else in the study. Participants in the High Chances of Quitting (HCQ) condition took the same computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had a greater chance of quitting compared to everyone else in the study. The main outcome was whether participants were able to quit for 24h on the TQD. Results revealed that HCQ participants had a significantly greater chance of quitting smoking compared to ACQ participants. However, these effects were not attributable to changes in self-efficacy brought about by the manipulation. An exploration of other potential mediators showed that the manipulation actually influenced smoking outcome expectancies, and changes in these outcome expectancies influenced initial smoking cessation. The results highlight the conceptual and empirical challenges with manipulating self-efficacy in the smoking literature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A Markov blanket-based method for detecting causal SNPs in GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting epistatic interactions associated with complex and common diseases can help to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. With the development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, designing powerful and robust computational method for identifying epistatic interactions associated with common diseases becomes a great challenge to bioinformatics society, because the study of epistatic interactions often deals with the large size of the genotyped data and the huge amount of combinations of all the possible genetic factors. Most existing computational detection methods are based on the classification capacity of SNP sets, which may fail to identify SNP sets that are strongly associated with the diseases and introduce a lot of false positives. In addition, most methods are not suitable for genome-wide scale studies due to their computational complexity. Results We propose a new Markov Blanket-based method, DASSO-MB (Detection of ASSOciations using Markov Blanket to detect epistatic interactions in case-control GWAS. Markov blanket of a target variable T can completely shield T from all other variables. Thus, we can guarantee that the SNP set detected by DASSO-MB has a strong association with diseases and contains fewest false positives. Furthermore, DASSO-MB uses a heuristic search strategy by calculating the association between variables to avoid the time-consuming training process as in other machine-learning methods. We apply our algorithm to simulated datasets and a real case-control dataset. We compare DASSO-MB to other commonly-used methods and show that our method significantly outperforms other methods and is capable of finding SNPs strongly associated with diseases. Conclusions Our study shows that DASSO-MB can identify a minimal set of causal SNPs associated with diseases, which contains less false positives compared to other existing methods. Given the huge size of genomic dataset

  5. Causal knowledge and the development of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Aimée K; Feeney, Aidan

    2014-06-01

    We explored the development of sensitivity to causal relations in children's inductive reasoning. Children (5-, 8-, and 12-year-olds) and adults were given trials in which they decided whether a property known to be possessed by members of one category was also possessed by members of (a) a taxonomically related category or (b) a causally related category. The direction of the causal link was either predictive (prey→predator) or diagnostic (predator→prey), and the property that participants reasoned about established either a taxonomic or causal context. There was a causal asymmetry effect across all age groups, with more causal choices when the causal link was predictive than when it was diagnostic. Furthermore, context-sensitive causal reasoning showed a curvilinear development, with causal choices being most frequent for 8-year-olds regardless of context. Causal inductions decreased thereafter because 12-year-olds and adults made more taxonomic choices when reasoning in the taxonomic context. These findings suggest that simple causal relations may often be the default knowledge structure in young children's inductive reasoning, that sensitivity to causal direction is present early on, and that children over-generalize their causal knowledge when reasoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. General parenting styles are not strongly associated with fruit and vegetable intake and social-environmental correlates among 11-year-old children in four countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S J; Maes, L; Pérez-Rodrigo, C; de Almeida, M D V; Brug, J

    2009-02-01

    To investigate whether fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in 11-year-olds, and social-environmental correlates of F&V intake such as parental modelling and encouragement, family food rules and home availability, differ according to general parenting styles in Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in four countries. Pupils and one of their parents completed questionnaires to measure F&V intake, related social-environmental correlates and general parenting styles. The sample size was 4555 (49.3 % boys); 1180 for Belgium, 883 for The Netherlands, 1515 for Portugal and 977 for Spain. Parenting styles were divided into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. No differences were found in F&V intake across parenting styles and only very few significant differences in social-environmental correlates. The authoritarian (more parental encouragement and more demands to eat fruit) and the authoritative (more availability of fruit and vegetables) parenting styles resulted in more favourable correlates. Despite earlier studies suggesting that general parenting styles are associated with health behaviours in children, the present study suggests that this association is weak to non-existent for F&V intakes in four different European countries.

  7. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and low 25(OH vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzilli Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA flux regulation from the periphery to the liver, its deficiency may promote fat deposition into the hepatocytes. Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis of a direct association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD in subjects with various degree of insulin-resistance and related metabolic disorders. Methods We studied 262 consecutive subjects referred to the Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases clinics for metabolic evaluation. NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by upper abdomen ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome was identified according to the Third Report of National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATPIII modified criteria. Insulin-resistance was evaluated by means of HOMA-IR. Fatty-Liver-Index, a recently identified correlate of NAFLD, was also estimated. Serum 25(OHvitamin D was measured by colorimetric method. Results Patients with NAFLD (n = 162,61.8% had reduced serum 25(OH vitamin D levels compared to subjects without NAFLD (14.8 ± 9.2 vs 20.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml, p Conclusions Low 25(OHvitamin D levels are associated with the presence of NAFLD independently from metabolic syndrome, diabetes and insulin-resistance profile.

  8. Two missense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) are strongly associated with dark ventral coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, D I; Nieminen, M; Anderson, D G; Røed, K H

    2014-10-01

    The protein-coding region of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) was sequenced to identify potential variation affecting coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). A T→C sequence variation at nucleotide position 218 (c.218T>C) causing an amino acid (aa) change from methionine to threonine at aa position 73 (p.Met73Thr) was identified. In addition, a T→G sequence variation was found at nucleotide position 839 (c.839T>G), causing phenylalanine to be exchanged by cysteine at aa position 280 (p.Phe280Cys). The two sequence variants (c.218C and c.839G) were found to be closely associated with a darker belly coat compared with animals not having any of these two variants. The aa acid change p.Met73Thr affects the same position as p.Met73Lys previously reported to give constitutive activation of MC1R in black sheep (Ovis aries), whereas p.Phe280Cys is identical to one of two variants previously reported to be associated with dark coat color in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), supporting that the two variants found in reindeer are functional. The complete absence of Thr73 and Cys280 among the 51 wild reindeer analyzed provides some evidence that these variants are more common in the domestic herds. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Violation of causality in f( T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otalora, G.; Rebouças, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    In the standard formulation, the f( T) field equations are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations, and thus the theory does not inherit the causal structure of special relativity. Actually, even locally violation of causality can occur in this formulation of f( T) gravity. A locally Lorentz covariant f( T) gravity theory has been devised recently, and this local causality problem seems to have been overcome. The non-locality question, however, is left open. If gravitation is to be described by this covariant f( T) gravity theory there are a number of issues that ought to be examined in its context, including the question as to whether its field equations allow homogeneous Gödel-type solutions, which necessarily leads to violation of causality on non-local scale. Here, to look into the potentialities and difficulties of the covariant f( T) theories, we examine whether they admit Gödel-type solutions. We take a combination of a perfect fluid with electromagnetic plus a scalar field as source, and determine a general Gödel-type solution, which contains special solutions in which the essential parameter of Gödel-type geometries, m^2, defines any class of homogeneous Gödel-type geometries. We show that solutions of the trigonometric and linear classes (m^2 electromagnetic field matter component. We extended to the context of covariant f( T) gravity a theorem which ensures that any perfect-fluid homogeneous Gödel-type solution defines the same set of Gödel tetrads h_A^{ μ } up to a Lorentz transformation. We also showed that the single massless scalar field generates Gödel-type solution with no closed time-like curves. Even though the covariant f( T) gravity restores Lorentz covariance of the field equations and the local validity of the causality principle, the bare existence of the Gödel-type solutions makes apparent that the covariant formulation of f( T) gravity does not preclude non-local violation of causality in the form of closed time

  10. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Loh, Po-Ru; Enayetallah, Ahmed; Berger, Bonnie; Ziemek, Daniel

    2012-02-20

    Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds.Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical challenges unique to signed causal graphs

  11. Causal connections in the acquisition of an orthographic rule: a test of Uta Frith's developmental hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Claire; Bryant, Peter

    2006-08-01

    In a longitudinal study we tested Frith's causal hypothesis that children first gain orthographic knowledge through reading and then later, as a consequence, through spelling. Children from Years 2 and 3 were tested three times over two years on their reading and spelling of pseudo-words which conformed to the conditional orthographic rule, the 'final -e' or 'split-digraph' rule. Cross-lagged panel correlation analyses suggested that the children's success in reading split-digraph words was a causal determinant of their learning to use split-digraphs in spelling, in the 7- to 8-year period and, with one year-group but not with the other, in the 8- to 9-year period. In the 9- to 10-year period children's success in reading no longer seemed to affect their spelling. These results strongly support Frith's causal hypothesis about the development of orthographic knowledge.

  12. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Algeria: Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherfi Souhila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy consumption-growth nexus in Algeria. The causal relationship between the logarithm of per capita energy consumption (LPCEC and the logarithm of per capita GDP (LPCGDP during the 1965-2008 period is examined using the threshold cointegration and Granger causality tests. The estimation results indicate that the LPCEC and LPCGDP for Algeria are non cointegrated and that there is a uni-directional causality running from LPCGDP to LPCEC, but not vice versa. The research results strongly support the neoclassical perspective that energy consumption is not a limiting factor to economic growth in Algeria. Accordingly, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that government can pursue the conservation energy policies that aim at curtailing energy use for environmental friendly development purposes without creating severe effects on economic growth. The energy should be efficiently allocated into more productive sectors of the economy.

  13. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  14. Accounting for occurrences: an explanation for some novel tendencies in causal judgment from contingency information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    Contingency information is information about empirical associations between possible causes and outcomes. In the present research, it is shown that, under some circumstances, there is a tendency for negative contingencies to lead to positive causal judgments and for positive contingencies to lead to negative causal judgments. If there is a high proportion of instances in which a candidate cause (CC) being judged is present, these tendencies are predicted by weighted averaging models of causal judgment. If the proportion of such instances is low, the predictions of weighted averaging models break down. It is argued that one of the main aims of causal judgment is to account for occurrences of the outcome. Thus, a CC is not given a high causal judgment if there are few or no occurrences of it, regardless of the objective contingency. This argument predicts that, if there is a low proportion of instances in which a CC is present, causal judgments are determined mainly by the number of Cell A instances (i.e., CC present, outcome occurs), and that this explains why weighted averaging models fail to predict judgmental tendencies under these circumstances. Experimental results support this argument.

  15. A strong association between biologically active testosterone and leptin in non-obese men and women is lost with increasing (central) adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, S; Olsson, T; Eliasson, M; Johnson, O; Brismar, K; Carlström, K; Ahrén, B

    2001-01-01

    In both humans and rodents, males have lower levels of leptin than females at any level of adiposity. Experimental data support the idea that testosterone exerts a negative influence on leptin levels. There are, however, major inconsistencies in available data concerning the possible association between androgenicity and leptin in humans. Reasons could be the influence of androgenicity on leptin production being dependent on body composition, and incomplete measures of biologically active testosterone levels. In the present study we have characterized the relationship between biologically active testosterone and leptin after careful stratification for gender and adiposity. Healthy subjects (n=158; 85 men and 73 pre- and postmenopausal women) from the Northern Sweden MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) population were studied with a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Circulating levels of leptin, insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by radioimmunoassays or microparticle enzyme immunoassays. Apparent concentrations of free testosterone and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were calculated. After adjustments for age, BMI and insulin, leptin levels were inversely correlated to testosterone levels in non-obese men (r=-0.56, Ptestosterone correlated in a positive manner in non-obese women (r=0.59, Plow waist circumference (r=-0.59, Plow levels of biologically active testosterone and SHBG in men with low and medium waist circumference, insulin in men with high waist circumference, high levels of testosterone and insulin in non-obese women, and BMI in obese women. We conclude that low leptin levels are associated with androgenicity in non-obese men and women and that the direction of this association is dependent on gender and body fat

  16. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Edgar; Dunn, Sandra E; Mertens, Peter R; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Wiesmann, Frank; Krings, Renate; Djudjaj, Sonja; Breuer, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival). Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046). We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002), indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of breast cancer. Likely due to limitation of sample

  17. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1 closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1 is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival. Methods Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. Results YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046. We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002, indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of

  18. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy can induce considerable, sustained viral suppression followed by immunological recovery, in which naive CD4 + cells are important. Long-term immunological recovery was investigated during the first 3 y of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 210 HIV-1......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression...

  19. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Alzua, Maria Laura; Osbert, Nicolas; Pickering, Amy

    2017-06-20

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health.

  20. Growth of L-band scintillation at anomaly crest station in association with strong TEC gradient: A study covering wide solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, K.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Zahan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at to study the sources associated with growth of L band scintillation over Guwahati, an Appleton anomaly region. Starting with the analysis of diurnal and seasonal characteristic features of scintillation from a minimum sunspot number (Rz) of 10 to a maximum of 140, the paper shows that scintillations are more likely to develop during high solar activity period. It also highlights the explosive increase in occurrence of scintillation from post sunset to pre midnight hours in vernal equinoctial months when the background TEC is 50% more than on a normal day, accompanied by enhanced TEC decay rate. The role of equatorial anomaly effects through EXB drift processes are brought into discussion as possible sources on the growth of small scale irregularities leading to such scintillations.

  1. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  2. No causal effect of serum urate on bone-related outcomes among a population of postmenopausal women and elderly men of Chinese Han ethnicity--a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, A; Yao, Q; He, J; Fu, W; Yu, J; Zhang, Z

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the effect of serum uric acid on bone-related outcomes using a weighted urate transporter genetic risk score as the instrumental variable. The results showed no significance. Our study identified no evidence of a causal role between uric acid and bone-related outcomes. Observational studies have associated elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) with increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and a lowered prevalence of osteoporotic fractures (OFs) in postmenopausal women and elderly men. However, due to unmeasured confounding variables, these observational studies have not provided insight into the causal relationship between SUA and bone-related outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of SUA on bone-related outcomes using Mendelian randomization. We recruited 1322 Chinese Han individuals (214 elderly men and 1108 postmenopausal women) from the Shanghai area in China. Mendelian randomization using a two-stage least-squares regression method was conducted with SUA as the exposure variable, a weighted urate transporter genetic risk score as the instrumental variable, and all-site BMD, bone turnover markers, and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D], serum calcium (Ca), serum phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as outcome variables. Strong associations between SUA and bone-related outcomes were observed in an ordinary observational analysis (lumbar spine: beta = 0.122, p Mendelian randomization analysis showed no evidence for a causal association of SUA with BMD (lumbar spine: beta = 0.385, p = 0.257; hip: beta = 0.191, p = 0.499; femoral neck: beta = 0.194, p = 0.533). Similar results were found between SUA and other bone-related phenotypes. Our study identified no evidence of a causal role between SUA and bone-related outcomes, although strong associations in an observational analysis were observed in a population of postmenopausal women and elderly men.

  3. Elements of Causal Inference: Foundations and Learning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Jonas Martin; Janzing, Dominik; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    A concise and self-contained introduction to causal inference, increasingly important in data science and machine learning......A concise and self-contained introduction to causal inference, increasingly important in data science and machine learning...

  4. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  5. The Hankel transform of causal distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Aguirre T.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this note we evaluate the unidimensional distributional Hankel transform of \\dfrac{x^{\\alpha-1}_{+}}{\\Gamma^{\\alpha}},\\dfrac{x^{\\alpha-1}_{-}}{\\Gamma^{\\alpha}},dfrac{|x|^{\\alpha-1}}{\\Gamma^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}},dfrac{|x|^{\\alpha-1}sgn(x}{\\Gamma^{\\frac{\\alpha +1}{2}}} and (x± i0^{\\alpha-1} and then we extend the formulae to certain kinds of n-dimensional distributions calles "causal" and "anti-causal" distributions. We evaluate the distributional Handel transform of \\dfrac{(m^2+P^{\\alpha -1}_{-}}{\\Gamma^{(\\alpha} }, \\dfrac{|m^2+P|^{\\alpha -1}_{-}}{\\Gamma^{(\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}}, \\dfrac{|m^2+P|^{\\alpha -1}sgn(m^2+P}{\\Gamma (\\frac{\\alpha +1}{2 }} and (m^2+P±i0^{\\alpha-1}

  6. Kernel Method for Nonlinear Granger Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Pellicoro, Mario; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2008-04-01

    Important information on the structure of complex systems can be obtained by measuring to what extent the individual components exchange information among each other. The linear Granger approach, to detect cause-effect relationships between time series, has emerged in recent years as a leading statistical technique to accomplish this task. Here we generalize Granger causality to the nonlinear case using the theory of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Our method performs linear Granger causality in the feature space of suitable kernel functions, assuming arbitrary degree of nonlinearity. We develop a new strategy to cope with the problem of overfitting, based on the geometry of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Applications to coupled chaotic maps and physiological data sets are presented.

  7. Finite quantum electrodynamics the causal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Günter

    2014-01-01

    In this classic text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of physics, author Günter Scharf carefully analyzes the role of causality in quantum electrodynamics. His approach offers full proofs and detailed calculations of scattering processes in a mathematically rigorous manner. This third edition contains Scharf's revisions and corrections plus a brief new Epilogue on gauge invariance of quantum electrodynamics to all orders. The book begins with Dirac's theory, followed by the quantum theory of free fields and causal perturbation theory, a powerful method that avoids ultraviolet divergences and solves the infrared problem by means of the adiabatic limit. Successive chapters explore properties of the S-matrix — such as renormalizability, gauge invariance, and unitarity — the renormalization group, and interactive fields. Additional topics include electromagnetic couplings and the extension of the methods to non-abelian gauge theories. Each chapter is supplemented with problems, and four appe...

  8. Capturing cognitive causal paths in human reliability analysis with Bayesian network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirglmaier, Kilian; Straub, Daniel; Groth, Katrina M.

    2017-01-01

    reIn the last decade, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been identified as a powerful tool for human reliability analysis (HRA), with multiple advantages over traditional HRA methods. In this paper we illustrate how BNs can be used to include additional, qualitative causal paths to provide traceability. The proposed framework provides the foundation to resolve several needs frequently expressed by the HRA community. First, the developed extended BN structure reflects the causal paths found in cognitive psychology literature, thereby addressing the need for causal traceability and strong scientific basis in HRA. Secondly, the use of node reduction algorithms allows the BN to be condensed to a level of detail at which quantification is as straightforward as the techniques used in existing HRA. We illustrate the framework by developing a BN version of the critical data misperceived crew failure mode in the IDHEAS HRA method, which is currently under development at the US NRC . We illustrate how the model could be quantified with a combination of expert-probabilities and information from operator performance databases such as SACADA. This paper lays the foundations necessary to expand the cognitive and quantitative foundations of HRA. - Highlights: • A framework for building traceable BNs for HRA, based on cognitive causal paths. • A qualitative BN structure, directly showing these causal paths is developed. • Node reduction algorithms are used for making the BN structure quantifiable. • BN quantified through expert estimates and observed data (Bayesian updating). • The framework is illustrated for a crew failure mode of IDHEAS.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a potent risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis enhancing local and systemic inflammation associated with strong oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisina I Onofrio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The immune mechanisms underlying experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and more interestingly, the effect of T. cruzi chronic infection on the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder are not completely understood.We evaluated immunological parameters in male C57BL/6 wild type and TLR4 deficient mice fed with a standard, low fat diet, LFD (3% fat as control group, or a medium fat diet, MFD (14% fat in order to induce NASH, or mice infected intraperitoneally with 100 blood-derived trypomastigotes of Tulahuen strain and also fed with LFD (I+LFD or MFD (I+MFD for 24 weeks. We demonstrated that MFD by itself was able to induce NASH in WT mice and that parasitic infection induced marked metabolic changes with reduction of body weight and steatosis revealed by histological studies. The I+MFD group also improved insulin resistance, demonstrated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR analysis; although parasitic infection increased the triglycerides and cholesterol plasma levels. In addition, hepatic M1 inflammatory macrophages and cytotoxic T cells showed intracellular inflammatory cytokines which were associated with high levels of IL6, IFNγ and IL17 plasmatic cytokines and CCL2 chemokine. These findings correlated with an increase in hepatic parasite load in I+MFD group demonstrated by qPCR assays. The recruitment of hepatic B lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells was enhanced by MFD, and it was intensified by parasitic infection. These results were TLR4 signaling dependent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species and peroxinitrites produced by liver inflammatory leukocytes of MFD group were also exacerbated by parasitic infection in our NASH model.We highlight that a medium fat diet by itself is able to induce steatohepatitis. Our results also suggest a synergic effect between damage associated with molecular patterns generated during NASH and parasitic infection

  10. Granger-Causality Maps of Diffusion Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wahl, B.; Feudel, U.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.; Freund, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 16 February (2016), č. článku 022213. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Granger causality * stochastic process * diffusion process * nonlinear dynamical systems Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  11. On the causality relations in thermoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Federico; López de Haro, Mariano; Figueroa, Aldo

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between the causality principle and the existence of couplings between different thermodynamic driving forces in a given phenomenon is discussed. The case of thermoelectricity is explicitly analyzed. A transport equation for the propagation of thermal disturbances in a sample after an electric potential difference is applied is derived. The consequences of the non-hyperbolic character of this equation and the need for investigating its possible connection with nonequilibrium thermodynamics formulations are pointed out.

  12. Urinary pH Levels are Strongly Associated with Bladder Recurrence After Nephroureterectomy in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Patients with a Smoking History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Nozomi; Hongo, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-12-01

    Aromatic amines, well-known bladder carcinogens, derived from cigarette smoke are activated by acidic urine. We herein determined whether urinary pH levels are associated with bladder recurrence in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients with a positive smoking history. A total of 256 upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients who were surgically treated at our institution between 1990 and 2013 were included. Urinary pH levels were defined as the median of at least two consecutive measurements within 1 month of surgery. Ninety-six patients (37.5 %) had pH pH ≥5.5, and urinary pH levels were identified as one of the significant predictors for bladder recurrence in univariate but not multivariate Cox regression analysis in overall. In patients with a positive smoking history among those without a history of bladder tumor (N = 110), the 5-year bladder recurrence-free survival rate was 52.5 % in patients with pH ≥5.5, which was significantly higher than that in those with pH pH pH pH for urine alkalization may prevent bladder recurrence.

  13. A multivariate analysis of variation in genome size and endoreduplication in angiosperms reveals strong phylogenetic signal and association with phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainard, Jillian D; Bainard, Luke D; Henry, Thomas A; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Genome size (C-value) and endopolyploidy (endoreduplication index, EI) are known to correlate with various morphological and ecological traits, in addition to phylogenetic placement. A phylogenetically controlled multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationships between DNA content and phenotype in angiosperms. Seeds from 41 angiosperm species (17 families) were grown in a common glasshouse experiment. Genome size (2C-value and 1Cx-value) and EI (in four tissues: leaf, stem, root, petal) were determined using flow cytometry. The phylogenetic signal was calculated for each measure of DNA content, and phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) explored how the variation in genome size and EI was correlated with 18 morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic signal (λ) was strongest for EI in all tissues, and λ was stronger for the 2C-value than the 1Cx-value. PCCA revealed that EI was correlated with pollen length, stem height, seed mass, dispersal mechanism, arbuscular mycorrhizal association, life history and flowering time, and EI and genome size were both correlated with stem height and life history. PCCA provided an effective way to explore multiple factors of DNA content variation and phenotypic traits in a phylogenetic context. Traits that were correlated significantly with DNA content were linked to plant competitive ability. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Investigating the Causal Relationship of C-Reactive Protein with 32 Complex Somatic and Psychiatric Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Bram P; Abbasi, Ali; Wong, Anson

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with immune, cardiometabolic, and psychiatric traits and diseases. Yet it is inconclusive whether these associations are causal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using two genetic risk scores (GRSs) as inst...

  15. Assessing Causal Pathways between Physical Formidability and Aggression in Human Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Dawes, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest the existence of an association between the physical formidability of human males and their level of aggression. This association is theoretically predictable from animal models of conflict behavior but could emerge from multiple different causal pathways. Previous studies have...

  16. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  17. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship). Find...

  18. High diversity in functional properties of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in divergent primate species is more strongly associated with phylogeny than coat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitina, Tatjana; Ringholm, Aneta; Kelly, Joanne; Mundy, Nicholas I; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2007-09-01

    We have characterized the biochemical function of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a critical regulator of melanin synthesis, from 9 phylogenetically diverse primate species with varying coat colors. There is substantial diversity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding affinity and basal levels of activity in the cloned MC1Rs. MSH binding was lost independently in lemur and New World monkey lineages, whereas high basal levels of MC1R activity occur in lemurs and some New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. Highest levels of basal activity were found in the MC1R of ruffed lemurs, which have the E94K mutation that leads to constitutive activation in other species. In 3 species (2 lemurs and the howler monkey), we report the novel finding that binding and inhibition of MC1R by agouti signaling protein (ASIP) can occur when MSH binding has been lost, thus enabling continuing regulation of the melanin type via ASIP expression. Together, these findings can explain the previous paradox of a predominantly pheomelanic coat in the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The presence of a functional, MSH-responsive MC1R in orangutan demonstrates that the mechanism of red hair generation in this ape is different from the prevalent mechanism in European human populations. Overall, we have found unexpected diversity in MC1R function among primates and show that the evolution of the regulatory control of MC1R activity occurs by independent variation of 3 distinct mechanisms: basal MC1R activity, MSH binding and activation, and ASIP binding and inhibition. This diversity of function is broadly associated with primate phylogeny and does not have a simple relation to coat color phenotype within primate clades.

  19. Strong conservation of rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) locus organization and sequence among Babesia isolates infecting sheep from China (Babesia motasi-like phylogenetic group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Valentin, Charlotte; Bonsergent, Claire; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (RAP-1) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate due to its involvement in red blood cell invasion by parasites in the genus Babesia. We examined its value as a vaccine candidate by studying RAP-1 conservation in isolates of Babesia sp. BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei, responsible for ovine babesiosis in different regions of China. The rap-1 locus in these isolates has very similar features to those described for Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan, another Chinese isolate also in the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group, namely the presence of three types of rap-1 genes (rap-1a, rap-1b and rap-1c), multiple conserved rap-1b copies (5) interspaced with more or less variable rap-1a copies (6), and the 3' localization of one rap-1c. The isolates Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and Ningxian were almost identical (average nucleotide identity of 99.9%) over a putative locus of about 31 Kb, including the intergenic regions. Babesia sp. Hebei showed a similar locus organization but differed in the rap-1 locus sequence, for each gene and intergenic region, with an average nucleotide identity of 78%. Our results are in agreement with 18S rDNA phylogenetic studies performed on these isolates. However, in extremely closely related isolates the rap-1 locus seems more conserved (99.9%) than the 18S rDNA (98.7%), whereas in still closely related isolates the identities are much lower (78%) compared with the 18S rDNA (97.7%). The particularities of the rap-1 locus in terms of evolution, phylogeny, diagnosis and vaccine development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A new approach to causality in the frequency domain

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Dalkir

    2004-01-01

    This study refers to the earlier work of analysis in the frequency domain. A different definition of causality is made, and its implications to the general idea of causality are discussed. The causality relationship between two monetary aggregates, simple sum and Divisia indices, and their relation with the personal income is analyzed using wavelet time-scale decomposition.