WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong base resins

  1. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  2. Synergistic desorption of molybdenum from the strong base anion exchange resin by molybdnum fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Zhao Guirong

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the synerglstic desorption of molybdenum from the strong base anion exchange resin is studied using ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate, sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfate or sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride mixed chloride mixed desorbents. The coefficients of synergistlc desorption for various mixed desorbents are obtained. The experimental results show that the desorption efficiency of the mixed desorbent containing ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate is so high that it can substitute for the mixed desorbent used in the plant. The harmful affect of the chloride ion on production can be eliminated if this mixed desorbent is used for the plant

  3. Guidelines for selecting weak-base versus strong-base anion-exchange resins for the recovery of chromate from cooling tower blowdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.; Reed, L.W.

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for selecting weak-base versus strong-base anion-exchange resins for the recovery of chromate from cooling tower blowdown are given, together with actual operating data on large-scale industrial systems based on strong-base anion-exchange resins, data from a similar pilot system based on weak-base anion resin, and the chemical costs for operating both systems for a cooling tower blowdown containing 2500 ppm total dissolved solids and 20 ppm chromata.

  4. Application of the pentaiodide strong base resin disinfectant to the U.S. space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchin, George L.

    1990-01-01

    A pentaiodide resin is described which has 70 percent of its weight composed of elemental iodine, has a relatively low iodine residual, and may offer superior disinfection capability for applications on long-duration space vehicles. Such a disinfectant is crucial for use on spacecraft for long periods of time where water would be recycled through various systems. The pentaiodide resin is capable of devitalizing 1 x 10 to the 9th bacteria per ml in aqueous suspension within 10 seconds of contact with the resin bed. A number of organisms have already been tested and the resin continues to prove effective. Resin properties and composition are discussed and a detailed account of the first investigation of the pentaiodide resin as a disinfectant against the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia is provided.

  5. Experience with intermediate strong base anion resins at three mile island nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federick, K.H.; Reed, J.G.; Glass, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A-104 resin appears to have been an excellent replacement for upflow regenerated Stratabeds at Three Mile Island. It has resulted in a 50% increase in operating throughputs, lower maintenance and greater ease of operation for the makeup trains. It should be stressed that differences in raw water characteristics or equipment design might render this experience not applicable to any given specific installation. A thorough evaluation of all aspects of such a conversion is recommended before any changes are attempted. 1 ref

  6. Fundamental aspects related to batch and fixed-bed sulfate sorption by the macroporous type 1 strong base ion exchange resin Purolite A500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Damaris; Leão, Versiane A

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is a natural process occurring when sulfide minerals such as pyrite are exposed to water and oxygen. The bacterially catalyzed oxidation of pyrite is particularly common in coal mining operations and usually results in a low-pH water polluted with toxic metals and sulfate. Although high sulfate concentrations can be reduced by gypsum precipitation, removing lower concentrations (below 1200 mg/L) remains a challenge. Therefore, this work sought to investigate the application of ion exchange resins for sulfate sorption. The macroporous type 1 strong base IX resin Purolite A500 was selected for bath and fixed-bed sorption experiments using synthetic sulfate solutions. Equilibrium experiments showed that sulfate loading on the resin can be described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum uptake of 59 mg mL-resin(-1). The enthalpy of sorption was determined as +2.83 kJ mol(-1), implying an endothermic physisorption process that occurred with decreasing entropy (-15.5 J mol(-1).K(-1)). Fixed-bed experiments were performed at different bed depths, flow rates, and initial sulfate concentrations. The Miura and Hashimoto model predicted a maximum bed loading of 25-30 g L-bed(-1) and indicated that both film diffusion (3.2 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 22.6 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and surface diffusion (1.46 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) to 5.64 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) resistances control the sorption process. It was shown that IX resins are an alternative for the removal of sulfate from mine waters; they ensure very low residual concentrations, particularly in effluents where the sulfate concentration is below the gypsum solubility threshold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of nuclear grade strongly basic anion exchange resin in hydroxide from

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1989-01-01

    The two-step transformation method was used to prepare 90 kg nuclear grade strongly basic anion exchange resins by using the industrial grade baking soda and caustic soda manufacutred by mercury-cathode electrolysis. The chloride and biscarbonate fraction on resin is 0.8% and 1.25% respectively, when the baking soda and caustic soda consumption is 8.6 and 13.7 times the total exchange capacity of the strongly basic resin

  8. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gott, Matthew D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; and others

    2014-07-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β{sup -} particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186g}Re produces low specific activity {sup 186g}Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity {sup 186g}Re from targets of enriched {sup 186}W. To optimize the chemical {sup 186g}Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO{sub 3}) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} strength of up to 1.9 mol kg{sup -1} does not significantly compromise ReO{sub 4}{sup -} retention on the resin. (orig.)

  9. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  10. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  11. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  12. Biodegradation of acrylic based resins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ana F; Neves, Cristina B; de Almeida, Marise S; Pinheiro, Lídia M; Oliveira, Sofia Arantes e; Lopes, Luís P; Castro, Matilde F

    2010-05-01

    The development of different types of materials with application in dentistry is an area of intense growth and research, due to its importance in oral health. Among the different materials there are the acrylic based resins that have been extensively used either in restorations or in dentures. The objective of this manuscript was to review the acrylic based resins biodegradation phenomena. Specific attention was given to the causes and consequences of materials degradation under the oral environment. Information from scientific full papers, reviews or abstracts published from 1963 to date were included in the review. Published material was searched in dental literature using general and specialist databases, like the PubMED database. Published studies regarding the description of biodegradation mechanisms, in vitro and in vivo release experiments and cell based studies conducted on acrylic based resins or their components were evaluated. Studies related to the effect of biodegradation on the physical and mechanical properties of the materials were also analyzed. Different factors such as saliva characteristics, chewing or thermal and chemical dietary changes may be responsible for the biodegradation of acrylic based resins. Release of potential toxic compounds from the material and change on their physical and mechanical properties are the major consequences of biodegradation. Increasing concern arises from potential toxic effects of biodegradation products under clinical application thus justifying an intensive research in this area. 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid Resins-Based Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Fuke

    In this review, additive manufacturing technologies using liquid resins as materials are reviewed from the perspective of printing technologies and materials. Most importantly, recent progress of new printing technologies and printers as well as novel printing materials and their applications are summarized, based on which potential future research directions are discussed at the end of this review.

  14. Correlation in the mechanical properties of acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Lee, Chung-Jae; Asaoka, Kenzo

    2012-02-03

    The aim of the present study was to measure various mechanical properties of acrylic denture base resins, including flexural modulus, flexural strength, fracture toughness, Barcol and Vickers hardness and their related properties, and to investigate correlations between different mechanical properties. Resin specimens were prepared according to manufacturers' recommended instructions. The mechanical properties were measured under specified standards. Data from the mechanical tests were examined using correlation tests. In general, the mean results for mechanical properties of each specimen group were differently ranked depending on the tested mechanical property. The flexural modulus value showed strong or reasonable positive correlation with those of proportional limit, flexural strength, and surface hardness. In contrast, fracture toughness revealed strong negative correlations with the flexural parameters and hardness values. Results of correlation tests for the different parameters can be used for estimation of mechanical performance of acrylic denture bases in clinical situation and for quality control purposes.

  15. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  16. Study of phosphorous based resins for the uptake of plutonium from H2SO4 based analytical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, H.; Mohandas, Jaya; Srinivasan, S.; Kumar, T.; Rajan, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    This study indicates that phosphorous based resins can be conveniently employed for the uptake of plutonium from analytical wastes even in strong acid media and also in the presence of diverse ions like silver and chromium. It is also evident that phosphorous based resins have proved to be efficient even in sulphuric acid medium

  17. Bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four kinds of injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) and PMMA, as a control, were tested. The eight types of surface treatment: ((1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) air abrasion and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating, and (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin) were applied to each specimen. The chairside autopolymerizing reline resins were bonded to disks of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. All of the specimens were immersed in water for 4 months and then thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5 and 55°C. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths of the two polyamides treated using air abrasion, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were exceedingly low. The greatest bond strength was recorded for the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.5MPa). The bond strengths of the other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins increased using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin were the most effective surface treatments among all denture base resins tested. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  19. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  20. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  1. Shear bond strength of an autopolymerizing repair resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the shear bond strength of an autopolymerizing repair resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) were used in this study. The specimens were divided into eight groups according to the type of surface treatment given: (1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion with alumina, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) alumina and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating or (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Half of the specimens in groups 1, 5, 6 and 8 were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5-55°C with a dwell time of 1 min at each temperature. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths to the two polyamides treated with alumina, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were very low. The greatest post-thermocycling bond strengths to polyamides were recorded for the specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (PA12: 16.4 MPa, PACM12: 17.5 MPa). The greatest post-thermocycling bond strengths to polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycarbonate were recorded for the treatment with alumina and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.7 MPa, 20.8 MPa). Polyamide was exceedingly difficult to bond to an autopolymerizing repair resin; the shear bond strength improved using tribochemical silica coating followed by the application of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Both polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycarbonate were originally easy to bond to an autopolymerizing repair resin. However, with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, the bond was more secure.

  2. Synthesis and characterizations of melamine-based epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-09-05

    A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials.

  3. Has resin-based composite replaced amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J; Child, Paul L

    2010-02-01

    The major health organizations in the world continue to accept amalgam use, but the "amalgam war" of the 1800s is still going on. The end is not in sight. There is little disagreement that amalgam serves well and, although controversial, it appears to have minimal to no health hazards. There is a wide variation in the relative amount of amalgam placed in developed countries, and many dentists in North America do not use it. However, amalgam is still being used at least some of the time by the majority of practitioners in North America, and most of those practitioners also place resin-based composite in Class II locations. The evolution from amalgam to tooth-colored restorations has been a slow and tumultuous journey. The acceptability of resin-based composite in Class II locations continues to be a question for some dentists, while others have concluded that amalgam is "dead." It would be highly desirable if some of dentists using the alleged poisonous properties of amalgam as a "practice building" ploy would find more legitimate methods to increase their practice activity.

  4. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  5. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  6. Composite materials based on modified epoxy resin and carbon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalez, Viviane; Barcia, Fabio L.; Soares, Bluma G.

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy resin networks have been modified with block copolymer of polybutadiene and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA)-based on epoxy resin. The epoxy resin modified with carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene presented improved impact resistance and outstanding mechanical performance in terms of flexural and tensile properties because of the presence of rubber particles homogeneously dispersed inside the epoxy matrix. This modified system also resulted in an improvement of mechanical properties o...

  7. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  8. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J J; Cameron, S M; Runyan, D A; Craft, D W

    1999-02-01

    During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal surfaces of acrylic resins. Four groups of acrylic resin were incubated in an experimental model to simulate the oral environment over time. Specimens were treated in 2 groups, disinfected and not disinfected, and then further grouped by breaking and not breaking. Analysis was performed with microbial colony counts, SEM, and statistical analyses. Viable microorganisms still remain on the internal and external surfaces of treated resins. Chlorine dioxide reduces, but does not eliminate, viable microorganisms on these dental prostheses.

  9. SOLVENT EFFECTS IN THE LIQUID-PHASE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A MACROPOROUS STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  10. Properties of injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the properties of injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture base resins. Two injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture base resins (polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer) were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated for flexural properties testing, Charpy impact testing and shear bond testing (n = 10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, elastic modulus, Charpy impact strength and the shear bond strength of the two denture base materials were estimated. The polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin had significantly lower flexural strength at the proportional limit, lower elastic modulus, higher impact strength and lower shear bond strength compared to the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin. The properties of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins composed of polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer were different from each other. The polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin had significantly lower flexural strength at the proportional limit, lower elastic modulus, higher impact strength and lower shear bond strength compared to the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin.

  11. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  12. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  13. Study of Adsorption Property of Ga(III) onto Strongly Basic Resin for Ga Extraction from Bayer Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Yang, Yongxiang; Lu, Hao; Hua, Zhongsheng; Ma, Xiaoling

    Ion-exchange is the main technology used in industry for gallium recovery from Bayer liquor, the largest gallium production resource. However, the co-extraction of vanadium and the degradation of resins are the major issues. Further investigations related to fundamental theory are needed. This paper reports the study of the adsorption properties of a strongly basic resin having a combination of one =NOH group and another active group -NH2 for Ga(III) extraction. The influence of operational conditions such as contact time, initial Ga(III) concentration and temperature on Ga(III) adsorption were extensively investigated. The results revealed that the resin has high adsorption capacity and Ga(III) selectivity. The optimal adsorption condition was obtained at temperatures of 40-50°C and contact time of 40-60 min. The Ga(III) adsorption data on the resin fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe Ga(III) adsorption isotherms on the resin.

  14. Mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, one polyethylene terephthalate, one polycarbonate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were used in this study. The flexural strength at the proportional limit (FS-PL), the elastic modulus, and the Charpy impact strength of the denture base resins were measured according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1567 and ISO 1567:1999/Amd 1:2003. The descending order of the FS-PL was: conventional PMMA > polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate > two polyamides. The descending order of the elastic moduli was: conventional PMMA > polycarbonate > polyethylene terephthalate > two polyamides. The descending order of the Charpy impact strength was: polyamide (Nylon PACM12) > polycarbonate > polyamide (Nylon 12), polyethylene terephthalate > conventional PMMA. All of the injection-molded thermoplastic resins had significantly lower FS-PL, lower elastic moduli, and higher or similar impact strength compared to the conventional PMMA. The polyamide denture base resins had low FS-PL and low elastic moduli; one of them possessed very high impact strength, and the other had low impact strength. The polyethylene terephthalate denture base resin showed a moderately high FS-PL, moderate elastic modulus, and low impact strength. The polycarbonate denture base resin had a moderately high FS-PL, moderately high elastic modulus, and moderate impact strength.

  15. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  16. Characteristics of competitive uptake between Microcystin-LR and natural organic matter (NOM) fractions using strongly basic anion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Fuhar; Barbeau, Benoit; Mohseni, Madjid

    2018-03-29

    Microcystins are the most commonly occurring cyanotoxins, and have been extensively studied across the globe. In the present study, a strongly basic anion exchange resin was employed to investigate the removal of Microcystin-LR (MCLR), one of the most toxic microcystin variants. Factors influencing the uptake behavior included the MCLR and resin concentrations, resin dosage, and natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics, specifically, the charge density and molecular weight distribution of source water NOM. Equivalent background concentration (EBC) was employed to evaluate the competitive uptake between NOM and MCLR. The experimental data were compared with different mathematical and physical models and pore diffusion was determined as the rate-limiting step. The resin dose/solute concentration ratio played a key role in the MCLR uptake process and MCLR removal was attributed primarily to electrostatic attractions. Charge density and molecular weight distribution of the background NOM fractions played a major role in MCLR removal at lower resin dosages (200 mg/L ∼ 1 mL/L and below), where a competitive uptake was observed due to the limited exchange sites. Further, evidences of pore blockage and site reduction were also observed in the presence of humics and larger molecular weight organic fractions, where a four-fold reduction in the MCLR uptake was observed. Comparable results were obtained for laboratory studies on synthetic laboratory water and surface water under similar conditions. Given their excellent performance and low cost, anion exchange resins are expected to present promising potentials for applications involving the removal of removal of algal toxins and NOM from surface waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Sorption, Solubility and Microhardness of Heat Cure Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Resin & Flexible Denture Base Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbule, Nilesh; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Shah, Riddhi; Kakade, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare sorption, solubility and microhardness of heat cure polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin and flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Sorption, solubility and microhardness were assessed to determine compliance with ADA Specification no. 12. Results were assessed using statistical and observational analyses. Result: All materials satisfied ADA requirements for sorption, solubility and microhardness. Heat cure PMMA showed more sorption, solubility and microhardness than flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon). Conclusion: Flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) resin absorbs less water, is less soluble and is more flexible than PMMA. PMID:25302291

  18. A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic and Resin Denture Teeth on Different Acrylic Resin Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Corsalini, Massimo; Venere, Daniela Di; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial pl...

  19. Mechanical characterisation of agarose-based chromatography resins for biopharmaceutical manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Mauryn C; McCartney, R Graham; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2017-12-29

    Mechanical characterisation of agarose-based resins is an important factor in ensuring robust chromatographic performance in the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. Pressure-flow profiles are most commonly used to characterise these properties. There are a number of drawbacks with this method, including the potential need for several re-packs to achieve the desired packing quality, the impact of wall effects on experimental set up and the quantities of chromatography media and buffers required. To address these issues, we have developed a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) technique that characterises the mechanical properties of resins based on the viscoelasticity of a 1ml sample of slurry. This technique was conducted on seven resins with varying degrees of mechanical robustness and the results were compared to pressure-flow test results on the same resins. Results show a strong correlation between the two techniques. The most mechanically robust resin (Capto Q) had a critical velocity 3.3 times higher than the weakest (Sepharose CL-4B), whilst the DMA technique showed Capto Q to have a slurry deformation rate 8.3 times lower than Sepharose CL-4B. To ascertain whether polymer structure is indicative of mechanical strength, scanning electron microscopy images were also used to study the structural properties of each resin. Results indicate that DMA can be used as a small volume, complementary technique for the mechanical characterisation of chromatography media. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Wear resistance of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigated the wear resistance of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins using nanoindentation instrument. Materials and methods Six injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]) and a PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer control were tested. Elastic modulus, hardness, wear depth, and roughness were calculated using a nanoindentation instrument. Results Elastic modulus and hardness of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins were significantly lower than those of the PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer. Wear depth of polycarbonate and PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer were significantly higher than that of other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. The roughness of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins was significantly more than that of PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer after testing. Conclusions Wear resistance of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base was low compared to PMMA conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymers. PMID:28642909

  1. Protein a resin lifetime study: Evaluation of protein a resin performance with a model-based approach in continuous capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Ketki; Cha, Bumjoon; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2018-01-22

    A modified shrinking core model (MSCM) has been used to describe the mechanism for the degradation of Protein A resin particles taking place under continuous chromatographic operation. The model is based on the hypothetical shrinkage of the boundary layer of the resin particles, which house the active Protein A ligands within their pores. The caustic during the sanitization phase of chromatography has been determined to cause the Protein A ligand degradation. Protein A resins provided by manufacturers possess unique caustic stability, which has been used in MSCM to appraise the ligand degradation. The kinetic model utilized semiempirical parameters including diffusion constant, rate constant, stoichiometric factor, and reaction order. The parameters were estimated from column breakthrough experiments to simulate continuous Protein A chromatography for three distinct resins. The reaction order has been identified as the key parameter for predicting the degradation kinetics. The recorded reaction orders vary for three different resins with the resin B showing the highest reaction order of 4 and lowest being 1.65 for the resin C. The model can predict the effects of caustic on resin performance and displayed that minimal degradation of the resins A and B occurred, when exposed to 0.1 N and 0.2N NaOH, retaining up to 96% binding capacity after 240 cycles. The adsorption study conducted for the resin B demonstrated the dynamic physical and chemical changes transpiring through the life cycle of the resin, further supported the degradation model. The performance data demonstrate that the resin B exhibits the desirable performance, with higher reaction order indicating slower resin degradation, higher binding capacities, and increased sustenance of this binding capacity for extended duration. The degradation model can be extended to build effective cleaning strategies for continuous downstream processing.

  2. The degradation of strong basic anion exchange resins and mixed-bed ion-exchange resins: Effect of degradation products on radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. van; Hummel, W.

    1999-01-01

    The most important water-soluble products of the radiolytic degradation of anion exchange resins in a cementitious environment are ammonia and methylamines. These ligands do not form complexes with most radionuclides. Exceptions are Ni, Ag, and Pd, which form strong complexes with amines. Other degradation products of anion and mixed-bed ion-exchange resins are of no importance concerning the complexation of trivalent radionuclides. This is shown indirectly by adsorption experiments: The degradation products do not have a significant effect on the adsorption of Eu(III) on calcite. The effect of ammonia and methylamines on the complexation of Ni, Ag, and Pd is investigated by chemical modeling. For Ni and Ag, rather reliable predictions can be made using available thermodynamic data. In the case of Pd, large uncertainties are encountered due to unreliable data and gaps in the set of important species. The system Pd(II)-ammonia-water is explored in detail. Predominant species are inferred by chemical analogy, and their thermodynamic data are estimated. The uncertainty in these estimated and measured but unreliable data is bound by qualitative and quantitative chemical reasoning

  3. Subsurface degradation of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Rafat; Tyas, Martin J; Burrow, Michael F

    2007-08-01

    To determine the depth of a degraded subsurface layer produced in dental composites as a result of exposure to lactic acid or NaOH, by observing the penetration of AgNO(3) solution. Specimens were prepared from four resin composites; Point 4 (Kerr), Premise (Kerr), Filtek Supreme (3M/ESPE), Ceram X (Dentsply), and two polyacid-modified resin composites; Dyract (Dentsply) and F2000 (3M/ESPE). The specimens were immersed in distilled water for 1 week, transferred to one of three aqueous media at 60 degrees C for 2 weeks; distilled water, 0.01mol/L lactic acid or 0.1N NaOH, washed and immersed in 50% (w/w) aqueous silver nitrate for 10 days at 60 degrees C and placed in a photodeveloper solution. After reduction of the silver, specimens were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned and polished, coated with carbon, and examined by backscattered mode scanning electron microscopy. The depth of silver penetration into the degraded area was measured from the SEM micrographs. Energy dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX) was used to confirm the presence of silver. NaOH produced the greatest depth of degradation and lactic acid the least. Premise showed the greatest depth of silver penetration when subjected to NaOH, and Filtek Supreme the second with peeling of the surface and cracking, whereas F2000 and Point 4 showed the least in NaOH and lactic acid. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed that the depth of silver penetration was material and solution dependent, and the differences were significant for most of the materials (P<0.05).

  4. Mechanical properties of denture base resins: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooran Chand

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The heat cure denture base material D (Trevalon "HI" was the strongest and C (Trevalon was the weakest among all materials used in this study. The study showed that the deflection of various denture base resins (A to D increases proportionately with the increase in load.

  5. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  6. Achieving an even thickness in heat-polymerized permanent acrylic resin denture bases for complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeson, M G; Jepson, N J

    1999-09-01

    Permanent denture bases form the fitting surface of a denture and are constructed on a master cast, in heat-polymerized acrylic resin. These bases are strong and rigid and demonstrate both the fit and retention of the final prosthesis. General recommendations suggests a thickness of between 1.5 to 3 mm for these bases. The normal procedure for producing such a denture base is to manually adapt materials to the cast, in their plastic state, before processing. Such procedures are liable to distortion and variation in the thickness of the resultant denture base and may be unreliable. This article describes a method for achieving a consistent thickness in a heat-polymerized, permanent, acrylic resin denture base through the use of a vacuum-formed, thermoplastic blank as a template. The method is simple, and results in a denture base with a consistent even thickness.

  7. Design of strong wooden box coated with fiberglass reinforced resin for shipping and burial of contaminated glove boxes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of al bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This attachment contains design of strong wooden box coated with fiberglass reinforced resin for shipping and burial of contaminated glove boxes

  8. Investigation of the cytotoxicity of thermoplastic denture base resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Si-Chul; Okubo, Chikahiro

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of thermoplastic denture base resins and to identify the possible adverse effects of these resins on oral keratinocytes in response to hot water/food intake. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six dental thermoplastic resin materials were evaluated: three polyamide materials (Smile tone, ST; Valplast, VP; and Luciton FRS, LF), two acrylic materials (Acrytone, AT; and Acryshot, AS), and one polypropylene resin material (Unigum, UG). One heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Vertex RS, RS) was chosen for comparison. After obtaining extracts from specimens of the denture resin materials (Φ=10 mm and d=2 mm) under different extraction conditions (37℃ for 24 hours, 70℃ for 24 hours, and 121℃ for 1 hour), the extracts (50%) or serial dilutions (25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%) in distilled water were co-cultured for 24 hours with immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOKs) or mouse fibroblasts (L929s) for the cytotoxicity assay described in ISO 10993. RESULTS Greater than 70% viability was detected under all test conditions. Significantly lower IHOK and L929 viability was detected in the 50% extract from the VP (70℃) and AT (121℃) samples (P<.05), but only L929 showed reduced viability in the 50% and 25% extract from LF (37℃) (P<.05). CONCLUSION Extracts obtained from six materials under different extraction conditions (37℃, 70℃, and 121℃) did not exhibit severe cytotoxicity (less than 70% viability), although their potential risk to oral mucosa at high temperatures should not be ignored. PMID:29279765

  9. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  10. Influence of Surface Modifications of Acrylic Resin Teeth on Shear Bond Strength with Denture Base Resin-An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vallabh; Krishnan, Madhusudan; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar; Azhagarasan, N S; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar; Ramasubramanian, Hariharan

    2015-09-01

    Debonding of artificial teeth from the denture base is an important issue for edentulous patients rehabilitated with conventional or implant supported complete dentures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength between denture base resin and acrylic resin denture teeth subjected to three different surface modifications on the ridge lap area as compared to unmodified denture teeth. Forty acrylic resin central incisor denture teeth were selected and randomly divided into four test groups. The teeth in each group were subjected to one of the three different surface modifications, namely, chemical treatment, sandblasting and placement of retentive grooves on the ridge lap area respectively, prior to packing of the denture base resin. The group with unmodified teeth served as control. Forty acrylic resin test blocks thus obtained were tested for shear bond strength between acrylic resin teeth and denture base resin in Universal Testing Machine. Data obtained was statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Student- Newman- Keul's test (p< 0.05). Analysis of shear bond strength revealed that retentive grooves on the ridge lap area showed highest bond strength values followed by sandblasting and both were statistically significant compared to the control and chemically treated groups. Unmodified surface of the resin teeth showed the least bond strength. Within the limitations of this invitro study the placement of retentive grooves or sandblasting of the ridge lap area showed highly significant improvement in shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. Chemical treatment did not result in any significant improvement in the shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface.

  11. Influence of Surface Modifications of Acrylic Resin Teeth on Shear Bond Strength with Denture Base Resin-An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Madhusudan; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar; Azhagarasan, N.S.; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar; Ramasubramanian, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Background Debonding of artificial teeth from the denture base is an important issue for edentulous patients rehabilitated with conventional or implant supported complete dentures. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength between denture base resin and acrylic resin denture teeth subjected to three different surface modifications on the ridge lap area as compared to unmodified denture teeth. Materials and Methods Forty acrylic resin central incisor denture teeth were selected and randomly divided into four test groups. The teeth in each group were subjected to one of the three different surface modifications, namely, chemical treatment, sandblasting and placement of retentive grooves on the ridge lap area respectively, prior to packing of the denture base resin. The group with unmodified teeth served as control. Forty acrylic resin test blocks thus obtained were tested for shear bond strength between acrylic resin teeth and denture base resin in Universal Testing Machine. Data obtained was statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Student- Newman- Keul’s test (p< 0.05). Results Analysis of shear bond strength revealed that retentive grooves on the ridge lap area showed highest bond strength values followed by sandblasting and both were statistically significant compared to the control and chemically treated groups. Unmodified surface of the resin teeth showed the least bond strength. Conclusion Within the limitations of this invitro study the placement of retentive grooves or sandblasting of the ridge lap area showed highly significant improvement in shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. Chemical treatment did not result in any significant improvement in the shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. PMID:26501005

  12. Synthesis and characterization of kraft lignin-based epoxy resins

    OpenAIRE

    El Mansouri, Nour-Eddine; Yuan, Qiaolong; Huang, Farong

    2011-01-01

    Epoxidization is an interesting way to develop a new application of lignin and therefore to improve its application potential. In this work, kraft lignin-based epoxy resins were obtained by the epoxidization reaction, using the kraft lignin recovered directly from pulping liquor and modified by a methylolation reaction. The methylolated lignins were obtained by the reaction of original kraft lignin with formaldehyde and glyoxal, which is a less volatile and less toxic aldehyde. 1H-NMR spectro...

  13. Chromium (VI removal from aqueous solutions by purolite base anion-exchange resins with gel structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Cr (VI from aqueous solution using two strong base anionic resins with gel structure, Purolite A-400 (styrene-divinylbenzene matrix and Purolite A-850 (acrylic matrix was investigated in batch technique. The sorption efficiency was determined as a function of phases contact time, solution pH, resin dose, temperature and initial Cr (VI concentration. The percentage of Cr (VI removed reaches maximum values (up to 99 % in the pH range 4 - 5.3 under a resin dose of 6 g/L and of Cr (VI concentration up to 100 mg/L. An increase in temperature has a positive effect on the Cr (VI sorption process. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models, using both linear and nonlinear regression method. The Langmuir model very well verifies the experimental data and gives the maximum sorption capacity of 120.55 mg Cr (VI/g and 95.82 mg Cr (VI/g for A-400 and A-850 resins, respectively. The thermodynamic study and mean free energy of sorption values calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich equation indicated the sorption is a chemical endothermic process. The kinetic data were well described by pseudo-second order kinetic equation and the sorption process is controlled by external (film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion.

  14. In Vitro Analysis of the Fracture Resistance of CAD/CAM Denture Base Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Steinmassl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM denture base manufacturers claim to produce their resin pucks under high heat and pressure. Therefore, CAD/CAM dentures are assumed to have enhanced mechanical properties and, as a result, are often produced with lower denture base thicknesses than conventional, manually fabricated dentures. The aim of this study was to investigate if commercially available CAD/CAM denture base resins have more favourable mechanical properties than conventionally processed denture base resins. For this purpose, a series of three-point bending tests conforming to ISO specifications were performed on a total of 80 standardised, rectangular CAD/CAM denture base resin specimens from five different manufacturers (AvaDent, Baltic Denture System, Vita VIONIC, Whole You Nexteeth, and Wieland Digital Dentures. A heat-polymerising resin and an autopolymerising resin served as the control groups. The breaking load, fracture toughness, and the elastic modulus were assessed. Additionally, the fracture surface roughness and texture were investigated. Only one CAD/CAM resin showed a significantly increased breaking load. Two CAD/CAM resins had a significantly higher fracture toughness than the control groups, and all CAD/CAM resins had higher elastic moduli than the controls. Our results indicate that CAD/CAM denture base resins do not generally have better mechanical properties than manually processed resins. Therefore, the lower minimum denture base thicknesses should be regarded with some caution.

  15. In Vitro Analysis of the Fracture Resistance of CAD/CAM Denture Base Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Otto; Offermanns, Vincent; Stöckl, Wolfgang; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Grunert, Ingrid; Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca

    2018-03-08

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) denture base manufacturers claim to produce their resin pucks under high heat and pressure. Therefore, CAD/CAM dentures are assumed to have enhanced mechanical properties and, as a result, are often produced with lower denture base thicknesses than conventional, manually fabricated dentures. The aim of this study was to investigate if commercially available CAD/CAM denture base resins have more favourable mechanical properties than conventionally processed denture base resins. For this purpose, a series of three-point bending tests conforming to ISO specifications were performed on a total of 80 standardised, rectangular CAD/CAM denture base resin specimens from five different manufacturers (AvaDent, Baltic Denture System, Vita VIONIC, Whole You Nexteeth, and Wieland Digital Dentures). A heat-polymerising resin and an autopolymerising resin served as the control groups. The breaking load, fracture toughness, and the elastic modulus were assessed. Additionally, the fracture surface roughness and texture were investigated. Only one CAD/CAM resin showed a significantly increased breaking load. Two CAD/CAM resins had a significantly higher fracture toughness than the control groups, and all CAD/CAM resins had higher elastic moduli than the controls. Our results indicate that CAD/CAM denture base resins do not generally have better mechanical properties than manually processed resins. Therefore, the lower minimum denture base thicknesses should be regarded with some caution.

  16. Removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions by strongly basic polystyrene anion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

    2009-05-30

    The removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions onto the strongly basic polystyrene anion exchangers of type 1 (Amberlite IRA-900) and type 2 (Amberlite IRA-910) was investigated. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/dm(3) initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (q(e,cal)) and the rate constant of the first order adsorption (k(1)) were determined. The pseudo-second order kinetic constants (k(2)) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/q(t) vs. t, 1/q(t) vs. 1/t, 1/t vs. 1/q(t) and q(t)/t vs. q(t) for type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 of the pseudo-second order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, solution pH and temperature on tartrazine removal was also discussed. The FTIR spectra of pure anion exchangers and those loaded with tartrazine were recorded, too.

  17. Selecting the Best Materials Compositions of Resin Based Bioasphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Ary; Widiharjo, Budi; Djumari

    2017-07-01

    Damar asphalt is one type of bioaspal which is a mixture with the main ingredient is a resin as a binder and cooking oil as a solvent. One major drawback of this damar asphalt is the low ductility. To improve the ductility values, then use the added material Filler. Filler serves as a divider between the impurities with damar asphalt, increases ductility and increase the ability of cohesion or bonding between the particles of material damar asphalt. The purpose of this study was to determine damar asphalt modifications to the properties in accordance with the properties of damar asphalt test specifications based on the value of penetration. This method uses some variant on material such as powder bricks and fly ash as a binder. Solvent in constituent used oil and used cooking oil. It also added the polymer latex up to 10% at intervals of 2%. The best composition of damar asphalt materials were obtained with gum rosin, Fly Ash, Oil and Latex. Damar asphalt modification damar asphalt optimum mix of resin (100g pure resin or resin chunk + 350g powder), Fly Ash powder (150g), cooking oil (205g), and latex 4%, ductility increased from 63.5 cm to 119.5 cm, the value of the flash point was originally at temperature of 240 °C to 260 °C, damar asphalt penetration of 68.2 dmm to 43 dmm, and the value of density decreases from 1.01 g / cm3 to 0.99 g / cm3. Damar asphalt at these modifications meet the specifications in terms of solubility in trichlore ethylene is equal to 99.5%, and also meet the affinity of damar asphalt at 99%. With the optimum value, damar asphalt could be categorized as bitumen 40/60 penetration.

  18. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    This randomized study evaluated a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in posterior restorations and compared it intraindividually with a conventional 2-mm resin composite layering technique over a 6-yr follow-up period. Thirty-eight pairs of Class II restorations and 15 pairs of Class I...... restorations were placed in 38 adults. In all cavities a single-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In the first cavity of each pair, the flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments of up to 4 mm. The occlusal part was completed with a layer of nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X...... mono). In the second cavity of each pair, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2-mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then annually for a time period of 6 yr. After 6 yr, 72 Class II restorations and 26...

  19. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The

  20. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .3. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE EQUILIBRIUM CONVERSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo-first-order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. Macroporous Amberlite XE 307 was used because of its superior catalytic activity. Chemical equilibrium

  1. Effect of preheat repetition on color stability of methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Gholizadeh, Sarah; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Rezaei, Yashar

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins on their color stability up to 40 times at 55‒60°C. Methods. Seventy-six methacrylate and silorane-based composite resin samples, with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 2 mm, were divided into 4 groups (n=19). After the samples were prepared, their color parameters were determined using a reflective spectrophotometer. The composite resin samples were separately stored in a solution of tea for 40 consecutive days. Then the samples underwent a color determination procedure again using a spectrophotometer and color changes were recorded. Finally two-way ANOVA was used to study the effect of composite temperature on its staining (Pcomposite resin samples compared to non-heated samples at P=0.005 and P=0.029 for silorane-based and Z250 composite resin samples, respectively. Results. Both composite resin type (P=0.014) and preheating (Pcomposite resin samples, up to 55‒60°C for 40 rounds, resulted in more color changes compared with unheated composite resin samples. After storage in a solution of tea the color change rate in the composite resin samples of silorane-based was higher than the Z250 composite resin samples.

  2. Surface roughness comparison of methacrylate and silorane-based composite resins after 40% hydrogen peroxide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori Sasmita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of the tooth colour could be restored with bleaching. The tooth bleaching will affects the surface roughness of the composite resins. Recently, the material basis for composite resins has developed, among others are methacrylate-based and silorane based composite resins. The objective of this study was to distinguish the surface roughness value of methacrylate-based composite resin and silorane based composite resins. This research was quasi-experimental. The sample used in this study were methacrylate and silorane based composite resins in discs form, with the size of 6 mm and the thickness of 3 mm, manufactured into 20 specimens and divided into 2 groups. The control group was immersed in the artificial saliva, and the treatment group was applied with 40% hydrogen peroxide. The result of the experiment analyzed using unpaired sample t-test showed significant differences in the average value of the surface roughness after the application of 40% hydrogen peroxide. The average value of methacrylate and silorane based composite resins were 2.744 μm and 3.417 μm, respectively. There was a difference in the surface roughness of methacrylate and silorane based composite resin compounds after the application of 40% hydrogen peroxide. The surface roughness value of the silorane-based composite resin was higher than the methacrylate-based.

  3. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using three different resin adhesives vs. glass-ionomer based adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical success of sandwich technique depends on the strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC bonding to both dentin and resin composite. Therefore, the shear bond strength (SBS of resin composite bonded to RMGIC utilizing different resin adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive was compared. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 84 holes (5×2 mm were prepared in acrylic blocks, randomly divided into seven groups (n=12 and filled with RMGIC (Light-Cured Universal Restorative, GC. In the Group I; no adhesive was applied on the RMGIC. In the Group II, non-etched and Group III was etched with phosphoric acid. In groups II and III, after rinsing, etch-and-rinse adhesive (OptiBond Solo Plus; in the Group IV; a two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR and in Group V; a one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One were applied on the cement surfaces. Group VI; a GIC-based adhesive (Fuji Bond LC was painted over the cement surface and cured. Group VII; the GIC-based adhesive was brushed over RMGIC followed by the placement of resin composite and co-cured. Afterward; resin composite (Point 4 cylinders were placed on the treated cement surfaces. The specimens were placed in 100% humidity at 37 ± 1°C and thermo cycled. The shear bond test was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min and calculated in MPa; the specimens were examined to determine mode of failure. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The maximum (24.62±3.70 MPa and minimum (18.15±3.38 MPa SBS mean values were recorded for OptiBond XTR adhesive and the control group, respectively. The pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the groups that bonded with different adhesives. The adhesive failure was the most common failure mode observed. Conclusion: This study suggests that GIC-based adhesive could be applied over RMGIC as co-cure technique for sandwich restorations in lieu of employing the resin

  4. Influence of denture cleansers on the color stability of three types of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guang; Murata, Hiroshi; Li, YingAi; Sadamori, Sinshuke; Hamada, Taizo

    2009-03-01

    Color stability is an important property of denture base acrylic resin. Color changes indicate aging or damaged dental materials. However, little information is available on the influence of denture cleansers on the color stability of acrylic resins. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of denture cleansers on the color stability of 3 different types of acrylic resin. One heat-polymerized (HP) acrylic denture base resin (Acron), 1 autopolymerized (AP) hard direct reline acrylic resin (Denture Liner), and 1 visible-light-polymerized (VLP) hard direct reline acrylic resin (Tokuso Lite-Rebase) were evaluated. Five specimens of each material, 10 x 10 x 2 mm, were immersed in 1 of 9 commercial denture cleanser solutions or distilled water (control). Color changes were measured with a colorimeter and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Data were analyzed using 1-way and 3-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha=.05). Significant differences (P<.05) were found among the acrylic resins and denture cleansers in terms of color change (DeltaE) produced after 365 days. The DeltaE values of all denture base acrylic resins increased with time. The DeltaE of the AP acrylic resin was larger than that of the other acrylic resins. The least discoloration was found with ZTC denture cleanser (acid type). The influence of alkaline peroxide-type denture cleanser (Steradent) on the color stability of HP acrylic resin and AP acrylic resin was significantly greater (P<.05) than that of the other cleansers. These results suggest that the color stability of denture base acrylic resins is influenced by polymerization type and the type of denture cleanser used.

  5. Effect of disinfectant solutions on a denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiane F; Vanderlei, Aleska D; Marocho, Susana M Salazar; Pereira, Sarina M B; Nogueira, Lafayette; Paes-Júnior, Tarcisio J Arruda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hardness, roughness and mass loss of an acrylic denture base resin after in vitro exposure to four disinfectant solutions. Forty specimens (Clássico, Brazil) were prepared and randomly assigned to 4 groups n = 10) according to the disinfectant solution: G1: control, stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C; G2: 1% sodium hypochlorite; G3: 2% glutaraldehyde; G4: 4% chlorhexidine. G2 to G4 were immersed for 60 minutes in the disinfectant solution. Measurements were carried out both before and after immersion in the solution. The surface was analyzed with a surface roughness tester (Surfcorder SE 1700 KOZAKALAB), a microdurometer FM-700 (Future Tech) and a scanning electron microscope (DSM 962-ZEISS). Loss of mass was determined with a digital weighing scale. After disinfection procedures, values were analyzed statistically. The acrylic denture base resin may be vulnerable to surface changes after in vitro immersion in the disinfectant solutions studied.

  6. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  7. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin.

  8. Effects of trimethylsilane plasma coating on the hydrophobicity of denture base resin and adhesion of Candida albicans on resin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshuang; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Hottel, Timothy; Babu, Jegdish; Yu, Qingsong

    2017-12-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal lesion among denture wearers. Trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coating may inhibit the growth of Candida albicans on denture surfaces. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate whether TMS plasma coatings can effectively reduce C albicans adhesion on denture base acrylic resin surfaces. Sixty denture base acrylic resin disks with smooth and rough surfaces were prepared and were either left untreated (control group) or coated with TMS monomer (experimental group) by using plasma. Contact angles were measured immediately after TMS plasma coating. The morphology of C albicans adhesion was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to characterize the elemental composition of the specimen surface. An adhesion test was performed by incubating the resin disk specimens in C albicans suspensions (1×10 7 cells/mL) at 37°C for 24 hours and further measuring the optical density of the C albicans by using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay test. One-way ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA were followed by a post hoc test analysis (α=.05). The group with TMS coating exhibited a more hydrophobic surface than the control group. EDS analysis revealed successful TMS plasma coating. The difference in the mean contact angles between the uncoated group and the TMS-coated group was statistically significant (Pcoating than on the surfaces of the experimental group. In the adhesion test, the amount of C albicans adhering to the surface of denture base resin with the TMS coating was significantly less than that on the surfaces without TMS coating (Pcoating significantly reduced the adhesion of C albicans to the denture base resin and may reduce denture stomatitis. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material

    OpenAIRE

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 specimens (60 ? 10 ? 2 mm) of heat cured acrylic resin were constructed and divided into four groups (five for each), according to the concentration of AgNPs (1%, 2%, and 5% vol.) which incorporated into the liquid of acrylic resin material and one group without additives (control group). Th...

  10. Environmentally Friendly Bio-Based Vinyl Ester Resins for Military Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    formulations have been developed. The FAVE-L resin uses 65% Bisphenol A vinyl ester monomer, 20 wt% styrene, and 15 wt% methacrylated lauric acid (MLau...composites, fatty acid , vinyl ester 9. Distribution $tatement (requr’iedl lsmanuscript subjectto export control? E ruo I yes Circfe appropriate l tter and...resins is to replace some or all of the styrene with fatty acid -based monomers. These fatty acid vinyl ester resins allow for the formulation of high

  11. Fracture strength and fatigue resistance of dental resin-based composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulemans, F.; Palav, P.; Aboushelib, M.M.N.; van Dalen, A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of fiber-reinforcement on the fracture strength and fatigue resistance of resin-based composites. Methods: One hundred rectangular bar-shaped specimens (2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) made of resin-based composite were prepared in a

  12. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to base metal alloys having different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Shafiei

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results, sandblasting improves the shear bond strength of self-etch and self-adhesive resin cement to base metal alloys. The best results can be achieved with a combination of sandblasting and metal primers. The performance of resin cement depends on to their chemical composition, not to the type of system.

  13. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Study on Tensile Behavior and Water Uptake of Wood Powder-Composites Based on Epoxy and Unsaturated Polyester Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Amir hossein Pirayeshfar; M.Mahdi Jalili; Yahya Musavi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two kinds of epoxy resins (i.e. high-viscosity and low-viscosity) as well as one polyester resin (orthophthalic grade) were selected and examined as pure resins and also as a polymeric matrix for producing wood-composites. In this study, tensile properties, water uptake, and degradation of samples in water were also investigated. The results show that addition of wood particles to the thermoset resins strongly impresses on their tensile behavior and water uptake. Tensile studie...

  15. APPLICATION OF DIRECT CONTACT TEST IN EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC DENTURE BASE RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of acrylic denture base resins is widely spread in dental practice. They belong to the group of biomaterials due to their role of morphological and functional substituent in the mouth. However, clinical practice has shown that some toxic ingredients of these materials may lead to adverse local and even systemic changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate cytotoxic effect of various denture base resins on cell culture using direct contact test. The effect of four different acrylic materials on HeLa cell structure was evaluated. Upon light microscopy analysis, MTT test was performed without previous removal of material samples. The obtained values of MTT indicate that cell proliferation is dependant on the type of acrylic denture base resins. Cold polymerization denture base resins showed mild inhibitory effect on the cell culture growth. The signs of toxicity were not observed in heat polymerization denture base resins.

  16. Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a need for compact shielding design such as self-shielding of a PET cyclotron or upgradation of radiation machinery in existing facilities. In these cases, high performance shielding materials are needed. Concrete or polyethylene have been used for a neutron shield. However, for compact shielding, they fall short in terms of performance or durability. Therefore, a new type of neutron shielding material based on epoxy resin and colemanite has been developed. Slab attenuation experiments up to 40 cm for the new shielding material were carried out using a 252Cf neutron source. Measurement was carried out using a REM-counter, and compared with calculation. The results show that the shielding performance is better than concrete and polyethylene mixed with 10 wt% boron oxide. From the result, we confirmed that the performance of the new material is suitable for practical use.

  17. Chairside resin-based provisional restorative materials for fixed prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassler, Howard E; Lowe, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Provisional restorations are vital to fixed prosthodontics treatment, providing an important diagnostic function while in place. In addition to protecting the prepared teeth, provisionalization enables clinicians to refine biologic and biomechanical issues before the final restoration is fabricated. Adjustments can be made in the provisional restoration to achieve both the clinician's and patient's desired results. The fabrication of temporary restorations requires that clinicians be proficient with a variety of materials and techniques that can be used to make well-adapted and functional provisionals. There are many material choices available to temporize a single crown as well as multi-unit fixed partial dentures, and the selection of provisional materials should be made based on a case-by-case evaluation. This article provides a review of polymeric resin provisional materials.

  18. Effect of resin content and substrate on the emission of BTEX and carbonyls from low-VOC water-based wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this work is to explore the effect of resin content and the effect of substrate on the emission of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and carbonyls from low-VOC water-based wall paint. Four low-volatile organic compound (VOC) paints include paints A (20% acrylic), B (30% acrylic), C (20% polyvinyl acetate), and D (30% polyvinyl acetate) were painted on stainless steel specimen for the study of resin effect. Green calcium silicate, green cement, and stainless steel were painted with paints A and C for the study of substrate effect. Concentrations of the VOCs in the chamber decreased with the elapsed time. Both resin type and resin quantity in paint had effects on VOC emissions. Paints with acrylic resin emitted less BTEX and carbonyls than paints with polyvinyl acetate resin. However, the effects of resin quantity varied with VOCs. Porous substrates were observed to interact more strongly with paints than inert substrates. Both green calcium silicate and green cement substrates have strong power of adsorption of VOCs from wall paints, namely toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, methacrolein, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Some compounds like toluene, formaldehyde, and butyaldehyde were desorbed very slowly from green calcium silicate and green cement substrates.

  19. Physicochemical Properties of Epoxy Resin-Based and Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Kyung; Kwak, Sang Won; Ha, Jung-Hong; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Three bioceramic sealers (EndoSequence BC sealer, EndoSeal MTA, and MTA Fillapex) and three epoxy resin-based sealers (AH-Plus, AD Seal, and Radic-Sealer) were tested to evaluate the physicochemical properties: flow, final setting time, radiopacity, dimensional stability, and pH change. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were used to analyze the data ( P = 0.05). The MTA Fillapex sealer had a highest flow and the BC Sealer presented a flow significantly lower than the others ( P pH in all evaluation periods. Set samples of 3 epoxy resin-based sealers and EndoSeal MTA presented a significant increase of pH over experimental time for 4 weeks. In conclusion, the bioceramic sealer and epoxy resin-based sealers showed clinical acceptable physicochemical properties, but BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex were not set completely.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Hou, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenliang; Chang, Jianmin

    2017-06-18

    In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resin-a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  1. "Greener" hybrid adhesives composed of urea formaldehyde resin and cottonseed meal for wood based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urea formaldehyde (UF) resins are one of the most widely used adhesives in wood based composites. The major concerns of the resin utilization are free formaldehyde release and poor water resistance. As a renewable raw materials, water washed conttonseed meal can be used in wood bonding. To produce “...

  2. Effect of adherend temperature on bond strengths of resin bonding systems to denture base resin and a semi-precious alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahara, Sadaaki; Minami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shiro; Sakoguchi, Kenji; Shiomuki, Daisaku; Minesaki, Yoshito; Tanaka, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of adherend temperature on shear bond strengths of auto-polymerizing resin to denture base resin and 4-META/MMA-TBBO resin to silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy. Bonding procedure was carried out when adherend temperature was 10, 23, 37, or 55°C, and shear bond strengths (SBSs) were measured before and after thermocycling. Before thermocycling, there were no significant differences in bond strength among the four adherend temperatures for each adhesive resin: 31.59±6.11-32.89±2.12 MPa for auto-polymerizing resin; 35.43±2.2-38.38±0.61 MPa for 4-META/MMA-TBBO resin. After thermocycling, optimal adherend temperature to achieve the highest bond strength was 37°C for auto-polymerizing resin to denture base resin (30.02±2.29 MPa) and 10ºC for 4-META/MMA-TBBO resin to Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy (37.14±2.17 MPa).

  3. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tanoue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1 air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON; 2 1 + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA; 3 1 + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP; 4 treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. RESULTS: The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05 greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. CONCLUSION: Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used.

  4. Dimensional stability and dehydration of a thermoplastic polycarbonate-based and two PMMA-based denture resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronych, G J; Sutow, E J; Sykora, O

    2003-12-01

    This study compared the dimensional stability and dehydration of a thermoplastic polycarbonate denture base resin with two conventional polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins. Maxillary complete dentures were fabricated from the three denture materials and the accuracy of fit along the posterior palatal border of the cast used in processing was measured. Measurements were conducted at five palatal locations immediately after processing and at 7 and 30 days during immersion in water (23 degrees C) and at 7 and 30 days during dehydration (23 degrees C, 65-75% relative humidity). Percentage mass loss during dehydration was determined with an electronic balance. The thermoplastic material was separately compared with each of the conventional resins using a modified Welch two-sample t-test, with a Bonferroni correction for P values. For mean palatal dimensional change, the thermoplastic resin was generally not statistically different from the conventional resins after processing and during immersion (P > or = 0.06), but was generally less than the conventional resins during dehydration (P thermoplastic resin consistently showed much smaller, statistically significant values compared with the conventional resins (P thermoplastic resin should show dimensional changes in service comparable with the conventional resins, but less dimensional change caused by dehydration.

  5. Application of Ketone-Based Resins as Anticorrosive Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Sezer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of some newly synthesized modified ketonic resins on corrosion inhibition of stainless steel (SS and copper (Cu was investigated in acidic medium. Carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl functionalized resins have been coated on metal electrode as a thin film by dipping method. Corrosion characteristics of coating on SS (304 L and Cu were investigated by polarization, open-circuit, and impedance measurement. These measurements performed at different time and the stability of polymeric coating were tested with time in acidic medium. The resin coating was able to protect both the SS and copper.

  6. Mechanical properties of silorane-based and methacrylate-based composite resins after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Denise Tornavoi; Lepri, César Penazzo; Valente, Mariana Lima da Costa; dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the compressive strength of a silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90) to that of conventional composite resins (Charisma, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, and NT Premium) before and after accelerated artificial aging (AAA). For each composite resin, 16 cylindrical specimens were prepared and divided into 2 groups. One group underwent analysis of compressive strength in a universal testing machine 24 hours after preparation, and the other was subjected first to 192 hours of AAA and then the compressive strength test. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05). Some statistically significant differences in compressive strength were found among the commercial brands (P composite resin Fill Magic presented the best performance before (P composite were among the lowest obtained, both before and after aging. Comparison of each material before and after AAA revealed that the aging process did not influence the compressive strength of the tested resins (P = 0.785).

  7. Attribute Based Selection of Thermoplastic Resin for Vacuum Infusion Process: A Decision Making Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  8. The Rheological Properties of Fluid Denture-Base Resins,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    Prosthet Dent, 24:662—668, 1970. 4. Mirza, F. D.: Dimensional stability of acrylic resin dentures . J Prosthet Dent, 11:848—857, 1961. 5. Winkler, S...SC) . 3 i~~ C I P I E N T S C A r A L O G NUM~~~ .~ - 5. T Y P E O F RE PO N T & PER(OO COV EREQ Rheo logical Properties of Fluid Denture ...resins; pour resins and denture resins. c_fl; \\ 10. A~~~T P A C T (Continue on revere. eid~ if n.c.saary end Identity by block number) Li.. The pour

  9. The effect of disinfection procedures on flexural properties of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, T; Watkinson, A C; Huggett, R

    1992-07-01

    This study evaluates the effects of long-term disinfection immersion on the flexural properties of denture base resins; it was conducted against a background of increasing awareness of the importance of cross-infection control in dental clinics and laboratories. The transverse bend testing procedure used followed that specified in the International Standard for denture base polymers. The results demonstrate that alcohol-based disinfectants are not suitable for use with denture base materials of non-cross-linked acrylic resin.

  10. The antifungal effects and mechanical properties of silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite-modified Poly-methyl methacrylate-based dental resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yin-Yan; Huang, Li; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Li-Juan; Xiao, Yu-Hong

    2017-05-08

    Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resins with strong and long-lasting antifungal properties are critical for the prevention of denture stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects on Candida albicans ATCC90028, the cytotoxicity toward human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), and the mechanical properties of a silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite (AgBr/NPVP)-modified PMMA-based dental resin. AgBr/NPVP was added to the PMMA resin at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt%, and PMMA resin without AgBr/NPVP served as the control. Fungal growth was inhibited on the AgBr/NPVP-modified PMMA resin compared to the control (P  0.05) between the experimental and control groups. These data indicate that the incorporation of AgBr/NPVP conferred strong and long-lasting antifungal effects against Candida albicans to the PMMA resin, and it has low toxicity toward HDPCs, and its mechanical properties were not significantly affected.

  11. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-12-31

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute`s anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  12. Silver nanoparticle incorporation effect on mechanical and thermal properties of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroğlu, Ayşegül; Şahin, Onur; Kürkçüoğlu, Işın; Dede, Doğu Ömür; Özdemir, Tonguç; Hazer, Baki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical and thermal characteristics of two denture base acrylic resins containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Two different acrylic denture base resins (heat-polymerized and microwave polymerized) containing 0.3, 0.8 and 1.6 wt% AgNPs were evaluated for flexural strength, elastic modulus and impact strength. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and relative heat capacity (Cp) of the samples were determined from the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results. For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD tests were performed. Addition of 0.8% and 1.6% AgNPs in microwave-polymerized resin significantly decreased the transverse strength and elastic modulus. In terms of impact strength, the addition of AgNPs has no effect on both resin groups. Glass transition temperature (Tg) was decreased with the addition of AgNPs for both denture base resins. The incorporation of AgNPs, generally used for antimicrobial efficiency, affected the transverse strength of the denture base acrylic resins depending on the concentration of nanoparticles. Tg was decreased with the addition of AgNPs for both denture base resins.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resin—a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  14. Cure reaction of epoxy resins catalyzed by graphite-based nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Acocella, Maria Rosaria; Giuri, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-12-01

    A significant effort was directed to the synthesis of graphene stacks/epoxy nanocomposites and to the analysis of the effect of a graphene precursor on cure reaction of a model epoxy matrix. A comparative thermal analysis of epoxy resins filled with an exfoliated graphite oxide eGO were conducted. The main aim was to understand the molecular origin of the influence of eGO on the Tg of epoxy resins. The higher Tg values previously observed for low curing temperatures, for epoxy resins with graphite-based nanofillers, were easily rationalized by a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the reaction between the epoxy and amine groups of the resin, which leads to higher crosslinking density in milder conditions. A kinetic analysis of the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin associated to the catalytical activity of the graphite based filler was performed by isothermal DSC measurements. The DSC results showed that the addition of graphite based filler greatly increased the enthalpy of epoxy reaction and the reaction rate, confirming the presence of a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the crosslinking reaction between the epoxy resin components (epoxide oligomer and di-amine). A kinetic modelling analysis, arising from an auto-catalyzed reaction mechanism, was finally applied to isothermal DSC data, in order to predict the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin in presence of the graphite based nanofiller.

  15. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium concentrations of thiosulfate in the NARS system. Keywords: equilibrium, gold loading, resin capacity, thiosulfate, trithionate

  16. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  17. Effect of preheat repetition on color stability of methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Gholizadeh, Sarah; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Rezaei, Yashar

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins on their color stability up to 40 times at 55‒60°C. Methods. Seventy-six methacrylate and silorane-based composite resin samples, with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 2 mm, were divided into 4 groups (n=19). After the samples were prepared, their color parameters were determined using a reflective spectrophotometer. The composite resin samples were separately sto...

  18. Elastic modulus and flexural strength comparisons of high-impact and traditional denture base acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour M. Ajaj-ALKordy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the high-impact acrylic resin is a suitable denture base material for patients with clinical fracture of the acrylic denture.

  19. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torlakoglu, A.; Gueclue, G.

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40 mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 deg. C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins

  20. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakoğlu, A; Güçlü, G

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 degrees C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins.

  1. Effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on microhardness of acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Baptista, Gabriella Trunckle; Moreno, Amália; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Dekon, Stéfan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on the microhardness of acrylic resins denture base. Four different brands of acrylic resins were evaluated: Onda Cryl, QC 20, Classico and Lucitone. Each brand of acrylic resin was divided into four groups (n = 7) according to the disinfection method (microwave, Efferdent, 4% chlorhexidine and 1% hypochlorite). Samples were disinfected during 60 days. Before and after disinfection, samples were thermal cycled between 5-55 °C with 30-s dwell times for 1000 cycles. The microhardness was measured using a microhardener, at baseline (B), after first thermal cycling (T1), after disinfection (D) and after second thermal cycling (T2). The microhardness values of all groups reduced over time. QC-20 acrylic resin exhibited the lowest microhardness values. At B and T1 periods, the acrylic resins exhibited statistically greater microhardness values when compared to D and T2 periods. It can be concluded that the microhardness values of the acrylic resins denture base were affected by the thermal cycling and disinfection procedures. However, all microhardness values obtained herein are within acceptable clinical limits for the acrylic resins.

  2. Resins and additives for powder coatings and alkyd paints, based on renewable resources

    OpenAIRE

    Van Haveren, J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Koning, C.E.; Van Benthem, R.A.T.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to limited fossil resources and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feedstocks in the paint and coatings area will increase in the decades to come. This paper highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins for high-solid paints and reactive diluents, completely based on commercially available renewable resources, were prepared and characterized. Alkyd resins based on sucrose and unsaturated fatty acids...

  3. Viscoelastic properties of graphene-based epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Rosolia, Salvatore; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated in the liquid state, before curing, by means of a rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel plate geometry. Exfoliated graphite was prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The percentage of exfoliated graphite was found to be 56%. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), was added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behaviour while, at 3 wt % pEG content, the complex viscosity of the nanocomposite clearly shows a shear thinning behaviour with η* values much higher at the lower frequencies. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of the partially exfoliated graphite content was mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures were cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage was carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour while the second isothermal stage was performed at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The mechanical properties of the cured nanocomposites show high values in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature.

  4. Boron removal from water and wastewater using new polystyrene-based resin grafted with glycidol

    OpenAIRE

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zołotajkin, Maria; Adamek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    A divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene resin with amine functional groups (Purolite A170) was grafted with glycidol and characterized as a novel sorbent, GLY-resin, for the oxoborate removal from model solutions and post-crystallization lye. The sorption behavior of GLY-resin was investigated using a batch system. The results showed that the sorption was maximal at pH=9.5. The equilibrium was achieved after 24 h. Calculations based on Langmuir model show the monolayer sorption capacity qm=...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yong; Hou, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenliang; Chang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resin—a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending streng...

  6. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  7. Polymerisation efficiency and shrinkage effects in resin based dental restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindi, Abdusalam M.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymerisation efficiency and shrinkage effects in resin based dental restorative materials. The study highlights factors affecting the polymerisation efficiency, but the efficiency of the light curing units was first measured. The output light intensity and the temperature rise produced by two units were measured using a radiometer with a flat-response characteristic. The units were the Elipar Highlight (Espe Dental AG) and XL3000 (3M Co). The former unit has a dual-intensity mode of operation: 10 slow plus 30 s high (termed "soft-start") and a Ml-intensity mode: 40 s high. Its "high" intensity was significantly greater than the XL3000 Unit, and produced correspondingly greater temperature rises. One of the hypotheses to be tested was whether any useful network-conversion (polymerisation) was attained by application of the 10 slow-intensity phase of the "soft-start" mode. To address this question, the polymerisation efficiency of three representative resin-based restorative materials was studied by measuring depth-of-cure, exotherm, surface hardness and degree of conversion. The Elipar Unit was used principally m these studies, with four modes of radiation: "full" and "soft- start", as above, and either 10 s or 40 s of low intensity light. Most measurements were performed at 23°C, but some specimen groups were also pre-conditioned at 37°C. Depth-of-cure values obtained by "soft-start" were as great as with "full" radiation. Low- intensity irradiation alone gave significantly reduced, but non-zero cure-depths. The exotherm of the specimens cured by "soft-start" was lower than those cured by "full" light-intensity. This pattern was also apparent when the lower-intensity (XL3000) Unit was deployed. Surface hardness was measured on upper and lower surfaces of specimens radiated by different modes. The hardness was greater at upper, relative to lower surfaces with "full" intensity. The lower-surface hardness with low

  8. [Meeting point Stewart. Buffer bases, base excess and strong ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W

    2007-04-01

    Development of a two-buffer model which simulates the acid-base properties of blood and allows comparison of the different acidbase concepts according to Stewart and to Siggaard-Andersen. The two-buffer model consisted of different aqueous solutions of bicarbonate/CO(2) (pCO(2), sCO(2), pK(1)), HEPES buffer (A(tot), pK(a)) and electrolytes. These were used to calculate the pH from the independent variables according to Stewart - strong ion difference (SID), pCO(2) and total concentration of the weak acids (A(tot)) - from which all other dependent variables (cHCO(3)(-), cA(-), BB, BE) were obtained and compared with the measured values. The normal pH (7.408) was calculated from the normal values for SID (48 mmol/l), pCO(2) (40 mmHg) and A(tot) (45.2 mmol/l) and agreed perfectly with the measured value (7.409+/-0.001). This was also valid for all calculated and measured pH values when the SID was varied: non-respiratory alkalosis ( upward arrow) or acidosis ( downward arrow), pCO(2):respiratory acidosis ( upward arrow) or alkalosis ( downward arrow) and A(tot):hyperproteinemic acidosis ( upward arrow) or hypoproteinemic alkalosis ( downward arrow) were varied and the sum of the buffer bases (BB) was always equal to the SID. All changes and hence BE were also equal, providing that A(tot) was normal. This was not the case, however, if A(tot) was outside the normal range, when BE was then the difference from the normal BB at the respective reference point. Whereas the deviation of the measured pCO(2) was acceptable (1.74+/-0.86 mmHg), this was not the case for the SID (-6.18+/-3.58 mmol/l) calculated from the measured ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Cl). Despite controversial discussions, both concepts are much closer than might be expected. Whereas in the Stewart approach the focus of analysis is on plasma, with the Siggaard-Andersen approach it is on blood. Hence, a combined analysis of the blood gases (pH, pCO(2), pO(2), sO(2), cHb, BE) and of the strong ion gap (SIG

  9. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed

  10. Curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pongprueksa, Pong; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBC) using micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRaman). Four bulk-fill RBCs were compared to a conventional RBC. RBC blocks were light-cured using a polywave LED light-curing unit. The 24-h degree of conversion (DC) was mapped along a longitudinal cross-section using μRaman. Curing profiles were constructed and 'effective' (>90% of maximum DC) curing parameters were calculated. A statistical linear mixed effects model was constructed to analyze the relative effect of the different curing parameters. Curing efficiency differed widely with the flowable bulk-fill RBCs presenting a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the fibre-reinforced RBC, which on its turn revealed a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the full-depth bulk-fill and conventional (control) RBC. A decrease in 'effective' curing depth within the light beam was found in the same order. Only the flowable bulk-fill RBCs were able to cure 'effectively' at a 4-mm depth for the whole specimen width (up to 4mm outside the light beam). All curing parameters were found to statistically influence the statistical model and thus the curing profile, except for the beam inhomogeneity (regarding the position of the 410-nm versus that of 470-nm LEDs) that did not significantly affect the model for all RBCs tested. Most of the bulk-fill RBCs could be cured up to at least a 4-mm depth, thereby validating the respective manufacturer's recommendations. According to the curing profiles, the orientation and position of the light guide is less critical for the bulk-fill RBCs than for the conventional RBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel high glass temperature sugar-based epoxy resins: Characterization and comparison to mineral oil-based aliphatic and aromatic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Niedermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Curing and rheological behaviour, glass transition temperature, mechanical and thermal properties of two newly synthesized glucopyranoside- (GPTE and glucofuranoside- (GFTE based renewable epoxy resin (EP components were investigated and compared to aromatic and aliphatic EPs. The glucose-based EPs can be successfully cured with amine and anhydride type curing agents, their gel times are suitable for processing and can be well-adopted to the needs of the common composite preparation methods. GPTE showed the highest glass transition temperature (Tg among all investigated resins, followed by GFTE and DGEBA. Below the Tg there was no significant difference between the storage modulus values of the EP systems. The glucose-based EPs had lower tensile and bending strength, but their tensile modulus values are not significantly different from the mineral oil based EPs. The thermal stability of the synthesized GPTE and GFTE is between DGEBA and the aliphatic resins. In applications where bending stresses are dominant over the tensile ones, and outstanding Tg is required, these glucose-based resins offer a feasible renewable option.

  12. Characterisation of Rapeseed Oil Based Resins Using Infrared and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydroxylated chemical structure was crosslinked using methylene-pphenyl diisocyanate to produce a thermoset rapeseed oil resin. The cross linking process was monitored in situ using the Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric analysis techniques.

  13. Effects of chemical disinfectants on the transverse strength of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarina, A C; Machado, A L; Giampaolo, E T; Vergani, C E

    2003-11-01

    The disinfection of dental prostheses by immersion in a chemical solution should be capable of rapid inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, without causing any adverse effect on the denture base resins. This study evaluated the effect of disinfection immersion on the transverse strength of two heat-cured resins. The denture base resins (Lucitone 550 and QC 20) were polymerized according to the manufacturers' instructions. After polymerization, the specimens were polished, and then stored in water at 37 degrees C for 50 +/- 2 h prior immersion in one of the following solutions for 10 min: 4% chlorhexidine, 1% sodium hypochlorite and 3.78% sodium perborate. The specimens were submitted to disinfection twice, simulating when dentures come from the patient and before being returned to the patient. Ten specimens were made for each group. The transverse strength was evaluated by a 3-point bend test. The flexural strength of the two denture base acrylic resins evaluated remained unaffected after immersion in the three solutions evaluated. In general, the QC 20 resin specimens exhibited lower transverse strength than the Lucitone 550 resin specimens, regardless of immersion solutions.

  14. Microshear bond strength of preheated silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbuga, Sezer; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Cantekin, Kenan; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating on microshear bond strength (MSBS) of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins to human dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into three main groups: (1) composite resins were heated upto 68 °C; (2) cooled to 4 °C; and (3) control [room temperature (RT)]. Each group was then randomly subdivided into four subgroups according to adhesive system used [Solobond M (Voco), All Bond SE (Bisco), Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) (Kuraray), Silorane adhesive system (SAS) (3M ESPE)]. Resin composite cylinders were formed (0.9 mm diameter × 0.7 mm length) and MSBS of each specimen was tested. The preheated groups exhibited the highest MSBS (p composite resins may be an alternative way to increase the MSBS of composites on dentin. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Morphological analysis and interleukin release in human gingival fibroblasts seeded on different denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiani, O; Toniato, E; Di Iorio, D; Diomede, F; Merciaro, I; D' Arcangelo, C; Caputi, S

    2012-01-01

    The development of different types of materials with application in practice dentistry is an area of intense growth and research due to its importance in oral health. Among the diverse materials currently used in restoration or in dentures, the acrylic based resins have been widely employed. The release of toxic components and the changes on their physical and mechanical properties actually represent a goal of intensive research. In vivo analysis showed that the surface roughness of the acrylic resin represents a factor that could stimulate bacteria colonization and soft tissue inflammation. For this purpose, in this work, we have analyzed the cell response to acrylic based resins Ivoclar, Tokuso and Coldpack in basal conditions, unpolished, and after the polished procedure performed to reduce the surface roughness. Our in vitro results using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) showed a decrease of cell growth, evaluated by MTT assay starting at 24 h of incubation, in samples seeded on resins in basal conditions and after the polished procedure. This cell growth reduction was associated to evident morphological changes in unpolished materials. After 24 h of culture in presence of polished and unpolished resins a spontaneous release was present of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and -8 (IL-8), which was higher in unpolished resins, indicating that the polished procedure, minimizing the cytotoxicity process, could contribute to reduce the gingival inflammation processes.

  16. Curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through different ceramic thicknesses and curing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (Plight cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (Pcuring time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC). PMID:22053242

  17. Cytotoxicity of resin-based luting cements to pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Elaine Cristina Voltolini; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Hebling, Josimeri; Costa, Carlos Alberto De Souza

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity of components released from different types of luting cements to two cell lines obtained from pulp tissue. Three types of luting cements were evaluated, distributed into the following groups: G1--negative control (no treatment); G2--resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Rely X Luting 2); G3--self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X U200); and G4--conventional resin cement (Rely X ARC). Standardized cylindrical specimens (14 mm diameter and 1 mm thick) prepared with the dental materials were immersed in culture medium (DMEM) for 24 hours to obtain the extracts (DMEM + components released from the cements). Then, the extracts were applied to cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells or human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Finally, cell viability (MTT assay), cell death (Annexin/PI) (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5%) and cell morphology (SEM) were assessed. Cements' components in contact with cells (SEM/EDS) and pH of the extracts were also evaluated. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (G2) caused the most intense toxic effect to the two cell lines; the cell viability reduction was around 95.8% and 89.4% for MDPC-23 cells and HDPCs, respectively, which was statistically significantly different compared with that of the negative control group (G1). Also, a high quantity of particles leached from this ionomeric cement was found on the cells, which showed intense morphological alterations. In the G2 group, 100% necrosis was observed for both cell lines, and an acidic pH was detected on the extract. Conversely, Rely X U200 (G3) and Rely X ARC (G4), which presented low solubility and no alteration in pH, caused only slight cytotoxicity to the cultured cells.

  18. Integration of adsorption and direct bio-reduction of perchlorate on surface of cotton stalk based resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongfei; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Song, Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this work, perchlorate was first adsorbed by the cotton stalk based resin (CS-resin) and then the laden perchlorate was directly reduced by mixed perchlorate reduction bacteria (PRB) on surface of CS-resin. The characteristics of cotton stalk, clean CS-resin, perchlorate-laden CS-resin and bio-regenerated CS-resin were evaluated by XPS, FT-IR, SEM, zeta potential measurements. All characteristics showed clearly that (i) adsorption mechanism of perchlorate onto CS-resin was based on electrostatic attraction; (ii) biological destruction of laden perchlorate was effective for bio-regenerating the saturated CS-resin. The experimental adsorption capacities (Qexp) of perchlorate by CS-resin achieved at equilibrium condition was about 138.9 mg/g. Reduction rate of laden perchlorate on surface of CS-resin were about 2.12, 1.67, 0.032 and 0.009 mg/g(CS-resin)/d for initial redox potentials poised at -193, -70, +169, and +363 mV, respectively. This indicated that the rapid reduction of laden perchlorate may occur only when conditions were present to cause a low Eh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected resin-based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Basa, Katarzyna; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Malara, Piotr; Nowak, Agnieszka J; Kasperski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different plasticizing aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected universal resin-based dental composites. Three light cured (one nanofilled, two microhybride) and one hybride chemical cured composites were aged at 37 °C for 48 h in distillated water, ethyl alcohol solution or Listerine mouthwash. After aging the microhardness tests were carried out and then tribological tests were performed in the presence of aging solution at 37 °C. During wear testing coefficients of friction were determined. The maximal vertical loss in micrometers was determined with profilometer. Aging in all liquids resulted in a significant decrease in hardness of the test materials, with the largest values obtained successively in ethanol solution, mouthwash and water. The effect of the liquid was dependent on the particular material, but not the type of material (interpreted as the size of filler used). Introduction of mouthwash instead of water or ethanol solution resulted in a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction. The lowest wear resistance was registered after aging in ethanol and for the chemical cured hybrid composite, but the vertical loss was strongly material dependent. The effect of different aging solution, including commercial mouthrinse, on hardness and wear was material dependent, and cannot be deduced from their category or filler loading. There is no simple correlation between hardness of resin-based dental composites and their wear resistance, but softening of particular composites materials during aging leads to the reduction of its wear resistance.

  20. Effect of 180 days of water storage on the transverse strength of acetal resin denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Ayla; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak; Arda, Tugberk; Akalin, Buket

    2010-01-01

    Acetal resin has been used as an alternative denture base and clasp material since 1986. The manufacturers claim that acetal resin has superior physical properties when compared to conventional denture base acrylic resins. Limited information is available about transverse strengths of acetal resin. The purpose of this investigation was to compare transverse strengths of pink and white acetal resins to transverse strengths of conventional heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resin in increasing durations of water storage. A transverse strength test was performed in accordance with International Standards Organization (ISO) specification No 1567. Twenty 65 x 10 x 2.5 mm(3) specimens of each resin were prepared; five specimens of each resin group were subjected to three-point bending test after 50 hours, 30 days, 60 days, and 180 days of water storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Experimental groups' transverse strengths were compared by three-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests. Transverse strength of PMMA denture base material was found to be in accordance with the requirements of ISO specification No 1567. Transverse strengths of white and pink acetal resin could not be calculated in this study, as white and pink acetal resin specimens did not break at the maximum applied force in the three-point bending test. Flexural strength of acetal resin was found to be within the ISO specification limits. As the water storage time increased, the deflection values of PMMA showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Both the white and pink acetal resin showed significant increase in deflection as the water storage time was increased from 50 hours to 180 days (p resin suffered from permanent deformation, but did not break in the three-point bending test. Acetal resin showed significant increase in deflection as the water storage time was increased from 50 hours to 180 days. All materials tested demonstrated deflection values in compliance with ISO

  1. Chemical analysis of monomers in epoxy resins based on bisphenols F and A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, A; Zimerson, E; Sörensen, O; Bruze, M

    2004-05-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) is the monomer and most important contact allergen in epoxy resin(s) based on bisphenol A (DGEBA-R). Both thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods are available for the analysis of products containing DGEBA-R. With respect to detection and quantification, epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type, i.e. epoxy resins containing the isomers of diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol F (DGEBF), are not as well investigated as DGEBA-R. The isomers of DGEBF are p,p'-DGEBF, o,p'-DGEBF and o,o'-DGEBF. Both p,p'-DGEBF and o,p'-DGEBF have been shown to be contact allergens in humans, and all 3 isomers are sensitizers in the guinea pig maximization test. We aimed (i). to develop HPLC methods for separation and purification of the individual DGEBF isomers, (ii). to detect and quantify the DGEBF isomers in epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and (iii). to evaluate and develop the TLC as a method for the detection of the DGEBF monomers. We found the total content of the DGEBF isomers in the investigated epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type to vary from 17.0 to 81.7% w/w. Some of them also contained 0.1-2.4% w/w DGEBA. The HPLC method showed a sensitivity that was 2000-20 000x higher than that obtained with the TLC method for the DGEBF monomers. We concluded that the range of the DGEBF isomer content in epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type is approximately the same as the monomer content in liquid compared to solid DGEBA-R. The relevance of contact allergy to DGEBA-R can remain unrecognized if the suspected product is an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type, which is analysed with the TLC method.

  2. Influence of water sorption on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo; Vallittu, Pekka; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of water sorption on certain mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Six thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethylmethacrylate) and a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer, selected as a control, were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 specifications and were either dry or water-immersed for 30 days (n = 10). The ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of the denture base materials were calculated. Water sorption significantly decreased the ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and the PMMAs. It also significantly increased the ultimate flexural strength of the polycarbonate. The mechanical properties of some injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after water sorption.

  3. Effect of water storage on the translucency of silorane-based and dimethacrylate-based composite resins with fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakar Ilday, Nurcan; Celik, Neslihan; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Seven, Nilgün

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the translucency of silorane and dimethacrylate-based composite resins and (2) to evaluate the effect of water storage and reinforcement with fibre on the translucency of composite resins. Two light-cured composite resins (A2 shade), Filtek Silorane (silorane-based composite) and Valux Plus (dimethacrylate-based composite), were used in this study. The first group was used as the control with no reinforcements, the second was reinforced with polyethylene (Ribbond THM) and the third was reinforced with a glass fibre (Everstick Net) for each composite resin. Colour measurements were measured against white and black backgrounds with a Shadepilot (Degu Dent Gmbh, Hanau, Germany) spectrophotometer and recorded under a D65 light source, which reflects daylight. CIELAB parameters of each specimen were recorded at baseline and at 24 h, 168 h and 504 h. Translucency of materials was calculated using the translucency parameter (TP) formula. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests (α=0.05). The highest baseline TP value was in the Valux Plus/non-fibre reinforced group (14.06±1) and the lowest in the Filtek Silorane/Ribond THM group (8.98±1.11). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant effects from the factors storage time, composite resin, composite resin×storage time and fibre×time (p=0.047; p=0.001; p=0.013; p=0.022, respectively). Within the limitations of the study, we concluded that inclusion of polyethylene and glass fibres did not alter the translucency of the different-based composite resins. The longest storage time resulted in the greatest change in translucency values of Filtek Silorane composite resins. Considering the translucencies of composites with different formulations in the selection of composite resins for aesthetic restorations is important in terms of obtaining optimal aesthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tensile bond strength of dual curing resin-based cements to commercially pure titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rafael; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; Chan, Daniel C N

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of dual curing luting resin cements to commercially pure titanium at 10 min and 24h after removal of the oxide layer. One hundred and twenty titanium discs were obtained by casting and polishing with silicon carbide papers. The titanium discs were sandblasted with 50 microm aluminum oxide, ultrasonic cleaned and bonded in pairs with the resin-based cements Panavia F and Rely X ARC at 10 min and 24h after the sandblasting. The tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min in an Instron Universal testing machine. The Rely X ARC reached the highest tensile strength value at 24h after sandblasting (18.27 MPa), but there was no statistically significant difference between the two dual curing resin cements for both times tested. All specimens showed a mixture of cohesive fracture in the resin cement and adhesive failure. However, the predominant failure mode for Panavia F was cohesive in resin cement, and the Rely X ARC exhibited a greater proportion of specimens with adhesive failure between the alloy and resin luting cement at 10 min and 24h. Both cements had, statistically, the same tensile bond strength. But in the fracture mode analysis, the adhesive predominant fracture mode of Rely X ARC cement indicates a premature clinical adhesive failure. On the other hand, the cohesive predominant fracture mode of Panavia F indicates a longer clinical adhesive bond with titanium.

  5. Variations in survival time for amalgam and resin composite restorations: a population based cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S; Price, R; Andreou, P; Jones, G; Portolesi, A

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the association between the restorative material used and time to further treatment across population cohorts with universal coverage for dental treatment. Cohort study of variation in survival time for tooth restorations over time and by restoration material used based on an Accelerated Failure Time model. Primary dental care clinics. Members of Canada's First Nations and Inuit population covered by the Non-Insured Health Benefits program of Health Canada for the period April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2012. Tooth restorations using resin composite or amalgam material. Survival time of restoration to further treatment. Median survival time for resin composite was 51 days longer than amalgam, for restorations placed in 1999-2000. This difference was not statistically significant (p⟩0.05). Median survival times were lower for females, older subjects. Those visiting the dentist annually, and decreased monotonically over time from 11.2 and 11.3 years for resin composite and amalgam restorations respectively placed in 1999-2000 to 6.9 and 7.0 years for those placed in 2009-10. Resin composite restorations performed no better than amalgams over the study period, but cost considerably more. With the combination of the overall decrease in survival times for both resin composite and amalgam restorations and the increase in use of resin composite, the costs of serving Health Canada's Non-Insured Health Benefits population will rise considerably, even without any increase in the incidence of caries. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  6. Behavior of resin-based endodontic sealer cements in thin and thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Epita S; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H

    2012-09-01

    For root canal fillings, a thin layer of sealer cement is generally recommended. However, with resin-based sealers, lower bond strength to dentin has been shown in thin layers compared to thick, contrary to typical behavior of adhesive layers between two adherents. The aim of this study was to evaluate tensile and shear bond strength of thin and thick films of three resin-based sealers (one epoxy-based and two methacrylate-based) materials and to investigate corner effects of one methacrylate-based resin sealer. Freshly mixed sealer cements were placed between metal-to-metal surfaces of plano-parallel stainless steel aligned rods with diameter 4.7 mm. Ten samples were prepared for each type, thickness (0.1 and 1.0 mm) of sealer and test. Tensile and shear strengths were measured after 48 h for the methacrylate-based materials and after 7 days for the epoxy-based material using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Corner effects were investigated using one methacrylate-based resin material. Film thickness had a highly significant influence on both tensile and shear strengths. For methacrylate resin-based sealers, thin films had higher bond strength than thick (ptensile and shear bond strength). With the epoxy-based sealer either no difference (shear) or lower bond strength in thin films (tensile; ptensile bond strength results. The higher tensile and shear bond strength of resin-based sealer in thin films is the opposite of that previously reported for bonding to dentin. The substrate clearly has an important role in failure behavior. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resin-based luting agents and color stability of bonded ceramic veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Júlia R; Schmitt, Gabriela U; Kaizer, Marina R; Boscato, Noéli; Moraes, Rafael R

    2015-08-01

    The type of resin-based luting agent might influence the color stability of ceramic veneers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resin-based agents and aging on the color stability of ceramic veneers bonded to enamel. Ceramic disks were cemented to bovine enamel disks with 4 resin-based luting agents (n=10): dual-polymerizing cement (RelyX ARC), light-polymerizing cement (RelyX Veneer), flowable composite resin (Filtek Z350 Flow), or composite resin preheated for 30 minutes at 60°C (Filtek Z350 XT). CIE L*, a*, and b* color coordinates were measured 24 hours after cementation (baseline) with a color spectrophotometer and reevaluated after 10,000 and 20,000 thermal cycles. Color variation was calculated by using CIELab (ΔE*(ab)) and CIEDE2000 (ΔE00) methods. Then 95% confidence intervals were calculated for color variation means between baseline and 10,000 thermal cycles and between 10,000 and 20,000 thermal cycles. The 95% confidence intervals were also calculated for the means of individual color coordinates (L*, a*, and b*). The dual-polymerizing cement had the highest color variation among all luting agents. No significant differences were found in color variation among the light-polymerizing materials. All agents showed ΔE*(ab)>3.46 and ΔE00>2.25 after 20,000 thermal cycles. Variations in L*, a*, and b* coordinates were material dependent. The dual-polymerizing agent was yellowish and reddish after aging. The dual-polymerizing cement had higher color variation than the light-polymerized materials when used for bonding ceramic veneers to enamel. Flowable and preheated composite resins had similar color stability to that of light-polymerizing resin-based cement. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-sectional radiographic survey of amalgam and resin-based composite posterior restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Coval, Marius; Geiger, Selly B

    2007-06-01

    To compare the failure rate of posterior interproximal amalgam restorations to resin-based composite restorations in a random young adult population. Bilateral bitewing radiographs of 459 young adults were screened. A total of 14,140 interproximal surfaces were examined, recorded, and statistically analyzed. Rate of failure was determined by the number of restorations with radiographic evidence of secondary caries and/or overhanging margins. Of the 650 restored interproximal surfaces (5% of all clearly demarcated interproximal surfaces), 86 (13%) demonstrated distinct interproximal secondary caries and 22 (3%) had overhanging margins. Of the 557 amalgam and 93 resin-based composite interproximal restorations, secondary caries were shown in 46 (8%) and 40 (43%), respectively, and overhanging margins in 21 (4%) and only 1 (1%), respectively. Generally, when secondary caries and overhanging margins were considered, the failure rate of amalgam and resin-based composite interproximal restorations was 12% and 44%, respectively. Higher failure rates were observed in resin-based composite restorations than in amalgam restorations. Secondary caries was the main reason for failure. Overhanging margins were not a primary factor in restoration failure. The vast use of posterior interproximal resin-based composite restorations should be reconsidered, and their limited long-term performance should be kept in mind.

  9. Large-Scale Demonstration of Perchlorate Removal Using Weak Base Anion Resin at Well No. 3 in Rialto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    USEPA 324–Volatile Organics μg/L All were ND USEPA 608–Chlorinated Pesticides and/or PCBs μg/L All were ND Oil & Grease mg/L ND Sulfide, soluble mg...perchlorate. Wastewater produced during regeneration is treated to remove perchlorate. This is performed using a small volume of strong base anion (SBA...regeneration. Wastewater produced during regeneration is treated to remove perchlorate. This can be done by using a small volume of scavenger resin, or

  10. Effects of different cavity disinfectants on shear bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Soley; Yazici, A Ruya; Gorucu, Jale; Ertan, Atilla; Pala, Kansad; Ustun, Yakup; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E

    2011-07-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different cavity disinfection agents on bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite. Thirty-six caries-free human third mandibular molars sectioned in mesio-distal direction were mounted in acrylic resin with their flat dentin surfaces exposed. After the dentin surfaces were wet ground with # 600 silicon carbide paper, the teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 12 each according to the cavity disinfection agents; chlorhexidine (CHX); sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), propolis, ozone, Er,Cr:YSGG laser and no treatment (control). After treatment of dentin surfaces with one of these cavity disinfection agents, Filtek Silorane adhesive system was applied. The silorane-based resin composite, Filtek Silorane was condensed into a mold and polymerized. After storage at 37°C for 24 hours, the specimens were tested in shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (p>0.05). The use of the tested cavity disinfection agents, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, propolis, ozone and Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not significantly affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite, filtek supreme. Cavity disinfectant applications did not affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite.

  11. Heat-cured acrylic resin versus light-activated resin: a patient, professional and technician-based evaluation of mandibular implant-supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, S A; Al-AlShiekh, H M

    2017-12-01

    Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed from light-activated resins. This clinical study was designed to compare the performance of a mandibular implant-supported overdenture constructed from a heat-cured acrylic resin (Lucitone-199) with that of an overdenture constructed from a light-activated resin (Eclipse). Ten participants received two identical mandibular implant-retained overdentures (Lucitone-199 and Eclipse) opposing one maxillary denture in a random order. Each mandibular overdenture was delivered and worn for 6 months, and two weeks of rest was advised between wears to minimize any carryover effects. Three questionnaires were devised. The first questionnaire (patient evaluation) focused on evaluating different aspects of the denture and overall satisfaction. The second questionnaire (professional dentist evaluation) was based on a clinical evaluation of soft tissues, complications, and the applied technique. The third questionnaire (technician evaluation) involved ranking the different manufacturing steps of the denture and overall preferences. The obtained data was statistically analyzed using an independent sample t-test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The clinician and technician preferred the Eclipse dentures because of their technical aspects, whereas the patients preferred the Lucitone-199 dentures for their aesthetic properties. Implant-supported overdentures constructed from a heat-cured acrylic resin showed superior aesthetics and had a better odor compared with those constructed from a light-cured resin.

  12. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of natural resin-based experimental endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gleyce O; Cavalcanti, Bruno N; Oliveira, Tatiana R; Bin, Claudia V; Camargo, Samira E A; Camargo, Carlos H R

    2016-05-01

    The development of endodontic sealers based on natural resins seems to be promising, given their improved biological properties. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two experimental root canal sealers, based on extracts from Copaifera multijuga and Ricinus communis (castor oil polymer), comparing them to synthetic resin-based sealers: a single methacrylate-based, a multi-methacrylate-based, and an epoxy resin-based sealers. Sealers were prepared, set, and exposed to cell culture medium for 24 h at 37 °C with CO2. V79 cells were exposed to serial dilutions of the extracts of each sealer for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay and genotoxicity was assessed by the formation of micronuclei. The single methacrylate-based sealer had the most cytotoxic effects, with significant reduction in cell viability in all dilutions of the extract. The castor oil polymer-based sealer was, on the other hand, the most biocompatible sealer, with no cytotoxic effects at any concentration. All tested sealers were not genotoxic, excepting the single methacrylate-based sealer. The tested natural resin-based sealers presented low cytotoxic and no genotoxic effects on cell cultures. These results may suggest a good alternative to develop new endodontic sealers, in order to achieve better biological response and healing, when compared to commercially available sealers.

  13. Basicities of Strong Bases in Water: A Computational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupmees, Karl; Trummal, Aleksander; Leito, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous pKa values of strong organic bases – DBU, TBD, MTBD, different phosphazene bases, etc – were computed with CPCM, SMD and COSMO-RS approaches. Explicit solvent molecules were not used. Direct computations and computations with reference pKa values were used. The latter were of two types: (1) reliable experimental aqueous pKa value of a reference base with structure similar to the investigated base or (2) reliable experimental pKa value in acetonitrile of the investigated base itself. ...

  14. Epoxy Resin Based Composites, Mechanical and Tribological Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Bello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High fuel consumption by automobile and aerospace vehicles built from legacy alloys has been a great challenge to global design and material engineers. This has called for researches into material development for the production of lighter materials of the same or even superior mechanical properties to the existing materials in this area of applications. This forms a part of efforts to achieve the global vision 2025 i.e to reduce the fuel consumption by automobile and aerospace vehicles by at least 75 %. Many researchers have identified advanced composites as suitable materials in this regard. Among the common matrices used for the development of advanced composites, epoxy resin has attained a dominance among its counterparts because of its excellent properties including chemical, thermal and electrical resistance properties, mechanical properties and dimensional stability. This review is a reflection of the extensive study on the currently ongoing research aimed at development of epoxy resin hybrid nanocomposites for engineering applications. In this paper, brief explanation has been given to different terms related to the research work and also, some previous works (in accordance with materials within authors’ reach in the area of the ongoing research have been reported.

  15. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a flowable resin composite (SDR) bulk fill technique in posterior restorations and to compare it intraindividually with a conventional 2mm resin composite curing technique in a 3-year....... In all cavities a single step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In one of the cavities of each pair, a flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with a nano......-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  16. Prevalence of cusp fractures in teeth restored with amalgam and with resin-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Schmitt, Margaret M; Overton, Donald A; Gordon, M Kathleen

    2004-08-01

    Complete cusp fracture in restored teeth is a common problem observed in general dental practice. Many dentists believe that teeth restored with amalgam are more likely to be associated with cusp fractures than are those restored with resin-based composite. METHODS. The authors noted the condition of 10,869 posterior teeth with amalgam or resin-based composite restorations with at least one cusp present, unrestored or missing in 1,902 consecutively seen adult patients in a private general dental practice. For each patient, the authors recorded age, type of restorations, number of surfaces of each restoration, and presence or absence of a complete cusp fracture and of caries. There was a lower percentage of cusp fractures in younger subjects than in older subjects and in teeth with a single restored surface than in those with more than one restored surface. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of cusp fracture rates in amalgam-restored teeth versus composite-restored teeth in subjects aged 18 through 54 years. In subjects aged 55 through 96 years, there was a marginally significantly greater cusp fracture rate in composite-restored teeth than in those restored with amalgam. Overall, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of cusp fracture in teeth restored with amalgam (1.88 percent) versus composite-restored teeth (2.29 percent). The prevalence of cusp fractures in amalgam-restored teeth and resin-based composite-restored teeth is not significantly different. Teeth with more than one surface restored with either resin-based composite or amalgam and teeth in older subjects were more likely to suffer a cusp fracture. Teeth restored with amalgam and with resin-based composite exhibited equally low cusp fracture prevalence. When choosing between amalgam and resin-based composite in consideration of the likelihood of a future cusp fracture, either restorative material is acceptable.

  17. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  18. A 24-month evaluation of amalgam and resin-based composite restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCracken, Michael S; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Knowing which factors influence restoration longevity can help clinicians make sound treatment decisions. The authors analyzed data from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network to identify predictors of early failures of amalgam and resin-based composite (RBC) restorations....

  19. Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material. A total of 20 specimens (60 × 10 × 2 mm) of heat cured acrylic resin were constructed and divided into four groups (five for each), according to the concentration of AgNPs (1%, 2%, and 5% vol.) which incorporated into the liquid of acrylic resin material and one group without additives (control group). The dynamic viscoelastic test for the test specimens was performed using the computerized material testing system. The resulting deflection curves were analyzed by material testing software NEXYGEN MT. The 5% nanoparticles of silver (NAg) had significantly highest mean storage modulus E' and loss tangent Tan δ values followed by 2% NAg (P 0.05). The AgNPs incorporation within the acrylic denture base material can improve its viscoelastic properties.

  20. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide From Seawater by Ion Exchange Resin. Part 2. Using Strong Base Anion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    efforts to enhance CO2 capture by this approach, commercial hollow fiber membrane contactors are proposed to be studied in a simulated open ocean...sufficient funding the microporous membrane contactor work could be completed in two man years, and the electrical regeneration work would require...additional studies be conducted to determine the viability of other proven technologies for carbon capture. Polypropylene microporous membranes in

  1. Alternative to latent catalysts for curing UF resins used in the production of low formaldehyde emission wood-based panels

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Costa; Joao Pereira; Jorge Manuel Santos Silva Martins; João Ferra; Paulo Cruz; Fernao Magalhaes; Adelio Mendes; Luísa Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies alternative catalysts to ammonium sulfate for curing urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. When using a latent catalyst like ammonium sulfate, hexamine is formed as by-product of curing reaction. It is believed that hexamine hydrolysis may contribute to formaldehyde release during the life-time of wood-based panels produced with UF resins. Orthophosphoric acid, on the other hand, catalyzes resin cure without by-product formation and was compared to ammonium sulfate. The pot-life o...

  2. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksy, Mariusz; Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina; Heneczkowski, Maciej; Oliwa, Rafał; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2014-08-22

    A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP) with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS) curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  3. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Oleksy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  4. Boron removal from water and wastewater using new polystyrene-based resin grafted with glycidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kluczka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene resin with amine functional groups (Purolite A170 was grafted with glycidol and characterized as a novel sorbent, GLY-resin, for the oxoborate removal from model solutions and post-crystallization lye. The sorption behavior of GLY-resin was investigated using a batch system. The results showed that the sorption was maximal at pH=9.5. The equilibrium was achieved after 24 h. Calculations based on Langmuir model show the monolayer sorption capacity qm=1.3 mg/g and the fitted experimental data chemisorption as a dominating mechanism of boron sorption on GLY-resin. Boron removal from the solution containing 5 mg B/L and post-crystallization lye having a 9.1 mg B/L was 99% and 80% respectively. The thermodynamic calculations indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The pseudo-second-order model adequately described the boron sorption on GLY-resin. Sorption−desorption efficiency was 100%, which means the boron sorption at next cycle did not decrease.

  5. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (pacrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  6. Multi-Response Optimization of Resin Finishing by Using a Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Nahid; Shafiq, Faizan; Sarwar, Zahid; Jilani, Muhammad Munib; Cai, Yingjie

    2018-03-15

    In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L 27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi's design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA), tearing strength (TE), and whiteness index (WI). The optimum parameters (values) for resin finishing were the resin concentration (80 g·L -1 ), the polyethylene softener (40 g·L -1 ), the catalyst (25 g·L -1 ), the curing temperature (140 °C), and the curing time (2 min). The goodness-of-fit of the data was validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimized sample was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to better understand the structural details of the resin finishing process. The results showed an improved thermal stability and confirmed the presence of well deposited of resin on the optimized fabric surface.

  7. Multi-Response Optimization of Resin Finishing by Using a Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nahid Pervez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi’s design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA, tearing strength (TE, and whiteness index (WI. The optimum parameters (values for resin finishing were the resin concentration (80 g·L−1, the polyethylene softener (40 g·L−1, the catalyst (25 g·L−1, the curing temperature (140 °C, and the curing time (2 min. The goodness-of-fit of the data was validated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimized sample was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM to better understand the structural details of the resin finishing process. The results showed an improved thermal stability and confirmed the presence of well deposited of resin on the optimized fabric surface.

  8. Development of high radiation-resistant glass fiber reinforced plastics with cyanate-based resin for superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idesaki, Akira, E-mail: idesaki.akira@qst.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Watanuki 1233, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nakamoto, Tatsushi [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shimada, Akihiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Watanuki 1233, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iio, Masami; Sasaki, Kenichi; Sugano, Michinaka [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Makida, Yasuhiro [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ogitsu, Toru [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • GFRPs for superconducting magnet systems were developed. • Cyanate-based resins were used for GFRPs as matrices. • Radiation resistance was evaluated based on gas evolution and mechanical properties. • GFRP with bismaleimide-triazine resin exhibited excellent radiation resistance. - Abstract: Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) with cyanate ester resin/epoxy resin, bismaleimide resin/epoxy resin, and bismaleimide-triazine resin as matrices were developed for the superconducting magnet systems used in high intensity accelerators. The radiation resistance of these GFRPs was evaluated based on their gas evolution and changes in their mechanical properties after gamma-ray irradiation with dose of 100 MGy in vacuum at ambient temperature. After irradiation, a small amount of gas was evolved from all of the GFRPs, and a slight decrease in mechanical properties was observed compared with the conventional epoxy resin-GFRP, G10. Among the GFRPs, the smallest amount of gas (6 × 10{sup −5} mol/g) was evolved from the GFRP with the bismaleimide-triazine resin, which also retained more than 88% of its flexural strength after 100 MGy irradiation; this GFRP is thus considered the most promising material for superconducting magnet systems.

  9. Repair Strength in Simulated Restorations of Methacrylate- or Silorane-Based Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Marinho, Tatiane; Bacchi, Atais; Caldas, Ricardo Armini; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The study verified the bond strength in simulated dental restorations of silorane- or methacrylate-based composites repaired with methacrylate-based composite. Methacrylate- (P60) or silorane-based (P90) composites were used associated with adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2). Twenty-four hemi-hourglass-shaped samples were repaired with each composite (n=12). Samples were divided according to groups: G1= P60 + Adper Single Bond 2+ P60; G2= P60 + Adper Single Bond 2 + P60 + thermocycling; G3= P90 + Adper Single Bond 2 + P60; and G4= P90 + Adper Single Bond 2 + P60 + thermocycling. G1 and G3 were submitted to tensile test 24 h after repair procedure, and G2 and G4 after submitted to 5,000 thermocycles at 5 and 55 ?#61616;C for 30 s in each bath. Tensile bond strength test was accomplished in an universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data (MPa) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Sample failure pattern (adhesive, cohesive in resin or mixed) was evaluated by stereomicroscope at 30?#61655; and images were obtained in SEM. Bond strength values of methacrylate-based composite samples repaired with methacrylate-based composite (G1 and G2) were greater than for silorane-based samples (G3 and G4). Thermocycling decreased the bond strength values for both composites. All groups showed predominance of adhesive failures and no cohesive failure in composite resin was observed. In conclusion, higher bond strength values were observed in methacrylate-based resin samples and greater percentage of adhesive failures in silorane-based resin samples, both composites repaired with methacrylate-based resin.

  10. Designing of cardanol based polyol and its curing kinetics with melamine formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgude, Dinesh Bapurao; Sabnis, Anagha Shyamsunder; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Commercially used industrial baking enamels consist of alkyd or polyester resin with melamine formaldehyde. These resins are mainly derived from fossil resources. Considering growing environmental legislation regarding use of petroleum based raw materials, utilization of renewable resources to synthesize various chemistries can be the only obvious option as far as academia and industries are concerns. The present work deals with exploration of one of the natural resources (Cardanol) for polyol synthesis, its characterization (FTIR and NMR) and its curing behavior with melamine formaldehyde resin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optimized formulations from DSC study were further evaluated for general coating properties to study the suitability of developed polyol for industrial coating application. The experimental studies revealed that melamine content in the curing mixtures and thereby developed crosslinking density played an important role in deciding the coatings properties.

  11. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  12. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida; Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira; Costa, Michelle Leali

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  13. Radiation stability of anion-exchange resins based on epichlorohydrin and vinylpyridines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainutdinov, S.S.; Dzhalilov, A.T.; Askarov, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The vigorous development of nuclear technology and atomic energy and the hydrometallurgy of the rare and radioactive metals has made it necessary to create and use ion-exchange materials possessing a high resistance to the action of ionizing radiations and the temperature. In view of this, the necessity has arisen for obtaining ion-exchange materials possessing adequate radiation stability. The results of an investigation of the radiation stability of anion-exchange resins based on the products of spontaneous polymerization in the interaction of epichlorohydrin with vinylpyridines show that they possess higher radiation resistance than the industrial anion-exchange resin AN-31 used at the present time

  14. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  15. Evaluation of sorption, solubility and staining of universal and silorane resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfe, T E de Almeida; Agra, C M; Vieira, G F

    2011-12-01

    Resin-based composite staining is a multifactoral phenomenon and can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The purpose of this study was to compare staining, sorption and solubility of silorane resin-based and universal resin-based composites. Five different resin-based composites (4 Seasons, Charisma, Filtek Silorane, Filtek Supreme and Grandio) were tested. Twenty five specimens were prepared (10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm thick). To staining test, the specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 5): distilled water (control), coffee and red wine. The specimens were immersed in one of the solutions at 37 degrees C for 7 days. Using the values of L*, a*, b*, color variation (CIEDE2000) was determined. For sorption and solubility test, the specimens were divided into 2 groups (n = 5): with previous desiccation (Group 1) and with no previous desiccation (Group 2). The methodology used for sorption and solubility test was based on ISO 4049:2000. The results presented no significant difference in staining between composites. In sorption and solubility test, Filtek Silorane presented the smallest values, followed by Grandio. Under tested experimental conditions, it is not possible to assert the dependence of staining in sorption that composites are undergone. There was no significant correlation between colour change and sorption values.

  16. Influence of polymerization properties of 4-META/MMA-based resin on the activity of fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Haruaki; Takeda, Kahoru; Tsuboi, Ririko; Hayashi, Mikako; Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Imazato, Satoshi

    2017-11-29

    Dental adhesive resins based on 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) have been utilized for root-end filling and the bonding of fractured roots. To increase the success rate of these treatments, it would be beneficial to promote the healing of surrounding tissue by applying growth factors. In this study, the influences of the polymerization properties of 4-META/MMA-based resins on the activity of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were evaluated in vitro. The temperature increase caused by the heat generation during polymerization of the 4-META/MMA-based resin was insufficient to change the structure and function of FGF-2. Unpolymerized monomers released from the cured 4-META/MMA-based resin had no negative influences on the ability of FGF-2 to promote the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. These findings suggest that it is possible to use FGF-2 in combination with 4-META/MMA-based resins.

  17. Characterization of water sorption, solubility, and roughness of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, M; Di Francescantonio, M; Pacheco, R R; Cidreira Boaro, L C; Braga, R R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness (SR), water sorption (WS), and solubility (SO) of four composite resins after finishing/polishing and after one year of water storage. Two low-shrinkage composites (Filtek Silorane [3M ESPE] and Aelite LS [Bisco Inc]) and two composites of conventional formulations (Heliomolar and Tetric N-Ceram [Ivoclar Vivadent]) were tested. Their respective finishing and polishing systems (Sof-Lex Discs, 3M ESPE; Finishing Discs Kit, Bisco Inc; and Astropol F, P, HP, Ivoclar Vivadent) were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten disc-shaped specimens of each composite resin were made for each evaluation. Polished surfaces were analyzed using a profilometer after 24 hours and one year. For the WS and SO, the discs were stored in desiccators until constant mass was achieved. Specimens were then stored in water for seven days or one year, at which time the mass of each specimen was measured. The specimens were dried again and dried specimen mass determined. The WS and SO were calculated from these measurements. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (α=0.05). Filtek Silorane showed the lowest SR, WS, and SO means. Water storage for one year increased the WS means for all composite resins tested. The silorane-based composite resin results were better than those obtained for methacrylate-based resins. One-year water storage did not change the SR and SO properties in any of the composite resins.

  18. The bond between acrylic resin denture teeth and the denture base: recommendations for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D R; Juszczyk, A S; Clark, R K F

    2014-02-01

    Failure of the bond between denture teeth and base acrylic resin has been shown to be a cause of denture failure leading to inconvenience and costly repair. The optimal combination of acrylic resin denture tooth, denture base material, laboratory protocol and processing method has not yet been established. Extensive research enables the following recommendations for best practice to be made. Adopt practices that maximise the strength of the bond: select appropriate denture teeth; select base acrylic resin from the same manufacturer as the denture teeth; remove the glaze from ridgelaps of the denture teeth; apply monomer to the ridgelaps of the denture teeth before packing the base acrylic resin dough; use the manufacturers' recommended liquid/powder ratio; follow the manufacturers' recommended curing cycle; allow the flask to cool slowly and rest before deflasking. Adopt practices that avoid factors detrimental to bond strength: remove all traces of wax from the ridge laps of the denture teeth; remove all traces of mould seal from the ridgelaps of the denture teeth. It is evident that a number of factors are involved which may assist or prevent formation of an adequate bond, suggesting that attention to detail by the dental technician may be the most critical factor.

  19. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hevinga, M.A.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. METHODS: Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants

  20. Azido--meconine-high ortho'Novolak resin-based negative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new photoactive compound (PAC), azido--meconine absorbing in the deep UV region has been blended with `alternating' and `semi-alternating' and `high ortho' alternating novolak resins, based on /-cresol. The new photoresists have been evaluated as a negative tone deep UV photoresist for mircolithography.

  1. Assessment of the impact strength of the denture base resin polymerized by various processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To measure the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized using short and long curing cycles by water bath, pressure cooker and microwave techniques. Materials and Methods: For impact strength testing, 60 samples were made. The sample dimensions were 60 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm, as standardized by the American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM. A digital caliper was used to locate the midpoint of sample. The impact strength was measured in IZOD type of impact tester using CEAST Impact tester. The pendulum struck the sample and it broke. The energy required to break the sample was measured in Joules. Data were analyzed using Student′s " t" test. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized by long curing cycle and short curing cycle in each technique, with the long curing processing being the best. Conclusion: The polymerization technique plays an important role in the influence of impact strength in the denture base resin. This research demonstrates that the denture base resin polymerized by microwave processing technique possessed the highest impact strength.

  2. Reinforcement of Aluminum Oxide Filler on the Flexural Strength of Different Types of Denture Base Resins: An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsa, G.; Shetty, Rohit; Huddar, Dayanand; Sankeshwari, Banashree; Chopade, Swapnil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acrylic resins have been used extensively for the fabrication of denture bases because of their aesthetic qualities, ease of manipulation and repairability. Flexural fatigue of the denture base has been shown to be a factor in the clinical failure of polymethyl methacrylate resin dentures. Also, the fracture can result from impact, fatigue or degradation of the base material. Hence, there is a need to increase the strength of denture base resins. Aim To evaluate the effect of reinforcing alumina oxide filler on the flexural strength of different acrylic resins. Materials and Methods A total of 180 acrylic specimens were fabricated, which were divided into three groups self cure acrylic resin (SC), conventional heat cure resin (HC) and high strength heat cure resin (HI). Each group was divided into four subgroups i.e., control group and the specimens of the remaining three groups were reinforced with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder by 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. Specimens were stored in distilled water for one week; flexural strength was tested by universal testing machine. Results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey paired group comparison tests. Results Flexural strength of SC increased by 9%, 13% and 19%, Flexural strength of HC increased by 8%, 15% and 19% and that of HI increased by 21%, 26% and 29% compared to control group by adding 5%,10% and 15% of alumina filler (p-value acrylic resin, conventional heat cure acrylic resin and high strength heat cure acrylic resin increased the flexural strength. Increasing the flexural strength of the acrylic resin base material could lead to more clinical success. PMID:28571274

  3. Reducing composite restoration polymerization shrinkage stress through resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, S J; Mutzelburg, P R; Shumack, T G; Thode, Djg; Martin, F E; Ellakwa, A E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether employing resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives can reduce polymerization contraction stress generated at the interface of restorative composite adhesive systems. Five resin based adhesives (G Bond, Optibond-All-in-One, Optibond-Solo, Optibond-XTR and Scotchbond-Universal) and two resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives (Riva Bond-LC, Fuji Bond-LC) were analysed. Each adhesive was applied to bond restorative composite Filtek-Z250 to opposing acrylic rods secured within a universal testing machine. Stress developed at the interface of each adhesive-restorative composite system (n = 5) was calculated at 5-minute intervals over 6 hours. The resin based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RBA-RCS) demonstrated similar interface stress profiles over 6 hours; initial rapid contraction stress development (0-300 seconds) followed by continued contraction stress development ≤0.02MPa/s (300 seconds - 6 hours). The interface stress profile of the resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RMGIBA-RCS) differed substantially to the RBA-RCS in several ways. Firstly, during 0-300 seconds the rate of contraction stress development at the interface of the RMGIBA-RCS was significantly (p glass-ionomer based adhesives can significantly reduce the magnitude and rate of polymerization contraction stress developed at the interface of adhesive-restorative composite systems. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Preparation and characterization of ZnO-PMMA resin nanocomposites for denture bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierech, Mariusz; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Bączkowski, Bohdan; Grudniak, Anna Maria; Wolska, Krystyna Izabela; Łojkowski, Witold; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to investigate the antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) against Candida albicans. Some attempts have been made to find out the best way to introduce ZnONPs into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin material and to determine some parameters of a newly formed composite. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were manufactured and their basic physical parameters were determined (average particle size, density, specific surface area). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnONPs was determined for the Candida albicans standard strain. The average size of ZnO conglomerates in the monomer solution of PMMA resin was measured using a dynamic light scattering instrument. PMMA resin samples with incorporated ZnONPs were produced. The morphology of nanopowder and the newly formed composite was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the roughness parameter of PMMA resin material was investigated before and after ZnONPs modification. Nanopowder with the average particle size of 30 nm, density of 5.24 g/cm3 and surface area of 39 m2/g was obtained. MIC was determined at the level of 0.75 mg/mL. The average size of ZnO conglomerates in the monomer solution of acrylic resin dropped by 11 times after ultrasound activation. SEM examination of a newly formed composite showed a successful introduction of ZnONPs confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in the biomaterial roughness before and after the modification of ZnONPs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into acrylic resin used for the production of denture bases. The presence of nanoparticles with sizes below 100 nm was confirmed. Nevertheless a newly created composite needs to be further investigated to improve its homogeneity, and to check its microbiological properties, strength and biocompatibility prior to its possible clinical use.

  5. Restoring Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors Using Zirconia-Based Resin Bonded Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Antigoni; Liu, Perng-Ru; O'Neal, Sandra J; Essig, Milton E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical report describes an alternative treatment modality for the replacement of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in a 17-year-old patient. Zirconia-based resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs) were selected as a viable and conservative treatment option in a young individual with highly aesthetic expectations. Fabrication of all-ceramic RBFPDs followed specific preparation design and features to accommodate two retainers. The zirconia frameworks with bilateral wings were digitally designed and then milled by a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-controlled milling machine. Zirconia surface was treated with a two-step chairside tribochemical silica-coating/silane coupling surface treatment protocol, and adhesive resin luting cement was used to achieve micromechanical and chemical bonding. Completion of the treatment resulted in a functional and aesthetic successful outcome and a 17-month follow-up presented uneventful. Contemporary adhesive techniques involving resin-bonded zirconia-based prostheses can be utilized successfully and predictably in young patients with single missing teeth when implant therapy is currently not a treatment of choice and a less invasive approach is desired. The zirconia-based resin-bonded prosthesis constitutes a viable and conservative treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth either congenitally or from another etiology in young patients in which implant therapy and a fixed partial denture are currently contraindicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factors affecting use of fluorescent agents in identification of resin-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpino, Paulo H P; Pereira, José C; Svizero, Nádia R; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Pashley, David H

    2006-10-01

    The present study is a compilation of methodologies developed in order to evaluate the effects of addition of a fluorescent agent, rhodamine B, to resin-based materials. The intent of the work was to develop a systematic methodology that accounts for variables not shown to be of concern in past testing, but may significantly affect interpretation of the resulting images and material properties. Different methodologies were specifically developed to evaluate factors affecting the use of the fluorescent agent rhodamine B in the identification of resin-based materials. The influence of dye concentration was evaluated with respect to adhesive polymerization reaction kinetics and bond strength of the resin into which the dye is added. The pH of the dye-solvent solution was also considered. Additionally, the mass and percentage of rhodamine B leached into different media over time was determined. It was demonstrated that a specific dye must be used with caution, and the concentration of a fluorescent agent is important with respect to both the conversion and bond strength of the resin to which the dye is added. An alcohol-based dye solution also produced an extremely high amount of dye leaching from polymerized specimens. The adhesive pH was not altered. The standardized methodology developed here to analyze restoration interfaces using a fluorescent dye can lessen the impact of variables when interpreting results.

  7. Cu-Catalyzed carbon-heteroatom coupling reactions under mild conditions promoted by resin-bound organic ionic bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Bing; Yang, Chu-Ting; Yi, Jun; Deng, Xiao-Jian; Fu, Yao; Liu, Lei

    2011-02-04

    Resin-bound organic ionic bases (RBOIBs) were developed in which tetraalkyl-ammonium or phosphonium cations are covalently attached to solid resins. The application tests showed that the performance of the tetraalkyl-ammonium-type RBOIBs is slightly better than that of the corresponding Cs salts in Cu-catalyzed C-N cross-couplings, while the tetraalkylphosphonium-type RBOIBs are significantly better than all the inorganic bases. With these newly developed RBOIBs, room-temperature Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling with various nonactivated aryl iodides and even aryl bromides can be readily accomplished. Moreover, RBOIBs can be easily recycled and reused for a number of times without much drop of activity. The good performances of RBOIBs are proposed to arise from the relatively weak binding forces between the cationic polymer backbone and basic anions, as opposed to the strong metal-anion interactions in the inorganic bases. Further applications of RBOIBs in Ni-catalyzed Suzuki-type couplings at room temperature, Cu-catalyzed C-N couplings at -30 °C, a Pd-catalyzed Heck reaction at 60 °C, and Cu-catalyzed C-S couplings at room temperature demonstrate that RBOIBs are generally applicable bases with improved performance for many other types of organic transformations.

  8. The effect of repeated preheating of dimethacrylate and silorane-based composite resins on marginal gap of class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Salari, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Background. One of the problems with composite resin restorations is gap formation at resin‒tooth interface. The present study evaluated the effect of preheating cycles of silorane- and dimethacrylate-based composite resins on gap formation at the gingival margins of Class V restorations. Methods. In this in vitro study, standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 48 bovine incisors. For restorative procedure, the samples were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the type of composite resin (group 1: di-methacrylate composite [Filtek Z250]; group 2: silorane composite [Filtek P90]) and each group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups based on the composite temperature (A: room temperature; B: after 40 preheating cycles up to 55°C). Marginal gaps were measured using a stereomicroscope at ×40 and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Inter- and intra-group comparisons were analyzed with post-hoc Tukey tests. Significance level was defined at P composite resin type, preheating and interactive effect of these variables on gap formation were significant (Pcomposite resins (Pcomposite resins at room temperature compared to composite resins after 40 preheating cycles (Pcomposite re-sins. Preheating of silorane-based composites can result in the best marginal adaptation.

  9. Influence of phosphoproteins' biomimetic analogs on remineralization of mineral-depleted resin-dentin interfaces created with ion-releasing resin-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Salvatore; Osorio, Raquel; Watson, Timothy F; Toledano, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the remineralization of acid-etched dentin pre-treated with primers containing biomimetic analogs and bonded using an ion-releasing light-curable resin-based material. An experimental etch-and-rinse adhesive system filled with Ca(2+), PO4(3-)-releasing Ca-Silicate micro-fillers was created along with two experimental primers containing biomimetic analogs such as sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and/or polyaspartic acid (PLA). Dentin specimens etched with 37% H3PO4 were pre-treated with two different aqueous primers containing the polyanionic biomimetic analogs or deionized water and subsequently bonded using the experimental resin-based materials. The specimens were sectioned and analyzed by AFM/nanoindentation to evaluate changes in the modulus of elasticity (Ei) across the resin-dentin interface at different AS storage periods (up to 90 days). Raman cluster analysis was also performed to evaluate the chemical changes along the interface. The phosphate uptake by the acid-etched dentin was evaluated using the ATR-FTIR. Additional resin-dentin specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength. SEM examination was performed after de-bonding, while confocal laser microscopy was used to evaluate the interfaces ultramorphology and micropermeability. Both biomimetic primers induced phosphate uptake by acid-etched dentin. Specimens created with the ion-releasing resin in combination with the pre-treatment primers containing either PLA and TMA showed the greatest recovery of the Ei of the hybrid layer, with no decrease in μTBS (p>0.05) after 3-month AS storage. The ion-releasing resin applied after use of the biomimetic primers showed the greatest reduction in micropermeability due to mineral precipitation; these results were confirmed using SEM. The use of the ion-releasing resin-based system applied to acid-etched dentin pre-treated with biomimetic primers containing analogs of phosphoproteins such as poly-l-aspartic acid and/or sodium

  10. Photobleaching of camphorquinone during polymerization of dimethacrylate-based resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmusen, Silvana; Arenas, Gustavo; Cook, Wayne D; Vallo, Claudia

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the photobleaching rate of CQ in different dental resins. The photodecomposition rate of CQ/amine system in bis-GMA/TEGDMA, bis-EMA and UDMA polymerizing monomers was evaluated at different light intensities. The photobleaching of the CQ was studied by monitoring the decrease in light absorption as a function of continuous irradiation time. The absorption changes were assessed by recording the transmitted light that passed through samples of monomers containing CQ/amine. Complete photobleaching of CQ was observed in all the monomer tested and the rate constant for the photobleaching was proportional to the radiation intensity. Hydrogen abstraction from amines by the excited CQ state via electron transfer and direct hydrogen abstraction from monomer structures were involved in the CQ photoreduction. CQ was photobleached in the absence of coinitiator in a dimethacrylate monomer containing a carbamate functional group (UDMA). This behavior was attributed to the presence of labile hydrogen atoms in the UDMA monomer. The CQ photobleaching rate constant in UDMA containing CQ/amine was similar to that in UDMA in the absence of amine. Moreover, the efficiency of CQ to photoinitiate the polymerization of UDMA in the absence of amine demonstrated that the radicals derived from the UDMA monomer via hydrogen abstraction are highly reactive toward double bonds. CQ photoinitiates the polymerization of the UDMA monomer in the absence of amine and the efficiency of this process is comparable to that of traditional bis-GMA and bis-EMA monomers activated with CQ/amine.

  11. Mechanical properties of four methylmethacrylate-based resins for provisional fixed restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, E P; Oshida, Y; Platt, J A; Andres, C J; Barco, M T; Brown, D T

    2004-01-01

    The use of a provisional restoration is an important phase in the treatment of the dental prosthetic patient. A good provisional restoration should satisfy the following requirements: pulpal protection, positional stability, ease in cleaning, accurate margins, wear resistance, dimensional stability, and serve as a diagnostic aid in treatment assessment and esthetics. There is a tendency for discoloration, occlusal wear, and fracture that eventually leads to unnecessary repair. Heat-processed and reinforced methacrylate-based resins have been used to improve the mechanical and physical properties of provisional restorations. Among various improvements, the interpenetrating network crosslinked PMMA (IPN) has been shown to have superior mechanical properties if manufactured through a dough compression molding process at 130 degrees C. However, there have been no published data that relate with the use of this material for fixed provisional restorations. The objective of this study was to compare four methyl methacrylate-based resins for provisional crowns and bridges with varying processing cycles, including JET [self-cure], ACRALON [heat-cured], titanium dioxide filled PMMA [heat-cured], and IPN [heat-cured denture tooth resin]. Properties studied included transverse strength, toughness, rigidity, and hardness. From the results of this study the following conclusions can be made: the IPN group may have had a lower degree of conversion as demonstrated by decreased strength, toughness, and hardness data as compared with Acralon. Increasing the polymerization cycle of unmodified Acralon resin causes a significant increase in strength.

  12. Hardness of resin cement cured under different thickness of lithium disilicate-based ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Fu

    2011-11-01

    The lithium disilicate-based ceramic is a newly developed all-ceramic material, which is lithium disilicate-based and could be used for fabricating almost all kinds of restorations. The extent of light attenuation by ceramic material was material-dependent. Ceramic materials with different crystal composition or crystalline content would exhibit distinct light-absorbing characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of ceramic thickness and light-curing time on the polymerization of a dual-curing resin luting material with a lithium disilicate-based ceramic. A lithium disilicate-based ceramic was used in this study. The light attenuation caused by ceramic with different thickness was determined using a spectral radiometer. The commercial dual-cured resin cement was light-cured directly or through ceramic discs with different thickness (1, 2 and 3 mm, respectively) for different times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds, respectively). The polymerization efficiency of resin cement was expressed in terms as Vickers hardness (VHN) measured after 24 hours storage. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD tests were used to determine differences. Intensity of polymerizing light transmitted through ceramic discs was reduced from 584 mW/cm(2) to about 216 mW/cm(2)2, 80 mW/cm(2) and 52 mW/cm(2) at thicknesses of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Resin cement specimens self-cured alone showed significantly lower hardness values. When resin cement was light-cured through ceramic discs with a thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm, no further increasing in hardness values was observed when light-curing time was more than 30 seconds, 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. Within the limitation of the present study, ceramic thickness and light-curing time had remarkable influence on the polymerization of dual-cured resin cement. When resin cement is light-cured beneath a lithium disilicate ceramic with different thickness, prolonging light

  13. Effect of reline material and denture base surface treatment on the impact strength of a denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Perez, Luciano Elias; Machado, Ana Lucia; Canevarolo, Sebastião Vicente; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effect of relining and surface treatment on the impact strength (IS) of a heat-polymerising denture base acrylic resin (Lucitone 550-L) was evaluated. Rectangular bars of L were made (60 x 6 x 2 mm) and relined (2 mm) with the relining resins Ufi Gel Hard (UH) and Tokuso Rebase Fast (TR). Specimens relined with L and intact L, TR and UH specimens were also made (60 x 6 x 4 mm), for comparison. Before relining, the L surface was left untreated or wetted with methyl methacrylate monomer and/or the bonding agents (BA) supplied by manufacturers of the reline resins. V-notches were machined at the midpoint of the length of all specimens. The notches were made either across the width (Nw) or across the thickness of the specimens (Nth). The Charpy impact test was performed using a 0.5-J pendulum, which had been specially designed and constructed. Data were analysed separately for each notch position using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference post-hoc test (p = 0.05). The IS of L was similar to that of L/L. For the Nw notch, treating the denture base L with TR BA and relining with TR reline material produced the highest IS. The IS of specimens made from heat polymerising acrylic resin Lucitone 550 was increased after relining using the hard chairside reline resin TR with its proprietary BA.

  14. Preparation and Characterizations of Composite Material Based on Carbon Fiber and Two Thermoset Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouda Hany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we used two types of thermoset resins (epoxy resin and phenol formaldehyde resin with carbon fiber (CF to produce composite materials. CF/epoxy resin composite and CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite were fabricated and compared between their mechanical properties as compression, tension and flexural. it was found that mechanical properties of CF/epoxy composite higher than mechanical properties of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite such as flexural strength of CF/epoxy resin composite increased by 30 % than flexural strength of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite, tensile strength of CF/epoxy resin composite increased by 11.4 % than flexural strength of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin and axial compression strength of CF/epoxy resin composite increased by 14.5 % than flexural strength of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin.

  15. Effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on colour stability of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo C; Dos Santos, Daniela M; Baptista, Gabriella T; Moreno, Amália; Andreotti, Agda M; Bannwart, Lisiane C; Dekon, Stefan F C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling and disinfection on the colour change of denture base acrylic resin. Four different brands of acrylic resins were evaluated (Onda Cryl, QC 20, Classico and Lucitone). All brands were divided into four groups (n = 7) determined according to the disinfection procedure (microwave, Efferdent, 4% chlorhexidine or 1% hypochlorite). The treatments were conducted three times a week for 60 days. All specimens were thermal cycled between 5 and 55°C with 30-s dwell times for 1000 cycles before and after disinfection. The specimens' colour was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system. The evaluations were conducted at baseline (B), after first thermal cycling (T1 ), after disinfection (D) and after second thermal cycling (T2 ). Colour differences (ΔE) were calculated between T1 and B (T1 B), D and B (DB), and T2 and B (T2 B) time-points.   The samples submitted to disinfection by microwave and Efferdent exhibited the highest values of colour change. There were significant differences on colour change between the time-points, except for the Lucitone acrylic resin. The thermal cycling and disinfection procedures significantly affected the colour stability of the samples. However, all values obtained for the acrylic resins are within acceptable clinical parameters. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mechanical, dielectric, and physicochemical properties of impregnating resin based on unsaturated polyesterimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetouhi, Louiza; Petitgas, Benoit; Dantras, Eric; Martinez-Vega, Juan

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to characterize the dielectric and the mechanical properties of a resin based on an unsaturated polyesterimide diluted in methacrylate reactive diluents used in the impregnation of rotating machines. The broadband dielectric spectrometry and the dynamic mechanical analysis were used to quantify the changes in dielectric and mechanical properties of the network PEI resin, as a function of temperature and frequency. The network characterizations highlight the presence of two main relaxations, α and α', confirmed by the differential scanning calorimetry analysis, showing the complexity of the chemical composition of this resin. The dielectric spectroscopy shows a significant increase in the dielectric values due to an increase of the material conductivity, while the mechanical spectroscopy shows an important decrease of the polymer rigidity and viscosity expressed by an important decrease in the storage modulus. The PEI resin shows a high reactivity when it is submitted in successive heating ramps, which involves in a post-cross-linking reaction. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  17. Design and synthesis of bio-based UV curable PU acrylate resin from itaconic acid for coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Deepak M; Phalak, Ganesh A; Mhaske, S T

    2017-01-01

    UV curable PUA resin was successfully synthesized from polyol based on sustainable resource originated from itaconic acid (IA), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). A polyol was synthesized by condensation reaction of IA with 16-hexanediol in the presence of p-Toluenesulfonic acid (pTSA). The synthesized PUA resin was characterized for its structural elucidation by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized UV curable PUA resin was incorporated in varying concentrations in conventional PUA coating system. The effects of varying concentration of synthesized UV curable PUA resin on rheology, crystallinity, thermal and coating properties were evaluated. The rheological behavior of the resins were evaluated at variable stress and result showed decrease in viscosity of resin as concentration of synthesized UV curable PUA resin increases in conventional PUA resin. The cured coatings have been evaluated for glass transition temperature ( T g ) and thermal behavior by differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis respectively. The degree of crystallinity of the coatings was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns using the PFM program. It was found that increase in the mass proportion of IA based PUA in coatings, the coating becomes more rigid and crystalline. The synthesized UV curable PUA coatings showed interesting mechanical, chemical, solvent and thermal properties as compared to the conventional PUA. Further, cured coatings were also evaluated for gel content and water absorption.

  18. The influence of polishing techniques on pre-polymerized CAD\\CAM acrylic resin denture bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alammari, Manal Rahma

    2017-10-01

    Lately, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has broadly been successfully employed in dentistry. The CAD/CAM systems have recently become commercially available for fabrication of complete dentures, and are considered as an alternative technique to conventionally processed acrylic resin bases. However, they have not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to inspect the effects of mechanical polishing and chemical polishing on the surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (wettability) of heat-cured, auto-cured and CAD/CAM denture base acrylic resins. This study was conducted at the Advanced Dental Research Laboratory Center of King Abdulaziz University from March to June 2017. Three denture base materials were selected: heat cure poly-methylmethacrylate resin, thermoplastic (polyamide resin) and (CAD\\CAM) denture base resin. Sixty specimens were prepared and divided into three groups, twenty in each. Each group was divided according to the polishing techniques into (Mech P) and (Chem P), ten specimens in each; surface roughness and wettability were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using one-way ANOVA and Pearson coefficient. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests were used for comparing the surface roughness values between three groups which revealed a statistical significant difference between them (p 1 CAD\\CAM denture base material (group III) showed the least mean values (1.08±0.23, 1.39±0.31, Mech P and Chem P respectively). CAD/CAM showed the least contact angle in both polishing methods, which were statistically significant at 5% level (p=0.034 and pCAD\\CAM denture base resin with superior smooth surface compared to chemical polishing. Mechanical polishing is considered the best effective polishing technique. CAD/CAM denture base material should be considered as the material of choice for complete denture construction in the near future, especially for older dental

  19. Effectiveness of resin-based materials against erosive and abrasive enamel wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyi; Pan, Jie; Zhang, Songmei; Malmstrom, Hans S; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of resin-based materials against erosive enamel wear under erosive and abrasive challenges by orange juice and tooth brushing. Fifty enamel specimens from third molars were assigned to five groups: ICON resin infiltration with no etching (ICON-NE), ICON resin infiltration with 15 % HCl etching (ICON-AE), Seal & Protect sealant (S&P), Tetric EvoFlow (TEF), and control. Erosive lesions were first created on enamel, then treated with resin-based materials. Erosive and abrasive challenges by orange juice and tooth brushing were repeated after treatments. Erosive wear of the treated areas was measured with 3D scanning microscopy, and data were analyzed using ANOVA and paired t tests. Treatments with ICON, S&P, and TEF created a protective material coating of 4.5 ± 1.9 μm, 44.3 ± 8.1 μm, and 84.6 ± 15.7 μm in thickness on the lesion surfaces, respectively. After 15 cycles of erosive and abrasive challenges, enamel or material losses were 21.9 ± 2.3 μm for control, 24.5 ± 4.0 μm for ICON-NE, 24.6 ± 7.4 μm for ICON-AE, 11.2 ± 4.1 μm for S&P, and 3.9 ± 1.9 μm for TEF, respectively. The protective coatings were completely lost in the ICON infiltration groups but remained intact in both the S&P and TEF groups after erosive and abrasive challenges. In contrast to a resin sealant and a flowable composite, ICON infiltration resin was not effective in protecting enamel surfaces from erosive and abrasive wear. Sealant and flowable composite resin may create protective coatings on eroded enamel surfaces and prevent further tissue loss.

  20. Preparation and Characterizations of Composite Material Based on Carbon Fiber and Two Thermoset Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda Hany; Guo Lin; Elsharkawy Karim

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, we used two types of thermoset resins (epoxy resin and phenol formaldehyde resin) with carbon fiber (CF) to produce composite materials. CF/epoxy resin composite and CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite were fabricated and compared between their mechanical properties as compression, tension and flexural. it was found that mechanical properties of CF/epoxy composite higher than mechanical properties of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite such as flexural strength...

  1. A Study on Tensile Behavior and Water Uptake of Wood Powder-Composites Based on Epoxy and Unsaturated Polyester Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir hossein Pirayeshfar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two kinds of epoxy resins (i.e. high-viscosity and low-viscosity as well as one polyester resin (orthophthalic grade were selected and examined as pure resins and also as a polymeric matrix for producing wood-composites. In this study, tensile properties, water uptake, and degradation of samples in water were also investigated. The results show that addition of wood particles to the thermoset resins strongly impresses on their tensile behavior and water uptake. Tensile studies show that addition of wood powder improves the tensile properties of polyester resin as compared with viscosity epoxy one, although its modulus value is relatively less than that of low viscosity epoxy resin. Water uptake measurements also revealed that pure polyester resin and its related composites possess minimum water uptake and less degradation in water as compared with corresponding epoxy specimens and from which the lowest extent of materials is extracted and migrated to the water even after 50 days immersion in water.

  2. Allergic effects of the residual monomer used in denture base acrylic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Haroon; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Vohra, Fahim

    2015-01-01

    Denture base resins are extensively used in dentistry for a variety of purposes. These materials can be classified as chemical, heat, light, and microwave polymerization materials depending upon the factor which starts the polymerization reaction. Their applications include use during denture base construction, relining existing dentures, and for fabrication of orthodontic removable appliances. There have been increased concerns regarding the safe clinical application of these materials as their biodegradation in the oral environment leads to harmful effects. Along with local side effects, the materials have certain occupational hazards, and numerous studies can be found in the literature mentioning those. The purpose of this article is to outline the cytotoxic consequences of denture base acrylic resins and clinical recommendations for their use. PMID:26929705

  3. The kinetics and mechanism of bromide ion isotope exchange reaction in strongly basic anion-exchange resin duolite A-162 determined by the radioactive tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, R. S.; Singare, P. U.; Karthikeyan, P.

    2007-11-01

    In the present investigation, 82Br radioactive isotope was used as a tracer to study the kinetics and mechanism of exchange reaction between an ion exchange resin and an external bromide ion solution. In an attempt to study the reversible bromide ion isotopic exchange reaction kinetics, it was expected that whether the initial step was the exchange of radioactive bromide ions from the solution into the ion exchange resin (forward reaction) or from the ion exchange resin into the solution (reverse reaction), two ion isotopic exchange reactions should occur simultaneously, which was further confirmed by the experimental specific reaction rates of 0.130 and 0.131 min-1, respectively. The results can be used to standardize process parameters so as to optimize the utilization of ion exchange resins in various industrial applications.

  4. Chlorhexidine release and antibacterial properties of chlorhexidine-incorporated polymethyl methacrylate-based resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, N; Yiu, C K Y; King, N M; Tay, F R

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated chlorhexidine release from experimental, chlorhexidine-incorporated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based resin cements prepared from Super-Bond C&B (Sun Medical) and examined the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. Chlorhexidine diacetate was added into PMMA polymer to obtain chlorhexidine concentration of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 wt %. Chlorhexidine-incorporated, cured resin disks were immersed in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 5 weeks, and the chlorhexidine release was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibacterial effect of freshly mixed resin cements was examined using the agar diffusion test. For the direct contact test, the wells (n = 6) of microtiter plates were coated with cements. The coated wells were aged up to 3 weeks prior to the placement of bacterial suspensions directly on cured cements. The 3.0 and 4.0% chlorhexidine-incorporated cement exhibited chlorhexidine release for 5 weeks; however, more than 98% of chlorhexidine was retained in resin matrix. No release was detected from the 1.0 and 2.0% incorporated cement at 1 week and 2 weeks, respectively. The agar diffusion test failed to detect antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis, whereas the direct contact test revealed the antibacterial effect of 3.0 and 4.0% incorporated cements against each microbe for 2 weeks. The 3.0 and 4.0% chlorhexidine-incorporated resin cement possessed prolonged chlorhexidine release and antibacterial properties for 2 weeks. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microwave irradiation as an alternative method for disinfection of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Consani, R; Sardi, J; Mesquita, M; Macêdo, A; Takahashi, J

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of microwave irradiation as an alternative method for disinfection of different types of denture base acrylic resins. Twenty-four samples for each conventional, microwaved and characterized heat-cured acrylic resin were made and subjected to sterilization with ethylene oxide for the groups: 1) irradiated samples; 2) non-irradiated samples; and 3) samples without yeast. Each group was subdivided according to inoculation with C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. The samples were inoculated with 100 µL of inoculum of each species of Candida and later placed in an incubator at 37 °C for 1 hr to perform the first adhesion. After this time, each well was supplemented with sterile media and the plate was once again taken to a stove for incubation at 37 °C for 6 hr. The samples were immersed in 100 mL of sterile water and irradiated with microwave at 650 W for 3 min. Control samples were considered as the non-irradiated group. After incubation for 48 hr, irradiated and non-irradiated samples were subjected to a digital colony counter. Control group (non-irradiated) showed microbial growth for resins and the means of ufc/mL were without statistically significant differences. Microwave irradiated samples (experimental group) promoted no viable colonies for all Candida species and types of acrylic resins. The means of ufc/mL were without statistically significant differences. Microwave irradiation was an effective method for disinfection of the acrylic resins inoculated with C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis.

  6. Non-hydrolytic sol-gel synthesis of epoxysilane-based inorganic-organic hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sunirmal; Lim, Mi Ae; Baek, In Chan; Kim, Chang Hae [KRICT-EPFL Global Research Laboratory, Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 100 Jang Dong, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Sang Il [KRICT-EPFL Global Research Laboratory, Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 100 Jang Dong, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seoksi@krict.re.kr

    2008-12-20

    A silica-based inorganic-organic hybrid resins (IOHR) were synthesized by non-hydrolytic sol-gel process from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO) and diphenylsilanediol (DPSD) at a fixed amount of (20 mol%) phenyltrimethoxysilane using barium hydroxide as a catalyst. The confirmation of condensation reaction in the IOHR was done by liquid state {sup 29}Si NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy, measurement of viscosity as well as weight average molecular weight (W{sub m}) of the IOHR. The W{sub m} of the IOHR was varied from 1091 to 2151, depending upon the DPSD content. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements were performed to investigate the details of vibrational absorption bands in the IOHR. It was seen that up to 50 mol% of DPSD there were no absorption peaks in the region of 3000-3600 cm{sup -1} responsible for O-H groups and it reappeared at 60 mol% of DPSD due to some unreacted OH groups present in the resin. The IOHR at all the compositions was oily transparent liquid, miscible with various organic solvents like toluene, cyclohexanone, chloroform, tehrahydrofuran (THF), etc., and also commercial epoxy resins but immiscible with water. The color of the IOHR was pale yellow, which lightened with increasing DPSD content. The IOHR having 40-50 mol% of DPSD were storable. The refractive index at 632.8 nm of the resin films varied from 1.556 to 1.588, depending upon the resin composition. Physico-chemical properties such as the thermal stability, visible transparency, etc. after curing were investigated as a function of the chemical composition.

  7. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU. The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage. A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB, beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W, and artificial saliva (AS; control. The color change (DE was evaluated before (baseline and after thermocycling (T1, and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2, 3 h (T3, 24 h (T4, 48 h (T5, and 96 h (T6. The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  8. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-12-31

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  9. Polyimides Based on Asymmetric Dianhydrides (II) (a-BPDA vs a-BTDA) for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    A new series of low-melt viscosity imide resins (10-20 poise at 280 C) were formulated from asymmetric 2,3,3',4' -benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) and 4-phenylethynylphthalic endcaps, along with 3,4' -oxydianiline, 3,3' -methylenedianiline and 3,3'- diaminobenzophenone, using a solvent-free melt process. a-BTDA RTM resins exhibited higher glass transition temperatures (Tg's = 330-400 C) compared to those prepared by asymmetric 2,3,3',4' -biphenyl dianhydride, (a-BPDA, Tg's = 320-370 C). These low-melt viscosity imide resins were fabricated into polyimide/T650-35 carbon fiber composites by a RTM process. Composites properties of a-BTDA resins, such as open-hole compression and short-beam shear strength, are compared to those of composites made from a-BPDA based resin at room temperature, 288 C and 315 C. These novel, high temperature RTM imide resins exhibit outstanding properties beyond the performance of conventional RTM resins, such as epoxy and BMI resins which have use-temperatures around 177 C and 232 C for aerospace applications.

  10. Simulation-based marginal likelihood for cluster strong lensing cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killedar, M.; Borgani, S.; Fabjan, D.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G.; Meneghetti, M.; Planelles, S.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between observed and predicted strong lensing properties of galaxy clusters have been routinely used to claim either tension or consistency with Λ cold dark matter cosmology. However, standard approaches to such cosmological tests are unable to quantify the preference for one cosmology over another. We advocate approximating the relevant Bayes factor using a marginal likelihood that is based on the following summary statistic: the posterior probability distribution function for the parameters of the scaling relation between Einstein radii and cluster mass, α and β. We demonstrate, for the first time, a method of estimating the marginal likelihood using the X-ray selected z > 0.5 Massive Cluster Survey clusters as a case in point and employing both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations of clusters. We investigate the uncertainty in this estimate and consequential ability to compare competing cosmologies, which arises from incomplete descriptions of baryonic processes, discrepancies in cluster selection criteria, redshift distribution and dynamical state. The relation between triaxial cluster masses at various overdensities provides a promising alternative to the strong lensing test.

  11. Concomitant contact allergy to the resins, reactive diluents and hardener of a bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin in subway construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Pontén, Ann; Sun, Chee-Ching; Jee, Shiou-Hwa

    2006-03-01

    An outbreak of suspected contact dermatitis among subway construction workers was suspected to be due to a new bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin system (ERS). The construction workers used ERSs during the insertion of iron bars into concrete walls. The objective of the study was to determine the components (if any) of the ERS responsible for the contact allergy. Patch testing was performed on 20 of the 22 construction workers who had had contact with the ERS, and to the various subcomponents of component A on 5 of the 7 who reacted to this component. 9 patients (9/22, 40.9%) had clinical symptoms and signs of suspected contact dermatitis at presentation. 7 of these 9, but none of the 11 asymptomatic individuals, were positive to component A, while all were negative to component B. Of the 5 cases receiving further patch testing, all reacted to m-xylylene diamine, 4 to 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether, 3 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether 0.25% petrolatum, and only 1 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol A-type. Contact allergy to ERSs may involve hardeners and diluents as well as resins, and patch testing for reaction to all components should be performed.

  12. The elution of metal cyanocomplexes from polyacrylic - and polystyrene- based ion exchange resins using nitrate and thiocyanate eluants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Riani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange resins can potentially be applied in cyanide recycling to address growing environmental concerns over the use of cyanide during gold extraction. In the present work the elution of copper-, iron-, and zinc-cyanocomplexes from polyacrylic- and polystyrene-based resins was studied. It was found that iron and copper cyanides are easily eluted from polyacrylic- and polystyrene-based ion exchange resins using either SCN- or NO3-. However, elution of the zinc cyanide complex from polystyrene-based resins was poor when using nitrate solution as eluant. Besides, an increase in elution temperature from 25 °C to 50 °C improved the elution of iron and zinc cyanides from polystyrene-based resins using a nitrate eluant; however temperature did not have any significant effect on other metal cyanocomplexes or for elution using thiocyanate. It was therefore proposed that the optimal combination of resin-eluant was site-specific, and depends on the features of the effluent, processing temperature, eluant concentration, and ion exchange resin under consideration.

  13. Effect of thermal shock on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of thermal shock on the mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, one polyethylene terephthalate, one polycarbonate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 and were either thermocycled or not thermocycled (n = 10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit (FS-PL), the elastic modulus and the Charpy impact strength of the denture base materials were estimated. Thermocycling significantly decreased the FS-PL of one of the polyamides and the PMMA and it significantly increased the FS-PL of one of the polyamides. In addition, thermocycling significantly decreased the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and significantly increased the elastic moduli of one of the polyamides, the polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate and PMMA. Thermocycling significantly decreased the impact strength of one of the polyamides and the polycarbonate. The mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after themocycling.

  14. On the design of dental resin-based composites: a micromechanical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Bill; Kotousov, Andrei; Swain, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    Adhesive resin-based restorative materials have the potential to considerably strengthen teeth and offer more economically viable alternatives to traditional materials such as gold, amalgam or ceramics. Other advantages are direct and immediate placement and the elimination of the use of mercury. However, polymerization shrinkage during curing of an adhesive restoration and mismatch in mechanical properties can lead to the initiation and development of interfacial defects. These defects could have a detrimental effect on the longevity of the restored tooth. The current study is focused on some design issues of resin-based composites affecting the longevity of the tooth-restoration interface. The theoretical approach is based on self-consistent micromechanical modelling that takes into account the effect of the material properties, volume concentration of the dispersed particle phase as well as the shape of these particles on the overall thermomechanical properties of the composite. Results obtained for resin-based composites reinforced with spherical, disc and short fibre particles highlight the advantages of disc shaped and short fibre particles.

  15. Comparison sealability of root canal obturation using bioceramic sealer and methacrylate resin-based sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharsya, Y.; Usman, M.; Suprastiwi, E.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare and analyze the obturation sealability using bioceramic sealer and methacrylate resin-based sealer. A total of 30 single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProTaper Next and randomly divided into two groups; the first group was obturated with bioceramic sealer (SB), while the second was obturated with methacrylate resin-based sealer (MRS). Coated gutta-percha was used as obturating material in both groups. Apical third marginal adaptation was evaluated by observing the dye penetration between the obturation material and the root canal walls on cross-sectioned samples. BS showed less microleakage in the apical third marginal adaptation than MRS. Obturation of root canal using BS has better sealing ability than MRS at the apical third.

  16. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Dimmer-Acid-Based Nonisocyanate Polyurethane and Epoxy Resin Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dimmer-acid-based hybrid nonisocyanate polyurethanes (HNIPUs were synthesized by the one-step method without catalyst. Three polyamines and two epoxy resins were selected as raw materials for HNIPU, and cyclic carbonate was synthesized based on our previous work. All of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Then, HNIPU coatings were prepared and determined by swelling, water absorption, and water contact angle. The results showed that the HNIPU-4551 have the best mechanical and thermal properties because of its high crosslinking density. Among the different amines, it was confirmed that tetraethylenepentamine was the best amine curing agent for HNIPU coating. Meanwhile, the epoxy resin with a higher epoxy value would also form a higher crosslinking density. Those coatings showed an excellent impact strength, adhesion, flexibility, pencil hardness, hydrophilic, and appropriate crosslinking density.

  18. Sifat fisik hidroksiapatit sintesis kalsit sebagai bahan pengisi pada sealer saluran akar resin epoxy (Physical properties of calcite synthesized hydroxyapatite as the filler of epoxy-resin-based root canal sealer)

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyawati, Ema; HNES, Marsetyawan; Sunarintyas, Siti; Handajani, Juni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The filler addition to resin based sealers will enhance the physical properties of the polymer. Because of its biological properties, the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been proposed as filler for dental material such as composite resin. The calcite synthesized HA is the HA produced of calcite minerals that came from many Indonesian mining. Purpose: The aim of study was to determine the effect of different concentration of calcite synthesized HA as the filler of the epoxy-resin...

  19. Scratch test of thermoplastic denture base resins for non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawara, Misao; Iwata, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Masatoshi; Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Asano, Takashi; Komiyama, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Several thermoplastic denture base resins have been introduced for the fabrication of non-metal clasp dentures. Although the surface of these materials is easily damaged, the surface roughness and characteristics of scratches created have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of thermoplastic resins using a scratch test for the development of future materials. Four thermoplastic (polyamide: Valplast(®); VLP and Lucitone FRS(®); FRS, polyethylene terephthalate: EstheShot(®); ES, and polyester: EstheShot Bright(®); ESB) and two conventional acrylic (Heat-polymerizing: Urban(®); HC, and Pour type auto-polymerizing: Pro-Cast DSP(®); PR) denture base resins were examined. Eight specimens, approximately 10mm×10mm×30mm in size, of each material were fabricated. Scratch test was performed by a scratch tester with a diamond indenter of 10-μm radius and cone angle 90°, applying a constant load of 500mN, and 2-mm-long scratches were made. The scratch marks were studied under 3D laser measuring microscope and cross-section profiles at approximately 0.5mm, 1.0mm, and 1.5mm from the starting point were extracted and measured with analysis software. Data from 24 cross-section profiles in each denture base material were analyzed. The maximum depths of ES, ESB and FRS were greater than VLP, PR and HC, and the scratch widths of ES, ESB, FRS and VPL were greater than PR and HC. The results showed that the surface of thermoplastic denture base resins was easily damaged compared to polymethyl methacrylate. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Color stability of denture teeth and acrylic base resin subjected daily to various consumer cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Audrey; Powers, John M; Kiat-Amnuay, Sudarat

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated color stability of acrylic denture teeth and base resins after 48 weeks of commercial denture cleanser simulation. Two brands of denture teeth (Trubyte Portrait IPN, TP; SR Vivodent DCL, SR) in shades A1, B1, and C1 and three acrylic base resins (Lucitone, LU; Paragon, PA; Valplast, VA) prepared to manufacturer's specifications were exposed 10 hours daily to four cleansers (Clorox Bleach, CB; Polident 3 minute, PO3; Efferdent, EF; and Kleenite, KL) and distilled water control, approximating consumer overnight use. Color measurements used the standard Commision International de l'Eclairage (International Commission on Illumination, CIE L*a*b*) color space (0, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks.) Color differences (ΔE*) at 48 weeks were subjected to four-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean values were compared with Fisher's (protected least significant difference) intervals (0.05 significance level). Mean color differences (ΔE*) demonstrated color changes in each material. ANOVA-indicated color changes in teeth were significantly affected by both cleansers and teeth brand (p < 0.05), but not shade. Color changes in base resins were significantly affected by cleansers (p < 0.05), but not brand alone. Overall, KL produced the least color change while CB and PO3 produced the most for all materials. After 48 weeks of daily simulation, TP teeth were more color stable than SR in all cleansers except EF (p < 0.0001). Base resin VA was less color stable than LU and PA. Cleanser KL resulted in the lowest color changes. All tested materials yield clinically acceptable color changes (ΔE* < 3.5); all cleansing methods tested can be recommended, although Kleenite demonstrated the least change after 48 weeks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. CLSM assessment of tubule penetration and bacterial leakage evaluation of two resin-based sealer

    OpenAIRE

    Baldissera, Renata; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Nascimento, Angela Longo do; Kuga, Milton Carlos [UNESP; Pereira, Jéferson Ricardo; Montagner, Francisco; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aims of this study were to assess the penetration of two endodontic sealers (salicylate and epoxy resin-based sealers) into dentinal tubules using CLSM; and to evaluate the bacterial leakage of roots filled with the same sealers associated with gutta-percha. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For sealer penetrability assessment, thirty bovine roots were instrumented and divided into three groups: AHP: EDTA + filling with AH Plus and gutta-percha (n=10), MTAF: EDTA + filling with MTA Fillapex and ...

  2. In vitro tensile bond strength of denture repair acrylic resins to primed base metal alloys using two different processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Engelmeier, Robert L; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Powers, John M

    2009-12-01

    Approximately 38% of removable partial denture (RPD) failures involve fracture at the alloy/acrylic interface. Autopolymerizing resin is commonly used to repair RPDs. Poor chemical bonding of repair acrylic to base metal alloys can lead to microleakage and failure of the bond. Therefore, ideal repair techniques should provide a strong, adhesive bond. This investigation compared the tensile bond strength between cobalt-chromium (Super Cast, Pentron Laboratory Technologies, Llc., Wallingford, CT) and nickel-chromium (Rexalloy, Pentron Laboratory Technologies, Llc.) alloys and autopolymerized acrylic resin (Dentsply Repair Material, Dentsply Int, Inc, York, Pa) using three primers containing different functional monomers [UBar (UB), Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Shiga, Japan: Alloy Primer (AP) Kuraray Medical Inc., Okayama, Japan; and MR Bond (MRB) Tokyuyama Dental Corp., Tokyo, Japan] and two processing techniques (bench cure and pressure-pot cure). One hundred and twenty eight base metal alloy ingots were polished, air abraded, and ultrasonically cleaned. The control group was not primed. Specimens in the test groups were primed with one of the three metal primers. Autopolymerized acrylic resin material was bonded to the metal surfaces. Half the specimens were bench cured, and the other half were cured in a pressure pot. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. The specimens were debonded under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.05 cm/min. The forces at which the bond failed were noted. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Fisher's PLSD post hoc test was used to determine significant differences (p alloys. Primed sandblasted specimens that were pressure-pot-cured had significantly higher bond strengths than primed sandblasted bench-cured specimens. The pressure-pot-curing method had a significant effect on bond strength of all specimens except Co-Cr alloy primed with UB. The highest bond strength was observed for both Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys that

  3. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  4. Different Strategies to Bond Bis-GMA-based Resin Cement to Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Guilherme Carpena; Spohr, Ana Maria; De Souza, Grace M

    To evaluate the effect of different bonding strategies on short- and long-term bis-GMA-based resin cement bond strengths to zirconia. One hundred twenty samples of fully-sintered zirconia (Prettau Zirconia) were sandblasted and randomly distributed into 5 groups (n = 24): UA: Scotchbond Universal Adhesive; SZP: Signum Zirconia Bond I + II; ZPP: Z-Prime Plus; EXP: MZ experimental primer; CO: no primer application (control). After performing these surface treatments, translucent tubes (0.8 mm diameter and 1.0 mm height) were placed on the zirconia specimens, and bis-GMA-based cement (Duo-Link) was injected into them and light cured. Specimens were tested for microshear bond strength either 24 h or 6 months (m) after water storage (37°C) and surfaces were characterized by SEM and EDX. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p zirconia surface. In these groups, EDX demonstrated the presence of phosphorus. Group ZPP resulted in a nonhomogeneous layer, exposing the zirconia substrate underneath. EXP application resulted in an undetectable layer. Water storage did not affect resin cement bond strengths to zirconia irrespective of the surface treatment. Bis-GMA-based resin cement bond strengths to zirconia are affected by specific bonding strategies.

  5. Shear force bond analysis between acrylic resin bases and retention framework (open- and mesh-type)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royhan, A.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.

    2017-08-01

    Occlusions between teeth and the activity of the muscles around an artificial tooth during mastication create a force on dentures. This force causes friction between acrylic resin bases and retention frameworks that can lead to the complete loss of the acrylic resin base from the framework. The purpose of this study was to analyze the design of retention frameworks and determine which ones have a better resistance to shear forces in order to prevent the loss of heat cured acrylic resin base (HCARB). Six samples each of open-and mesh-type retention frameworks, both types made of Co-Cr material, and HCARB, were shear tested by means of a universal testing machine. The average shear force required to release the HCARB for mesh-type retention frameworks was 28.84 kgf, and the average for the open-type was 26.52 kgf. There was no significant difference between the shear forces required to remove HCARB from open- and mesh-type retention frameworks.

  6. Pressure transmission area and maximum pressure transmission of different thermoplastic resin denture base materials under impact load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Hubban; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the pressure transmission area and maximum pressure transmission of thermoplastic resin denture base materials under an impact load, and to evaluate the modulus of elasticity and nanohardness of thermoplastic resin denture base. Three injection-molded thermoplastic resin denture base materials [polycarbonate (Basis PC), ethylene propylene (Duraflex), and polyamide (Valplast)] and one conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (PMMA, SR Triplex Hot) denture base, all with a mandibular first molar acrylic resin denture tooth set in were evaluated (n=6). Pressure transmission area and maximum pressure transmission of the specimens under an impact load were observed by using pressure-sensitive sheets. The modulus of elasticity and nanohardness of each denture base (n=10) were measured on 15×15×15×3mm 3 specimen by using an ultramicroindentation system. The pressure transmission area, modulus of elasticity, and nanohardness data were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, followed by Tamhane or Tukey HSD post hoc test (α=.05). The maximum pressure transmission data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis H test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Polymethyl methacrylate showed significantly larger pressure transmission area and higher maximum pressure transmission than the other groups (Pdenture bases (Pthermoplastic resin denture base materials. Differences in the modulus of elasticity and nanohardness of each type of denture base were demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curtis, Andrew R

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique.

  8. Time-related surface modification of denture base acrylic resin treated by atmospheric pressure cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Pan, Hong; Li, Yinglong; Wang, Guomin; Zhang, Jue; Pan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The changes of denture base acrylic resin surface properties under cold plasma and the relationships with time were investigated. Cold plasma treated the specimens for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, and 120 s, respectively. Water contact angles were measured immediately after the treatment, 48 h, 15 days and 30 days later. Surface roughness was measured with 3-D laser scanning microscope. Candida albicans adherence was evaluated by CFU counting. Chemical composition was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Water contact angle reduced after treated for 30 s. No changes were observed with time prolonged, except the durability. There were no differences in roughness among all groups. However, treatment groups showed significantly lower C. albicans adherence. XPS demonstrated a decrease in C/O, and this reduction was affected by treatment time. Cold plasma was an effective means of increasing hydrophilicity of acrylic resin and reducing C. albicans adherence without affecting physical properties.

  9. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Composites Based on Epoxy Resin and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites based on epoxy resin were prepared. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized on iron-cobalt catalyst were applied as a filler in a polymer matrix. Chlorine or hydroxyl groups were incorporated on the carbon nanotubes surface via chlorination or chlorination followed by hydroxylation. The effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on the epoxy resin matrix is discussed in terms of the state of CNTs dispersion in composites as well as electrical properties. For the obtained materials current-voltage characteristics were determined. They had a nonlinear character and were well described by an exponential-type equation. For all the obtained materials the percolation threshold occurred at a concentration of about 1 wt%. At a higher filler concentration >2 wt%, better conductivity was demonstrated by polymer composites with raw carbon nanotubes. At a lower filler concentration <2 wt%, higher values of electrical conductivity were obtained for polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes.

  10. In vitro wear of resin-based materials--simultaneous corrosive and abrasive wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correr, Gisele Maria; Bruschi Alonso, Roberta Caroline; Correr Sobrinho, Lourenço; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Ferracane, Jack Liborio

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the wear of resin-based materials caused by the association of abrasive and corrosive processes. Twenty specimens were prepared for each material, cast in epoxy in acrylic rings, polished, and profiled with an MTS 3D Profiler. Antagonists were made from deciduous molars. Specimens were distributed into eight groups (n = 10), according to the material (Filtek Supreme, Point 4, Dyract AP, and Fuji II LC) and the type of slurry (neutral and acidic), and then cycled 100,000 times in the OHSU oral wear simulator. The specimens were cleaned and reprofiled. Volume loss and maximum depth were determined. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for data analysis (p wear facet on the antagonist was also measured. Composites displayed less wear than the compomer and the resin-modified glass ionomer. Significant differences also were found for cusp wear, with a significant positive correlation shown between cusp and material wear. The acidic slurry significantly increased the wear of the materials compared to the neutral slurry. Exposure to acidic slurry accelerated the wear of resin-based materials.

  11. Fast Curing Bio-Based Phenolic Resins via Lignin Demethylated under Mild Reaction Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongjiong Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Demethylation technique has been used to enhance lignin reactivity for preparation of phenolic resins. However, the demethylation efficiency and the demethylated lignin (DL reactivity were still unsatisfactory. To improve the demethylation efficiency, alkali lignin was demethylated under different mild conditions using sodium sulfite as a catalyst. Lignin and DL were characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy to determine the demethylation mechanism. With the demethylation of lignin, the methoxyl group content decreased from 1.93 m mol/g to 1.09 m mol/g, and the phenolic hydroxyl group content increased from 0.56 m mol/g to 0.82 m mol/g. These results revealed that methoxyl groups were attacked by SO32−, and some methoxyl groups were converted to phenolic hydroxyl groups by a nucleophilic substitution reaction, generating DL with high reactivity. The chemical properties of lignin-based phenolic resins were studied by 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, and their physical properties were also investigated. The results indicated that lignin-based phenolic resins exhibited faster curing rate and shorter gel time. In addition, the bonding strength increased from 0.92 MPa to 1.07 MPa, and the formaldehyde emission decreased from 0.58 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L after lignin demethylated at the optimum condition.

  12. Impact strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins subjected to long-term water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wady, Amanda Fucci; Machado, Ana Lucia; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha

    2011-01-01

    Water may influence the mechanical properties of the acrylic resins. Thus, the effect of water storage on the impact strength (IS) of one denture base (Lucitone 550 - L) and four reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II - T; UfiGel Hard - U; Kooliner - K; New Truliner - NT) was evaluated. Bars of L were made (60 x 6 x 2 mm) and relined (2 mm) with T, U, K, NT and L. Intact specimens of each material (60 x 6 x 4 mm) were also fabricated for comparative purposes. Specimens were submitted to Charpy impact tests without water storage (control) and after immersion in water for 7, 90 and 180 days. Data (kJ/m(2)) analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05) revealed that after 90 days, U exhibited an increase in the IS (0.93) compared to 7 days (0.58). K (1.48) and L/K (7.21) exhibited a decrease at the 7-day period (1.01 and 3.23, respectively). NT (0.60) showed an increase in the IS after 180 days (1.52), whereas L/NT (7.70) showed a decrease (3.17). Water immersion improved the IS of U and NT, and decreased the IS of K, L/K, and L/NT. Water may affect differently the IS of acrylic resins and, consequently, the resistance to fracture of relined denture bases.

  13. SORPTION AND SOLUBILITY OF LOW-SHRINKAGE RESIN-BASED DENTAL COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Yantcheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resin-based composites are well-established restorative materials. However, these materials may absorb significant amounts of water when exposed to aqueous environments. Sorption and solubility are affecting composite restorations by two different mechanisms; the first is the up taking of water producing an increased weight and the second is the dissolution of materials in water, leading to a weight reduction of the final conditioned samples. Objective: To measure the water sorption and solubility of different low-shrinkage resin-based composites. Six materials were selected: Filtek P60, Filtek Ultimate, SonicFill, Filtek Silorane, Kalore and Venus Diamond. Materials and methods: Five disc specimens were prepared of each material and polymerized with diode light-curing unit. Water sorption and solubility of the different materials were were calculated by means of weighting the samples before and after water immersion and desiccation. Data were statistically analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk One Way Analysis of Variance followed by the Holm-Sidak comparison test . Results: There were significant differences (p<=0.001 between materials regarding sorption and solubility. Regarding sorption F. Silorane showed lowest values, followed by SonicFill, without significant difference between them. Statistical significant differences exist between F. Silorane and F.P60, F. Ultimate, Kalore. Significant differences exist between SonicFill and F. Ultimate. F.Silorane (-0.018 and Kalore (-0.010 showed lowest values of solubility but there were marginal difference among all composites investigated. Conclusions: 1.The material with lowest values of sorption and solubility was F.Silorane. 2. The attained sorption and solubility values for composites are influenced by the differences in resin matrix composition and filler contend. 3. Modifications of dimethacrylate matrix did not minimize significantly sorption and solubility of composites. 4. Besides water

  14. Are flowable resin-based composites a reliable material for metal orthodontic bracket bonding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Bárbara; Rosa, Vinícius; Azeredo, Tatiana Rocha; Cruz Filho, Eduardo Augusto Mascarenhas; Miranda, Walter Gomes

    2010-07-01

    To compare the tensile bond strength (TBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of three flowable resin-based composites and three orthodontic adhesive systems for metal bracket bonding. Sixty bovine incisors were randomly divided into six groups. Enamel surfaces were etched with 37 percent phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded using either flowable resin-based composites (3M Flow, FL; Tetric Flow, TF; and Wave, WA) or orthodontic bonding systems (Transbond XT, TX; Concise Orthodontic, CO; Fill Magic Ortodôntico, FM). All specimens were thermal cycled and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, after which they were subsequently tested for TBS using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined after the failure of brackets. TBS and ARI data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p=0.05), respectively. Rankings of the resin-based composites based on TBS means (MPa) were TX (6.4 ± 2.1), followed by CO (4.5 ± 2.7), FM (3.7 ± 1.2), FL (3.6 ± 1.2), TF (3.3 ± 1.2), and WA (2.4 ± 0.6). CO exhibited the lowest ARI mean score (0.9 ± 1.2) which was significantly different from the other five materials: TX (2.8 ± 0.42), FM (2.8 ± 0.42), FL (2.9 ± 0.32), TF (2.9 ± 0.32), and WA (3.0 ± 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences among the other groups with mean scores of 2.8-3.0. A score of 3.0 indicated that all the resin remained bonded to the tooth surface. The flowable resin-based composites tested (Fl, TF, and WA) used to bond metal orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel had low mean TBS values but acceptable ARI mean scores. Flowable composites may not be appropriate for bracket bonding, unless the teeth to be bonded are not subjected to higher orthodontic stresses, such as those without an antagonist.

  15. Effectiveness of composite resin polymerization using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or halogen-based light-curing units

    OpenAIRE

    Micali,Bianca; Basting,Roberta Tarkany

    2004-01-01

    The clinical performance of composite resins is greatly influenced by the quality of the light-curing unit used. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of a commercial light-emitting diode (LED) with that of a halogen-based light-curing unit by means of dye penetration of a micro hybrid composite resin. The composite resin evaluated was Filtek Z250 (3M Dental). The composite was filled into acrylic moulds that were randomly polymerized for 40 seconds by each of the light-emitting...

  16. A study of ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Indion-830 (Type 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, R. S.; Singare, P. U.; Patil, A. B.

    2007-12-01

    A study of the thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br- and uni-divalent Cl-/SO{4/2-}, Cl-/C2O{4/2-} reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Indion-830 (Type 1). The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficients of ions both in solution and in the resin phase. For uni-univalent ion exchange reaction systems, the equilibrium constants K' were also calculated from the mole fraction of ions in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems increased as the temperature grew, indicating the endothermic character of the exchange reactions with enthalpies of 38.2, 32.3, 7.6, and 11.4 kJ/mol, respectively.

  17. Environmental Friendly Polyurethane Coatings Based On Hyperbranched Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf M. Elsaid; Magd M. Badr; Mohamed S. Selim

    2013-01-01

    Water borne polyurethane (PU) based on newly prepared hyperbranched poly (amine-ester) (HBPAE) was applied and evaluated as organic coating material. HBPAE was prepared through one-pot synthesis between trimethylol propane as a core and AB2 branched monomer which was obtained via Michal addition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and diethanol amine (DEA). PU was prepared from HBPAE using different ratios of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) to form cured coating film. The prepared HBPAE was characterized...

  18. Effect of surface treatment on the flexural strength of denture base resin and tensile strength of autopolymerizing silicone based denture liner bonded to denture base resin: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saloni

    2010-12-01

    Silicone based denture liners are superior to acrylic based denture liners but it has a problem of failure of adhesion with the denture base. To evaluate the effect on the tensile bond strength of silicone based liner and flexural strength of denture base resin when the latter is treated with different chemical etchants prior to the application of the resilient liner. Rectangular specimens of heat cured PMMA (65 × 10 × 3.3 mm(3)) for flexural strength and (10 × 10 × 40 mm(3)) for tensile strength were fabricated and divided into four subgroups each. One subgroup of each type acted as a control and the rest were subjected to surface treatment with acetone for 30 s, MMA monomer for 180 s, methylene chloride for 15 s, respectively. Silicone based denture liner was processed between 2 PMMA specimens (10 × 10 × 40 mm(3)) in the space provided by a spacer, thermocycled (5(-)55°C) for 500 cycles and then their tensile strength measurements and flexural strength measurements were done. 180 s of MMA monomer treatment was found to be most effective in improving the bonding between the liner and denture base resin as well as producing the lowest decrease in flexural strength of denture base resin. Chemical treatment of denture base resin improves the bond strength of denture liner but it also decreases the flexural strength of denture base. So careful selection of chemical etchant should be done so as to produce minimum decrease in flexural strength of denture base resin.

  19. Analytical methods for the measurement of polymerization kinetics and stresses of dental resin-based composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsima Ghavami-Lahiji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resin-based composites are commonly used restorative materials in dentistry. Such tooth-colored restorations can adhere to the dental tissues. One drawback is that the polymerization shrinkage and induced stresses during the curing procedure is an inherent property of resin composite materials that might impair their performance. This review focuses on the significant developments of laboratory tools in the measurement of polymerization shrinkage and stresses of dental resin-based materials during polymerization. An electronic search of publications from January 1977 to July 2016 was made using ScienceDirect, PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases. The search included only English-language articles. Only studies that performed laboratory methods to evaluate the amount of the polymerization shrinkage and/or stresses of dental resin-based materials during polymerization were selected. The results indicated that various techniques have been introduced with different mechanical/physical bases. Besides, there are factors that may contribute the differences between the various methods in measuring the amount of shrinkages and stresses of resin composites. The search for an ideal and standard apparatus for measuring shrinkage stress and volumetric polymerization shrinkage of resin-based materials in dentistry is still required. Researchers and clinicians must be aware of differences between analytical methods to make proper interpretation and indications of each technique relevant to a clinical situation.

  20. Effect of fluoride-containing desensitizing agents on the bond strength of resin-based cements to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Saraç

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of desensitizing agents containing different amounts of fluoride on the shear bond strength of a dual polymerized resin cement and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC to dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred human molars were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and prepared until the dentin surface was exposed. The specimens were treated with one of four desensitizing agents: Bifluorid 12, Fluoridin, Thermoline and PrepEze. The remaining 20 specimens served as untreated controls. All groups were further divided into 2 subgroups in which a dual polymerized resin cement (Bifix QM or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (AVANTO was used. The shear bond strength (MPa was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed statistically with a 2-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and regression analysis (α=0.05. The effect of the desensitizing agents on the dentin surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The fluoride-containing desensitizing agents affected the bond strength of the resin-based cements to dentin (p<0.001. PrepEze showed the highest bond strength values in all groups (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Regression analysis showed a reverse relation between bond strength values of resin cements to dentin and the amount of fluoride in the desensitizing agent (p<0.05.

  1. Impact strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana L; Bochio, Bruna C; Wady, Amanda F; Jorge, Janaina H; Canevarolo, Sebastião V; Vergani, Carlos E

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact strength of a denture base resin (Lucitone 550-L) and four reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II-T; Ufi Gel Hard-U; New Truliner-NT, and Kooliner-K), both intact and in a reline combination (L/L, L/T, L/U, L/NT, and L/K). For each group (n = 20), half of the specimens were thermocycled before testing. Charpy tests were performed, and the impact strengths were calculated. Data were analyzed by two-way analyses of variance and Tukey's test (p = 0.05). For the intact groups, mean impact strength values for L (1.65 and 1.50) were significantly higher than those of the reline resins (0.38-1.17). For the relined groups, the highest mean impact strength values were produced by L/T (5.76 and 5.12), L/NT (6.20 and 6.03), and L/K (5.60 and 5.31) and the lowest by L/U (0.76 and 0.78). There were no significant differences between L and L/L. Thermocycling reduced the impact strength of T (from 0.73 to 0.38) and L/L (from 1.82 to 1.56).

  2. Surface functionalization of acrylic based photocrosslinkable resin for 3D printing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ronca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The limited number of resins, available for stereolithography applications, is one of the key drivers in research applied to rapid prototyping. In this work an acrylic photocrosslinkable resin based on methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl methacrylate (BMA and poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDA was developed with different composition and characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and biological behaviour. Two different systems have been developed using different amount of reagent. The influence of every components have been evaluated on the final characteristic of the resin in order to optimize the final composition for applications in bone tissue engineering. The crosslinked materials showed good mechanical properties and thermal stabilities and moreover cytotoxicity test confirms good biocompatibility with no cytotoxic effect on cells metabolism. Moreover two different treatments have been proposed, using fetal bovine serum (FBS and methanol (MeOH, in order to improve cell recognition of the surfaces. Samples threatened with MeOH allow cell adhesion and survival, promoting spreading, elongation and fusion of C2C12 muscle myoblast cells.

  3. Protein-based green resins and nanocomposites from waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Maksudur

    The main goal of the present research is to design and fabricate 'green' nanocomposites using eco-friendly and biodegradable polymers, an effort driven towards an alternative of conventional petroleum-derived polymers in structural applications considering environmental and economic concerns. The behavior of structure, composition and property relationships between the novel combinations of these materials has been analyzed and discussed. The materials used in this study, many of them from non-edible sources, are obtained, derived and/or synthesized using various wastes from agricultural and food industries, as much as possible, so as to utilize wastes that are discarded at present. At the same time, the use of waste sources reduces the dependency of edible source-based biopolymers in various structural applications and thus, reduces the cost of materials significantly. Overall, this study opens up new avenues in the fabrication of low-cost 'green' nanocomposite with facile and 'green' methodology using various agricultural and food wastes.

  4. Pilot scale production, characterization, and optimization of epoxidized vegetable oil-based resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monono, Ewumbua Menyoli

    Novel epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) resins perform much better than other vegetable oil-based resins; thus, they are of current interest for commercial scale production and for a wide range of applications in coatings and polymeric materials. However, no work has been published that successfully scaled-up the reaction above a 1 kg batch size. To achieve this goal, canola oil was first epoxidized at a 300 g scale to study the epoxidation rate and thermal profile at different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition rates, bath temperatures, and reaction times. At least 83% conversion of double bonds to oxirane was achieved by 2.5 h, and the reaction temperature was 8-15 °C higher than the water bath temperature within the first 30-40 min of epoxidation. A 38 L stainless steel kettle was modified as a reactor to produce 10 kg of ESS. Twenty 7-10 kg batches of ESS were produced with an overall 87.5% resin yield and > 98% conversion after batch three. The conversion and resin quality were consistent across the batches due to the modifications on the reaction that improved mixing and reaction temperature control within 55-65 oC. The total production time was reduced from 8 to 4 days due to the fabrication of a 40 L separatory funnel for both washing and filtration. A math model was developed to optimize the epoxidation process. This was done by using the Box-Behnken design to model the conversion at various acetic acid, H2O2, and Amberlite ratios and at various reaction temperatures and times. The model had an adjusted R2 of 97.6% and predicted R2 of 96.8%. The model showed that reagent amounts and time can be reduced by 18% without compromising the desired conversion value and quality.

  5. Bond strength of resin cements to noble and base metal alloys with different surface treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhondeh Raeisosadat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen.Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to "Degubond 4" (Au Pd and "Verabond" (Ni Cr alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05.When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021 and Verabond (P< 0.001. No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291 and Verabond (P=0.899. Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003. The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011. The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035.The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2.

  6. Shear bond strength and failure types of polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin and titanium treated with surface conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Kim, Su-Sung; Yang, Hong-So; Vang, Mong-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the shear bond strength and failure types of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin to commercially pure (CP) titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy using a metal surface conditioner. The PMMA denture base resin (5 x 5 x 5 mm(3)) was cured onto disks, 10 mm in diameter and 2.5-mm thick. The shear bond strength of the PMMA resin with the surface conditioner was significantly higher than that without (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the types of metal. The conditioned specimens showed mixed failures, whereas the nonconditioned specimens exhibited only adhesive failure at the metal-resin interface.

  7. Morphological, Mechanical and Physio-chemical Performance of ortho-Cresol Epoxy Novolac Based Vinyl Ester Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswal Shipra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl ester resin (VEOCN was prepared from o-cresol epoxy resin (EOCN and methacrylic acid in the presence of triphenyl phosphine as catalyst and hydroquinone as inhibitor with acid value of ~ 7 mg of KOH per gram of solid. O-cresol based novolac resin (OCN, OCN based epoxy resin (EOCN and VEOCN were characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The thermal and mechanical behavior of the samples prepared at 30°C from VEOCN using styrene and methyl-methacrylate respectively as reactive diluents, in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (2 phr as initiator was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Universal Testing Machine (UTM. Chemical resistance of above VER samples was also evaluated as a function of % weight loss and with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, upon immersing the VEOCN samples in different solutions for 90 days.

  8. Synthesis, properties and applications of interacting blends of acrylated novalac epoxy resin based poly(ester-amides and vinyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnesh N. Dave

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin based unsaturated poly(ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reported method. These UPEAs were then treated with acryloyl chloride to afford acrylated UPEAs resin (i.e. AUPEAs. Interacting blends of equal proportional AUPEAs and vinyl ester epoxy (VE resin were prepared. APEAs and AUPEAs were characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight determined by vapor pressure osmometer and by IR spectral study and by thermogravimetry. The curing of interacting blends was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Based on DSC data in situ glass reinforced composites of the resultant blends have been prepared and characterized for mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. Unreinforced blends were characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  9. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate,

  10. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  11. Assessment of resin-dentin interfacial morphology of two ethanol-based universal adhesives: A scanning electron microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Mohamed Moustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the resin-dentin interfacial morphology created by two universal adhesives using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: The occlusal surfaces of ten (n = 5) molars were reduced to expose a flat surface of dentin. Two universal adhesives, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive and Tetric N-Bond Universal, were independently applied to air-dried dentin. Light-cured resin-based composite restorative materials were used to incrementa...

  12. Effect of surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of auto-polymerized resin to thermoplastic denture base polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polyamide polymers do not provide sufficient bond strength to auto-polymerized resins for repairing fractured denture or replacing dislodged denture teeth. Limited treatment methods have been developed to improve the bond strength between auto-polymerized reline resins and polyamide denture base materials. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface modification by acetic acid on surface characteristics and bond strength of reline resin to polyamide denture base. MATERIALS AND METHODS 84 polyamide specimens were divided into three surface treatment groups (n=28): control (N), silica-coated (S), and acid-treated (A). Two different auto-polymerized reline resins GC and Triplex resins were bonded to the samples (subgroups T and G, respectively, n=14). The specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test after they were stored in distilled water for 1 week and thermo-cycled for 5000 cycles. Data were analyzed with independent t-test, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison test (α=.05). RESULTS The bond strength values of A and S were significantly higher than those of N (Pdenture base materials with acetic acid may be an efficient and cost-effective method for increasing the shear bond strength to auto-polymerized reline resin. PMID:28018569

  13. Effect of MDP-Based Silane and Different Surface Conditioner Methods on Bonding of Resin Cements to Zirconium Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Hatice; Yanikoğlu, Nuran; Sağsöz, Nurdan

    2017-07-24

    To determine the shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconium framework and resin cements after different surface conditioner methods and after application of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) based silane and a bonding agent mix. 128 disc-shaped zirconium-oxide specimens were prepared. Specimens were placed in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The bonding surface of specimens was smoothed consecutively with 600-, 800-, and 1200-grit silicon carbide papers under water cooling. Eight groups were prepared: CJ, Co-Jet; N, Nd-YAG laser; E, Er-YAG laser; NS, Nd-YAG laser + silane; ES, Er-YAG laser + silane; CJB, Co-Jet + bonding agent; NSB, Nd-YAG laser + silane + bonding agent; ESB, Er-YAG laser + silane + bonding agent. SEM analysis was performed under 2000× magnification. Dual- and self-cured resin cements were bonded to specimens, and shear force was applied. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test (p MDP-based silane and bonding agent mix increased SBS values of each cement belonging to each group. SB values of dual-cure resin cement were higher than those of self-cure resin cements. Different surface conditioner methods exhibit an important effect on the SBS of resin cements to zirconium. The application of MDP-based silane and bonding agent mix enhanced SB values. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Peel bond strength of two silicone soft liners to a heat-cured denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hakan; Dogan, Arife; Dogan, Orhan Murat; Keskin, Selda; Bolayir, Giray; Soygun, Koray

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the peel strength of two different soft liners to a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin before and after thermocycling. The silicone-based soft liner materials tested were Molloplast B and Permaflex; the denture base material was a heat-cured acrylic resin, Meliodent. A total of 40 specimens was prepared using rectangular molds with dimensions of 100 x 10 x 2 mm for PMMA and 150 x 10 x 2 mm for soft liners, as described in ASTM-D903-93. For each of the liner materials, 10 specimens were packed against a cured PMMA denture base surface as recommended by the manufacturers. The other 10 specimens were packed against PMMA denture base dough and processed together. In each group, 5 of the specimens were tested directly, while the other 5 were thermocycled in a water bath (5°C to 55°C; 3000 cycles) before testing. Peel testing was performed using an Instron testing machine. The results revealed that peel strength values of the Permaflex specimens prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations were significantly higher than those of Molloplast B (p < 0.05). However, when packing was done against uncured PMMA dough, the difference between the specimens of two liners was not significant. Thermocycling led to significant decreases in the peel strength of both Permaflex liner specimens packed against cured/uncured PMMA resin surfaces (p < 0.05), whereas this process did not affect the strength of Molloplast B specimens. Results indicated that the material Molloplast B was superior to the material Permaflex in terms of peel strength when the specimens were simultaneously polymerized with PMMA and thermocycled.

  15. Evaluation and comparison of transverse and impact strength of different high strength denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhinav; Tewari, R K

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the impact strength and transverse strength of the high-impact denture base materials. A conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin was used as a control. The entire experiment was divided into four main groups with twenty specimens each according to denture base material selected Trevalon, Trevalon Hi, DPI Tuff and Metrocryl Hi. These groups were further subgrouped into the two parameters selected, impact strength and flexural strength with ten specimens each. These specimens were then subjected to transverse bend tests with the help of Lloyds instrument using a three point bend principle. Impact tests were undertaken using an Izod-Charpy digital impact tester. This study was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using Fisher f-test and Bonferroni t-test. There was a significant improvement in the impact strength of high-impact denture base resins as compared to control (Trevalon). However, in terms of transverse bend tests, only DPI Tuff showed higher transverse strength in comparison to control. Trevalon Hi and Metrocryl Hi showed a decrease in transverse strength. Within the limits of this in vitro study, (1) There is a definite increase in impact strength due to the incorporation of butadiene styrene rubber in this high strength denture base materials as compared to Trevalon used as a control. (2) Further investigations are required to prevent the unduly decrease of transverse strength. (3) It was the limitation of the study that the exact composition of the high-impact resins was not disclosed by the manufacturer that would have helped in better understanding of their behavior.

  16. Evaluation and comparison of transverse and impact strength of different high strength denture base resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the impact strength and transverse strength of the high-impact denture base materials. A conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin was used as a control. Materials and Methods: The entire experiment was divided into four main groups with twenty specimens each according to denture base material selected Trevalon, Trevalon Hi, DPI Tuff and Metrocryl Hi. These groups were further subgrouped into the two parameters selected, impact strength and flexural strength with ten specimens each. These specimens were then subjected to transverse bend tests with the help of Lloyds instrument using a three point bend principle. Impact tests were undertaken using an Izod-Charpy digital impact tester. Results: This study was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using Fisher f-test and Bonferroni t-test. There was a significant improvement in the impact strength of high-impact denture base resins as compared to control (Trevalon. However, in terms of transverse bend tests, only DPI Tuff showed higher transverse strength in comparison to control. Trevalon Hi and Metrocryl Hi showed a decrease in transverse strength. Conclusions: Within the limits of this in vitro study, (1 There is a definite increase in impact strength due to the incorporation of butadiene styrene rubber in this high strength denture base materials as compared to Trevalon used as a control. (2 Further investigations are required to prevent the unduly decrease of transverse strength. (3 It was the limitation of the study that the exact composition of the high-impact resins was not disclosed by the manufacturer that would have helped in better understanding of their behavior.

  17. Improved recovery of trace amounts of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) from large amounts of associated base metals using anion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, I. [Lab. of Chemistry, Tokyo Women' s Medical Univ. (Japan); Takeda, Y.; Ishida, K. [Lab. of Chemistry, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) were surveyed in column chromatographic systems consisting of one of the conventional anion-exchange resins of large ion-exchange capacity and dilute thiourea solutions. The noble metals were strongly adsorbed on the anion-exchange resins from dilute hydrochloric acid, while most base metals did not show any marked adsorbability. These facts made it possible to separate the noble metals from a large quantity of base metals such as Ag (I), Al (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Fe (III), Mn (II), Ni (II), Pb (II), and Zn (II). Although it used to be very difficult to desorb the noble metals from the resins used, the difficulty was easily overcome by use of dilute thiourea solutions as an eluant. In the present study, as little as 1.00 {mu}g of the respective noble metals was quantitatively separated and recovered from as much as ca. 10 mg of a number of metals on a small column by elution with a small amount of dilute thiourea solution. The present systems should be applicable to the separation, concentration and recovery of traces of the noble metals from a number of base metals coexisting in a more extended range of amounts and ratios. (orig.)

  18. [Research on structure and UV curing behaviors of novel cardanol-based unsaturated resins using FTIR spectrum analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shou-Hai; Yang, Xue-Juan; Li, Mei; Huang, Kun; Xia, Jian-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Two dissimilar cardanol-based unsaturated resin monomers were prepared via simple ring-opening and etherification reaction by utilizing the reactivity between phenolic hydroxyl and epoxy group with the aid of cardanol as raw material. The transformations of different groups were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) during the synthesis process, the resin monomers' structure was further analyzed using the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and the UV curing behaviors of resin monomers were studied by means of FTIR method. In addition, the thermal stability of UV cured resin monomers were also tested by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The molecular structure analysis demonstrated that these two target products were successfully synthesized. UV curing behaviors analysis showed that the prepared cardanol-based unsaturated resin monomers could reach ultimate curing level within 30 s. TGA results showed that the molecular structure and the content of double bond had critical influence on their thermal stability. The main initial thermal decomposition temperature of these two cured resin monomers was all above 350 degrees C.

  19. Evaluation of a novel methacrylate-based Protein A resin for the purification of immunoglobulins and Fc-fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Tyler R; Koepf, Edward K; Conley, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Protein A affinity chromatography is a central part of most commercial monoclonal antibody and Fc-fusion protein purification processes. In the last couple years an increasing number of new Protein A technologies have emerged. One of these new Protein A technologies consists of a novel, alkaline-tolerant, Protein A ligand coupled to a macroporous polymethacrylate base matrix that has been optimized for immunoglobulin (Ig) G capture. The resin is interesting from a technology perspective because the particle size and pore distribution of the base beads are reported to have been optimized for high IgG binding and fast mass transfer, while the Protein A ligand has been engineered for enhanced alkaline tolerance. This resin was subjected to a number of technical studies including evaluating dynamic and static binding capacities, alkaline stability, Protein A leachate propensity, impurity clearance, and pressure-flow behavior. The results demonstrated similar static binding capacities as those achieved with industry standard agarose Protein A resins, but marginally lower dynamic binding capacities. Removal of impurities from the process stream, particularly host cell proteins, was molecule dependent, but in most instances matched the performance of the agarose resins. This resin was stable in 0.1 M NaOH for at least 100 h with little loss in binding capacity, with Protein A ligand leakage levels comparable to values for the agarose resins. Pressure-flow experiments in lab-scale chromatography columns demonstrated minimal resin compression at typical manufacturing flow rates. Prediction of resin compression in manufacturing scale columns did not suggest any pressure limitations upon scale up. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. The effect of cycling deflection on the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo Vj; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cycling deflection on the flexural behavior of injection-molded thermoplastic resins. Six injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethyl methacrylate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized denture based polymer of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used in this study. The cyclic constant magnitude (1.0 mm) of 5000 cycles was applied using a universal testing machine to demonstrate plasticization of the polymer. Loading was carried out in water at 23ºC with eight specimens per group (n = 8). Cycling load (N) and deformation (mm) were measured. Force required to deflect the specimens during the first loading cycle and final loading cycle was statistically significantly different (p 0.05). None of the materials fractured during the loading test. One polyamide based polymer (Valplast) displayed the highest deformation and PMMA based polymers (Acrytone and Acron) exhibited the second highest deformation among the denture base materials. It can be concluded that there were considerable differences in the flexural behavior of denture base polymers. This may contribute to the fatigue resistance of the materials.

  1. How much do resin-based dental materials release? A meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, K L; Nawrot, Tim; Geebelen, B; De Munck, J; Snauwaert, J; Yoshihara, K; Scheers, Hans; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, P; Van Meerbeek, B

    2011-08-01

    Resin-based dental materials are not inert in the oral environment, and may release components, initially due to incomplete polymerization, and later due to degradation. Since there are concerns regarding potential toxicity, more precise knowledge of the actual quantity of released eluates is necessary. However, due to a great variety in analytical methodology employed in different studies and in the presentation of the results, it is still unclear to which quantities of components a patient may be exposed. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to review the literature on the short- and long-term release of components from resin-based dental materials, and to determine how much (order of magnitude) of those components may leach out in the oral cavity. Out of an initial set of 71 studies, 22 were included. In spite of the large statistical incertitude due to the great variety in methodology and lack of complete information (detection limits were seldom mentioned), a meta-analytical mean for the evaluated eluates was calculated. To relate the amount of potentially released material components with the size of restorations, the mean size of standard composite restorations was estimated using a 3D graphical program. While the release of monomers was analyzed in many studies, that of additives, such as initiators, inhibitors and stabilizers, was seldom investigated. Significantly more components were found to be released in organic than in water-based media. Resin-based dental materials might account for the total burden of orally ingested bisphenol A, but they may release even higher amounts of monomers, such as HEMA, TEGDMA, BisGMA and UDMA. Compared to these monomers, similar or even higher amounts of additives may elute, even though composites generally only contain very small amounts of additives. A positive correlation was found between the total quantity of released eluates and the volume of extraction solution. There is a clear need for more accurate

  2. Radiopacity of different shades of resin-based restorative materials compared to human and bovine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Gurel; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of different shades of resin-based restorative materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disk specimens 6 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick (N = 220, n = 10) were prepared from the following restorative materials: · eight shades of nanofilled composite (Aelite Aesthetic Enamel), · seven shades of nanohybrid composite (Grandio Universal), · six shades of photopolymerized polyacid modified compomer (Glasiosite), and · one shade of hybrid composite (X-tra fil U). Human canine dentin (n = 10), bovine enamel (n = 10), and an aluminum (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted, and equivalent Al thickness (eq Al) values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The data were analyzed using a non-parametric one-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis), and multiple comparisons were made with a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (a = 0.05). Different shades of resin-based restorative materials tested did not reveal statistically significant differences within each material group (p > 0.05). Radiopacity values of the resin-based restorative materials investigated varied depending on their types; however, within different shades of one material type, radiopacity values were comparable. Every shade of nanocomposite material other than Aelite Aesthetic Enamel Incisal LT Gray showed comparable radiopacity to human dentin. Other materials tested demonstrated higher radiopacity compared to human dentin and bovine enamel.

  3. Starting Strong: Evidence-­Based Early Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Katrin; Beauchat, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Four evidence-based instructional approaches create an essential resource for any early literacy teacher or coach. Improve your teaching practices in all areas of early literacy. Use four proven instructional approaches--standards based, evidenced based, assessment based, and student based--to improve their teaching practice in all areas of early…

  4. Flame retardant materials based on BDM/DBA resin and organic-inorganic additives

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    2,2’-diallyl bisphenol A (DBA) modified bismaleimide resins (BDM) are widely used as polymer matrix of high-performance composites in the field of aerospace, transportation, machinery, and electronics. This kind of resin has excellent properties, including good thermal stability, good processing performance, high mechanical strength, excellent dielectric properties, etc. However, as for most organic resins, the flame retardancy of the BMI resins is not so good. In order to expand the use of t...

  5. USE OF STRONG ACID RESIN PUROLITE C100E FOR REMOVING PERMANENT HARDNESS OF WATER – FACTORS AFFECTING CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BANDRABUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  6. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lokhande

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems was observed to increase with rise in temperature, indicating the endothermic exchange reactions having enthalpy values of 13.7, 38.0, 23.9, 22.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of Vickers hardness of different types of acrylic denture base resins with and without glass fibre reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Ana Paula; Cecchin, Doglas; Soares, Rodrigo Gonçalves; Botelho, André Luís; Takahashi, Jessica Mie Ferreira Koyama; Mazzetto, Marcelo Oliveira; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the Vickers hardness of different acrylic resins for denture bases with and without the addition of glass fibres. It has been suggested that different polymerisation methods, as well as the addition of glass fibre (FV) might improve the hardness of acrylic. Five types of acrylic resin were tested: Vipi Wave (VW), microwave polymerisation; Vipi Flash (VF), auto-polymerisation; Lucitone (LT), QC20 (QC) and Vipi Cril (VC), conventional heat-polymerisation, all with or without glass fibre reinforcement (GFR) and distributed into 10 groups (n = 12). Specimens were then submitted to Vickers hardness testing with a 25-g load for 30 s. All data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test. A significant statistical difference was observed with regard to the polymerisation method and the GFR (p hardness values, and VF and LT presented the lowest. In the presence of GFR, VC resin still presented the highest Vickers hardness values, and VF and QC presented the lowest. The acrylic resin VC and VW presented higher hardness values than VF and QC resins. Moreover, GFR increased the Vickers hardness of resins VW, VC and LT. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Effect of heat treatment of polymethyl methacrylate powder on mechanical properties of denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Lassila, Lippo V J; Sasaki, Hirono; Takahashi, Yutaka; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of heat treatment of polymethyl methacrylate powder on mechanical properties of denture base resin. PMMA powder was applied after heat treatment at 100°C for 2h (code: HT100) or 130°C for 2h (code: HT130). The test specimens were fabricated from autopolymerizing resin to investigate the flexural properties of denture base resin cross-linked with methacrylated dendrimer, the surface microhardness of PMMA beads, and the thickness of the swollen layer of PMMA beads. The specimens were autopolymerized, and all specimens were stored in 37°C water for 24h. Half of the specimens were immersed in 37°C water for an additional 6 months (water storage period: 24h and 6 months). The flexural strength and flexural modulus (n=10/group) were measured with a three point bending test. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls test at a significance level of 0.05. Heat treatment and the water storage period had a significant effect on flexural strength. The flexural strength of HT130 showed significantly higher values than in other groups. The surface microhardness of PMMA beads of HT130 showed a significantly greater microhardness than other groups. The thickness of a swollen layer of PMMA beads of HT100 and HT130 was significantly decreased. The flexural strength and the surface microhardness were increased after heat treatment at 130°C. The thickness of a swollen layer of PMMA beads was decreased after heat treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of incorporation of fluoroalkyl methacrylates on roughness and flexural strength of a denture base acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ramirez Cunha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated denture base acrylic resins can present more stable physical properties when compared with conventional polymers. This study evaluated the incorporation of a fluoroalkyl methacrylate (FMA mixture in a denture base material and its effect on roughness and flexural strength. A swelling behavior assessment of acrylic resin specimens (n=3, per substance after 12 h of FMA or methyl methacrylate (MMA immersion was conducted to determine the solvent properties. Rectangular specimens (n=30 were allocated to three groups, according to the concentration of FMA substituted into the monomer component of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone 550, as follows: 0% (control, 10% and 20% (v/v. Acrylic resin mixed with concentrations of 25% or more did not reach the dough stage and was not viable. The surface roughness and flexural strength of the specimens were tested. Variables were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05. Immersion in FMA produced negligible swelling, and MMA produced obvious swelling and dissolution of the specimens. Surface roughness at concentrations of 0%, 10% and 20% were: 0.25 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.22 ± 0.03 mm (F=1.78; p=0.189, not significant. Significant differences were found for flexural strength (F=15.92; p<0.001 and modulus of elasticity (F=7.67; p=0.002, with the following results: 96 ± 6, 82 ± 5, 84 ± 6 MPa, and 2,717 ± 79, 2,558 ± 128, 2574 ± 87 MPa, respectively. The solvent properties of FMA against acrylic resin are weak, which would explain why concentrations over 20% were not viable. Surface changes were not detected after the incorporation of FMA in the denture base acrylic resin tested. The addition of FMA into denture base resin may lower the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, regardless of the tested concentration.

  10. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Two Different Resin-based Materials: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeshen, Hosam; Alturki, Basem N; Albishi, Wjoud W; Alsadi, Fahad M; El-Tubaigy, Khaled M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of two different resin-based composite materials (nanofill composite and ormocer) and correlate it with some mechanical properties of these two restorative materials. Two different resin-based materials (Filtek Supreme XT and Admira) were tested. A total of 30 samples of each type of selected composite were prepared. Specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Then, the specimens were subjected to DC, hardness, and diametral tensile strength (DTS) measurements. The data obtained were tabulated for statistical analysis. The t-test was used to detect the significant difference among the variables tested in this study. Furthermore, the interrelationship between the studied parameters was investigated using a simple correlation coefficient statistical test. Statistically significant differences were observed regarding DC, hardness, and DTS. Filtek Supreme XT presented the highest values. There was a positive correlation between DC and hardness. Also there was a correlation between DC and DTS, but it was not significant. Under the tested experimental conditions, the DC of Filtek Supreme XT was higher than that of ormocer. Accordingly, Filtek Supreme XT showed better mechanical properties. Filtek Supreme XT showed superior mechanical properties. Therefore, orthodontic bracket-based composite combinations may also be expected to perform well clinically over the lifetime of a bonded orthodontic appliance.

  11. Removal of dyes from water using crosslinked aminomethane sulfonic acid based resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Damla; Saraç, Ayfer; Senkal, Bahire Filiz

    2010-08-01

    A new polymeric resin with amino sulfonic acid pendant functions has been prepared for the extraction of acidic and basic dyes from water. Beaded polymer supports were prepared by suspension polymerization of vinyl benzyl chloride (0.9 mol) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (0.1 mol). The resulting copolymer beads were modified with amino methane sulfonic acid. The dye adsorption capacity of the resin was found as 0.16 g dye/g resin for ramazol black and 0.15 g dye/g resin for crystal violet. The pH depending measurements and dye sorption kinetics of the resin were also investigated.

  12. Hardness and surface roughness of reline and denture base acrylic resins after repeated disinfection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Lucia; Breeding, Larry C; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; da Cruz Perez, Luciano Elias

    2009-08-01

    Microwave irradiation and immersion in chemical solutions have been recommended for denture disinfection. However, the effect of these procedures on the surface characteristics of denture base and reline resins has not been completely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of microwave and chemical disinfection on the Vickers hardness (VHN) and surface roughness (Ra, microm) of 2 hard chairside reline resins (Kooliner, DuraLiner II), and 1 heat-polymerizing denture base resin (Lucitone 550). Specimens (12 x 12 x 3 mm) were divided into 2 control and 4 test groups (n=8). Hardness and roughness measurements were performed after: polymerization and immersion in water (37 degrees C) for 7 days (controls), or repeated exposure to disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate (50 degrees C/10 min) or microwave irradiation (650 W/6 min). Measurements of surface roughness (Ra, microm) and hardness (kg/mm(2)) were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (alpha=.05). Microwave and chemical disinfection increased the mean (SD) hardness of Kooliner (from 4.1 to 7.5 kg/mm(2)) and DuraLiner II (from 2.6 to 5.6 kg/mm(2)), whereas Lucitone 550 (14.4 kg/mm(2)) remained unaffected. Disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate increased the surface roughness of DuraLiner II (from 0.13 to 0.26 microm) and Kooliner (from 0.16 to 0.26 microm), regardless of the number of cycles. For Lucitone 550, an increase in roughness was observed after 2 cycles of chemical disinfection (from 0.12 to 0.26 microm). Two cycles of microwave disinfection increased the roughness of both reline resins (DuraLiner II: from 0.13 to 0.22 microm; Kooliner: from 0.16 to 0.24 microm), whereas repeated microwave disinfection increased the roughness of DuraLiner II (from 0.11 to 0.25 microm). Disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate or microwave irradiation did not adversely affect the hardness of all materials evaluated. The effect of both

  13. Continuous chelation irrigation improves the adhesion of epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, P; Varughese, A A; Sharma, S; Subbarao, C V; Zehnder, M; De-Deus, G

    2012-12-01

    To test the impact of continuous chelation by NaOCl+ etidronic acid (HEBP) during instrumentation, and a final rinse of EDTA or NaOCl + HEBP on the dentine bond strength of an epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus). Single-rooted teeth (n = 100) were divided into five groups (n = 20) based on the irrigation protocol and their root canals instrumented using a rotary Ni-Ti system: 2.5% NaOCl during instrumentation followed by bi-distilled water (G1) or 17% EDTA (G2) as final rinse; 1 : 1 mixture of 5% NaOCl and 18% HEBP during instrumentation, and the same mixture (G3), 17% EDTA (G4) or bi-distilled water (G5) as final rinse. Canals were filled with AH Plus. Roots were sectioned, and push-out tests were performed in coronal, middle and apical root thirds. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (anova) and Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05 for all the analyses. Push-out bond strength was highest in coronal and lowest in apical root thirds (P < 0.05). Groups that used NaOCl + HEBP irrigation during instrumentation had significantly higher bond strengths than groups following the NaOCl-EDTA irrigation in all root thirds (P < 0.05). The use of a strong chelator as final flush further increased bond strengths (G4, P < 0.05). The continuous chelation irrigation protocol optimizes the bond strength of an epoxy resin sealer to dentine. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  14. Strong Generative Capacity and the Empirical Base of Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Ott

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This Perspective traces the evolution of certain central notions in the theory of Generative Grammar (GG. The founding documents of the field suggested a relation between the grammar, construed as recursively enumerating an infinite set of sentences, and the idealized native speaker that was essentially equivalent to the relation between a formal language (a set of well-formed formulas and an automaton that recognizes strings as belonging to the language or not. But this early view was later abandoned, when the focus of the field shifted to the grammar's strong generative capacity as recursive generation of hierarchically structured objects as opposed to strings. The grammar is now no longer seen as specifying a set of well-formed expressions and in fact necessarily constructs expressions of any degree of intuitive “acceptability.” The field of GG, however, has not sufficiently acknowledged the significance of this shift in perspective, as evidenced by the fact that (informal and experimentally-controlled observations about string acceptability continue to be treated as bona fide data and generalizations for the theory of GG. The focus on strong generative capacity, it is argued, requires a new discussion of what constitutes valid empirical evidence for GG beyond observations pertaining to weak generation.

  15. Effect of denture cleaning on abrasion resistance and surface topography of polymerized CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinawi, Lana Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The application of computer-aided design computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) technology in the fabrication of complete dentures, offers numerous advantages as it provides optimum fit and eliminates polymerization shrinkage of the acrylic base. Additionally, the porosity and surface roughness of CAD CAM resins is less compared to conventionally processed resins which leads to a decrease in the adhesion of bacteria on the denture base, which is associated with many conditions including halitosis and aspiration pneumonia in elderly denture wearers. To evaluate the influence of tooth brushing with dentifrices on CAD CAM resin blocks in terms of abrasion resistance, surface roughness and scanning electron photomicrography. This experimental study was carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry of King Abdulaziz University during 2016. A total of 40 rectangular shaped polymerized CAD CAM resin samples were subjected to 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes under a 200-gram vertical load simulating three years of tooth brushing strokes using commercially available denture cleaning dentifrice. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20, using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. ANOVA test revealed a statistical significant weight loss of CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base specimens following 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes as well as a statistical significant change (p=0.0.5) in the surface roughness following brushing. The CAD CAM resin samples SEM baseline imaging revealed a relatively smooth homogenous surface, but following 40,000 and 60,000 brushing strokes, imaging displayed the presence of small scratches on the surface. CAD CAM resin displayed a homogenous surface initially with low surface roughness that was significantly affected following simulating three years of manual brushing, but despite the significant weight loss, the findings are within the clinically acceptable limits.

  16. Effect of denture cleaning on abrasion resistance and surface topography of polymerized CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinawi, Lana Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Background The application of computer-aided design computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) technology in the fabrication of complete dentures, offers numerous advantages as it provides optimum fit and eliminates polymerization shrinkage of the acrylic base. Additionally, the porosity and surface roughness of CAD CAM resins is less compared to conventionally processed resins which leads to a decrease in the adhesion of bacteria on the denture base, which is associated with many conditions including halitosis and aspiration pneumonia in elderly denture wearers. Aim To evaluate the influence of tooth brushing with dentifrices on CAD CAM resin blocks in terms of abrasion resistance, surface roughness and scanning electron photomicrography. Methods This experimental study was carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry of King Abdulaziz University during 2016. A total of 40 rectangular shaped polymerized CAD CAM resin samples were subjected to 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes under a 200-gram vertical load simulating three years of tooth brushing strokes using commercially available denture cleaning dentifrice. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20, using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. Results ANOVA test revealed a statistical significant weight loss of CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base specimens following 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes as well as a statistical significant change (p=0.0.5) in the surface roughness following brushing. The CAD CAM resin samples SEM baseline imaging revealed a relatively smooth homogenous surface, but following 40,000 and 60,000 brushing strokes, imaging displayed the presence of small scratches on the surface. Conclusion CAD CAM resin displayed a homogenous surface initially with low surface roughness that was significantly affected following simulating three years of manual brushing, but despite the significant weight loss, the findings are within the clinically acceptable limits. PMID:28713496

  17. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2 than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation, in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2 and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms as potential adsorbents for CO2 separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO2, H2, N2, and CH4 adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST in conjunction with the Sips model. The CO2 uptakes of the resin-derived carbons from CO2-CH4, CO2-H2, and CO2-N2 at atmospheric pressure were greater than those of the reference commercial carbon (Calgon BPL. The performance of the resin-derived carbons in terms of equilibrium of adsorption seems therefore relevant to CO2 separation in post-combustion (flue gas, CO2-N2 and in hydrogen fermentation (CO2-H2, CO2-CH4.

  18. Inconsistency in the strength testing of dental resin-based composites among researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to review the current strength testing methods of the dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to explore the inconsistencies with regard to strength testing among researchers. Data selection/extraction: An outline of the most relevant aspects of RBCs was created, and a subsequent literature search for articles published during last four decades (1970-2010) was conducted using the databases, namely PubMed, Science Direct and ISI Web of Knowledge. The literature review highlighted a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the reliability of ISO recommended three-point flexure strength testing method. Several investigators have used Weibull statistics for the analysis of RBCs strength data, however their applicability might be questioned as many RBCs contain greater resin content and may exhibit sufficient viscous deformation prior to brittle failure. In addition, variability in the selection of cross-head speed and mould material for strength testing was evident which may lead to variation in the strength data and render the interpretation difficult among researchers.

  19. Isothermal curing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin by means of anionic homopolymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite with low content of clay displayed improved thermal properties. • The vitrification was observed in the isothermal curing. • Dielectric relaxations outside and inside of the clay galleries were detected. - Abstract: The use of an initiator, 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP), to promote an anionic homopolymerisation reaction for the isothermal cure of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites based on an epoxy resin, as well as the effect of the nanoclay content, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vitrification phenomenon was observed during the isothermal cure process, and it was found that the nanocomposite with a low clay content (2 wt%), denoted EDM2, shows improved thermal properties with respect to the unreinforced resin (denoted ED), while the nanocomposite with a higher clay content (5 wt%), denoted EDM5, displayed inferior properties. The cure kinetics were analysed by different methods, and it was observed that the activation energy and kinetic parameters of EDM2 were lower compared to the other two systems. Examination of the nanostructure of the cured EDM2 nanocomposite showed partial exfoliation, while the EDM5 system retains an intercalated nanostructure. In the DRS studies of the curing process of the EDM2 system, two dielectric relaxations were detected, which are associated with the molecular mobility in the curing reaction which takes place both outside and inside the clay galleries

  20. Cytotoxicity and cytokine expression induced by silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniele Lucca; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Gatón-Hernández, Patrícia Maria; Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytokine production induced by light-cured or non-light-cured methacrylate-based and silorane composite resins in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cells were stimulated with the extracts from light-cured or non-light-cured composite resins. After incubation for 24 h, cytotoxicity was assessed with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays, and total protein was quantified using the Lowry method. TNF-α detection was examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) conducted with cell supernatants after cell stimulation for 6, 12, and 24 h. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). KaloreTM and FiltekTM Silorane were cytotoxic with or without light curing (p0.05). However, after 24 h FiltekTM Silorane inhibited the production of TNF-α (p<0.05). KaloreTM and FiltekTM Silorane were cytotoxic regardless of light curing. The extract obtained from KaloreTM after 15 days of incubation stimulated the production of TNF-α, unlike that obtained from FiltekTM Silorane.

  1. Development of dental resin luting agents based on Bis-EMA4: bond strength evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of incorporating Bis-EMA4 monomer into experimental Bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based resin luting agents on the bond strength to dentin. Seven mixtures were prepared with the following ratios (wt% of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/Bis-EMA4: 50/50/0, 50/30/20, 50/10/40, 50/0/50, 30/10/60, 10/10/80 and 0/0/100. Camphorquinone (0.4 wt%, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (0.8 wt% and hydroquinone (0.2 wt% were dissolved in each mixture, which was loaded with silanated strontium glass fillers to a constant content of 60 wt%. Bond strength was evaluated by microshear testing (n = 10 on bovine dentin. Data were submitted to Analysis of Variance (p<0.05. Modes of failure were classified under magnification (200×. Bond strength means (MPa, respective to each agent, were: 19.4, 19.8, 20.0, 19.1, 16.8, 18.7 and 17.8. No significant differences were detected among groups. Mixed failures were generally predominant for all materials. In conclusion, the addition of Bis-EMA4 presented no significant influence on the bond strength of the experimental resin luting agents to dentin.

  2. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrophobic acid-catalyzed reactions proceed in poor or with no catalytic activity (Nakajima et al 2009). The novel car- bon/silica composites based solid acid was synthesized for the purpose. However, the new method added the step of impregnating sucrose to the channels of SBA-15, which fur- ther added to the cost for ...

  3. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Flexural Strength of Denture Base Resin and Tensile Strength of Autopolymerizing Silicone Based Denture Liner Bonded to Denture Base Resin: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Saloni

    2010-01-01

    Silicone based denture liners are superior to acrylic based denture liners but it has a problem of failure of adhesion with the denture base. To evaluate the effect on the tensile bond strength of silicone based liner and flexural strength of denture base resin when the latter is treated with different chemical etchants prior to the application of the resilient liner. Rectangular specimens of heat cured PMMA (65 × 10 × 3.3 mm3) for flexural strength and (10 × 10 × 40 mm3) for tensile strength...

  4. Preparation of polymer nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin and nanosilica A200. Part II - Structural and properties of polymer nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin and nanosilica A200 with coupling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Minh Dat; Bui Chuong; Bach Trong Phuc; Dinh Van Kai; Luu Van Khue

    2012-01-01

    Effects of coupling agent on the structures and properties of nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin and A200 silica nanoparticles were investigated. The viscosity of the resin/A200 silica mixtures increased with increasing coupling agent content because of forming core-shell structures and the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites generally were better than those without coupling agent and appeared a maximum in mechanical properties at 4.0 wt% coupling agent content. IR analyze indicated that the coupling agent had reacted with unsaturated polyester resin and A200 silica nanoparticles. SEM, Fe-SEM and TG-SDC demonstrated more homogeneous dispersion of A200 silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and accompanied by lower glass transition temperature and melt temperature. Furthermore, it was also found that the best dispersion route involved a methanol dispersion technique. (author)

  5. In vitro comparison of autoclave polymerization on the transverse strength of denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Rukiye; Ozel, Mehmet Birol; Bağiş, Bora; Usanmaz, Ali

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of autoclave polymerization on the transverse strength of denture base polymers. To this end, 30 rectangular test specimens were fabricated of two heat-polymerized denture base polymers. The test groups were: (I) control, i.e., conventional water bath to polymerize resins by heat at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes; (II) autoclave polymerization at 60 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by 130 degrees C for 10 minutes; and (III) autoclave polymerization at 60 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by 130 degrees C for 20 minutes. The specimens were tested with three-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. It was revealed that the transverse strength of specimens increased with statistical significance when the autoclave was used for polymerization.

  6. Restored viability and function of dental pulp cells on poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin supplemented with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Yamada, M; Paranjpe, A; Tsukimura, N; Kubo, K; Jewett, A; Ogawa, T

    2008-12-01

    This study examines cytotoxicity of poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental temporary filling resin to dental pulp cells, and the potential amelioration of the toxicity with an anti-oxidant amino-acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Dental pulp cells extracted from rat maxillary incisors were cultured on the resin material with or without NAC incorporation, or on the polystyrene. The cultures were supplied with osteoblastic media, containing dexamethasone. Forty five percent of cells on the PMMA dental resin were necrotic at 24h after seeding. However, this percentage was reduced to 27% by incorporating NAC in the resin, which was the level equivalent to that in the culture on polystyrene. The culture on the untreated resin was found to be negative for alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity at days 5 and 10 or von Kossa mineralized nodule formation at day 20. In contrast, some areas of the cultures on NAC-incorporated resin substrates were ALP and von Kossa positive. Collagen I and dentin sialoprotein genes were barely expressed in day 7 culture on the untreated resin. However, those genes were expressed in the culture on the resin with NAC. These results suggest that the decreased cell viability and the nearly completely suppressed odontoblast-like cell phenotype of dental pulp cells cultured on PMMA dental resin can be salvaged to a biologically significant degree by the incorporation of NAC in the resin.

  7. Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia Based on Physico-Chemical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Naglik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being an aggregate of three varieties of resin differing in colour, transparency and internal structure. This suggests the formation of the resins at different stages. Further alteration processes, including fossilization and maturation of the resin in a swamp environment resulted in stepwise aromatization of the cyclohexane ring in steroids and cross-linking through formation of ester bonds as well as carbon–carbon bonds between steroid molecules. The various environmental and geological conditions affecting the formation processes of the resins were recorded in their physico-chemical properties. Additionally, heating conditions accelerated by volcanism were proposed as a factor determining the maturation grade of the resin.

  8. Effect of Shade and Light Curing Mode on the Degree of Conversion of Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sm, Mousavinasab; M, Atai; N, Salehi; A, Salehi

    2016-12-01

    The degree of conversion depends on the material composition, light source properties, distance from light source, light intensity, curing time, and other factors such as shade and translucency. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different light-curing modes and shades of methacrylate and silorane-based resin composites on the degree of conversion of resin composites (DC). The methacrylate-based (Filtek Z250, 3M, ESPE) and low-shrinkage silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M, ESPE) resin composites were used in three groups as follows: group 1-Filtek Z250 (shade A3), group 2-Filtek Z250 (shade B2), and group 3-Filtek P90 (shade A3). We used a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit for photopolymerization. 10 samples were prepared in each group to evaluate the degree of conversion; 5 samples were cured using soft-start curing mode, and the other 5 were cured using standard curing mode. The DC of the resin composites was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and one-way ANOVA statistical tests. The degree of conversion of silorane-based resin composite was 70 - 75.8% and that of methacrylate-based resin composites was 60.2 - 68.2% (p = 0.009). The degree of conversion of the composite with brighter colour (B2) was statistically more than the darker composite (A3). Higher degree of conversion was achieved applying the standard curing mode. The results of the study showed that the colour and type of the resin composite and also the curing mode influence the degree of conversion of resin composites.

  9. Influence of a new denture cleaning technique based on photolysis of H(2)O(2) the mechanical properties and color change of acrylic denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tatsuro; Harada, Akio; Yamada, Yasutomo; Odashima, Yu; Nakamura, Keisuke; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a disinfection technique based on photolysis of H2O2 on the mechanical properties and color change of acrylic denture base resin. Resin specimens were immersed in 1 M H2O2 irradiated with light-emitting diode (LED) light at 400 nm for 1 week. The immersion duration of 1 week (168 h) corresponded to performing approximately 500 times of 20-min cleaning. Hydroxyl radicals are potent oxidants and they were generated via the photolysis of H2O2. Oxidative damage caused by these radicals included reduced flexural strength and altered color for the acrylic resin. Nonetheless, the degraded flexural strength and altered color of acrylic resin after 500 times of cleaning in the disinfection system would be within clinically acceptable levels.

  10. Resin-assisted enrichment of thiols as a general strategy for proteomic profiling of cysteine-based reversible modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gaffrey, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su, Dian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Liu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Camp, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Reversible modifications on cysteine thiols play a significant role in redox signaling and regulation. A number of reversible redox modifications, including disulfide formation, S-nitrosylation, and S-glutathionylation, have been recognized for their significance in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe in detail a resin-assisted thiol-affinity enrichment protocol for both biochemical and proteomics applications. This protocol serves as a general approach for specific isolation of thiol-containing proteins or peptides derived from reversible redox-modified proteins. This approach utilizes thiol-affinity resins to directly capture thiol-containing proteins or peptides through a disulfide exchange reaction followed by on-resin protein digestion and on-resin multiplexed isobaric labeling to facilitate LC-MS/MS based quantitative site-specific analysis of redox modifications. The overall approach requires a much simpler workflow with increased specificity compared to the commonly used biotin switch technique. By coupling different selective reduction strategies, the resin-assisted approach provides the researcher with a useful tool capable of enriching different types of reversible modifications on protein thiols. Procedures for selective enrichment and analyses of S-nitrosylation and total reversible cysteine oxidation are presented to demonstrate the utility of this general strategy.

  11. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-10-01

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100-500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO3H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO3H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst.

  12. Effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirono; Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on the mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins. Two high-impact acrylic denture base resins were selected for the study. Specimens of each denture base material tested were fabricated according to the manufacturers' instructions (n=10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, the elastic modulus and the impact strength of the specimens were evaluated. The flexural strength at the proportional limit of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins did not change after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The elastic moduli of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly increased after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The impact strengths of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly decreased after water immersion or thermocycling as described above.

  13. Evaluation of the responses of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based root canal sealers in rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages play a pivotal role in mediating the host tissue response to biomaterials. This study investigated the responses of these cells to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based endodontic sealers (AH Plus and MetaSEAL respectively) in rat connective tissue. Silicone tubes loaded with one of the sealers or solid silicone rods (control) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats for three time periods of 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue specimens were immunoperoxidase-stained for MHC class II molecules and CD68 (a general macrophage marker). Results showed that AH Plus-implanted tissue displayed significantly more MHC class II-positive cells than the control at 14 and 28 days, whereas MetaSEAL-implanted tissue showed significantly more CD68-positive cells than both AH Plus-implanted tissue and the control at all time periods. It was concluded that the epoxy resin-based sealer induced the infiltration of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells, whereas 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based sealer elicited macrophage infiltration.

  14. Evaluation of bond strength between leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based ceramics to dentin after cementation with conventional and self-adhesive resin agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolin, Fernando J; Miranda, Milton E; Flório, Flávia M; Basting, Roberta T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two heat-pressed ceramics (leucite-based--IPS Empress Esthetic/Ivoclar Vivadent, and lithium disilicate-based --IPS e.max Press/Ivoclar Vivadent) to dentin with the use of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. The occlusal surface of 60 intact human molars was removed and the dentin was exposed. Ceramic blocks were cemented randomly with regard to the cementation systems (n = 10): conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II/Ivoclar Vivadent), conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink/Ivoclar Vivadent), and dual self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100/3M ESPE). The dual cementation systems were photoactivated with a LED light device (Radii Cal, SDI) for 40 seconds. The specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of approximately 1 mm2 for microtensile tests on a universal testing machine (EMIC). The type of fracture was analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05) showed that there was no difference between types of ceramic. Average microtensile bond strength was higher for the conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and the self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U100), despite greater prevalence of premature loss of the sticks with the latter. Average bond strength was lower when the conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink) was used. Leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based cements present similar bond strength to the dentin with conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and a dual self-adhesive cement (RelyX U100).

  15. Method for removing cesium from aqueous liquid, method for purifying the reactor coolant in boiling water and pressurized water reactors and a mixed ion exchanged resin bed, useful in said purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, J.N.A.; Liebmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for removing cesium from an aqueous liquid, and to a resin bed containing a mixture of an anion exchange resin and cation exchange resin useful in said purification. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is a method for purifying the reactor coolant of a presurized water or boiling water reactor. Said method, which is particularly advantageously employed in purifying the reactor coolant in the primary circuit of a pressurized reactor, comprises contacting at least a portion of the reactor coolant with a strong base anion exchange resin and the strong acid cation exchange resin derived from a highly cross-linked, macroporous copolymer of a monovinylidene aromatic and a cross-linking monomer copolymerizable therewith. Although the reactor coolant can sequentially be contacted with one resin type and thereafter with the second resin type, the contact is preferably conducted using a resin bed comprising a mixture of the cation and anion exchange resins. 1 fig., refs

  16. Evaluation of bond strength of various epoxy resin based sealers in oval shaped root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Fatih; Cakici, Elif Bahar; Ceyhanli, Kadir Tolga; Celik, Ersan; Kucukekenci, Funda Fundaoglu; Gunseren, Arif Onur

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of AH plus, Acroseal, and Adseal to the root canal dentin. A total of 36 single-rooted, mandibular premolar teeth were used. Root canal shaping procedures were performed with ProTaper rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer) up to size F4. The prepared samples were then randomly assembled into 3 groups (n = 12). For each group, an ultrasonic tip (size 15, 0.02 taper) which was also coated with an epoxy resin based sealer and placed 2 mm shorter than the working length. The sealer was then activated for 10 s. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentine and the sealer. Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the push-out bond strength of epoxy based sealer (P = 0.05). The failure mode data were statistically analyzed using Pearson's chi square test (P = 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there were no statistically significant difference among the push out bond strength values of 3 mm (p = 0.123) and 6 mm (P = 0.057) for groups, there was statistically significant difference push out bond strength value of 9 mm (P = 0.032). Pearson's chi square test showed statistically significant differences for the failure types among the groups. Various epoxy resin based sealers activated ultrasonically showed similar bond strength in oval shaped root canals. Apical sections for all groups have higher push out bond strength values than middle and coronal sections.

  17. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari, E-mail: yanti_tkunlam@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Lee, Cheng-Kang, E-mail: cklee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd. Sec.4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  18. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO 3 H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO 3 H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use

  19. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions.

  20. Characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube-polymethyl methacrylate composite resins as denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Russell; Tao, Junliang; Yu, Bill; Dai, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Most fractures of dentures occur during function, primarily because of the flexural fatigue of denture resins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a polymethyl methacrylate denture base material modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in terms of fatigue resistance, flexural strength, and resilience. Denture resin specimens were fabricated: control, 0.5 wt%, 1 wt%, and 2 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were dispersed by sonication. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine quantitative dispersions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in polymethyl methacrylate. Raman spectroscopic analyses were used to evaluate interfacial reactions between the multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the polymethyl methacrylate matrix. Groups with and without multiwalled carbon nanotubes were subjected to a 3-point-bending test for flexural strength. Resilience was derived from a stress and/or strain curve. Fatigue resistance was conducted by a 4-point bending test. Fractured surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA and the Duncan tests were used to identify any statistical differences (α=.05). Thermogravimetric analysis verified the accurate amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in the polymethyl methacrylate resin. Raman spectroscopy showed an interfacial reaction between the multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the polymethyl methacrylate matrix. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in static and dynamic loadings among the groups. The worst mechanical properties were in the 2 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Ppolymethyl methacrylate groups showed poor fatigue resistance. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated more agglomerations in the 2% multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polymethyl methacrylate groups (0.5% and 1%) performed better than the control group during the static flexural test. The results indicated that 2 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes

  1. Experimental Investigation on the Specific Heat of Carbonized Phenolic Resin-Based Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Te; Ye, Hong; Zhang, Lisong; Cai, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    As typical phenolic resin-based ablative materials, the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic composites are widely used in aerospace field. The specific heat of the carbonized ablators after ablation is an important thermophysical parameter in the process of heat transfer, but it is rarely reported. In this investigation, the carbonized samples of the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic were obtained through carbonization experiments, and the specific heat of the carbonized samples was determined by a 3D DSC from 150 °C to 970 °C. Structural and compositional characterizations were performed to determine the mass fractions of the fiber and the carbonized product of phenolic which are the two constituents of the carbonized samples, while the specific heat of each constituent was also measured by 3D DSC. The masses of the carbonized samples were reduced when heated to a high temperature in the specific heat measurements, due to the thermal degradation of the carbonized product of phenolic resin in the carbonized samples. The raw experimental specific heat of the two carbonized samples and the carbonized product of phenolic resin was modified according to the quality changes of the carbonized samples presented by TGA results. Based on the mass fraction and the specific heat of each constituent, a weighted average method was adopted to obtain the calculated results of the carbonized samples. Due to the unconsolidated property of the fiber samples which impacts the reliability of the DSC measurement, there is a certain deviation between the experimental and calculated results of the carbonized samples. Considering the similarity of composition and structure, the data of quartz glass and graphite were used to substitute the specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber, respectively, resulting in better agreements with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the accurate specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber bundles was obtained by

  2. Effect of five staining solutions on the colour stability of two acrylics and three composite resins based provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Sebnem Begüm; Koçak, Ayşe; Aktepe, Esra

    2006-09-01

    The effect of coffee, tea, coca-cola, orange-juice and red wine on the colour stability of acrylic and composite based provisional materials were evaluated. Two acrylic resins and three composite resins were studied. 48 standardized specimens for each provisional material were prepared. Each group was divided into 6 subgroups. Specimens from each group were immersed in staining solutions at room temperature for 30 days. Red wine and tea caused the most significant colour changes and orange juice showed the least significant colour changes. deltaE of all of the provisional restorations materials was changed after the immersion in all of the staining solutions during the experimental process.

  3. Light-curing considerations for resin-based composite materials: a review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2010-10-01

    As discussed in Part I, the type of curing light and curing mode impact the polymerization kinetics of resin-based composite (RBC) materials. Major changes in light-curing units and curing modes have occurred. The type of curing light and mode employed affects the polymerization shrinkage and associated stresses, microhardness, depth of cure, degree of conversion, and color change of RBCs. These factors also may influence the microleakage in an RBC restoration. Apart from the type of unit and mode used, the polymerization of RBCs is also affected by how a light-curing unit is used and handled, as well as the aspects associated with RBCs and the environment. Part II discusses the various clinical issues that should be considered while curing RBC restorations in order to achieve the best possible outcome.

  4. Studies concerning the anion ex-change resins catalyzed esterification of epichlorohydrin with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Muresan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the esterification of carboxylic acids with epichlorohydrin over two macroporous strong base anion exchange resins with different polymer matrix. For both resins, the influence of reaction parameters (temperature, catalyst loading, molar ratio on the reaction rate and the yields of the two isomeric esters were investigated.

  5. Effect of Energy Drinks on Discoloration of Silorane and Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Ahangari, Zohreh; Khafri, Soraya; Rahmani, Aghil

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of two energy drinks on color change (ΔE) of two methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin after one week and one month. Thirty cubic samples were fabricated from Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT composite resins. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Baseline color values (L*a*b*) of each specimen were measured using a spectrophotometer according to the CIEL*a*b* color system. Ten randomly selected specimens from each composite were then immersed in the two energy drinks (Hype, Red Bull) and artificial saliva (control) for one week and one month. Color was re-assessed after each storage period and ΔE values were calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Filtek Z250 composite showed the highest ΔE irrespective of the solutions at both time points. After seven days and one month, the lowest ΔE values were observed in Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 composites immersed in artificial saliva, respectively. The ΔE values of Filtek Z250 and Z350XT composites induced by Red Bull and Hype energy drinks were not significantly different. Discoloration of Filtek P90 was higher in Red Bull energy drink at both time points. Prolonged immersion time in all three solutions increased ΔE values of all composites. However, the ΔE values were within the clinically acceptable range (<3.3) at both time points.

  6. Determination of surface roughness and topography of dental resin-based nanocomposites using AFM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Lainović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine surface roughness and topography of polished dental resin-based nanocomposites.Four representative dental resin-based nanocomposites were tested in the study: two nanohybrids (Filtek Z550 and Tetric EvoCeram and two nanofilled (Filtek Ultimate Body and Filtek Ultimate Translucent; and two reference materials: one microfilled (Gradia Direct and one microhybrid (Filtek Z250. Polymerized cylindrical specimens (4 mm x 2 mm were polished with multi-step polishing system-Super Snap. Immediately after the polishing, topography of each specimen was examined by Veeco di CP-II Atomic Force Microscope. Specimen’s surface has been scanned in 6 points in contact mode with CONT20A-CP tips. 1 Hz scan rate and 256 x 256 resolution were used to obtain topography on a 90 μm x 90 μm scanning area. Measured topography data were processed by Image Processing and Data Analysis V2.1.15 software. Following parameters were compared among specimens: average roughness and maximum peak-to-valley distance.All of the tested materials had similar average surface roughness after finishing and polishing procedure. The lowest values occurred in the material Filtek Ultimate Body, and the highest in the Filtek Z550. When interpreting maximum peak-to-valley distance the larger differences in values (up to 100% occurred in Filtek Z550, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Ultimate Body, which is a result of the deep polishing channels and tracks. Type, size, distribution of fillers and filler loading in tested materials, didn’t influence average roughness values, but had an impact on maximum peak-to-valley distance values.

  7. Cumulative effect of disinfection procedures on microhardness and tridimensional stability of a poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Evandro Afonso; Schmidt, Caroline Bom; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Hirakata, Luciana Mayumi; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai

    2008-08-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used for disinfection of dentures instead of chemical solutions; yet, its effect on resin properties after repeated procedures still is unclear. This study evaluated the cumulative effect of two disinfection methods on Knoop microhardness and tridimensional stability of a poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin. For the microhardness measurement, 24-resin discs received mechanical polishing and were submitted to the following treatments: (1) control (no disinfection), (2) chemical disinfection (immersion in 100ppm chloride solution for 24h), or (3) microwave disinfection (irradiation at 690 W for 6 min). Disinfection procedures were performed twice (T1, T2) with a 7-day interval. Knoop microhardness was recorded after polishing (T0) and after T1 and T2. For the dimensional stability test (measured by the adaptation of the denture bases), 36-maxillary denture bases were obtained from type III dental stone casts duplicated from a metallic master model and submitted to the disinfection treatment. Adaptation of denture bases was measured at baseline (T0) and after T1 and T2 by weighing a vinyl polysiloxane film reproducing the gap between resin base and master model. Data were analyzed by ANOVA GLM for repeated measures and Bonferroni's test, alpha = 0.05. Knoop microhardness was not modified by any disinfection procedure but decreased over time. Denture resin bases submitted to microwave disinfection had gradual increase of distortion over time, while bases immersed in chloride solution did not differ from the control group and remained dimensionally stable from T1 to T2. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Use of Commercial Non-Hazardous Air Pollutant Monomers to Optimize the Properties of Fatty Acid-Based Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    It was found that cyclohexyl methacrylate (CHMA) was the most effective reactive diluent in replacing methacrylated lauric acid (MLau) because it...The reaction of glycidyl methacrylate and lauric acid to produce the MLau monomer... acid -based monomers to be used as the reactive diluent in VE resins (9, 10). Figure 1 depicts the synthetic route used to form methacrylated lauric

  9. Influence of halogen irradiance on short- and long-term wear resistance of resin-based composite materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhamra, Gurcharn S

    2009-02-01

    The Oregon Health Science University (OHSU) four-chamber oral wear simulator was used to examine the impact of halogen irradiance on the short- and long-term wear behavior of four-methacrylate resin-based composites (RBCs). The hypothesis proposed was that exacerbated wear would occur following the long-term wear of RBCs irradiated under non-optimized irradiance conditions.

  10. Bonding of resin-based luting cements to zirconia with and without the use of ceramic priming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Nakayama, Daisuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated and compared bonding characteristics of resin-based luting agents and special ceramic primers to zirconia. Disk specimens (n = 242) were fabricated from zirconium dioxide ceramics (Katana) and bonded with four resin-based luting agents without priming. In addition, zirconia was bonded with 7 bondingsystem combinations of three priming agents and three resin-based luting agents. Two of the resin-based luting agents and two ceramic priming agents contain an identical adhesive monomer, 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), either in the material itself or in the priming agent. Shear bond strength was determined after 20,000 cycles of thermocycling. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for both pre- and post-thermocycling groups to evaluate the difference among primer and luting agent variations. On the basis of the Kruskal-Wallis test, Steel-Dwass multiple comparisons were further performed to compare the difference among four luting agents and seven conbinations of three primers and three luting agents for both pre- and post-thermocycling conditions. Within the four unprimed groups, Clearfil SA Cement (5.8 MPa) and Panavia F 2.0 (6.7 MPa) showed statistically higher post-thermocycling bond strength than the other materials (0.1 MPa) (p primed with Monobond Plus (4.0-4.6 MPa) (p priming agents containing the adhesive monomer MDP provide better bond strength to zirconia than do other systems.

  11. Designed biodegradable hydrogel structures prepared by stereolithography using poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(d,l-lactide)-based resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seck, Tetsu M.; Melchels, F.P.W.; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2010-01-01

    Designed three-dimensional biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(d,l-lactide) hydrogel structures were prepared for the first time by stereolithography at high resolutions. A photo-polymerisable aqueous resin comprising PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA-based macromer, visible light photo-initiator, dye and

  12. Designed biodegradable hydrogel structures prepared by stereolithography using poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(D,L-lactide)-based resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seck, Tetsu M.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2010-01-01

    Designed three-dimensional biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(D,L-lactide) hydrogel structures were prepared for the first time by stereolithography at high resolutions. A photo-polymerisable aqueous resin comprising PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA-based macromer, visible light photo-initiator, dye and

  13. Use of Resin-Based Provisional Material to Create the Posterior Palatal Seal in Complete Denture Definitive Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos

    2017-11-17

    The purpose of this article was to present an alternative procedure using resin-based provisional material to create the posterior palatal seal (PPS). This method offers more practicality in clinical routine and increased control for addition of material to create the PPS when compared to traditional techniques such as the use of impression wax. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Adsorption behavior of cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone-based fibrous adsorbents with bovine serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yuzhong; Borneman, Zandrie; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone (PES)-based fibrous adsorbents were developed to study their adsorption behavior with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A fibrous adsorbent with an open pore surface had much better adsorption behavior with a higher adsorbing rate. The adsorption capacity

  15. The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hahnel, Sebastian

    2012-04-01

    To explore experimental RBCs derived from a successful commercially available RBC (Grandio) to investigate resin monomer blend and filler parameters (volume fraction, density and diameter) on RBC performance.

  16. Mechanical and antibacterial properties of benzothiazole-based dental resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lao, Chonghui; Luo, Shuzhen; Liu, Fang; Huang, Qiting; He, Jingwei; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-04-01

    A synthesized benzothiazole containing mono-methacrylate monomer BTTMA was incorporated into Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental resin system with a series of mass concentration from 5 to 30 wt.% as an antibacterial agent. The influence of BTTMA on physicochemical properties of dental resin system, such as double bond conversion (DC), volumetric shrinkage (VS), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) were investigated. Direct contact testing and agar diffusion testing were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of BTTMA containing dental resin. The results showed that BTTMA could endow dental resin with significant antibacterial activity when its concentration reached a certain amount (20 wt.%), and the antibacterial activity of BTTMA containing dental resin was mainly attributed to the immobilized BTTMA instead of the unreacted leachable BTTMA. BTTMA had no negative effect on physicochemical properties of dental resin, and even some BTTMA containing dental resins had advantages like higher DC, lower VS and WS when compared with control resin. Therefore, BTTMA could be considered as a suitable antibacterial agent in dental material, but much more researches concerned about biocompatibility should be done in future to prove whether it could be applied in clinic.

  17. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti, E-mail: joserenatocq@hotmail.com [Potiguar University, Department of Biotechnology, Natal (Brazil); Nogueira Junior, Lafayette [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Massi, Marcos [Federal University of São Paulo, Institute of Science and Technology, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva [Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Department of Physics, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Özcan, Mutlu [University of Zurich, Dental Materials Unit, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Materials Science, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  18. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  19. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0-14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  20. Development of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs focusing on the fluorine resin encapsulation and the prospect of the practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Akira; Nagasawa, Yosuke; Ippommatsu, Masamichi; Aosaki, Ko; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-09-01

    AlGaN-based LEDs are expected to be useful for sterilization, deodorization, photochemical applications such as UV curing and UV printing, medical applications such as phototherapy, and sensing. Today, it has become clear that efficient AlGaN-based LED dies are producible between 355 and 250 nm with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3% on flat sapphire. These dies were realized on flat sapphire without using a special technique, i.e., reduction in threading dislocation density or light extraction enhancement techniques such as the use of a photonic crystal or a patterned sapphire substrate. Despite the limited light extraction efficiency of about 8% owing to light absorption at a thick p-GaN contact layer, high EQEs of approximately 6% has been reproducible between 300 and 280 nm without using special techniques. Moreover, an EQE of 3.9% has been shown at 271 nm, despite the smaller current injection efficiency (CIE). The high EQEs are thought to correspond to the high internal quantum efficiency (IQE), indicating a small room for improving IQE. Accordingly, resin encapsulation on a simple submount is strongly desired. Recently, we have succeeded in demonstrating fluorine resin encapsulation on a ceramic sheet (chip-on-board, COB) that is massproducible. Furthermore, the molecular structure of a resin with a durability of more than 10,000 h is explained in this paper from the photochemical viewpoint. Thus, the key technologies of AlGaN-based DUV-LEDs having an EQE of 10% within a reasonable production cost have been established. The achieved efficiency makes AlGaN-based DUVLEDs comparable to high-pressure mercury lamps.

  1. Enhancement of adhesion between resin coating materials and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoaki; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Weerasinghe, Dinesh S; Harada, Naoko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    Resin coating technique is a unique method that improves the dentin bond strength of resin cements in indirect restorations. However, the weak link of a specimen bonded using the resin coating technique was reported to be the bonded interface between the resin coating material and resin cement. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to enhance the bonding performance between a resin coating material and a resin cement. Two light-cured flowable composites, Protect Liner F and Clearfil Flow FX, were used as coating materials, and two dual-cure composite materials, Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfil DC Core Automix, were used as resin cements. The ultimate tensile strength of each material and the microtensile bond strengths of the bonded specimens of resin coating material and resin cement were measured using a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Three-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the highest microtensile bond strength was obtained using a combination of Clearfil Flow FX and Clearfil DC Core Automix, and when the surface of the coating material was treated with ED Primer II. It was strongly suggested that materials with a higher ultimate tensile strength, when used in both resin coating and cementation, could enhance the bond strength between the two.

  2. Physicomechanical and antibacterial properties of experimental resin-based dental sealants modified with nylon-6 and chitosan nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, María F; Otte, Andrew D; Gregory, Richard L; Pinal, Rodolfo; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andrea; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate resin-based experimental dental sealants containing electrospun nylon-6 (N6) and chitosan (CH) fibers in an attempt to improve the physicomechanical properties and provide an antibacterial protective effect, respectively. Electrospun N6 and CH mats were immersed into a resin mixture, light-cured, and then cryomilled to obtain micron-sized resin-modified fiber particles. Different levels of the novel cryomilled particles (i.e. 1, 2.5, and 5% relative to the resin mixture, % by weight) were used to prepare the N6- and CH-containing sealants. A commercial sealant and the experimental resin mixture (unfilled) were used as controls. Flexural strength (FS), Vickers microhardness (VH), and agar diffusion tests were performed. The data were analyzed at the 5% significance level. No significant difference in fiber diameter of N6 (503 ± 31 nm) and CH (595 ± 38 nm) was observed. Upon cryomilling, the resin-modified CH and N6 mats led to the formation of irregularly-shaped particles, with an average diameter of 14.24 µm and 15.87 µm, respectively. CH-5% had significantly higher FS (115.3 ± 1.3 MPa) than all the other groups. CH-1% had significantly higher hardness values (38.3 ± 0.3 VHN) than all the other groups. Collectively, the results indicated that CH-containing sealants presented the highest FS and hardness; however, none of the CH-containing sealants displayed antimicrobial properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cements versus resin-based materials as fissure sealants: a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengopal, V; Mickenautsch, S

    2010-02-01

    To appraise quantitatively current evidence regarding the caries-preventing effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RM-GIC) fissure sealants in comparison to that of resin-based fissure sealants. Systematic review with meta-analysis. 8 Anglophone databases and 2 Lusophone databases were searched until 15 April 2009, using a pre-determined search strategy. Clinical trials were considered for inclusion if their titles/abstracts were relevant to the topic, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and had a two-arm longitudinal study design. The outcome measure of the caries-preventive effect was caries absence on sealed teeth. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the accepted articles in order to complete a 2x2 table for meta-analysis. The unit of interest was the tooth, and the number of caries-free teeth (n) at the end of each time interval (6, 12 and 24 months) was compared against the total number of evaluated teeth (N). Datasets were assessed for their clinical and methodological heterogeneity, following Cochrane guidelines, and only homogeneous datasets were combined for meta-analysis, using a random effects model (RevMan 4.2). Differences in the caries-preventive effect were computed on the basis of the combined Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of the 212 articles identified, only 6 trials were included. From these, 19 separate datasets were extracted. For the pooled data, equivalent caries-preventive effects were observed at 6 months (RR= 0.98, 95% CI 0.95- 1.00; p = 0.08); 12 months (RR=1.00, 95% CI 0.96-1.04, p = 0.99) and 24 months (RR=1.01, 95% CI 0.84-1.21, p = 0.91). The 36-month data (not pooled) favoured resin-based sealants (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.97, p = 0.002). This meta-analysis found no conclusive evidence that either material was superior to the other in preventing dental caries.

  4. A practice-based evaluation of the handling of a new self-adhesive universal resin luting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell J; Richter, B

    2006-06-01

    Ease of handling of materials may be considered helpful to achieving good results. The handling properties of a new self-adhesive universal resin luting material were tested in clinical use. Thirteen practitioners were selected at random from the Product Research and Evaluation by Practitioners (PREP) Panel, a United Kingdom-based group of dental practitioners prepared to complete evaluations of new materials and techniques in the practice environment. Explanatory letters, questionnaires and packs of the luting material were sent to the evaluators. The practitioners were asked to use the material and return the questionnaire. 144 restorations were placed using the new self-adhesive resin luting material, which was rated higher by the evaluators for ease of use (4.7 on a visual analogue scale where 5 represented easy to use and 1 represented difficult to use) than both the pre-trial resin-based and 'conventional' luting materials (rated 3.7 and 4.4 respectively on the same scale). The presentation, instructions, convenience of dispensing and handling and viscosity also received high ratings. The new material achieved ratings for ease of use superior to the pre-study resin-based and conventional luting materials in the dental practices of 13 UK dental practitioners.

  5. A new approach to influence contact angle and surface free energy of resin-based dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Trellenkamp, Taina; Bergmann, Nora; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Ritter, Helmut; Janda, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify novel delivery systems and active agents which increase the water contact angle and reduce the surface free energy when added to resin-based dental restorative materials. Two delivery systems based on zeolite or novel polymeric hollow beads (Poly-Pore), loaded with two low surface tension active agents (hydroxy functional polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane) or a polymerizable active agent (silicone polyether acrylate) were used to modify commonly formulated experimental dental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as a standard (ST). Flexural strength, flexural modulus, water sorption, solubility, polymerization shrinkage, surface roughness Ra, contact angle θ, total surface free energy γS, and the apolar γSLW, polar γSAB, Lewis acid γS+ and base γS- components, and the active agents surface tensions γL were determined (Ptension active agents were found not to influence the physical properties but to significantly increase the water contact angle and thus reduce surface free energy of dental resin composites. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śmiga-Matuszowicz, Monika, E-mail: monika.smiga-matuszowicz@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaczmarek, Marcin [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, de Gaulle' a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of General and Molecular Biology and Genetics, Medyków Street 18, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Technology and Fuels, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ziołowa Street 45, 40-635 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3 h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. - Highlights: • Isosorbide-based resin was used as a component of biodegradable scaffolds. • CAC/carboxylic acid system was proven as facile method to obtain porous scaffolds. • Porous scaffolds displayed the formation of hydroxyapatite at their surfaces.

  7. Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of soft denture lining materials to an acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yesil Duymus, Zeynep; Alkurt, Murat

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive failure between acrylic resin and resilient liner material is commonly encountered in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of 2 different resilient lining materials to an acrylic resin denture base. Ninety-six dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated from heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and 3 mm of the material was cut from the thin midsection. The specimens were divided into 6 groups according to their surface treatments: no surface treatment (control group), 36% phosphoric acid etching (acid group), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (laser group), airborne-particle abrasion with 50-μm Al2O3 particles (abrasion group), an acid+laser group, and an abrasion+laser group. The specimens in each group were divided into 2 subgroups according to the resilient lining material used: heat-polymerized silicone based resilient liner (Molloplast B) and autopolymerized silicone-based resilient liner (Ufi Gel P). After all of the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week. A tensile bond strength test was then performed. Data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA, and the Sidak multiple comparison test was used to identify significant differences (α=.05). The effects of the surface treatments and resilient lining materials on the surface of the denture base resin were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The tensile bond strength was significantly different between Molloplast B and Ufi Gel P (Presin. Molloplast B exhibited significantly higher bond strength than Ufi Gel P. Altering the surface of the acrylic resin denture base with 36% phosphoric acid etching increased bond strength. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. ESTUDO DA RETENÇÃO ENTRE RESINA ACRÍLICA PARA BASE DE DENTADURA E DENTES DE RESINA ACRÍLICA TENSILE BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN DENTURE BASE ACRYLIC RESIN AND ACRYLIC RESIN TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Salviato FAJARDO

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a resistência de união entre dentes e base de dentadura, ambos de resina acrílica. Os dentes foram incluídos em blocos cilíndricos de resina e, posteriormente, torneados, para se obterem cilindros de 5mm de diâmetro. Sobre a extremidade do dente, era adaptado um padrão de cera de mesmo diâmetro, que, após inclusão na mufla, era substituído por resina acrílica termicamente ativada pelo método de processamento convencional de base de dentadura. Como variáveis, usaram-se duas marcas de dentes, duas fases de inclusão (plástica e borrachóide e aplicação ou não de detergente e monômero sobre os dentes. Os corpos-de-prova, antes dos ensaios de ruptura por tração, foram armazenados em água destilada, a 37ºC, por 2 semanas. Os resultados mostraram que: marca de dente e fase de condensação não influíram nos resultados; somente o uso de detergente ou de monômero aumenta a retentividade e o seu uso conjunto apresenta efeito acumulativo.An investigation was carried out to evaluate the bonding strength between acrylic teeth and heat-cured denture acrylic resin. The teeth were fixed in resin blocks and lathe milled to a cylinder shape of 5 mm of diameter. A wax pattern with the same diameter was adapted on the top of the cylinder and then invested in a flask. Following the conventional denture base resin procedures, the wax pattern was eliminated and heat-cured resin was packed. The variables were: two acrylic teeth brands; two resin phases (full dough and rubber; cleaning or not of the flask with detergent; application or not of monomer over the teeth before resin packing. After polymerization specimens were stored in water at 37ºC, for 2 weeks. Tests were performed by tensile loads. The results showed that teeth brands and resin phases did not influence data; the use of monomer or detergent increased strengths, and when used together the effects were cumulative.

  10. A comparison of the fitting accuracy of thermoplastic denture base resins used in non-metal clasp dentures to a conventional heat-cured acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Junichiro; Fueki, Kenji; Yatabe, Masaru; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate a metal framework into removable partial dentures, the dimensional accuracy of thermoplastic resins requires precision equivalent to conventional acrylic resins. This study aimed to evaluate the fitting accuracy of thermoplastic resins compared to heat-cured acrylic resin. Four thermoplastic resins (polyethylene terephthalate [EstheShot, ES; EstheShot Bright, ES-B], polyamide [Lucitone FRS, LF], polycarbonate [Reigning Resin N, RN] and a heat-curing acrylic resin [Acron, AC]) were used. The specimens were created on master casts constructed of high-strength stone that simulated a maxillary edentulous ridge. Additionally, high-expansion stone was used as the master cast for RN specimens. The ES-B, LF and RN specimens were prepared with and without annealing after injection molding. The gaps between the molded resin and the cast were measured. ES had the smallest gap and was significantly smaller than AC (p 0.05), while the gap size of RN (high-strength stone) with and without annealing was significantly greater than AC (p dentures and that annealing effectively improved the fitting accuracy of ES-B, LF and RN.

  11. Microscale characterisation of stochastically reconstructed carbon fiber-based Gas Diffusion Layers; effects of anisotropy and resin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiotis, Andreas G.; Kainourgiakis, Michael E.; Charalambopoulou, Georgia C.; Stubos, Athanassios K.

    2016-07-01

    A novel process-based methodology is proposed for the stochastic reconstruction and accurate characterisation of Carbon fiber-based matrices, which are commonly used as Gas Diffusion Layers in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. The modeling approach is efficiently complementing standard methods used for the description of the anisotropic deposition of carbon fibers, with a rigorous model simulating the spatial distribution of the graphitized resin that is typically used to enhance the structural properties and thermal/electrical conductivities of the composite Gas Diffusion Layer materials. The model uses as input typical pore and continuum scale properties (average porosity, fiber diameter, resin content and anisotropy) of such composites, which are obtained from X-ray computed microtomography measurements on commercially available carbon papers. This information is then used for the digital reconstruction of realistic composite fibrous matrices. By solving the corresponding conservation equations at the microscale in the obtained digital domains, their effective transport properties, such as Darcy permeabilities, effective diffusivities, thermal/electrical conductivities and void tortuosity, are determined focusing primarily on the effects of medium anisotropy and resin content. The calculated properties are matching very well with those of Toray carbon papers for reasonable values of the model parameters that control the anisotropy of the fibrous skeleton and the materials resin content.

  12. Mechanical properties and fire retardancy of bidirectional reinforced composite based on biodegradable starch resin and basalt fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by extensive use of polymeric materials arise mainly due to lack of landfill space and depletion of finite natural resources of fossil raw materials, such as petroleum or natural gas. The substitution of synthetic petroleum-based resins with natural biodegradable resins appears to be one appropriate measure to remedy the above-mentioned situation. This study presents the development of a composite that uses environmentally degradable starch-based resin as matrix and basalt fibre plain fabric as reinforcement. Prepreg sheets were manufactured by means of a modified doctor blade system and a hot power press. The sheets were used to manufacture bidirectional-reinforced specimens with fibre volume contents ranging from 33 to 61%. Specimens were tested for tensile and flexural strength, and exhibited values of up to 373 and 122 MPa, respectively. Through application of silane coupling agents to the reinforcement fibres, the flexural composite properties were subsequently improved by as much as 38%. Finally, in order to enhance the fire retardancy and hence the applicability of the composite, fire retardants were applied to the resin, and their effectiveness was tested by means of flame rating (according to UL 94 and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively.

  13. [Aging of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite resins: effects on color and translucency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie; Lin, Hong; Shen, Song

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the color stability and translucency of silorane-based low shrinkage composite after in vitro aging procedures of thermal cycling and water storage respectively, and to compare with those of conventional methacrylate-based posterior composite. Three light-cured composite resins, dimethacrylate-based composite A (Filtek™ Z350), B (Filtek™ P60) and silorane-based composite C (Filtek™ P90), were tested in this study. Ten specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in height) of each composite were prepared. The ten specimens in each group were then divided into two subgroups (n = 5). One subgroup underwent thermal cycling [(5.0 ± 0.5)~(55.0 ± 1.0) °C, 10 000 cycles] and the other was stored in 37 C° distilled water for 180 days. With a spectrophotometer, the CIE L * a * b * parameters of the specimens were tested before and after artificial aging against white, medium grey and black backgrounds, respectively. △E, TP and △TP were calculated and data were analyzed using independent-samples t test and partial analysis (P composite showed color alteration above the clinically acceptable levels (△E > 3.3), and also showed higher △E with a statistically significant difference in comparison with the other composites (B and C) (P composite C showed more alteration compared with composite B (P composite underwent greater alteration with regard to color stability and translucency.

  14. Retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant and a photochromatic flowable composite resin placed on occlusal pits and fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant (Fluroshield and a photochromatic flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow Chroma placed on occlusal pits and fissures and submitted to thermal or chemical cycling regimens. Penetration assessment - ten premolars were sealed with each material, isolated (except for the sealed surface and immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B. The teeth were serially sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. The images of the sections were digitized and analyzed (ImageLab. The distance between the most superficial and the deepest points on the occlusal central groove was calculated to determine the groove′s total depth. The length of the central groove filled with the sealant was divided by its total depth to obtain the percentage of sealing of the occlusal groove. Retention assessment - 30 premolars were sealed, their occlusal surfaces were photographed and the area occupied by the sealing materials was demarcated (ImageLab. The teeth were submitted to different treatments: thermocycled, stored in artificial saliva and immersed in acetic acid and saliva (10 cycles/day protocol for 30 days. New photographs were taken to assess the final area occupied by the materials. The difference between the final and initial area was calculated to obtain the material loss. The data was analyzed (two-way anova and Tukey′s test P < 0.05. Both materials presented similar penetration of the occlusal central groove. After thermal and chemical cycling, the materials did not differ with respect to retention, except for immersion in acetic acid. In this case, Tetric Flow Chroma presented greater retention than Fluoroshield.

  15. Phenolic resin-based porous carbons for adsorption and energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Nilantha P.

    The main objective of this dissertation research is to develop phenolic resin based carbon materials for range of applications by soft-templating and Stober-like synthesis strategies. Applications Studied in this dissertation are adsorption of CO2, bio-molecular and heavy metal ions, and energy storage devices. Based on that, our goal is to design carbon materials with desired pore structure, high surface area, graphitic domains, incorporated metal nanoparticles, and specific organic groups and heteroatoms. In this dissertation the organic-organic self-assembly of phenolic resins and triblock copolymers under acidic conditions will be used to obtain mesoporous carbons/carbon composites and Stober-like synthesis involving phenolic resins under basic condition will be used to prepare polymer/carbon particles and their composites. The structure of this dissertation consists of an introductory chapter (Chapter 1) discussing the general synthesis of carbon materials, particularly the soft-templating strategy and Stober-like carbon synthesis. Also, Chapter 1 includes a brief outline of applications namely adsorption of CO2, biomolecule and heavy metal ions, and supercapacitors. Chapter 2 discusses the techniques used for characterization of the carbon materials studied. This chapter starts with nitrogen adsorption analysis, which is used to measure the specific surface area, pore volume, distribution of pore sizes, and pore width. In addition to nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and CHNS elemental analysis (EA) are mentioned too. Chapter 3 is focused on carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. There are different types of porous solid materials such as silicate, MOFs, carbons, and zeolites studied for CO2 adsorption. However, the carbon based materials are considered to be the best candidates for CO 2 adsorption to the industrial point of

  16. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevinga, M A; Opdam, N J M; Bronkhorst, E M; Truin, G J; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants before 1st of January 2000 were included in the study. Date of placement of a sealant in posterior non-discoloured permanent teeth and replacement by a restoration was recorded. In a clinical examination occlusal surfaces were scored for (partial) sealant loss and fissure discolouration. The restoration profile of the patient was assessed as low or high, based on the number of restorations placed per year since the first sealant. Sealants had been applied by four dentists and a dental hygienist. 1204 sealants were placed in 148 patients. After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, 41.3% of placed sealants were still fully retained and 11.4% were replaced by a restoration. Failure rates were significantly higher in high than in low restoration profile patients and in molars compared to premolars. In those fissures with lost or partially lost sealants, discolouration frequently occurred (40% of all surfaces) irrespective of restoration profile of the patient. In this retrospective practice based study, long-term performance of sealants depended on restoration profile of the individual patient and the tooth type (molar versus premolar).

  17. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of visible light-cured denture base resins and their application to orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E A; Ogle, R E; Sorensen, S E; Zysik, D A

    1988-09-01

    A series of investigations is being conducted to examine the applicability of visible light-cured resins to orthodontics. The experimental vehicle is the Hawley retainer, which is made from autopolymerized (AP), heat-cured (HC), thermoplastic Biocryl 2 (BC), and Traid visible light-cured (VLC) resins. In all physical property testing, it was found that VLC resins met or exceeded required values as established by ADA Specification No. 12 for denture base polymers. In vitro bacterial adherence studies showed that more organisms adhered to heat-cured specimens than to the other specimens. In vivo studies using split-palate Hawley retainers demonstrated slightly less bacterial adherence to BC than to the other resins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations have shown the BC surface to be the smoothest, although surface chemistry also seems important. None of the materials being tested appears to cause any significant change in the subjacent subgingival bacterial flora. There was no adverse tissue reaction under any of the materials when observed clinically. Manipulation characteristics and time of fabrication appear to be dependent on the depth of the palate and the skill of the operator.

  18. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bescop P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale’s studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  19. Contact angle and surface free energy of experimental resin-based dental restorative materials after chewing simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Beikler, Thomas; Janda, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    To investigate contact angle and surface free energy of experimental dental resin composites containing novel delivery systems of polymeric hollow beads and low-surface tension agents after chewing simulation test. A delivery system of novel polymeric hollow beads differently loaded with two low-surface tension agents was used in different amounts to modify commonly formulated experimental dental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as standard. Surface roughness Ra, contact angle Θ, total surface free energy γS, its apolar γS(LW), polar γS(AB), Lewis acid γS(+) and base γS(-) terms were determined and the results prior to and after chewing simulation test were compared. Significance was phollow beads highly loaded with low-surface tension agents were found to significantly increase contact angle and thus to reduce surface free energy of experimental dental resin composites prior to and after chewing simulation test. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fillers in epoxy coatings based on the ED-20 resin on the mechanical properties determined by instrumented microindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. V.; Veretennikova, I. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Pestov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxy lacquer coatings based on the ED-20 epoxy-diane resin, filled with nanosized TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO oxides and applied on an aluminum-magnesium alloy base, are studied by instrumented indentation. The effect of the duration of loading and the duration of holding under a constant load of 1 N on Martens hardness and the normal elastic modulus, depending on the material of the epoxy lacquer filler, has been established.

  1. The effects of fillers on polyurethane resin-based electrical insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altafim Ruy Alberto Corrêa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly widespread use of polymeric insulators in vehicle distributors and transmission systems has led to an ongoing quest for quality and low costs. This quest has, in turn, resulted in improved performance and cost benefits, brought about by the use of new polymeric and composite resins. Occasionally, however, while some properties are improved, others may show a loss of optimal performance. Therefore, to understand the behavior of fillers, such as carbon black, silica and mica added to castor oil-derived polyurethane resins, several thermal, mechanical and electrical tests were conducted on samples and insulators produced specifically for this purpose, using these new materials. The results of these tests clearly demonstrated that this type of resin and its composites can be used to manufacture indoor electrical insulators and that the fillers analyzed in this study improve or maintain the characteristics of the pure resins.

  2. Predicting the Viscosity of Low VOC Vinyl Ester and Fatty Acid-Based Resins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaScala, John J; Jeyarajasingam, Amutha; Winston, Cherise; Sand, James M; Palmese, Guiseppe R

    2005-01-01

    .... The viscosities of these resins were measured as a function of reactive diluent content and type, temperature, and vinyl ester molecular weight to determine the operating window for composite manufacture...

  3. Determination of the effective anticandidal concentration of denture cleanser tablets on some denture base resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Hayran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Although the effectiveness of chemical cleansing against Candida albicans biofilm has been shown, the effective concentration of denture cleanser tablets has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three denture materials against Candida albicans biofilm and to determine effective concentrations of denture cleanser tablets. Material and methods The surface-roughness of Acron-hi™, QC-20™ and Deflex™ (n=45 per resin resins was standardized by using a profilometer and their contact angle or surface free energy was calculated. C. albicans biofilm was formed on all three resins and were treated with Polident 3 min™, Corega™ and Fittydent™ cleanser solutions at various concentrations and both resin-biofilm and cleanser-biofilm interest were determined by using a MTT protocol according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing's antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST-EUCAST. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the efficacy of different resin materials against C. albicans biofilm. Anticandidal activity and surface free energy statistical parameters were calculated by using 3-way and 1-way ANOVA, respectively (p<0.05. Results Polident 3 min™ and Corega™ tablets significantly inhibited (p<0.05 the proliferation of C. albicans against all denture resins at 27-37 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that there was no significant difference among resin specimens regarding biofilm formation on dentures. We failed to find a significant relationship between surface free energy and the anticandidal effect of resin types. However, the polarity value of the resins was statistically associated with their anticandidal activity. Conclusions The polarity of the resins, the concentrations of tablets and the chemical content of the cleanser may directly affect C. albicans biofilm formations. Polident 3 min™ and Corega™ tablets should be suggested for

  4. Modification of epoxy resins with thermoplastic segmented polycarbonate-based polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličević Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, epoxy hybrid materials were synthesized by addition of thermoplastic segmented aliphatic polyurethanes with good elastic properties. The modified epoxy samples were obtained by curing of previously homogenized mixture of prepared polyurethane melts, epoxy resin and crosslinking agent Jeffamine D-2000. The influence of different weight content of polyurethanes (5, 10 and 15 wt. % compared to pure epoxy resin as well the influence of different hard segments of elastomers (20, 25 and 30 wt. % on the curing of modified epoxy systems was studied. The curing was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, in dynamic regime from 30 to 300°C, at three heating rates (5, 10 and 20°C/min. With the increase of hard segments content of polyurethanes added in higher concentration (10 and 15 wt. % into epoxy matrix, the temperature of maximum ratio of curing was shifted to lower values (from 205 to 179°C. Obtained DSC data were analyzed using two integral methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and one differential kinetic model (Friedman. The significant differences were observed in the second part of the epoxy curing (for the reaction degrees higher than 60 %, where the values of activation energies remarkably increase. The addition of polyurethane elastomers retarded the curing process due to decreased mobility of reactant molecules caused by higher viscosity of reaction mixture. By detailed analysis of determined kinetic parameters, it is concluded that the influence of slow diffusion is more pronounced in the presence of thermoplastic polycarbonate-based polyurethanes, which confirmed their effect on the mechanism of epoxy curing. The highest tensile strength and hardness showed the DGEBA modified with the polyurethane with highest hard segment content. Increasing the hard segment content of polyurethane and its concentration in matrix, the tensile strength of modified epoxy was increased. The elongation at break of

  5. Comparing microleakage and the layering methods of silorane-based resin composite in wide Class II MOD cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, Yildirim Hakan; Baltacioglu, Ismail Hakki; Kahyaogullari, Savas

    2009-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effects of different layering techniques and different monomer-based composites on microleakage. Thirty-two freshly extracted caries-free human third molars were used. A wide mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity was prepared in each third molar, with the occlusal dimension being approximately two-thirds of the intercuspal dimension, and the cervical limit of one proximal box was stopped 1 mm below and the other 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction. The cavities were filled with a methacrylate-based nanohybrid composite (Grandio, VoCo) and a silorane-based microhybrid composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE). All samples were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles of 5 degrees C/55 degrees C in water with a 30-second dwell time and, after the procedure, the teeth were immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsin dye at 23 degrees C for 24 hours. Sectioned samples were examined under a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ12, Leica Microsystems), and microleakage scores were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests. No microleakage was observed for silorane-based resin composite restorations. The nanohybrid-based resin composite restorations showed different levels of leakage. Statistical analysis of microleakage scores showed differences only at the enamel margins for nanohybrid material for both layering techniques (p < 0.05). The nanohybrid-based resin composite restorations showed better results with the vertical layering technique for enamel margins.

  6. Mechanical and electrical properties of a polyester resin reinforced with clay-based fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buncianu, Dorel; Jadaneant, Mihai [UPT Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania); Tessier-Doyen, Nicolas; Absi, Joseph [Centre Européen de la Céramique, Limoges Cedex (France); Courreges, Fabien [Laboratoire XLIM, 123, Limoges Cedex (France)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, composite polymer-based materials were fabricated, in which a significant proportion of polyester resin was substituted by low-cost and environmentally-friendly clay-based raw materials. The main objective is to improve mechanical properties while maintaining a reasonable electrical insulating behavior. A homogenized distribution of fillers within the matrix compatible with the processing parameters was obtained up to a maximum added fraction of 20 vol%. Mechanical characterization using uniaxial traction tests and Charpy impact pendulum machine showed that stress-to-rupture can be enhanced of approximately 25 %. In addition, fracture energy was doubled for the best formulation. Dielectric constant was decreased and loss factor was slightly increased when electrical resistivity remained almost constant. In general, the composite materials with metakaolin fillers exhibited higher mechanical properties and greater electrical insulating behavior. Microstructural observation showed the presence of decohesive agglomerates of particles at the interface with the matrix. The mechanical properties were found to be more sensitive than electrical properties to the homogeneity of filler dispersion in the matrix.

  7. Lignin model compounds as bio-based reactive diluents for liquid molding resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, Joseph F; Sadler, Joshua M; La Scala, John J; Wool, Richard P

    2012-07-01

    Lignin is a copious paper and pulping waste product that has the potential to yield valuable, low molecular weight, single aromatic chemicals when strategically depolymerized. The single aromatic lignin model compounds, vanillin, guaiacol, and eugenol, were methacrylated by esterification with methacrylic anhydride and a catalytic amount of 4-dimethylaminopyridine. Methacrylated guaiacol (MG) and methacrylated eugenol (ME) exhibited low viscosities at room temperature (MG: 17 cP and ME: 28 cP). When used as reactive diluents in vinyl ester resins, they produced resin viscosities higher than that of vinyl ester-styrene blends. The relative volatilities of MG (1.05 wt% loss in 18 h) and ME (0.96 wt% loss in 18 h) measured by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were considerably lower than that of styrene (93.7 wt% loss in 3 h) indicating the potential of these chemicals to be environmentally friendly reactive diluents. Bulk polymerization of MG and ME generated homopolymers with glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) of 92 and 103 °C, respectively. Blends of a standard vinyl ester resin with MG and ME (50 wt % reactive diluent) produced thermosets with T(g)s of 127 and 153 °C, respectively, which are comparable to vinyl ester-styrene resins, thus demonstrating the ability of MG and ME to completely replace styrene as reactive diluents in liquid molding resins without sacrificing cured-resin thermal performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan Ayaz, Elif; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n=10) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer's instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5% (-5), 10% (-10), 15% (-15) and 20% (-20) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 °C⋅min(-1) from 35 °C to 600 °C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (P<0.01). Ac-10 and Ac-15 showed significance when compared to Ac-c (P<0.01). Acrylamide incorporation increased the elastic modulus in Qc-10, Qc-15 and Qc-20 when compared to Qc-c (P<0.01). Also significant increase was observed in Ac-10, Ac-15 and Ac-20 copolymer groups when compared to Ac-c (P<0.01). According to the (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results, acrylamide copolymerization was confirmed in the experimental groups. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm.

  9. Bond strength of a dental leucite-based glass ceramic to a resin cement using different silane coupling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Tabassom; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Keshvad, Alireza; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Zamani, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different types of novel silane coupling agents with two concentrations on the micro-tensile bond strength of a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystals to a dual-cured resin cement using an optimized method of silane application. Leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic blocks were fabricated, wet ground and cleansed. The bonding ceramic surfaces were treated with different organosilane solutions as follows: Control silane: Monobond S; methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane and experimental silanes with two concentrations (1.0 and 2.5 vol%): amino, isocyanate, styryl, and acrylate silanes. The silane application method consisted of brush application, hot air drying followed by rinsing with hot water and drying. Then a thin layer of an unfilled resin and a dual-cured resin cement was light-cured on the ceramic surfaces. The resin-ceramic blocks were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and sectioned to produce beam specimens (n=17) with a 1.0 mm(2) cross-sectional area. Specimens were then subjected to thermocycling and tested in a micro-tensile tester device. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tamhane post-hoc test. The mean micro-tensile bond strength value for the styryl silane was significantly higher (P0.05). The micro-tensile bond strength of the leucite-based dental glass ceramic to a resin cement was affected by the type of silane coupling agent and not by the concentration of silane solutions. The best bond strength overall was achieved by methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and experimental styryl silane solutions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in physico-mechanical behaviors of resol(e) and novolac type phenolic resin based composite bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakati, Biraj Kumar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, North Guwahati, PIN 781 039, Dist. Kamrup (Assam) (India); Deka, Dhanapati [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784 028, Dist. Sonitpur (Assam) (India)

    2007-09-15

    Composite bipolar plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) are prepared by compression molding technique using polymer as binder and graphite as electric filler material with some other reinforcements. Study on the effect of resole and novolac type phenolic resin on the properties of composite bipolar plate, such as bulk density, porosity, bulk conductivity, hardness, flexural strength, etc. shows that both of the resin shows different physico-mechanical properties. Moreover, single cell performance analysis also shows variation for resole and novolac based composites. A novel concept of triple continuous structure to provide graphite polymer blends with high electrical conductivity, high shore hardness, high flexural strength, less porosity and low density has been proposed and study on the effect of different types of phenolic resin on the properties and performance of bipolar plate reveals that novolac type powdered phenolic resin gives better mechanical properties than resole type phenolic resin. However, resole type phenolic resin compound has slightly higher electrical conductivity due to more number of polar -OH group presents on its cured form. But due to the less porosity and higher mechanical strength, bipolar plates with novolac type phenolic resin gives better performance in I-V analysis than bipolar plates with resole type phenolic resin. (author)

  11. Cell death effects of resin-based dental material compounds and mercurials in human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Franz-Xaver [Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany); Esters, Magali; Simon, Sabine; Seiss, Mario [Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kehe, Kai [Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Regensburg, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Regensburg (Germany); Folwaczny, Matthias; Glas, Juergen; Hickel, Reinhard [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    In order to test the hypothesis that released dental restorative materials can reach toxic levels in human oral tissues, the cytotoxicities of the resin-based dental (co)monomers hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisglycidylmethacrylate (BisGMA) compared with methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) and the amalgam component mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) were investigated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) using two different test systems: (1) the modified XTT-test and (2) the modified H 33342 staining assay. The HGF were exposed to various concentrations of the test-substances in all test systems for 24 h. All tested (co)monomers and mercury compounds significantly (P<0.05) decreased the formazan formation in the XTT-test. EC{sub 50} values in the XTT assay were obtained as half-maximum-effect concentrations from fitted curves. Following EC{sub 50} values were found (mean [mmol/l]; s.e.m. in parentheses; n=12; * significantly different to HEMA): HEMA 11.530 (0.600); TEGDMA* 3.460 (0.200); UDMA* 0.106 (0.005); BisGMA* 0.087 (0.001); HgCl{sub 2}* 0.013 (0.001); MeHgCl* 0.005 (0.001). Following relative toxicities were found: HEMA 1; TEGDMA 3; UDMA 109; BisGMA 133; HgCl{sub 2} 887; MeHgCl 2306. A significant (P<0.05) increase of the toxicity of (co)monomers and mercurials was found in the XTT-test in the following order: HEMA < TEGDMA < UDMA < BisGMA < HgCl{sub 2} < MeHgCl. TEGDMA and MeHgCl induced mainly apoptotic cell death. HEMA, UDMA, BisGMA, and HgCl{sub 2} induced mainly necrotic cell death. The results of this study indicate that resin composite components have a lower toxicity than mercury from amalgam in HGF. HEMA, BisGMA, UDMA, and HgCl{sub 2} induced mainly necrosis, but it is rather unlikely that eluted substances (solely) can reach concentrations, which might induce necrotic cell death in the human physiological situation, indicating that other (additional) factors may be involved in

  12. Long-term degradation of resin-based cements in substances present in the oral environment: influence of activation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira da SILVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indirect restorations in contact with free gingival margins or principally within the gingival sulcus, where the presence of organic acids produced by oral biofilm is higher, may present faster degradation of the resin-based cement pellicle. Objectives To investigate the degradation of four resin-based cements: Rely X ARC (R, Variolink II (V, Enforce (E and All Cem (A, after immersion in distilled water (DW, lactic acid (LA and artificial saliva (AS and to analyze the influence of the activation mode on this response. Material and Methods Two activation modes were evaluated: chemical (Ch and dual (D. In the dual activation, a two-millimeter thick ceramic disk (IPS Empress System was interposed between the specimen and light-curing unit tip. Specimens were desiccated, immersed in distilled water, artificial saliva and lactic acid 0.1 M at 37°C for 180 days, weighed daily for the first 7 days, and after 14, 21, 28, 90 and 180 days and were desiccated again. Sorption and solubility (µg/mm 3 were calculated based on ISO 4049. The data were submitted to multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA and Tukey's HSD test for media comparisons (α=0.05. Results Sorption was higher after immersion in LA (pD (p<0.05. The lowest solubility was presented by R (p<0.05. Conclusions Lactic acid increased the degradation of resin-based cements. Moreover, the physical component of activation, i.e., light-activation, contributed to a low degradation of resin-based cements.

  13. Production and characterization of composite material based on ablative phenolic resin and carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2002-01-01

    The optimisation of technology for production of moulding compound based on short carbon fibers and ablative phenolic resin is carried out. The characterisation of the starting raw materials is performed and moulding compounds With different fiber/matrix ratios and different fiber lengths are prepared. From the different samples, mouldings are produced by thermal compression. All physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites are tested. From the obtained results the optimal fiber/matrix ratio, for high temperature moulding compounds production are determined. Also, in order to meet the request for high thermal and mechanics properties of the composite, optimization is carded out on the moulding process itself. The optimization is fulfilled by a planned experiment. The full factorial experimental design is applied in which the following parameters are varied: fiber length, temperature and time of the press cycle. Regression equations for the influence of the parameters to the impact resistance, compression strength, flexural strength and the modulus of elasticity of the molding, are obtained. The obtained mechanical properties of the composite rate this material for potential application in the automotive, leisure, military and other industries.(Author)

  14. Mathematical modeling of cross-linking monomer elution from resin-based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Dragica; Radisic, Marina; Lausevic, Mila; Zivkovic, Slavoljub; Miletic, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Elution of potentially toxic substances, including monomers, from resin-based dental composites may affect the biocompatibility of these materials in clinical conditions. In addition to the amounts of eluted monomers, mathematical modeling of elution kinetics reveals composite restorations as potential chronic sources of leachable monomers. The aim of this work was to experimentally quantify elution of main cross-linking monomers from four commercial composites and offer a mathematical model of elution kinetics. Composite samples (n = 7 per group) of Filtek Supreme XT (3M ESPE), Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Admira (Voco), and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) were prepared in 2-mm thick Teflon moulds and cured with halogen or light-emitting diode light. Monomer elution in ethanol and water was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography up to 28 days postimmersion. The mathematical model was expressed as a sum of two exponential regression functions representing the first-order kinetics law. Elution kinetics in all cases followed the same mathematical model though differences in rate constants as well as the extent of monomer elution were material-, LCU-, medium-dependent. The proposed mechanisms of elution indicate fast elution from surface and subsurface layers and up to 100 times slower monomer extraction from the bulk polymer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Apical leakage of three resin-based endodontic sealers after 810-nm-diode laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Pinto, Tiago; Davidowicz, Harry; de Moura, Abilio Albuquerque Maranhão

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of 810-nm-diode laser irradiation, applied before root canal filling, on apical sealing ability of three different resin-based sealers (AH Plus, EndoRez, and RealSeal). Lasers have been widely used in endodontics. The dentin wall changes caused by laser irradiation could improve the sealing ability of endodontic cements. Sixty single-rooted human teeth were divided into six groups, according to the endodontic sealer used and previous 810-nm-diode laser irradiation. The protocol for laser irradiation was 2.5 W in a continuous wave, in scanning mode, with four irradiations per tooth. After sample preparation, they were analyzed according to apical leakage with silver nitrate impregnation. The RealSeal sealer achieved minimum leakage rates (1.24 mm), with significant differences at the 1% level (Tukey's test, plaser was used, there were also significant differences at the 5% level (plaser irradiation did not promote significant differences in apical leakage.

  16. Preparation and characterization of a novel magnetorheological elastomer based on polyurethane/epoxy resin IPNs matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Qi, S.; Fu, J.; Yang, P. A.; Zhu, M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes the preparation of a novel magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with improved damping and mechanical properties. This MRE is based on polyurethane (PU)/epoxy resin (EP) graft interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The tensile strengths, thermal stability, magnetorhelogical behavior, and damping properties of the MRE are studied systematically in terms of composition. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra verifies the formation of IPN structures, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the thermal decomposition temperature was raised by the addition of IPN structures. The test results from the materials test machine and the rheometer show that the presence of IPN can significantly improve the tensile strength and damping properties of the MRE. In addition, the mechanism for enhancing tensile strength and damping properties is proposed. The experiment results suggest that the damping performance of the MRE has a significant correlation with the magnetic strength, content of EP, and temperature. As the thermal endurance properties, tensile strength, and loss factor are improved by incorporating EP/PU IPN structure, it is expected that the PU/EP IPN MRE can be used as an intelligent structural damping material.

  17. Effect of surface treatment on the bonding of an autopolymerizing soft denture liner to a denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shiro; Ohashi, Hirohumi; Kurashige, Hisanori; Tanaka, Takuo

    2004-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effects of surface treatments and thermocycling on the bonding of autopolymerizing silicone soft denture liner (Sofreliner) to denture base resin. The bonding surfaces of denture base cylinders were polished with 600-grit silicon carbide paper and pretreated with applications of Sofreliner Primer, Sofreliner Primer after air abrasion, Reline Primer, or Reline Primer after air abrasion. Failure loads and elongation at failure were measured after subjecting specimens to 0, 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 thermocycles. Failure modes were assessed for all specimens. Seven specimens were fabricated for each of 16 groups, including four pretreatments and four thermocycle groups. Failure loads of the Sofreliner Primer group were significantly higher than those of the air-abrasion group up to 20,000 thermocycles; both groups showed cohesive failures of the soft denture liner. Failure loads of the Reline Primer group were significantly higher than with Reline Primer after air abrasion up to 10,000 thermocycles. Failure mode after 10,000 thermocycles was cohesive for the Reline Primer group and mixed cohesive/adhesive for Reline Primer after air abrasion. Failure loads of the Sofreliner Primer group were significantly higher than those of the Reline Primer group at each thermocycling interval. Elongation values decreased after 10,000 thermocycles for all groups. Air abrasion on the denture base resin surface was not effective in enhancing failure load. Cyclic thermal stress is one factor degrading the bond between soft denture liner and acrylic resin denture base.

  18. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  19. Effect of Different Surface Treatments and Thermocycling on Bond Strength of a Silicone-based Denture Liner to a Denture Base Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Dashti, Hossein; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Vasigh, Samaneh; Mushtaq, Shazia; Shetty, Rohit Mohan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of three different surface treatments and thermocycling on the tensile strength of a silicone lining material to denture resin. A total of 96 cube-shaped specimens were fabricated using heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin. Three millimeters of the material was cut from the midsection. The specimens were divided into four groups. The bonding surfaces of the specimens in each group received one of the following surface treatments: no surface treatment (control group), airborne particle abrasion with 110 pirn alumina particles (air abrasion group), Er:yttrium aluminum garnet laser irradiation (laser group), and air abrasion + laser. After the lining materials were processed between the two PMMA blocks, each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 12), either stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours or thermocycled between 5 and 55°C for 5,000 cycles. The specimens were tested in tensile and shear strength in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tamhane's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). The mode of failure was determined, and one specimen in each group was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Surface-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher tensile strengths compared to the control group (p 0.05). The tensile strength was significantly different between thermocycled and water-stored specimens (p = 0.021). Altering the surface of the acrylic denture base resin with air abrasion, laser, and air abrasion + laser increased the tensile strength. Thermocycling resulted in decrease in bond strength of silicone-based liner to surface-treated acrylic resin. Pretreatment of denture base resins before applying the soft liner materials improves the bond strength. However, thermocycling results in decrease in bond strength of soft denture liner to surface-treated acrylic resin.

  20. Effect of 5.25 % sodium hypochlorite on color stability of acrylic and silicone based soft liners and a denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a chemical disinfectant (sodium hypochlorite 5.25 %) on color stability of a denture base acrylic resin and two processed soft denture lining materials of two different types (acrylic-based and silicone-based). Ten specimens from each type of materials tested were made (2 × 20 × 20 mm). All specimens were immersed in sodium hypochlorite (5.25 %). Colorimetric measurements for each specimen were taken before immersion, and after 24 h and 7 days of immersion. Color changes were evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05). ANOVA was followed by Bonferroni test to determine which groups differed from each other. ΔE and ΔL* of the silicone-based liner at the 1st and 7th days of immersion were significantly more than of denture base acrylic resin and acrylic-based liner. Change in ΔL* values of denture base acrylic resin and acrylic-based liner was small and statistically insignificant after 24 h of its immersion. However, the increase in ΔL* values of the acrylic-based liner after 7 days of immersion was considerably more than of denture base acrylic resin. Color changes in denture base acrylic resin and soft denture liners tended to increase with longer immersion times, and the color stability of the soft denture liners was influenced by its chemical type.

  1. Effect of root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza, Angélica Moreira; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Silva, Bruno Marques; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted canines were prepared using ProTaper (F5) and divided into the following groups based on the root filling technique: Lateral Compaction (LC), Single Cone (SC), and Tagger Hybrid Technique (THT). The following subgroups (n = 10) were also created based on sealer material used: AH Plus and Sealer 26. Two-millimeter-thick slices were cut from all the root thirds and subjected to push-out test. Data (MPa) was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The push-out values were significantly affected by the sealer, filling technique, and root third (p < 0.05). AH Plus (1.37 ± 1.04) exhibited higher values than Sealer 26 (0.92 ± 0.51), while LC (1.80 ± 0.98) showed greater bond strength than THT (1.16 ± 0.50) and SC (0.92 ± 0.25). The cervical (1.45 ± 1.14) third exhibited higher bond strength, followed by the middle (1.20 ± 0.72) and apical (0.78 ± 0.33) thirds. AH Plus/LC (2.26 ± 1.15) exhibited the highest bond strength values, followed by AH Plus/THT (1.32 ± 0.61), Sealer 26/LC (1.34 ± 0.42), and Sealer 26/THT (1.00 ± 0.27). The lowest values were obtained with AH Plus/SC and Sealer 26/SC. Thus, it can be concluded that the filling technique affects the bond strength of sealers. LC was associated with higher bond strength between the material and intra-radicular dentine than THT and SC techniques.

  2. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Mezzomo COLLARES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Material and Methods: Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. Results: The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. CONCLUSION: The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

  3. Non-destructive evaluation of teeth restored with different composite resins using synchrotron based micro-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, A; Kulkarni, V K; Banda, N R; Agrawal, A K; Singh, B; Sarkar, P S; Tripathi, S; Shripathi, T; Kashyap, Y; Sinha, A

    2016-01-01

    Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-imaging in microdefects studies of restored dental samples. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the defects in restorations done by two different resin systems on teeth samples using synchrotron based micro-imaging techniques namely Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) and micro-computed tomography (MCT). With this aim acquired image quality was also compared with routinely used RVG (Radiovisiograph). Crowns of human teeth samples were fractured mechanically involving only enamel and dentin, without exposure of pulp chamber and were divided into two groups depending on the restorative composite materials used. Group A samples were restored using a submicron Hybrid composite material and Group B samples were restored using a Nano-Hybrid restorative composite material. Synchrotron based PCI and MCT was performed with the aim of visualization of tooth structure, composite resin and their interface. The quantitative and qualitative comparison of phase contrast and absorption contrast images along with MCT on the restored teeth samples shows comparatively large number of voids in Group A samples. Quality assessment of dental restorations using synchrotron based micro-imaging suggests Nano-Hybrid resin restorations (Group B) are better than Group A.

  4. Influence of radiopaque fillers on physicochemical properties of a model epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Klein, Mariana; Santos, Paula Dapper; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Ogliari, Fabrício; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2013-01-01

    To verify the influence of radiopaque fillers on an epoxy resin-based sealer. Experimental sealers were formulated by adding 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% and 120% of calcium tungstate, ytterbium trifluoride or barium sulphate by weight to an epoxy-resin-base. Setting time, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, sorption, solubility, pH and push-out bond strength were evaluated. The setting time ranged from 373 to 612.66 min, the flow varied from 13.81±0.49 to 22.49±0.37 mm, and the film thickness ranged from 16.67±5.77 to 33.33±11.54 µm. The lowest pH was 5.47±0.53, and the highest was 6.99±0.03. Radiopacity varied from 0.38±0.04 to 2.57±0.21 mmAl and increased with the amount of filler. Calcium tungstate sealers had a higher sorption and solubility than other sealers. There was no significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the fillers at the 120% concentration. The inorganic fillers evaluated and their concentrations affect the physicochemical properties of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer.

  5. Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Machado Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise. Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365 than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935. No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

  6. Effect of LED-LCU light irradiance distribution on mechanical properties of resin based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhães Filho, T.R.; Weig, K.M. [Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua São Paulo 28, CEP 24020-150 Niterói (Brazil); Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, M.F. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Werneck, M.M. [Engenharia Elétrica (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68504, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barthem, R.B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa Neto, C.A., E-mail: celio@metalmat.ufrj.br [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68505, CEP: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the light power distribution along the tip end of the light guide of three LED-LCUs (Light Curing Units) and to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of a polymer based dental composite. Firstly, the light power distribution over the whole area of LED-LCU light guide surface was analyzed by three methods: visual projection observation, spectral measurement and optical spectral analysis (OSA). The light power distribution and the total irradiance were different for the three LEDs used, but the wavelength was within the camphorquinone absorption spectrum. The use of a blank sheet was quite on hand to make a qualitative analysis of a beam, and it is costless. Secondly, specimens of a hybrid composite with approximately 8 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were produced and polymerized by 20 s exposition time to each LED-LCU. Thirdly, the elastic modulus (E) and hardness (HV) were measured throughout the irradiated area by instrumented micro-indentation test (IIT), allowing to correlate localized power and mechanical properties. Both E and HV showed to be very sensitive to local power and wavelength dependent, but they followed the beam power profile. It was also shown that the mechanical properties could be directly correlated to the curing process. Very steep differences in mechanical properties over very short distances may impair the material performance, since residual stresses can easily be built over it. - Highlights: • A resin based composite (RBC) was polymerized by three different Light Emitting Diodes. • Each LED had its beam profile visually, wavelength and power analyzed. • The effective polymerization power (EPP) varied from 28% to 52% of the total beam power. • Wavelength seems to be as relevant as power in the light curing process. • Mechanical properties depend on the simultaneous effect of wavelength and power.

  7. Starting Strong: A School-Based Indicated Prevention Program during the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Taylor, Heather; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Starting Strong in Kindergarten (Starting Strong) is a school-based indicated prevention targeting behavior problems, student-teacher relationships, and parent-school connectedness for children with or at risk for disruptive behavior problems during the transition to kindergarten. By use of a block-randomized, controlled trial to test program…

  8. Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin and its biological, chemical regeneration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Xu, Xing; Tan, Xin; Wang, Yan; Ling, Jianya; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-01-22

    Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin was investigated by considering the bed depth, stream flow rate and influent pH. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) increased with the growth of bed depths, meanwhile rising flow rate at constant bed depth (3.4 cm) decreased the breakthrough time. It was observed that perchlorate adsorption capacity was optimum at neutral condition (pH: 6.0, 170.4 mg/g), and decreased at acidic (pH: 3.0, 96.4 mg/g) or alkalic (pH: 12.0, 72.8 mg/g) influents. The predominant strains of the acclimated sludge for resin biological regeneration were the β-subclass of Proteobacteria. Biological regeneration of the saturated amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin with mixed bacteria have shown its merit with regeneration and biological perchlorate destruction simultaneously, although its regeneration efficiency was only 61.2-84.1% by contrast to chemical regeneration with efficiency more than 95%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Current status of visible light activation units and the curing of light-activated resin-based composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario

    2010-05-01

    Light activation units are standard items of equipment in dental practice. It is essential to understand the many factors which affect the polymerization of light-activated resin composite materials and the choice of a light curing unit. In this respect, the development of high-intensity halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units (LCUs), many with multiple curing modes, has revolutionized light curing techniques. This article reviews visible light activation unit design and development. Factors influencing the effective use of LCUs and polymerization of resin-based composite materials are discussed, as are the steps which should be taken to maintain the efficiency of units in clinical use. Many LCUs produce lower output intensities than stated by the manufacturer. Newer high power LEDs may present as much of a heat problem as high power quartz tungsten halogen lamps (QTHs).The manufacturer's data should be followed to ensure that the emission spectra of the unit is compatible with the photo-initiator in the resin-based composite material.

  10. Industrial resin inspection for display production using automated fluid-inspection based on multimodal optical detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Yeongri; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    The large-scale liquid-crystal display (LCD) industry requires an accurate inspection system for identifying defects, as the LCD quality can be drastically degraded because of defects. In particular, the refractive index of LCD panels can be changed by internal micrometer-range substances, which form as a result of defectiveness and the insufficient solidification of industrial liquid resins. Intrinsically, the defect inspection of the raw materials must be performed prior to the LCD manufacturing process. Thus, optical coherence tomography (OCT) based automated fluid-inspection (AFI) methodology was introduced to demarcate and enumerate the defects in industrial liquid resins and the final product (LCD smartphone). The accuracy of the method was enhanced by implementing an intensity-detection algorithm. Subsequently, the optimal solidification rates of liquid resins were investigated using a fluorescence sensor-based ultraviolet hardening method to prevent the formation of defects between the internal layers of the LCD panel. Therefore, AFI can be implemented as an effective and cost-saving method in the smartphone industry for improving the quality of the final product.

  11. Effect of microwave irradiation and water storage on the viscoelastic properties of denture base and reline acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Carlos Eduardo Leão; Canevarolo, Sebastião Vicente; Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Machado, Ana Lucia; Pavarina, Ana Claudia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of microwave irradiation and water storage on the viscoelastic properties of two denture base resins (Lucitone 550-L and Vipi Wave-VW) and two reline resins (Kooliner-K and Tokuyama Rebase Fast II-TR II). Eight specimens (40×10×3.3 mm) of each material were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) after processing, water storage for 7 days (WS), one (MW1) and 7 cycles of microwave irradiation (MW7). For each specimen, DMTA runs were carried out within different temperature intervals. Values of storage modulus (E(')) and loss tangent (tan δ) at 37 °C were obtained from the first and last runs. From the last run, values of E(') at the glass transition temperature (Tg) and maximum tan δ were also recorded. Data were analyzed by a 2-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test (α=0.05). Measurements of the inside temperature of each specimen during microwave irradiation (650 W/3 min) were conducted using a fiber optic temperature sensor. Six specimens of each material were evaluated. During microwave irradiation, all specimens reached the boiling temperature of water at approximately 130 s. From the first DMTA run, MW1 and WS significantly increased the E(') and decreased the tan δ of K at 37 °C (PV W>TR II>K (Pproperties of the denture base and reline resins evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different bonding procedures on micro-tensile bond strength between a fiber post and resin-based luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-jie; Raffaelli, Ornella; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Ji-hua; Ferrari, Marco

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization and light-irradiation on bonding between a fiber post and different resin-based luting agents. Sixty silicium fiber posts (Easy Post) were divided into 10 groups according to the type of resin-based luting agent employed, whether the post surface was silanized, whether the adhesive was light-irradiated, and whether Calibra luting agent was used. The micro-tensile bond strength and bonded interface of specimens in each group were evaluated. Specimens luted with Calibra or FluoroCore 2 resin-based luting agent systems were superior to those treated with Multilink or Variolink II, in terms of both bond strength and interfacial integrity. Application of silane, light-irradiation of the adhesive, or light-irradiation of the Calibra resin-based luting agent did not significantly increase the bond strength further. It can be concluded that Calibra or FluoroCore 2 resin-based luting agent systems are more suitable for luting prefabricated Easy Post in a clinical situation, while pre-silanization of the post surface and light-irradiation of XP Bond/SCA adhesive or resin-based luting agent may not be as important as hitherto considered.

  13. Effect of Adhesion Between Submicron Filler Particles and a Polymeric Matrix on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Resin-Based Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, O. Yu.; Biktagirova, I. R.; Danilaev, M. P.; Klabukov, M. A.; Polsky, Yu. E.; Pillai, Saju; Tsentsevitsky, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of composites based on an ED-20 epoxy resin, modified with ZnO and ZnO particles untreated or encapsulated in polystyrene, were studied. It is shown that the introduction of polystyrene-encapsulated ZnO submicroparticles into the epoxy resin changed its supramolecular structure in comparison with that of the resin filled with untreated ones. It was established that the presence of shell on the filler particles affected the mechanical properties of the polymer composites — their hardness increased by 22.5% and elastic modulus by 13%.

  14. A comparative evaluation of impact strength of conventionally heat cured and high impact heat cured polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, R; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Reddy, Sashi Deepth; Purna, C R Sashi; Shekar, M Chandra; Balasubramanyam, S

    2013-11-01

    The denture bases made by using polymethyl methacrylates of Acrylic resin family have excellent physical properties, simple to process and easy to reline, rebase and repair. One of the inherent disadvantages of this material is the liability to break during function. The strength assessment of acrylic resins have been made generally by transverse defection tests. To evaluate the impact strength valves of certain brands of commercially available denture base resins and suggest their suitability. The denture bases we made using polymethyl methacrylates of acrylic resin family because they have excellent physical properties, simple to process and easy to reline and rebase. Six commercial brands of polymethyl meth- acrylate, namely Stellon (DPI-India), Acralyn-H (Asian Acrylate, India), Trevalon (Dentsply-England), Lucitone 199 (Dentsply/ York division), Acralyn-H (Super Unbreakable), Trevalon HI (Dentsply, Detray division, England) were tested by breaking them using Analog Pendulum (ASTM D 256). From the entire study the maximum impact strength was reported for Acralyn-H super unbreakable (Asian Acrylates, India) 62.19 joules. All the analysis led to conclusion that there is basic change in material composition within and among the different groups of denture base resins. The complete dentures made using denture base resins with high impact strength valves (e.g. Acralyn-H super unbreakable) will be more durable and can be used by the patient for considerable period of time, i.e. beyond 4 to 5 years.

  15. Comparison of cytotoxicity test models for evaluating resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S M; Yap, Auj; Loo, Csl; Ng, J; Goh, C Y; Hong, Chl; Toh, W S

    2017-04-01

    This study compared different cytotoxicity test models for evaluating resin-based composites (RBCs) and assessed the biocompatibility of standard and bulk-fill RBCs. A standard (spectrum TPH) and a bulk-fill (smart dentin replacement (SDR)) RBC were selected. Disc-shaped specimens (7 mm diameter) of 2 and 4 mm thickness were polymerized for 20 s with a LED curing light of 700 mW/cm 2 irradiance. The specimens ( n = 5) were subjected to micro-hardness testing and three cytotoxicity test models (direct contact, indirect contact and extract tests) with the established L-929 cell line. Hardness ratios of top and bottom surfaces of specimens were computed to assess the effectiveness of cure. For the direct and indirect contact tests, the cells were stained and zones of inhibition were analyzed after material contact for 24 h. For the extract test, cells were exposed to extracts for 24 h, and cell viability was measured. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance/Scheffe's post hoc test and Pearson's correlation ( p cytotoxicity were observed for TPH at 4 mm. At 4-mm thickness, SDR was found to be biocompatible with all three models. Correlations between hardness ratio and cell viability ranged from r = 0.89-0.96 for the various tests. A significant correlation ( r = 0.97) was also observed between the three test models. Our data indicated consistency between direct contact, indirect contact and extract test models for cytotoxicity testing of RBCs. Bulk placement and curing at 4 mm for the bulk-fill RBC evaluated did not result in undue cytotoxicity.

  16. Ceramic strengthening by tuning the elastic moduli of resin-based luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spazzin, Aloísio O; Bacchi, Ataís; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Santos, Mateus B; Basso, Gabriela R; Griggs, Jason; Moraes, Rafael R

    2017-03-01

    Resin-based luting agents (RBLAs) with tuned elastic moduli (E) were prepared and their influence on the strengthening, reliability, and mode of failure of luted feldspar ceramic was investigated. RBLAs with low E (2.6GPa), intermediate E (6.6GPa), and high E (13.3GPa) were prepared and used to coat acid-etched ceramic disks. Positive (untreated ceramic) and negative (acid-etched ceramic) control groups were tested. The response variables (n=30) were biaxial flexural strength (σ bf , MPa), characteristic strength (σ 0 , MPa), and Weibull modulus at the ceramic surface (z=0) and luting agent surface (z=-t 2 ). A 3D finite element analysis simulated the biaxial flexural test. Fractographic analysis and morphology of the bonded interfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The RBLAs improved σ bf and σ 0 at z=0, particularly those with intermediate and high E, whereas the mechanical reliability was only affected in the negative control. At z=-t 2 , differences between all RBLAs were observed but the structural reliability was independent of the RBLA tested. Increasing E of the RBLA was associated with increased stress concentration at the RBLA and reduced stresses reaching the ceramic. Failures originated on the ceramic surface at the ceramic-cement interface. In the high E group, failure sometimes originated from the RBLA free surface. All RBLAs completely filled the ceramic irregularities. Increased E of the RBLA reduced the variability of strength, the stress reaching the ceramic structure, and sometimes altered the origin of failure. The use of high E RBLAs seems beneficial for luting feldspar ceramics. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel polishing technology for epoxy resin based on 355 nm UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xinling; Tao, Luqi; Liu, Zhaolin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling

    2017-06-01

    The electromagnetic shielding film has drawn much attention due to its wide applications in the integrated circuit package, which demands a high surface quality of epoxy resin. However, gaseous Cu will splash and adhere to epoxy resin surface when the Cu layer in PCB receives enough energy in the process of laser cutting, which has a negative effect on the quality of the shielding film. Laser polishing technology can solve this problem and it can effectively improve the quality of epoxy resin surface. The paper studies the mechanism of Cu powder spraying on the compound surface by 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, including the parameters of laser polishing process and the remains of Cu content on compound surface. The results show that minimal Cu content can be realized with a scanning speed of 700 mm/s, a laser frequency of 50 kHz and the distance between laser focus and product top surface of -1.3 mm. This result is important to obtain an epoxy resin surface with high quality. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61574083, 61434001), the National Basic Research Program (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002), the Special Fund for Agroscientic Research in the Public Interest of China (No 201303107), the support of the Independent Research Program of Tsinghua University (No. 2014Z01006), and Advanced Sensor and Integrated System Lab of Tsinghua University Graduate School at Shenzhen (No. ZDSYS20140509172959969).

  18. Resins and additives for powder coatings and alkyd paints, based on renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to limited fossil resources and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feedstocks in the paint and coatings area will increase in the decades to come. This paper highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins

  19. The effect of bioburden on in-depth disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, T R; Guillory, V L; Gregoire, S T; Pimsler, M; Mitchell, M S

    1998-11-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of three different disinfectant solutions against denture bioburden absorbed within the depth of acrylic resin. Specimens were taken from dentures that had been worn by the patients for 15 to 20 years and were scheduled for replacement.

  20. Comparative effect of different polymerization techniques on residual monomer and hardness properties of PMMA-based denture resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Durkan, Rukiye; Koroglu, Ayşegul; Bagis, Bora

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to compare the residual monomer and microhardness of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based denture resins processed by using autoclave and conventional water bath techniques. To determine the amount of residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, disk-shaped specimens (n=5) were prepared from 3 different acrylic resins (Meliodent, Paladent and Qc-20). Control groups were polymerized in water bath for 30 minutes at 100°C. The study groups were prepared in an autoclave device for 60°C/30 min followed 130°C/10 min and the other group for 60°C/30 min followed by 130°C/20 min. According to standard calibration curves, ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 230 nm was used to determine the residual monomer. For the Vickers hardness measurements, disk-shaped specimens (n=5) were prepared for each test group. Hardness measurements were performed with a Vickers hardness tester under a 4.91-N press load for a 30 seconds, after immersion in distilled water at 37ºC for 48 hours. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (phardness for all resin groups (p0.05). The autoclave polymerization technique exhibited significantly lower residual monomer content and greater hardness than conventional heat polymerization.

  1. Influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emel; Tuncer, Duygu; Firat, Esra; Ozdemir, Oguz Suleyman; Karahan, Sevilay

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins. Three different composite resins (Filtek Silorane, Filtek P60, Filtek Supreme XT) were tested. Thirty cylindrical specimens (10 × 2 mm) per material were prepared and polished with a series of aluminum-oxide polishing disks. Each group was then randomly subdivided into three groups according to the test beverages: distilled water (control), cola and coffee. The samples were immersed into different beverages for 15 days. Color, surface roughness and microhardness values were measured by a spectrophotometer, prophylometer and Vickers hardness device respectively, at baseline and after 15 days. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Immersion in coffee resulted in a significant discoloration for all the composites tested, although the color change was lower in Filtek Silorane than that of MBCs (p composites tested showed similar surface roughness changes after immersion in different beverages (p > 0.05). Besides coffee caused more roughness change than others. Immersion in coffee caused highest microhardness change in Filtek Supreme XT (p resin composites, depending on the characteristics of the materials.

  2. Effect of repeated disinfections by microwave energy on the physical and mechanical properties of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Azevedo, Douglas Duenhas de; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Mendes, Wilson Batista; Saquy, Paulo César

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of repeated simulated microwave disinfection on physical and mechanical properties of Clássico, Onda-Cryl and QC-20 denture base acrylic resins. Aluminum patterns were included in metallic or plastic flasks with dental stone following the traditional packing method. The powder/liquid mixing ratio was established according to the manufacturer's instructions. After water-bath polymerization at 74 degrees C for 9 h, boiling water for 20 min or microwave energy at 900 W for 10 min, the specimens were deflasked after flask cooling and finished. Each specimen was immersed in 150 mL of distilled water and underwent 5 disinfection cycles in a microwave oven set at 650 W for 3 min. Non-disinfected and disinfected specimens were subjected to the following tets: Knoop hardness test was performed with 25 g load for 10 s, impact strength test was done using the Charpy system with 40 kpcm, and 3-point bending test (flexural strength) was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha= 0.05%). Repeated simulated microwave disinfections decreased the Knoop hardness of Clássico and Onda-Cryl resins and had no effect on the impact strength of QC-20. The flexural strength was similar for all tested resins.

  3. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus; Diepgen, Thomas; Elsner, Peter; Goossens, An; Goh, Chee-Leok; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard; Matsunaga, Kayoko; McFadden, John; Nixon, Rosemary; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2 in an international population and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. Thirteen centers representing the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 into their patch test baseline series during a period of 6 months in 2012. Of 2259 patients tested, 28 (1.2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.2%) merits its inclusion into the international baseline series and possibly also into other baseline series after appropriate investigations. Significantly, overrepresented simultaneous allergic reactions were noted for M. pereirae and fragrance mix I.

  4. Hardness and surface roughness of enamel and base layers of resin denture teeth after long-term repeated chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Kurokawa, Luciana Ayumi; Procópio, Andréa Lemos Falcão; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Hotta, Juliana; Mello Lima, Jozely Francisca; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of successive cycles of disinfection in different denture cleansers on the surface roughness and the Vickers hardness of two layers of acrylic resin (base-BL and enamel-EL) of two commercial cross-linked artificial teeth. The occlusal surfaces of 60 acrylic resin denture posterior teeth (Trilux-TLX and SR Orthosit PE-SRO) embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin were ground fat with 1200-grit silicon carbide paper. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C and then submitted to the microhardness (VHN) and roughness (μm) tests. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 90 days and submitted to 720 disinfection cycles in sodium hypochlorite at 0.5%, 30% vinegar solution or distilled water (control). Afterward, micro-hardness and roughness tests were again performed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Hypochlorite immersion decreased the hardness of BL and EL of SRO teeth, with an average reduction of 10.11% (p0.37). Hypochlorite promoted deleterious effects on the hardness of both layers of the artificial teeth tested. Immersion in vinegar and water also resulted in reduction of hardness of TLX teeth. The surface hardness of the different layers of cross-linked artificial teeth can be altered by daily disinfection in denture cleansers commonly indicated for removable dentures.

  5. Novel spirocyclic phosphazene-based epoxy resin for halogen-free fire resistance: synthesis, curing behaviors, and flammability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dezhen

    2012-08-01

    A novel halogen-free fire resistant epoxy resin with pendent spiro-cyclotriphosphazene groups was designed and synthesized via a three-step synthetic pathway. The chemical structures and compositions of spiro-cyclotriphosphazene precursors and final product were confirmed by (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal curing behaviors of the synthesized epoxy resin with 4,4'-diamino-diphenylmethane, 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, and novolac as hardeners were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the curing kinetics were also studied under a nonisothermal condition. The evaluation of the thermal properties demonstrated that these thermosets achieved a good thermal resistance due to their high glass transition temperatures more than 150 °C, and also gained high thermal stabilities with high char yields. The flammability characteristics of the spirocyclic phosphazene-based epoxy thermosets cured with these three hardeners were investigated on the basis of the results obtained from the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 vertical burning experiments as well as the analysis of the residual chars collected from the vertical burning tests. The high LOI values and UL-94 V-0 classification of these epoxy thermosets indicated that the incorporation of phosphazene rings into the backbone chain imparts nonflammability to the epoxy resin owing to the unique combination of phosphorus and nitrogen following by a synergistic effect on flame retardancy. The epoxy resin obtained in this study is a green functional polymer and will become a potential candidate for fire- and heat-resistant applications in electronic and microelectronic fields with more safety and excellent performance.

  6. The Effect of Heating Time and Temperature on Epoxy Resin and Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmeh, Amre R; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2017-12-01

    With the growing use of warm obturation techniques during endodontic treatment, more interest is directed toward sealers' compatibility with heat. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat application duration and temperature on epoxy resin- and calcium silicate-based sealers using chemical and thermogravimetric analyses. Freshly mixed samples (n = 5/group) of each sealer were heated at 200°C or 250°C for 30 or 60 seconds. Additional 2 sets of samples were examined directly after mixing or after setting without heat exposure. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify changes in the chemical structure, and a 2-way analysis of variance was performed to compare values of measurable peaks that exhibited changes. Additionally, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the effect of heat on mass change where sealers were heated to 250°C at a rate of 20°C/min (11-minute duration) or maintained at 37°C for 8 hours. No differences were detected among all the spectra of calcium silicate samples of different groups, while TGA revealed 15% and 18% weight loss upon heating at 250°C and 37°C, respectively. For the resin sealer, significant differences were detected when samples were heated for 60 seconds, involving bonds of benzene rings and aromatic amines in the uncured resin. TGA revealed minimal changes in the sealer mass (1.2% and 1.8%) on heating at 250°C and 37°C, respectively. Heat application duration and temperature can affect the chemical structure of epoxy resin sealers. The consideration of endodontic sealer compatibility as well as the duration of heat application is essential when warm vertical obturation is used. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of three resin-based materials for treating uranium-contaminated groundwater within a PRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Catherine S.; Stewart, Douglas I.; Morris, Katherine; Bryant, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Three materials that are designed to treat uranium-contaminated water were investigated. These are a cation exchange resin, IRN 77; an anion exchange resin, Varion AP; and a recently developed material called PANSIL (quartz sand coated with 2% amidoxime resin by weight). The reaction rate, capacity, and effective pH range of the three materials are reported. The capacity and conditional distribution coefficient in neutral, uranyl-contaminated synthetic groundwater containing carbonate are also reported. The suitability of each material for treating uranium-contaminated groundwater using a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) approach is then discussed. All three materials react rapidly in the pH range 5-7, reaching equilibrium in less than 4 h at ∼23 deg. C. The unconditioned cation exchange resin removed 8 g UO 2 2+ per kg of resin from neutral synthetic groundwater containing 30 mg/l of UO 2 2+ , but a lower capacity is anticipated in groundwater with either higher ionic strength or lower UO 2 2+ concentrations. It operates by first acidifying the solution, then sorbing UO 2 2+ , and can release UO 2 2+ when its buffering capacity has been exhausted. The anion exchange resin is very effective at removing anionic uranyl carbonate species from solutions with a pH above 5, with good specificity. Up to 50 g/kg of uranium is removed from contaminated groundwater at neutral pH. PANSIL is effective at sequestering cationic and neutral uranyl species from solutions in the pH range 4.5-7.5, with very good specificity. The capacity of PANSIL is pH-dependent, increasing from about 0.4 g/kg at pH 4.5, to about 1 g/kg at pH 6, and 1.5 g/kg around pH 7.5. In neutral groundwater containing carbonate, both the anion exchange resin and PANSIL exhibit conditional distribution coefficients exceeding 1470 ml/g, which is about an order of magnitude higher than comparable reactive barrier materials reported in the literature

  8. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  9. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Nurulhuda Mohd Yunus; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  10. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  11. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  12. Microtensile bond strength of different acrylic teeth to high-impact denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebeck, Amanda C; Monaco, Edward A; Pusateri, Christopher R; Davis, Elaine L

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of denture base acrylic, denture tooth composition, and ridge-lap surface treatment on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of three commercially available denture teeth and two injection denture processing systems. Sixteen experimental groups were formed (n = 3), according to denture tooth surface treatment (no treatment or surface treatment recommended by the manufacturer), denture base processing technique and acrylic (SR-Ivocap-Ivocap Plus or Success-Lucitone 199), and tooth type-composition at bonding interface (BlueLine DCL-PMMA, Portrait IPN-PMMA, Phonares II-PMMA, Phonares II-NHC). Rectangular bar specimens with a 1 mm(2) cross sectional area were fabricated and subsequently thermocycled at 10,000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C with a 15-second dwell time. Select specimens underwent μTBS testing in a universal testing machine with a 1 kN load cell at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed statistically by two and three-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (α = 0.05). Mean μTBS ranged between 56.2 ± 5.6 and 60.8 ± 5.0 N/mm(2) for the Ivocap Plus specimens and 13.3 ± 5.12 to 60.1 ± 6.0 N/mm(2) for the Lucitone 199 specimens. Among the Ivocap specimens, BlueLine DCL and Phonares II NHC had significantly higher μTBS than Portrait IPN to Ivocap Plus acrylic. There were no statistically significant differences among Blueline, Phonares II PMMA, and Phonares II NHC, or between Phonares II PMMA and Portrait IPN. Within the Luctione 199 specimens, there was a significantly higher μTBS for BlueLine DCL and Phonares II NHC denture teeth with the manufacturer-recommended surface treatment when compared to control surface. BlueLine, Portrait, and Phonares II PMMA groups achieved significantly higher mean μTBS than the Phonares II NHC group. There were no statistically significant differences among BlueLine, Portrait, and Phonares II PMMA groups. When evaluating the μTBS of PMMA and NHC denture teeth to base resins, a

  13. Sifat fisik hidroksiapatit sintesis kalsit sebagai bahan pengisi pada sealer saluran akar resin epoxy (Physical properties of calcite synthesized hydroxyapatite as the filler of epoxy-resin-based root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The filler addition to resin based sealers will enhance the physical properties of the polymer. Because of its biological properties, the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA has been proposed as filler for dental material such as composite resin. The calcite synthesized HA is the HA produced of calcite minerals that came from many Indonesian mining. Purpose: The aim of study was to determine the effect of different concentration of calcite synthesized HA as the filler of the epoxy-resin-based root canal sealer on the physical properties such as its contact angle, the film thickness and the microhardness. Methods: The crystal of the calcite synthesized hydroxyapatite with the size between 77.721-88.710 nm and the ratio of Ca/P 1.6886 were synthesized at Ceramic Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, using wet method of hydrothermal microwave. The powders of the epoxy- resin were prepared by added the synthesized hydroxyapatite crystal in 5 different weight ratios (e.g.: HA-10%, HA-20%, HA-30%, HA-40% and HA-50%. Each of these was mixed with the paste of 3:1 ratio using spatula on a glass plate until homogen and then measuring the contact angle and the film thickness. Microhardness test was conducted after the mixture of experimental sealer was stored for 24 hrs at 37 oC to reach perfect polymerization. Results: All of contact angles were <90o and were not significantly different to each other (p= 0.510. All groups had a film thickness in accordance with ISO 6876 (<50 um and with no statistical difference (p= 0.858. In the HA of 10%, 20%, 30% seen that the microhardness were increased, while in the HA-50% was decreased and in the HA-40% has the same microhardness to the control groups (HA-0%. Conclusion: Calcite synthesized HA as the filler did not affect contact angle and film thickness of the sealer. Microhardness of the epoxy-resin based sealer could be increased using maximum 30% of the calcite synthesized HA as the filler.Latar belakang

  14. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of a peracetic acid-based disinfectant for decontamination of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, Ana Lúcia Campani; Poisl, Maria Inês Pereira; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a peracetic acid-based disinfectant for decontamination of heat-polymerized, chemically activated and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins. Resin plates were contaminated in vivo upon intraoral use by 10 volunteers for 7 nights and slabs were contaminated in vitro by contact with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus. The contaminated acrylic resin specimens were immersed in a 0.2% peracetic acid-based disinfectant (Sterilife; Lifemed) for 5 min or 10 min and placed in a BHI culture medium. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 48 h, bacterial growth was assessed by analyzing turbidity of the medium. For all types of acrylic resin, no turbidity of the medium was observed for any of the resin specimens immersed in the peracetic acid-based disinfectant for either 5 or 10 min. On the other hand, the media with specimens that were not immersed in the disinfectant (control) showed turbidity in 100% of the cases, indicating the presence of microorganisms in both tested conditions. In conclusion, immersion for at least 5 min in a 0.2% peracetic acid-based disinfectant promoted high-level disinfection of heat-polymerized, chemically activated and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins contaminated with either human saliva or Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus stearothermophilus.

  15. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO 3 or NH 4 NO 3 solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet

  16. Perubahan warna lempeng resin akrilik yang direndam dalam larutan desinfektan sodium hipoklorit dan klorhexidin (The color changes of acrylic resins denture base material which are immersed in Sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David David

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the acrylic resins properties is the water absorption including color fluids and chemically fluids that affect on the color changes of the acrylic resins. This laboratory experiments studied sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine effect on the color changes of acrylic denture base resins material. The study was conducted by immersing heat cured acrylic plate samples of 26 mm of diameter and 0.4 mm of thickness in sodium hypochlorite for 10; 70 and 140 minutes and chlorhexidine for 15; 105 and 210 minutes. Seven samples were used for each experiment. An optical spectrometer BPX-47 type photo cell and a digital microvoltage were used for the color changes observation. The statistical test used were t-test, One-way ANOVA and LSD with 0.05 significance degree level. The results of the studied showed that the color of acrylic resins denture base plate changed after immersion in sodium hypochlorite for 70 and 140 minutes and chlorhexidine for 105 and 210 minute of immersion.

  17. The effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Izham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture base is a protesa which replace some or all of the lost original teeth and surrounding tissues. The Pupose of making protesa is for restore the function, appearance, comfort and impaired health result lost teeth. One part of the denture base is base plate. Microorganisms are often found in the oral cavity is Candida albicans (C.albicans approximately 40% in the oral cavity.C.albicans can penetrate the acrylic resin that can infect the soft tissue and is the cause of denture stomatitis therefore the disinfection of denture base is a important factor that must be done. In general betel leaves contant up to 4.2% essential oil compounds and phenyl propanoid and tannin. These compounds is a antimicroba and antifungal which can inhibit the growth of several type of bacteria among others Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aurens, Klebstella, Pasteurella and can turn off the C.albicans. The purpose of the research is to determine how the effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth C.albicans.Type of research is an experimental laboratory with a longitudinal design (follow-up study. The sampling method used is total sampling. The results showed that the number of C.albicans colonies n denture base acrylic resin which soaked betel leaf extract solution that the dilution 10-1  with consentration 2.5% total colony count is 2 and the results 2.0 x 101 CFU/ml, on a control solution that the dilution 10-2 total colony 355 and the result 3.55 x 104 CFU/ml, that the dilution  10-3 total colony 62 and the result 6.2 x 104 CFU/ml.

  18. <strong>A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementationsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Reveillere, Laurent; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    -specific language, Zebu, for generating robust and efficient message processing layers. A Zebu specification, based on the notation used in RFCs, describes protocol message formats and related processing constraints. Zebu-based applications are efficient, since message fragments can be specified to be processed...

  19. Effect of silica coating combined to a MDP-based primer on the resin bond to Y-TZP ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Liliana Gressler; Passos, Sheila Pestana; Capelli, Diana Barca; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of silica coating and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based primer applications upon the bonding durability of a MDP-based resin cement to a yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic. Ninety-six Y-TZP tabs were embedded in an acrylic resin (free surface for adhesion: 5 × 5 mm(2)), ground finished and randomly divided into four groups (N = 24) according to the ceramic surface conditioning: (1) cleaning with isopropanol (ALC); (2) ALC + phosphoric acid etching + MDP-based primer application (MDP-primer); (3) silica coating + 3-methacryloyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPS)-based coupling agent application (SiO2 + MPS-Sil); and (4) SiO2 + MDP-primer. The MDP-based resin cement was applied on the treated surface using a cylindrical mold (diameter= 3 mm). Half of the specimens from each surface conditioning were stored in distilled water (37 °C, 24 h) before testing. Another half of the specimens were stored (90 days) and thermo-cycled (12,000 x) during this period (90 d/TC) before testing. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Two factors composed the experimental design: ceramic conditioning strategy (in four levels) and storage condition (in two levels), totaling eight groups. After 90 d/TC (Tukey; p MDP-primer (24.40 MPa) promoted the highest SBS. The ALC and MDP-primer groups debonded spontaneously during 90 d/TC. Bonding values were higher and more stable in the SiO2 groups. The use of MDP-primer after silica coating increased the bond strength.

  20. Retreatability of root canals obturated using mineral trioxide aggregate-based and two resin-based sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, M A; Ekici, A; Sağıroğlu, S; Keyfiala, S; Kıvanç, B Helvacıoğlu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the retreatment time and the removal efficiency of different root canal sealers using WaveOne Gold reciproc file system by measuring required time. Forty-five mandibular premolars were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15). In Groups 1-3, the canals were filled with gutta-percha and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex, EndoREZ, and AH26, respectively. After 7 days, root canal filling materials (RCFM) were removed with WaveOne Gold reciproc files by measuring time. Teeth were grooved and sectioned longitudinally, then remaining RCFM was evaluated using digital camera. The images were transferred to image analysis software to measure the areas of remaining RCFM. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between groups according to time required for removing RCFM (P 0.05). None of the sealers evaluated in this study could completely be removed from the root canals. MTA-based sealer was removed faster than resin-based sealers.

  1. Effect of toothbrushing, chemical disinfection and thermocycling procedures on the surface microroughness of denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Andréa F; Consani, Rafael L X; Mesquita, Marcelo F; Nóbilo, Mauro A A; Henriques, Guilherme E P

    2012-06-01

    This study verified the surface microroughness of denture acrylic resins submitted to toothbrushing, chemical disinfection and thermocycling procedures. Samples were prepared according to conventional, microwaved and boiled resins and submitted to microroughness measurements before and after procedures using a profilometer (Ra). Data were subjected to anova and Tukey's test (5%). Before thermocycling, a difference was found among treatments for microwaved and boiled resins, with greater values for toothbrushing and lower values for Efferdent and hypochlorite; control was intermediate. Differences among resins were observed for treatments, with higher values for boiled resin and lower values for conventional and microwaved resins. After thermocycling, differences were found for microwaved resin, with a higher value for toothbrushing and a lower value for Efferdent and hypochlorite; control was intermediate. Tooth-brushed boiled resin presented higher values and hypochlorite lower values; control and Efferdent were intermediates. Differences among resins were seen for treatments, with higher values for boiled resin and lower values for conventional and microwaved resins. Boiled resin presented differences for toothbrushing and hypochlorite, before and after thermocycling procedures were compared. For microwaved and boiled resins, toothbrushing and chemical disinfection promoted different levels of surface microroughness when associated or not with thermocycling. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. EFFECT OF THERMOCYCLING ON THE TENSILE AND SHEAR BOND STRENGTHS OF THREE SOFT LINERS TO A DENTURE BASE RESIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Henriques, Flavio Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Statement of problem In clinical practice, loss of adhesion between the silicone-based denture liner and the denture base resin is always an undesirable event that might cause loss of material softness, water sorption, bacterial colonization and functional failure of the prosthesis. Purpose This study evaluated the effect of thermocycling on tensile and shear bond strengths of three soft liner materials to a denture base acrylic resin. Material and methods Three resilient liners (Mucopren-Soft, Mollosil-Plus and Dentusil) and a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (QC-20) were processed according to manufacturers’ directions. Sixty specimens (14 x 14 mm cross-sectional area) per bond strength test (20 for each liner) were fabricated and either stored in water at 37°C for 24 hours (control groups; n=10) or thermocycled 3,000 times in water between 5°C and 55°C (test groups; n=10). The specimens were tested in tensile and shear strength in a universal testing machine until fracture. Bond strength means were compared between water-stored and thermocycled groups for each material, as well as among materials for each treatment (water storage or thermocycling). Failure mode (adhesive, cohesive and mixed) after debonding was assessed. Data were analyzed statistically by paired Student’s t-test and ANOVA at 5% significance level. Results The water-stored groups had statistically significant higher bond strengths than the thermocycled groups (presin after thermocycling. In spite of thermocycling, though, the silicone-based liners had satisfactory bond strengths for clinical application. PMID:19089094

  3. Dentin bonding performance and ability of four MMA-based adhesive resins to prevent demineralization along the hybrid layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurrohman, Hamid; Nikaido, Toru; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Kitayama, Shuzo; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the tensile bond durability and ability of four MMA-based adhesive resins to prevent demineralization along the hybrid layer when exposed to a demineralizing solution. A PMMA rod was bonded to human dentin using one of four MMA-based adhesive systems: Super-Bond C&B (SB), SBP-40TX (SBP, experimental), M-Bond (MB), and M-Bond II (MB II). Bonded specimens were sectioned into 0.9 mm x 0.9 mm beams and subjected to microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing after water storage at 37°C for 24 h or 10,000 thermal cycles. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's t-test. Fracture mode analysis of the bonding interface was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed using the chi-square test. To disclose the demineralization inhibition potential through formation of an acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to a demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 90 min, and then 5% NaOCl for 20 min. After argon-ion etching, the interfacial ultrastructure was observed using an SEM. µTBS values without thermocycling were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among 4 adhesive resins. After thermocycling, a significant decrease in µTBS was found in MB and MB II (p 0.05). Failure modes were significantly different (p MMA-based adhesive resins. The ABRZ formation was only observed in the self-etching systems.

  4. Properties evaluation of silorane, low-shrinkage, non-flowable and flowable resin-based composites in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Maia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study tested the null hypothesis that different classes of direct restorative dental materials: silorane-based resin, low-shrinkage and conventional (non-flowable and flowable resin-based composite (RBC do not differ from each other with regard to polymerization shrinkage, depth of cure or microhardness.Methods. 140 RBC samples were fabricated and tested by one calibrated operator. Polymerization shrinkage was measured using a gas pycnometer both before and immediately after curing with 36 J/cm2 light energy density. Depth of cure was determined, using a penetrometer and the Knoop microhardness was tested from the top surface to a depth of 5 mm.Results. Considering polymerization shrinkage, the authors found significant differences (p < 0.05 between different materials: non-flowable RBCs showed lower values compared to flowable RBCs, with the silorane-based resin presenting the smallest shrinkage. The low shrinkage flowable composite performed similarly to non-flowable with significant statistical differences compared to the two other flowable RBCs. Regarding to depth of cure, low-shrinkage flowable RBC, were most effective compared to other groups. Microhardness was generally higher for the non-flowable vs. flowable RBCs (p < 0.05. However, the values for low-shrinkage flowable did not differ significantly from those of non-flowable, but were significantly higher than those of the other flowable RBCs.Clinical Significance. RBCs have undergone many modifications as they have evolved and represent the most relevant restorative materials in today’s dental practice. This study of low-shrinkage RBCs, conventional RBCs (non-flowable and flowable and silorane-based composite—by in vitro evaluation of volumetric shrinkage, depth of cure and microhardness—reveals that although filler content is an important determinant of polymerization shrinkage, it is not the only variable that affects properties of materials that were tested in

  5. Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin Denture Bases Processed by Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gharechahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of theconventional method (P=0.006. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the mold-ing technique.

  6. Effect of microwave disinfection on mechanical properties of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; Ahmed, Sabry A

    2010-10-01

    The microwave oven was used for sterilizing dentures contaminated with Candida albicans and other communicable diseases instead of disinfectant solutions. This study was carried out to evaluate the flexural properties, toughness, and impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin sterilized by microwave oven either immersed in water or non-immersed for 5 and 15 min at full power. The results indicated that the microwave oven sterilization technique resulted in reduction of the load necessary to fracture the specimens, deformation at fracture, transverse strength, modulus of elasticity except disinfection at 5 min dry condition, toughness, and impact strength. This study concluded that the microwave oven is not acceptable for sterilization of dentures because of its weakening effects on the dentures that prone for fracture during clinical use. This method of sterilization increased the brittleness of acrylic resin specimens. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tensile bond strength of silicone-based soft denture liner to two chemically different denture base resins after various surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Hakan; Tugut, Faik; Guney, Umit; Kirmali, Omer; Akar, Turker

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of various surface treatments on the tensile bond strength of a silicone-based soft denture liner to two chemically different denture base resins, heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and light-activated urethane dimethacrylate or Eclipse denture base resin. PMMA test specimens were fabricated and relined with a silicone-based soft denture liner (group AC). Eclipse test specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Before they were relined with a silicone-based soft denture liner, each received one of three surface treatments: untreated (control, group EC), Eclipse bonding agent applied (group EB), and laser-irradiated (group EL). Tensile bond strength tests (crosshead speed = 5 mm/min) were performed for all specimens, and the results were analyzed using the analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p = 0.05). Eclipse denture base and PMMA resins presented similar bond strengths to the silicone-based soft denture liner. The highest mean force was observed in group EL specimens, and the tensile bond strengths in group EL were significantly different (p < 0.05) from those in the other groups.

  8. Temperature changes under demineralized dentin during polymerization of three resin-based restorative materials using QTH and LED units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Light-curing of resin-based materials (RBMs increases the pulp chamber temperature, with detrimental effects on the vital pulp. This in vitro study compared the temperature rise under demineralized human tooth dentin during light-curing and the degrees of conversion (DCs of three different RBMs using quartz tungsten halogen (QTH and light-emitting diode (LED units (LCUs. Materials and Methods Demineralized and non-demineralized dentin disks were prepared from 120 extracted human mandibular molars. The temperature rise under the dentin disks (n = 12 during the light-curing of three RBMs, i.e. an Ormocer-based composite resin (Ceram. X, Dentsply DeTrey, a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE, and a giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu GmbH, was measured with a K-type thermocouple wire. The DCs of the materials were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results The temperature rise under the demineralized dentin disks was higher than that under the non-demineralized dentin disks during the polymerization of all restorative materials (p 0.05. Conclusions Although there were no significant differences in the DCs, the temperature rise under demineralized dentin disks for the silorane-based composite was higher than that for dimethacrylate-based restorative materials, particularly with QTH LCU.

  9. Temperature changes under demineralized dentin during polymerization of three resin-based restorative materials using QTH and LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavinasab, Sayed-Mostafa; Khoroushi, Maryam; Moharreri, Mohammadreza; Atai, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    Light-curing of resin-based materials (RBMs) increases the pulp chamber temperature, with detrimental effects on the vital pulp. This in vitro study compared the temperature rise under demineralized human tooth dentin during light-curing and the degrees of conversion (DCs) of three different RBMs using quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units (LCUs). Demineralized and non-demineralized dentin disks were prepared from 120 extracted human mandibular molars. The temperature rise under the dentin disks (n = 12) during the light-curing of three RBMs, i.e. an Ormocer-based composite resin (Ceram. X, Dentsply DeTrey), a low-shrinkage silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE), and a giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu GmbH), was measured with a K-type thermocouple wire. The DCs of the materials were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The temperature rise under the demineralized dentin disks was higher than that under the non-demineralized dentin disks during the polymerization of all restorative materials (p 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in the DCs, the temperature rise under demineralized dentin disks for the silorane-based composite was higher than that for dimethacrylate-based restorative materials, particularly with QTH LCU.

  10. Do water based resins find their use in radiation cure applications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravijst, J.-P.

    1995-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for UV/EB formulation without monomers. Water dilutable oligomers offer one approach to formulations of this type. Several ways to use water as a primary means of reducing oligomer viscosities are reviewed. A number of new water dilutable acrylate resins were prepared having different functionalities and properties. Depending on the structure, viscosity decreases significantly by adding water. Good reactivity, solvent and water resistance were achieved after curing

  11. Effect of thermocycling on the tensile and shear bond strengths of three soft liners to a denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Henriques, Flavio Queiroz

    2007-02-01

    In clinical practice, loss of adhesion between the silicone-based denture liner and the denture base resin is always an undesirable event that might cause loss of material softness, water sorption, bacterial colonization and functional failure of the prosthesis. This study evaluated the effect of thermocycling on tensile and shear bond strengths of three soft liner materials to a denture base acrylic resin. Three resilient liners (Mucopren-Soft, Mollosil-Plus and Dentusil) and a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (QC-20) were processed according to manufacturers' directions. Sixty specimens (14 x 14 mm cross-sectional area) per bond strength test (20 for each liner) were fabricated and either stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours (control groups; n=10) or thermocycled 3,000 times in water between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C (test groups; n=10). The specimens were tested in tensile and shear strength in a universal testing machine until fracture. Bond strength means were compared between water-stored and thermocycled groups for each material, as well as among materials for each treatment (water storage or thermocycling). Failure mode (adhesive, cohesive and mixed) after debonding was assessed. Data were analyzed statistically by paired Student's t-test and ANOVA at 5% significance level. The water-stored groups had statistically significant higher bond strengths than the thermocycled groups (p<0.05). Without thermocycling, Mucopren-Soft (2.83 +/- 0.48 MPa) had higher bond strength than Mollosil-Plus (1.04 +/- 0.26 MPa) and Dentusil (1.14 +/- 0.51 MPa). After thermocycling, Mucopren-Soft (1.63 +/- 0.48 MPa) had the highest bond strength (p<0.05). The bond strength of the three soft denture liners tested in this study changed with their chemical composition and all of them exhibited higher bond strengths than those usually reported as clinically acceptable. All soft lining materials tested in this study showed a significant decrease in the bond strength to an

  12. Effect of thermocycling on the tensile and shear bond strengths of three soft liners to a denture base resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Nelson Elias

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: In clinical practice, loss of adhesion between the silicone-based denture liner and the denture base resin is always an undesirable event that might cause loss of material softness, water sorption, bacterial colonization and functional failure of the prosthesis. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of thermocycling on tensile and shear bond strengths of three soft liner materials to a denture base acrylic resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three resilient liners (Mucopren-Soft, Mollosil-Plus and Dentusil and a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (QC-20 were processed according to manufacturers' directions. Sixty specimens (14 x 14 mm cross-sectional area per bond strength test (20 for each liner were fabricated and either stored in water at 37ºC for 24 hours (control groups; n=10 or thermocycled 3,000 times in water between 5ºC and 55ºC (test groups; n=10. The specimens were tested in tensile and shear strength in a universal testing machine until fracture. Bond strength means were compared between water-stored and thermocycled groups for each material, as well as among materials for each treatment (water storage or thermocycling. Failure mode (adhesive, cohesive and mixed after debonding was assessed. Data were analyzed statistically by paired Student's t-test and ANOVA at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The water-stored groups had statistically significant higher bond strengths than the thermocycled groups (p<0.05. Without thermocycling, Mucopren-Soft (2.83 ± 0.48 MPa had higher bond strength than Mollosil-Plus (1.04 ± 0.26 MPa and Dentusil (1.14 ± 0.51 MPa. After thermocycling, Mucopren-Soft (1.63 ± 0.48 MPa had the highest bond strength (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The bond strength of the three soft denture liners tested in this study changed with their chemical composition and all of them exhibited higher bond strengths than those usually reported as clinically acceptable. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: All soft lining materials

  13. Shrinkage stress kinetics of Bulk Fill resin-based composites at tooth temperature and long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliecharan, David; Germscheid, William; Price, Richard B; Stansbury, Jeffrey; Labrie, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    To determine the shrinkage stress kinetics at up to 12h after light exposure and at tooth temperature during placement of selected Bulk Fill resin-based composites (RBCs). Five representative Bulk Fill RBCs from four companies were chosen with a wide range of viscosity and filler volume content. The shrinkage stress kinetics at T=33°C was measured continuously over a period of 12h using a modified tensometer with the ability to measure the cantilever beam deflection to better than 40nm accuracy at a sampling rate of up to 200 samples/s, and thermally stable resulting in a measurement accuracy better than 0.05MPa at 12h. The tensometer compliance was 0.105μm/N. A custom made heater was used to control the RBC sample temperature at T=33°C with a temperature gradient across the sample of less than 1°C. The samples were irradiated for 20s with irradiance of 1.1W/cm 2 and total energy density of 22J/cm 2 . Three samples (n=3) were used for each RBCs. The shrinkage stress at 12h for the five Bulk Fill RBCs ranged from 2.21 to 3.05MPa, maximum stress rate ((dS/dt) M ) varied from 0.18 to 0.41MPa/s, time at which the maximum stress rate occurred (t Max ) were between 1.42 to 3.24s and effective gel time (t gel ) varied from 50 to 770ms. Correlations were observed between (dS/dt) M and t Max (r=-0.946), t Max and filler volume fraction (r=-0.999), and between the shrinkage stress at 12h and t gel (r=0.994). However, no correlation was observed between the stress at 12h and filler volume fraction. The shrinkage stress for four of the five Bulk Fill RBCs were not significantly different (p<0.05) at 6h and beyond after photo-curing and that fully developed stress induced by photo-cured RBCs may only be reached at times longer than 12h. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cavity Adaptation of Water-Based Restoratives Placed as Liners under a Resin Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela B. Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the cavity adaptation of mineral trioxide (ProRoot MTA/MT, tricalcium silicate (Biodentine/BD, and glass ionomer (Equia Fil/EF cements used as liners and the interfacial integrity between those liners and a composite resin placed as the main restorative material. Materials and Methods. Standardized class I cavities (n: 8 per group were prepared in upper premolars. Cavities were lined with a 1 mm thick layer of each of the tested materials and restored with Optibond FL adhesive and Herculite Precis composite resin. Cavity adaptation of the restorations was investigated by computerized X-ray microtomography. The regions of interest (ROI were set at the cavity-liner (CL interface and the liner-resin (LR interface. The percentage void volume fraction (%VVF in the ROI was calculated. The specimens were then sectioned and the interfaces were evaluated by reflection optical microscopy, to measure the % length (%LD of the interfacial gaps. Selected samples were further evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (a=0.05. Results. MT showed significantly higher %VVF and %LD values in CL interfaces than BD and EF (p<0.05. No significant differences were found among the materials for the same values at the LR interfaces. Conclusions. When used as a composite liner, ProRoot MTA showed inferior cavity adaptation at dentin/liner interface when compared to Biodentine and Equia Fil.

  15. Shear bond strength of a denture base acrylic resin and gingiva-colored indirect composite material to zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubochi, Kei; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Yagawa, Shogo; Mori, Serina; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strengths of two gingiva-colored materials (an indirect composite material and a denture base acrylic resin) to zirconia ceramics and determine the effects of surface treatment with various priming agents. A gingiva-colored indirect composite material (CER) or denture base acrylic resin (PAL) was bonded to zirconia disks with unpriming (UP) or one of seven priming agents (n=11 each), namely, Alloy Primer (ALP), Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB+Act), Metal Link (MEL), Meta Fast Bonding Liner (MFB), MR. bond (MRB), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear bond strength was determined before and after 5000 thermocycles. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass test. The mean pre-/post-thermalcycling bond strengths were 1.0-14.1MPa/0.1-12.1MPa for the CER specimen and 0.9-30.2MPa/0.1-11.1MPa for the PAL specimen. For the CER specimen, the ALP, CPB, and CPB+Act groups had significantly higher bond strengths among the eight groups, at both 0 and 5000 thermocycles. For the PAL specimen, shear bond strength was significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. After 5000 thermocycles, bond strengths were significantly higher in the CPB and CPB+Act groups than in the other groups. For the PAL specimens, bond strengths were significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. The MDP functional monomer improved bonding of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material and denture base acrylic resin to zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, A; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, R.; Ørtengren, Ulf Thore; Niwano, Y.; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version.Published version available at http://doi.org/10.1111/eos.12173 The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar ...

  17. The effect of chemical composition and granulation of Fe - based fillers on properties of metal resinous composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecki, J.; Dasiewicz, J.; Pawelec, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors present metal-resinous composites with Fe based fillers of various element constitution and granulation. The analysis of influence of filler type on coefficient of linear thermal expansion of composite materials was performed. Friction and wear tests (composite-bronze and composite-steel pairs) were carried out. It was stated that the thinner granulation of main filler has a positive effect on coefficient of linear thermal expansion and friction/wear characteristics. The presence of copper, nickel and molybdenum in the filler is beneficial for some properties of the composite. (author)

  18. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...

  19. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance.

  20. Paucity of Nanolayering in Resin-Dentin Interfaces of MDP-based Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F; Zhou, L; Zhang, Z; Niu, L; Zhang, L; Chen, C; Zhou, J; Yang, H; Wang, X; Fu, B; Huang, C; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembled nanolayering structures have been reported in resin-dentin interfaces created by adhesives that contain 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP). These structures have been hypothesized to contribute to bond durability. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent of nanolayering in resin-dentin interfaces after application of commercialized 10-MDP-containing self-etch and universal adhesives to human dentin. Seven commercialized adhesives were examined: Adhese Universal (Ivoclar-Vivadent), All-Bond Universal (Bisco, Inc.), Clearfil SE Bond 2, Clearfil S3 Bond Plus, Clearfil Universal Bond (all from Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc.), G-Premio Bond (GC Corp.), and Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE). Each adhesive was applied in the self-etch mode on midcoronal dentin according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bonded specimens (n = 6) were covered with flowable resin composite, processed for transmission electron microscopy, and examined at 30 random sites without staining. Thin-film glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to detect the characteristic peaks exhibited by nanolayering (n = 4). The control consisted of 15%wt, 10%wt, and 5%wt 10-MDP (DM Healthcare Products, Inc.) dissolved in a mixed solvent (ethanol and water weight ratio 9:8, with photoinitiators). Experimental primers were applied to dentin for 20 s, covered with hydrophobic resin layer, and examined in the same manner. Profuse nanolayering with highly ordered periodicity (~3.7 nm wide) was observed adjacent to partially dissolved apatite crystallites in dentin treated with the 15% 10-MDP primer. Three peaks in the 2θ range of 2.40° (3.68 nm), 4.78° (1.85 nm), and 7.18° (1.23 nm) were identified from thin-film XRD. Reduction in the extent of nanolayering was observed in the 10% and 5% 10-MDP experimental primer-dentin interface along with lower intensity XRD peaks. Nanolayering and characteristic XRD peaks were rarely observed in

  1. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  2. Vortex trapping in Pb-alloy Josephson junctions induced by strong sputtering of the base electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nakano, J.; Yanagawa, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is observed that strong rf sputtering of the Pb-alloy base electrodes causes the junctions to trap magnetic vortices and thus induces Josephson current (I/sub J/) suppression. Trapping begins to occur when the rf sputtering that removes the native thermal oxide on the base electrode is carried out prior to rf plasma oxidation. Observed large I/sub J/ suppression is presumably induced by the concentration of vortices into the sputtered area upon cooling the sample below the transition temperature. This suggests a new method of the circumvention of the vortex trapping by strongly rf sputtering the areas of the electrode other than the junction areas

  3. Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based adhesives in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion properties, i. e. viscosity, tack and peel strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied using phenol formaldehyde resin as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the experiment. SBR composition in SBR/SMR L blend used was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%. Three different resin loadings, i. e. 40, 80 and 120 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr were used in the adhesive formulation. The viscosity of adhesive was determined by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength of paper/polyethylene terephthalate (PET film were measured using a Lloyd Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results indicate that the viscosity of adhesive decreases with increasing % SBR whereas loop tack passes through a maximum value at 20% SBR for all resin loadings. Except for the control sample (without resin, the peel strength shows a maximum value at 60% SBR for the three modes of peel tests. For a fixed % SBR, adhesive sample containing 40 phr phenol formaldehyde resin always exhibits the highest loop tack and peel strength, an observation which is associated to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate.

  4. Effects of the peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite on the colour stability and surface roughness of the denture base acrylic resins polymerised by microwave and water bath methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavio H C N; Orsi, Iara A; Villabona, Camilo A

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness (Ra) and color stability of acrylic resin colors (Lucitone 550, QC-20 and Vipi-Wave) used for fabricating bases for complete, removable dentures, overdentures and prosthetic protocol after immersion in chemical disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% peracetic acid) for 30 and 60 minutes. Sixty specimens were made of each commercial brand of resin composite, and divided into 2 groups according to the chemical disinfectants. Specimens had undergone the finishing and polishing procedures, the initial color and roughness measurements were taken (t=0), and after this, ten test specimens of each commercial brand of resin composite were immersed in sodium hypochlorite and ten in peracetic acid, for 30 and 60 minutes, with measurements being taken after each immersion period. These data were submitted to statistical analysis. There was evidence of an increase in Ra after 30 minutes immersion in the disinfectants in all the resins, with QC-20 presenting the highest Ra values, and Vipi-Wave the lowest. After 60 minutes immersion in the disinfectants all the resins presented statistically significant color alteration. Disinfection with 1% sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid altered the properties of roughness and color of the resins. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Effect of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles on thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin-based coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Radoman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel soy alkyd-based nanocomposites (NCs were prepared using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs surface modified with different gallates, and for the first time with imine obtained from 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oleylamine (DHBAOA. Unmodified and surface modified anatase TiO2 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the amount of adsorbed ligands was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results. Surface modification of TiO2 NPs was confirmed by FTIR and UV-Vis spectra. The influence of the TiO2 surface modification on the dispersion of TiO2 NPs in alkyd resin, thermal, barrier and mechanical properties and chemical resistance of alkyd resin/TiO2 NC coatings was investigated. The obtained results revealed that glass transition temperature of all investigated NCs is lower than for pure resin, that the presence of TiO2 NPs surface modified with gallates had no significant influence on the thermooxidative stability of alkyd resin, while TiO2-DHBAOA NPs slightly improved alkyd resin thermooxidative stability. Also, the presence of surface modified TiO2 NPs improved barrier properties, increased stress and strain at break and hardness and chemical resistance and decreased modulus of elasticity and abrasion resistance of alkyd resin.

  6. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G.; Wang, H.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis

  7. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y., E-mail: wxy@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G. [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, H.X. [ZHENGHE electronics Co., Ltd, Jining 272023 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis.

  8. Fracture resistance of premolar teeth restored with silorane-based or dimethacrylate-based composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Golsa; Ameri, Hamideh; Chasteen, Joseph E; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2014-01-01

    To restore posterior teeth using low-shrinkage composite to minimize microleakage. To compare the fracture resistance of mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparations restored with either low-shrinkage composite or with dimethacrylate-based composite in conjunction with cavity liners and without them. The null hypothesis of the study is that there are no differences in either fracture resistance or fracture mode between the silorane group and dimethacrylate groups with and without the use of cavity liners. Sixty maxillary premolars were divided into six groups of 10. MOD cavities were prepared in four groups: F: posterior composite (Filtek P60); GF: 0.5-mm Glass Ionomer (Fuji LC) + posterior composite; FF: 0.5-mm flowable composite (Filtek Supreme XT) + posterior composite; and S: low-shrinkage composite (Filtek P90). Negative (N) and positive (P) control groups consisted of unrestored and sound teeth, respectively. The specimens were thermocycled and loaded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, Tukey, and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Groups FF (1643.09 ± 187/80 N) and GF (1596.80 ± 163/93 N) (p = 0.06 > 0.05) were statistically identical, although less than group P (1742/33 ± 110/08 N), but still demonstrated greater fracture resistance than the other groups. The fracture resistance of group S (1434/69 ± 107/62 N) was identical to GF and FF (p = 0.06 > 0.05). The fracture resistance of F (1353/19 ± 233/90 N) was less than GF and FF, and statistically identical to S (p = 0.87 > 0.05). Silorane-based composite showed a resistance to fracture similar to methacrylate-based composite restorations regardless of whether cavity liners were used. The findings of this study support the selection of silorane-based composite for the restoration of maxillary premolars with standardized Class II cavity preparations in order to strengthen the resistance to fracture to the same extent as do dimethacrylate

  9. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  10. An evaluation of replacement rates for posterior resin-based composite and amalgam restorations in U.S. Navy and marine corps recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simecek, John W; Diefenderfer, Kim E; Cohen, Mark E

    2009-02-01

    Restoration replacement is a clinical concern that has not been studied among military personnel. The authors determined the prevalence of placement of posterior amalgam and resin-based composite restorations and the incidence of replacement among U.S. Navy and Marine Corps personnel. The authors analyzed dental records from 2,780 personnel to determine the relative risk of replacement for initially sound restorations during subjects' first years of military service. At the initial examination, 964 (15.2 percent) of amalgam restorations and 199 (17.4 percent) of resin-based composite restorations required re-treatment. Of those judged clinically acceptable, 14.2 percent of amalgam and 16.7 percent of resin-based composite restorations required replacement during the observation period. The authors found significant increases in replacement rates for resin-based composite restorations compared with amalgam restorations for replacement due to all causes (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; P composite restorations in place at the initial examination will require replacement than will amalgam restorations. Multi-surface restorations had higher rates of replacement than did one-surface restorations, and subjects at high caries risk experienced significantly higher replacement rates than did those at low caries risk. The number of surfaces restored and subjects' caries risk status may influence the longevity of resin-based composite and amalgam restorations.

  11. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-06-01

    The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively.

  12. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  13. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  14. Short and long term behaviour of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer laminates with bio-based resins for flexural strengthening of concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggan, Ciaran

    The use of bio-based resins in composites for construction is emerging as a way to reduce of embodied energy produced by a structural system. In this study, two types of bio-based resins were explored: an epoxidized pine oil resin blend (EP) and a furfuryl alcohol resin (FA) derived from corn cobs and sugar cane. Nine large-scale reinforced concrete beams strengthened using externally bonded carbon and glass fibre reinforced bio-based polymer (CFRP and GFRP) sheets were tested. The EP resin resulted in a comparable bond strength to conventional epoxy (E) when used in wet layup, with a 7% higher strength for CFRP. The FA resin, on the other hand, resulted in a very weak bond, likely due to concrete alkalinity affecting curing. However, when FA resin was used to produce prefabricated cured CFRP plates which were then bonded to concrete using conventional epoxy paste, it showed an excellent bond strength. The beams achieved an increase in peak load ranging from 18-54% and a 9-46% increase in yielding load, depending on the number of FRP layers and type of fibres and resin. Additionally, 137 concrete prisms with a mid-span half-depth saw cut were used to test CFRP bond durability, and 195 CFRP coupons were used to examine tensile strength durability. Specimens were conditioned in a 3.5% saline solution at 23, 40 or 50°C, for up to 240 days. Reductions in bond strength did not exceed 15%. Bond failure of EP was adhesive with traces of cement paste on CFRP, whereas that of FA was cohesive with a thicker layer of concrete on CFRP, suggesting that the bond between FA and epoxy paste is excellent. EP tension coupons had similar strength and modulus to E resin, whereas FA coupons had a 9% lower strength and 14% higher modulus. After 240 days of exposure, maximum reductions in tensile strength were 8, 19 and 10% for EP, FA and E resins, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also performed to assess the significance of the reductions observed. High degrees of

  15. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.

    2012-10-02

    Perchlorate (ClO4 -) is a persistent contaminant found in drinking groundwater sources in the United States. Ion exchange (IX) with selective and disposable resins based on cross-linked styrene divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads is currently the most commonly utilized process for removing low concentrations of ClO4 - (10-100 ppb) from contaminated drinking water sources. However, due to the low exchange capacity of perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins (∼0.5-0.8 eq/L), the overall cost becomes prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension polymerization process. Batch and column studies show that our new PEI resin with mixed hexyl/ethyl quaternary ammonium chloride exchange sites can selectively extract trace amounts of ClO4 - from a makeup groundwater (to below detection limit) in the presence of competing ions. In addition, this resin has a strong-base exchange capacity of 1.4 eq/L, which is 1.75-2.33 times larger than those of commercial perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins. The overall results of our studies suggest that branched PEI beads provide versatile and promising building blocks for the preparation of perchlorate-selective resins with high exchange capacity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. The application of the radioactive tracer technique to study the kinetics of bromide isotope exchange reaction with the participation of strongly basic anion exchange resin indion FF-IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, R. S.; Singare, P. U.; Prabhavalkar, T. S.

    2008-09-01

    In the present investigation, the 82Br radioactive isotope was used as a tracer to study the kinetics and mechanism of the exchange reaction between an ion exchange resin and an external solution of bromide ions. In an attempt to study the reversible bromide isotope exchange reaction kinetics, it was expected that whether the initial step was the exchange of radioactive bromide ions from the solution to the ion exchange resin (forward reaction) or from the ion exchange resin to the solution (reverse reaction), the two ion-isotope exchange reactions should occur simultaneously, which was further confirmed by the experimental values of specific reaction rates, 0.142 and 0.141 min-1, respectively. The results will be useful to standardize the process parameters so as to achieve optimum use of ion exchange resins in various industrial applications.

  18. Color Stability of Nanofilled and Microhybrid Resin-Based Composites following Exposure to Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosravi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine mouthrinses on color stability of nanofilled and micro-hybrid resin-based composites.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 160 disc-shaped specimens (7x2mm were fabricated of Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT Enamel (A2 shade. The samples of each group were randomly divided into eight subgroups (n=10. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva at 37˚C for 24 hours. The baseline color values (L*, a*, b* of each specimen were measured according to CIE LAB system using a reflection spectrophotometer. After baseline color measurements, the control samples were immersed in saliva and the test groups were immersed in Kin (Cosmodent, Vi-One (Rozhin, Epimax (Emad, Hexodine (Donyaye Behdasht, Chlorhexidine (Shahrdaru, Najo (Najo and Behsa (Behsa mouthrinses once a day for two minutes. The specimens were then immersed again in saliva. This process was repeated for two weeks. Color measurements were made on days seven and 14. Two-way and one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test, t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze data at a significance level of 0.05.Results: All specimens displayed color change after immersion in the mouthrinses. Significant interactions were found between the effects of materials and mouthrinses on color change.Conclusions: All composite resins tested showed acceptable color change after immersion in different mouthrinses. Filtek Z350XT showed less color change than Filtek Z250. Mouthrinses containing alcohol (Behsa and Najo and citric acid (Vi-One caused greater discoloration of composites.Keywords: Chlorhexidine; Color; Composite Resins; Mouthwashes

  19. Identity Based Strong Designated Verifier Parallel Multi-Proxy Signature Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Sunder; Verma, Vandani

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new identity based strong designated verifier parallel multi-proxy signature scheme. Multi-Proxy signatures allow the original signer to delegate his signing power to a group of proxy signers. In our scheme, the designated verifier can only validate proxy signatures created by a group of proxy signer.

  20. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  1. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on epoxy resin membrane bound cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti; Chauhan, Nidhi; Sharma, Preety; Sharma, Renu

    2012-10-01

    The use of epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of enzyme has resulted into improved sensitivity and stability of biosensors for uric acid, ascorbic acid and polyphenols. The present work was aimed to prepare an improved amperometric biosensor for determination of serum cholesterol required in the diagnostics and management of certain pathological conditions. Epoxy resin membrane with immobilized cholesterol oxidase was mounted on the cleaned platinum (Pt) electrode with a parafilm to construct a working electrode. This working electrode along with Ag/AgCl as reference and Ag wire as an auxiliary electrode were connected through a three terminal electrometer to construct a cholesterol biosensor. The sensor showed optimum response within 25 sec at pH 7.0 and 45°C. The linear working range of biosensor was 1.0 to 8.0 mM cholesterol. K m and I max for cholesterol were 5.0 mM and 9.09 μA, respectively. The biosensor measured serum cholesterol. The minimum detection limit of the sensor was 1.0 mM. The mean analytical recoveries of added cholesterol in serum (2.84 and 4.13 mM) were 91.4 ± 2.8 and 92.3 ± 3.1 per cent (n=6), respectively. Within and between assay coefficient of variation (CV) were epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of cholesterol oxidase has resulted into an improved amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The present biosensor had an advantage over the existing biosensors as it worked at comparatively lower potential.

  2. Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in resin based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Shahid Nisar; Hakeem, Saira; Alvi, Rashid Ahmed; Farooq, Khawar; Farooq, Naveed; Yasmin, Farida; Saeed, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon gas using chemical vapor deposition method. Synthesis was done at different growth temperatures and catalyst ratios. These MWCNTs were dispersed in epoxy resin (E-51) and their effect on mechanical strength of epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Increase in the mechanical strength of epoxy was observed with the addition of CNTs. The surface characterization was done by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties were determined by the general tensile strength testing method.

  3. Electrical conductive nanopolymers based on bisphenol F epoxy resin reinforced with nano polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitarafhaghighi, Vahidreza

    In this study, spherical polypyrrole (PPy) nanostructure has successfully served as nanofiller for obtaining epoxy resin polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). The effects of nanofiller loading level on mechanical properties, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, and dielectric properties were systematically studied. The dynamic storage and loss modulii were studied, together with the glass-transition temperature (Tg) being obtained from the peak of tan delta. The PPy nanofillers could increase the electrical conductivity. Finally, the real permittivity was observed to increase with increasing the PPy loading, and the enhanced permittivity was analyzed by the interfacial polarization.

  4. Influence of the base and diluent monomer on network characteristics and mechanical properties of neat resin and composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fróes-Salgado, Nívea Regina de Godoy; Gajewski, Vinícius; Ornaghi, Bárbara Pick; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia Costa; Meier, Marcia Margarete; Xavier, Tathy Aparecida; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the combination of two dimethacrylate-based monomers [bisphenol A diglycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) or bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate (BisEMA)] with diluents either derived from ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate) or 1,10-decanediol dimethacrylate (D3MA) on network characteristics and mechanical properties of neat resin and composite materials. The degree of conversion, maximum rate of polymerization and water sorption/solubility of unfilled resins and the flexural strength and microhardness of composites (after 24 h storage in water and 3 months storage in a 75 vol% ethanol aqueous solution) were evaluated. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The higher conversion and lower water sorption presented by BisEMA co-polymers resulted in greater resistance to degradation in ethanol compared with BisGMA-based materials. In general, conversion and mechanical properties were optimized with the use of long-chain dimethacrylate derivatives of ethylene glycol. D3MA rendered more hydrophobic materials, but with relatively low conversion and mechanical properties.

  5. In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudi, S. M.; Luddin, N.; Mohamad, D.; Alkashakhshir, J. J.; Adnan, R.; Ramli, R. A.

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the apical sealing ability of experimental nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-filled epoxy resin based endodontic sealer and to compare it with the commercial AH26 sealant. A total of 76 extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using NiTi files and randomly divided into two groups of 33 teeth each and two control groups of 5 teeth each. The first group was obturated using gutta-percha with AH26 sealer. The second group was obturated with the nano HA-filled epoxy resin based sealer. All teeth were coated with nail polish except 2 mm from foramen apical and then suspended in 2% methylene blue for 7 days. All teeth were sectioned longitudinally for measuring penetration of the dye using stereo-microscope (x36). The result showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in apical sealing ability between AH26 silver-free sealer and nano HA sealer.

  6. Influence of Emission Spectrum and Irradiance on Light Curing of Resin-Based Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Cak; Sullivan, B; Turbino, M L; Soares, C J; Price, R B

    This study examined the influence of different emission spectra (single-peak and broad-spectrum) light-curing units (LCUs) delivering the same radiant exposures at irradiance values of 1200 or 3600 mW/cm 2 on the polymerization and light transmission of four resin-based composites (RBCs). Two prototype LCUs that used the same light tip, but were either a single-peak blue or a broad-spectrum LED, were used to deliver the same radiant exposures to the top surfaces of the RBCs using either standard (1200 mW/cm 2 ) or high irradiance (3600 mW/cm 2 ) settings. The emission spectrum and radiant power from the LCUs were measured with a laboratory-grade integrating sphere coupled to a spectrometer, and the light beam was assessed with a beam profiler camera. Four RBCs (Filtek Supreme Ultra A2, Tetric EvoCeram A2, Tetric EvoCeram T, and TPH Spectra High Viscosity A2) were photoactivated using four different light conditions: single-peak blue/standard irradiance, single-peak blue/high irradiance, broad-spectrum/standard irradiance, and broad-spectrum/high irradiance. The degree of conversion (N=5) and microhardness at the top and bottom of 2.3-mm-diameter by 2.5-mm-thick specimens (N=5) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey tests. The real-time light transmission through the RBCs was also measured. For all light conditions, the 2.3-mm-diameter specimens received a homogeneous irradiance and spectral distribution. Although similar radiant exposures were delivered to the top surfaces of the RBCs, the amount of light energy emitted from the bottom surfaces was different among the four RBCs, and was also greater for the single-peak lights. Very little violet light (wavelengths below 420 nm) reached the bottom of the 2.5-mm-thick specimens. The degree of conversion and microhardness results varied according to the RBC (pspectrum lights, while at the bottom, where little violet light was observed, the results were equal or higher when they were photoactivated with

  7. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP.

  8. Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-16

    We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.

  9. Strong ion difference in urine: new perspectives in acid-base assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Gattinoni, L.; Carlesso, E.; Cadringher, P.; Caironi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The plasmatic strong ion difference (SID) is the difference between positively and negatively charged strong ions. At pH 7.4, temperature 37°C and partial carbon dioxide tension 40 mmHg, the ideal value of SID is 42 mEq/l. The buffer base is the sum of negatively charged weak acids ([HCO3 -], [A-], [H2PO4 -]) and its normal value is 42 mEq/l. According to the law of electroneutrality, the amount of positive and negative charges must be equal, and therefore the SID value is equal to the buffer...

  10. A method for designing strong S-Boxes based on chaotic Lorenz system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkaynak, Fatih, E-mail: ozkaynak_fatih@hotmail.co [Tunceli University, Department of Computer Engineering, Tunceli (Turkey); Ozer, Ahmet Bedri, E-mail: bedriozer@firat.edu.t [Firat University, Department of Computer Engineering, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-08-09

    It is important to design cryptographically strong S-Boxes in order to design secure systems. In this study, a strong, chaos-based S-Box design is proposed. Continuous-time Lorenz system is chosen as the chaotic system. Proposed methodology is analyzed and tested for the following criteria: Bijective property, nonlinearity, strict avalanche criterion, output bits independence criterion and equiprobable input/output XOR distribution. The results of the analysis show that the proposed cryptosystem is a highly reliable system suitable for secure communication.

  11. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES OVER MICROWAVED-CURED ACRYLIC RESINS

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, Henrique; Montagner, Francisco; Braun, Katia Olmedo; Peres, Paulo Edelvar Correa; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal action of different agents over microwave-cured acrylic resin without polishing specimens previously contaminated with Candida albicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with the yeast and stored for 3 h at 37ºC. They were divided into 5 experimental groups...

  12. Energy efficient room temperature synthesis of cardanol-based novolac resin using acoustic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Nilesh L; Sastry, Sai Krishna C; Pinjari, Dipak V

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with synthesis of cardanol-cased novolac (CBN) resin by the condensation reaction between cardanol and formaldehyde using acoustic cavitation. It is a step-growth polymerization which occurs in the presence of an acid catalyst such as adipic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. CBN was also synthesised by a conventional method for the sake of comparison of techniques. The effect of molar ratio, effect of catalyst, effect of different catalyst and effect of power on the conversion to CBN has been studied. The synthesised CBN was characterized using the Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The reaction was monitored by the Acid value, free formaldehyde content and viscosity of the synthesised product. The reaction time required for the conventionally synthesised CBN was 5 h (300 min) with 120 °C as an operating temperature while sonochemically the time reduced to 30 min at room temperature. The amount of time and energy saved can be quantified. Ultrasound facilitated synthesis was found to be an energy efficient and time-saving method for the synthesis of novolac resin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of bond strength of auto polymerizing, heat cure soft denture liners with denture base resin - An In Vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Datta, Kusum

    2010-03-01

    Optimum bond strength between denture soft liner and denture base resin is very important for the success of any denture prosthesis. The tensile bond strength of two commercially available silicone-based heat cured (Molloplast B) and auto polymerizing (Mollosil) was compared with denture base material (trevalon). Molloplast B-trevalon bond in both un-polymerized (dough stage) and already polymerized forms were also compared. Lloyds Universal testing machine was used to test 60 samples. Molloplast B bond strength was greater than Mollosil soft denture liner; it was even greater when packed against trevalon in an un-polymerized form than an already polymerized trevalon using primo adhesive. Both the soft lining materials used are acceptable for clinical usage.

  14. Low-temperature fabrication of mesoporous solid strong bases by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Lin-Bing; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Li, Ai-Guo; Lu, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Qin

    2013-10-09

    Mesoporous solid strong bases are highly promising for applications as environmentally benign catalysts in various reactions. Their preparation attracts increasing attention for the demand of sustainable chemistry. In the present study, a new strategy was designed to fabricate strong basicity on mesoporous silica by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer. A typical mesoporous silica, SBA-15, was precoated with a layer of carbon prior to the introduction of base precursor LiNO3. The carbon interlayer performs two functions by promoting the conversion of LiNO3 at low temperatures and by improving the alkali-resistant ability of siliceous host. Only a tiny amount of LiNO3 was decomposed on pristine SBA-15 at 400 °C; for the samples containing >8 wt % of carbon, however, LiNO3 can be entirely converted to strongly basic sites Li2O under the same conditions. The guest-host redox reaction was proven to be the answer for the conversion of LiNO3, which breaks the tradition of thermally induced decomposition. More importantly, the residual carbon layer can prevent the siliceous frameworks from corroding by the newly formed strongly basic species, which is different from the complete destruction of mesostructure in the absence of carbon. Therefore, materials possessing both ordered mesostructure and strong basicity were successfully fabricated, which is extremely desirable for catalysis and impossible to realize by conventional methods. We also demonstrated that the resultant mesoporous basic materials are active in heterogeneous synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and the yield of DMC can reach 32.4%, which is apparently higher than that over the catalysts without a carbon interlayer (<12.9%) despite the same lithium content. The strong basicity, in combination with the uniform mesopores, is believed to be responsible for such a high activity.

  15. Adsorption of heavy metal ions and azo dyes by crosslinked nanochelating resins based on poly(methylmethacrylate-co-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaemy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chelating resins are suitable materials for the removal of heavy metals in water treatments. A copolymer, Poly(MMA-co-MA, was synthesized by radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA and methyl methacrylate (MMA, characterized and transformed into multifunctional nanochelating resin beads (80–150 nm via hydrolysis, grafting and crosslink reactions. The resin beads were characterized by swelling studies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The main purpose of this work was to determine the adsorption capacity of the prepared resins (swelling ratio ~55% towards metal ions such as Hg2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ from water at three different pH values (3, 6 and 9. Variations in pH and types of metal ions have not significantly affected the chelation capacity of these resins. The maximum chelation capacity of one of the prepared resin beads (Co-g-AP3 for Hg2+ was 63, 85.8 and 71.14 mg/g at pH 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Approximately 96% of the metal ions could be desorbed from the resin. Adsorption capacity of these resins towards three commercial synthetic azo dyes was also investigated. The maximum adsorption of dye AY42 was 91% for the resin Co-g-AP3 at room temperature. This insures the applicability of the synthesized resins for industrial applications.

  16. Sustainable nitrate-contaminated water treatment using multi cycle ion-exchange/bioregeneration of nitrate selective resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-11-15

    The sustainability of ion-exchange treatment processes using high capacity single use resins to remove nitrate from contaminated drinking water can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin and reusing it multiple times. In this study, multi cycle loading and bioregeneration of tributylamine strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin was studied. After each cycle of exhaustion, biological regeneration of the resin was performed using a salt-tolerant, nitrate-perchlorate-reducing culture for 48 h. The resin was enclosed in a membrane to avoid direct contact of the resin with the culture. The results show that the culture was capable of regenerating the resin and allowing the resin to be used in multiple cycles. The concentrations of nitrate in the samples reached a peak in first 0.5-1h after placing the resin in medium because of desorption of nitrate from resin with desorption rate of 0.099 ± 0.003 hr(-1). After this time, since microorganisms began to degrade the nitrate in the aqueous phase, the nitrate concentration was generally non-detectable after 10h. The average of calculated specific degradation rate of nitrate was -0.015 mg NO3(-)/mg VSS h. Applying 6 cycles of resin exhaustion/regeneration shows resin can be used for 4 cycles without a loss of capacity, after 6 cycles only 6% of the capacity was lost. This is the first published research to examine the direct regeneration of a resin enclosed in a membrane, to allow reuse without any disinfection or cleaning procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical characterization and bioactivity of epoxy resin and Portland cement-based sealers with niobium and zirconium oxide radiopacifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viapiana, Raqueli; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Hungaro-Duarte, Marco Antonio; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Camilleri, Josette

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the bioactivity potential of experimental root canal sealers (ES) based on Portland cement, epoxy resin with nano- and micro-particles of niobium or zirconium oxide used as radiopacifiers in comparison to AH Plus and MTA Fillapex. Specimens of the sealers (10 mm in diameter×1 mm thick) were prepared and the radiopacity was evaluated according to ISO 6876 (2012) specifications. Characterization of the sealers was performed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after setting and after immersion for 28 days in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). In addition X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also performed. The pH and calcium ion release were measured after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after completion of seating using a digital pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The experimental sealers exhibited an average radiopacity of 2.5 mm thickness of aluminum, which was similar to MTA Fillapex (P>0.05) and inferior to AH Plus (Pepoxy resin and radiopacifier exhibited a degree of bioactivity although no evidence of cement hydration was demonstrated on material characterization. The radiopacifier particle size had limited effect on the sealer microstructure and chemical properties. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (plaser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (plaser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  19. Effect of the concentration of magnetite on the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of a polyester resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of the concentration of magnetite powders (Fe3O4 on the electrical and magnetic properties of a resin-based composite of thermoset polyester. The samples were prepared by the casting method at different concentrations: 60-40, 70-30, 80-20, 90-10 and 100-0 (% in weight, where the primary phase was resin and the secondary, Fe3O4 powders. The crystalline structure was studied using X-ray diffraction and surface characterization was carried out applying the scanning electron microscopy technique. The electrical response was measured by electric polarization curves as a function of the electric field; and the volumetric electrical resistivity, by an electrometer. The magnetic response was determined by magnetization curves as a function of temperature and intensity of the applied magnetic field. The structural analysis indicates that crystallinity increases as higher concentrations of Fe3O4 are added to the samples. The electrical characterization of the material reveals that the volumetric resistivity decreases as the content of magnetite increases. These reactions indicate an insulation-conductor transition with increasing dielectric constant values. The magnetic characterization presents a linear increase of the saturation of magnetization and magnetic moment as a function of the amount of magnetite added to the polymer matrix, whereas the coercivity shows behaviors of soft magnetic materials for T ˃ Tv and for T < Tv, where Tv represents the temperature of Verwey.

  20. Effect of an acrylic resin-based resilient liner applied to mandibular complete dentures on satisfaction ratings among edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Suguru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Atsuko, Gunji; Ogawa, Akina; Kawai, Yasuhkio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an acrylic resin-based resilient liner (ARL) could improve the satisfaction ratings of complete denture wearers. The null hypothesis was that no difference exists between the satisfaction ratings of conventional acrylic resin denture (CARD) wearers and those of ARL denture (ARLD) wearers. From April 2004 to July 2006, a randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers, including 74 edentulous patients. Of these, 37 patients were each randomly allocated to the ARLD and CARD groups. All of the patients rated their satisfaction with dentures, including general satisfaction and satisfaction with chewing ability, speaking, cleaning, stability, retention, comfort, and esthetics. These satisfaction ratings were measured by a 100-mm visual analog scale. Perceived chewing ability of different foods, divided into five grades, was measured using a questionnaire. The mastication index (MI) was calculated for each grade. General satisfaction, satisfaction with chewing, and satisfaction with speaking were significantly higher in the ARLD than in the CARD group (P = .049, .025, and .049, respectively). The chewing satisfaction with maxillary dentures in the ARLD group was significantly higher than that of the CARD group (P = .02). No significant difference existed between the MI of the ARLD (69.2 ± 17.0) and CARD groups (66.7 ± 18.7). Within its limitations, this study showed that the ARL improves a complete denture wearer's satisfaction ratings.

  1. Effectiveness of disinfectants on the adherence of Candida albicans to denture base resins with different surface textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakis, Duygu; Akay, Canan; Oncul, Burcin; Rad, Abbas Y; Dogan, Arife

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of some disinfectants, including ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), on the adhesion of Candida albicans to denture base resins. Seventy-two acrylic resin samples were prepared, half of which was polished and the other half was roughened. C. albicans strain ATCC 10231 was incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) at 37°C for 48 h. The adhesion period was completed by keeping the cells in this suspension for 90 min at 37°C. Specimens were then immersed in the following solutions: 1%, 2%, and 5% sodium hypochlorite; 4% chlorhexidine gluconate; and 10% EEP. Quantification of the antifungal activity of the chemical solutions was performed using the colorimetric MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay test. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical agents. Polished and roughened surfaces were compared using independent sample t-test. The mean surface roughness value was 0.35 (±0.04) µm for the polished group and 1.2 (±0.2) µm for the roughened group. The contact angles of both surfaces showed statistically significant difference, and 10% EEP solution exhibited significantly less removal of adherent viable C. albicans cells in both groups. All forms of sodium hypochlorite solutions yielded higher efficiency than 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and EEP solutions (P < 0.05). (J Oral Sci 58, 431-437, 2016).

  2. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n = 168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz); diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Development of a novel resin-based dental material with dual biocidal modes and sustained release of Ag+ ions based on photocurable core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiwei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Yinyan; Li, Qiang; Xing, Xiaodong; Xiao, Yuhong; Peng, Xuefeng; Ye, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Research on the incorporation of cutting-edge nano-antibacterial agent for designing dental materials with potent and long-lasting antibacterial property is demanding and provoking work. In this study, a novel resin-based dental material containing photocurable core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposite (AgBr/BHPVP) was designed and developed. The shell of polymerizable cationic polymer not only provided non-releasing antibacterial capability for dental resins, but also had the potential to polymerize with other methacrylate monomers and prevented nanoparticles from aggregating in the resin matrix. As a result, incorporation of AgBr/BHPVP nanocomposites did not adversely affect the flexural strength and modulus but greatly increased the Vicker's hardness of resin disks. By continuing to release Ag + ions without the impact of anaerobic environment, resins containing AgBr/BHPVP nanoparticles are particularly suitable to combat anaerobic cariogenic bacteria. By reason of the combined bactericidal effect of the contact-killing cationic polymers and the releasing-killing Ag + ions, AgBr/BHPVP-containing resin disks had potent bactericidal activity against S. mutans. The long-lasting antibacterial activity was also achieved through the sustained release of Ag + ions due to the core-shell structure of the nanocomposites. The results of macrophage cytotoxicity showed that the cell viability of dental resins loading less than 1.0 wt% AgBr/BHPVP was close to that of neat resins. The AgBr/BHPVP-containing dental resin with dual bactericidal capability and long term antimicrobial effect is a promising material aimed at preventing second caries and prolonging the longevity of resin composite restorations.

  4. High irradiance curing and anomalies of exposure reciprocity law in resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, M; Leprince, J G; Shortall, A C; Devaux, J; Leloup, G; Palin, W M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of high irradiance curing on resultant degree of conversion of 'flowable' resin composites and their counterpart higher viscosity paste materials. Five commercial flowable materials (Venus; Heraeus Kulzer, Synergy D6; Coltene, Premise; Kerr, Grandio; Voco and Gradia; GC Corp) and their counterpart higher viscosity restorative versions were tested. Specimens were cured with a halogen Swiss Master Light (EMS, Switzerland) using five different curing protocols with similar radiant exposure (18J/cm(2)): 400mW/cm(2) for 45s, 900mW/cm(2) for 20s, 1500mW/cm(2) for 12s, 2000mW/cm(2) for 9s and 3000mW/cm(2) for 6s. Degree of conversion (DC) was measured in real time by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS). Three- and subsequent two way ANOVA testing revealed significant differences (p≤0.02) with respect to "composite type" and "cure protocol" for DC for all 5 product comparisons. Supplementary one-way ANOVA also revealed significant differences between curing protocols (pGrandio (41±0.36 and 62±1.15%, respectively) and Venus (44±0.44 and 67±0.44%, respectively). Conversely, other flowable materials exhibited little or no significant differences between curing modes. Generally, a higher degree of conversion was observed for flowables compared with their more viscous counterpart, except at high irradiance for those materials where a reciprocal relationship with exposure time was not observed. The validity of exposure reciprocity law and final degree of conversion depends on several factors, amongst which resin viscosity and filler content were important. Practitioners should be aware of the importance of resin composite constituents and irradiation protocols. Information on material composition and appropriate radiation sources by manufacturers may assist practitioners with the selection of appropriate curing protocols for specific material/light curing unit combinations with the aim of reducing the

  5. Flame-retardant electrical conductive nanopolymers based on bisphenol F epoxy resin reinforced with nano polyanilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; He, Qingliang; Gu, Hongbo; Colorado, Henry A; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-02-01

    Both fibril and spherical polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures have successfully served as nanofillers for obtaining epoxy resin polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). The effects of nanofiller morphology and loading level on the mechanical properties, rheological behaviors, thermal stability, flame retardancy, electrical conductivity, and dielectric properties were systematically studied. The introduction of the PANI nanofillers was found to reduce the heat-release rate and to increase the char residue of epoxy resin. A reduced viscosity was observed in both types of PANI-epoxy resin liquid nanosuspension samples at lower loadings (1.0 wt % for PANI nanospheres; 1.0 and 3.0 wt % for PANI nanofibers), the viscosity was increased with further increases in the PANI loading for both morphologies. The dynamic storage and loss modulii were studied, together with the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) being obtained from the peak of tan δ. The critical PANI nanofiller loading for the modulus and T(g) was different, i.e., 1.0 wt % for the nanofibers and 5.0 wt % for the nanospheres. The percolation thresholds of the PANI nanostructures were identified with the dynamic mechanical property and electrical conductivity, and, because of the higher aspect ratio, nanofibers reached the percolation threshold at a lower loading (3.0 wt %) than the PANI nanospheres (5.0 wt %). The PANI nanofillers could increase the electrical conductivity, and, at the same loading, the epoxy nanocomposites with the PANI nanofibers showed lower volume resistivity than the nanocomposites with the PANI nanospheres, which were discussed with the contact resistance and percolation threshold. The tensile test indicated an improved tensile strength of the epoxy matrix with the introduction of the PANI nanospheres at a lower loading (1.0 wt %). Compared with pure epoxy, the elasticity modulus was increased for all the PNC samples. Moreover, further studies on the fracture surface revealed an enhanced

  6. Particle-Hole Transformation in Strongly-Doped Iron-Based Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    An exact particle-hole transformation is discovered in a local-moment description of a single layer in an iron-based superconductor. Application of the transformation to a surface layer of heavily electron-doped FeSe predicts a surface-layer high-temperature superconductor at strong hole doping. Comparison with existing low-T_c iron superconductors suggests that the critical temperature at heavy hole doping can be increased by increasing direct ferromagnetic exchange in between nearest neighb...

  7. Epoxy resins in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spee, Ton; Van Duivenbooden, Cor; Terwoert, Jeroen

    2006-09-01

    Epoxy resins are used as coatings, adhesives, and in wood and concrete repair. However, epoxy resins can be highly irritating to the skin and are strong sensitizers. Some hardeners are carcinogenic. Based on the results of earlier Dutch studies, an international project on "best practices,"--Epoxy Code--with epoxy products was started. Partners were from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. The "Code" deals with substitution, safe working procedures, safer tools, and skin protection. The feasibility of an internationally agreed "ranking system" for the health risks of epoxy products was studied. Such a ranking system should inform the user of the harmfulness of different epoxies and stimulate research on less harmful products by product developers.

  8. A provably secure identity-based strong designated verifier proxy signature scheme from bilinear pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Hafizul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proxy signature, a variant of the ordinary digital signature, has been an active research topic in recent years; it has many useful applications, including distributed systems and grid computing. Although many identity-based proxy signature schemes have been proposed in the literature, only a few proposals for identity-based strong designated verifier proxy signature (ID-SDVPS schemes are available. However, it has been found that most of the ID-SDVPS schemes that have been proposed to date are not efficient in terms of computation and security, and a computationally efficient and secured ID-SDVPS scheme using elliptic curve bilinear pairing has been proposed in this paper. The security of the scheme is mainly based on the hardness assumption of CDH and GBDH problems in the random oracle model, which is existentially unforgeable against different types of adversaries. Furthermore, the security of our scheme is simulated in the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications software, a widely used automated internet protocol validation tool, and the simulation results confirm strong security against both active and passive attacks. In addition, because of a high processing capability and supporting additional security features, the scheme is suitable for the environments in which less computational cost with strong security is required.

  9. Blending of Hydrocarbon and Rosin Ester-basedResins to Study its Effect on the Physical andMechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Road Markings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mirabedini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of hydrocarbon and rosin ester resins combination on the physical and mechanical properties of thermoplastic road markings were evaluated. At first, two basic thermoplastic road marking formulations based on hydrocarbon and rosin ester resins were prepared. Several samples of the blends of two basic formulations for thermoplastic road marking were characterized and compared by their softening points, abrasion resistance, color data changes, DMTA and tensile strength values. The results showed that hydrocarbon-based thermoplastic road markings have better weathering resistance and rosin ester based materials illustrated enhanced heat resistance. The inclusion of rosin ester thermoplastic road marking into the hydrocarbon-based formulations, improves compatibility of the hydrocarbon resin and dibutyl phthalate (DBP(, as well as their physical and mechanical properties. The unique properties of rosin arise from its hydrophobic chain skeleton and its hydrophilic carboxy groups which contribute to its excellent solubility and compatibility with a variety of other synthetic resins. The best performance was obtained with 50 wt % inclusion of rosin ester to hydrocarbon based compound. DMTA analysis revelation with combination of hydrocarbon and rosin ester-based road markings showed that the decreasing trend in elastic modulus is shifted to higher temperature, and as a result it keeps the hardness and ductile properties of thermoplastic road markings unchanged. More favored raw materials for compatibilization of compounds in road marking formulations lead to higher elongation- at-break and an increased toughness.

  10. The strengthening of resin cemented dental ceramic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to advance the understanding of the mechanism of resin-strengthening conferred to dental ceramic materials by resin-based composite materials. The investigation is presented as a series of manuscripts. In the first study (Manuscript 3.1), dental porcelain disc-shaped specimens were resin-coated with three resin-based composite materials with different flexural moduli at discrete resin thicknesses. The discs were loaded to failure in a biaxial flexure t...

  11. Six-month evaluation of a resin/dentin interface created by methacrylate and silorane-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMPAIO, Renata Kirita Doi; WANG, Linda; de CARVALHO, Rodrigo Varella; GARCIA, Eugenio José; de ANDRADE, Andréa Mello; KLEIN-JÚNIOR, Celso Afonso; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda; MOURA, Sandra Kiss

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the micro-tensile bond strength of methacrylate resin systems to a silorane-based restorative system on dentin after 24 hours and six months water storage. Material and Methods: The restorative systems Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond/Z350 (CF), Adper SE Plus/Z350 (ASEP) and P90 Adhesive System/Filtek P90 (P90) were applied on flat dentin surfaces of 20 third molars (n=5). The restored teeth were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonding interface to obtain sticks (0.8 mm2) to be tested after 24 hours (24 h) and 6 months (6 m) of water storage, in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The data was analyzed via two-way Analysis of Variance/Bonferroni post hoc tests at 5% global significance. Results: Overall outcomes did not indicate a statistical difference for the resin systems (p=0.26) nor time (p=0.62). No interaction between material x time was detected (p=0.28). Mean standard-deviation in MPa at 24 h and 6 m were: ASB 31.38 (4.53) and 30.06 (1.95), CF 34.26 (3.47) and 32.75 (4.18), ASEP 29.54 (4.14) and 33.47 (2.47), P90 30.27 (2.03) and 31.34 (2.19). Conclusions: The silorane-based system showed a similar performance to methacrylate-based materials on dentin. All systems were stable in terms of bond strength up to 6 month of water storage. PMID:23559117

  12. Six-month evaluation of a resin/dentin interface created by methacrylate and silorane-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kirita Doi SAMPAIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to compare the micro-tensile bond strength of methacrylate resin systems to a silorane-based restorative system on dentin after 24 hours and six months water storage. Material and Methods The restorative systems Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 (ASB, Clearfil SE Bond/Z350 (CF, Adper SE Plus/Z350 (ASEP and P90 Adhesive System/Filtek P90 (P90 were applied on flat dentin surfaces of 20 third molars (n=5. The restored teeth were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonding interface to obtain sticks (0.8 mm2 to be tested after 24 hours (24 h and 6 months (6 m of water storage, in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The data was analyzed via two-way Analysis of Variance/Bonferroni post hoc tests at 5% global significance. Results Overall outcomes did not indicate a statistical difference for the resin systems (p=0.26 nor time (p=0.62. No interaction between material × time was detected (p=0.28. Mean standard-deviation in MPa at 24 h and 6 m were: ASB 31.38 (4.53 and 30.06 (1.95, CF 34.26 (3.47 and 32.75 (4.18, ASEP 29.54 (4.14 and 33.47 (2.47, P90 30.27 (2.03 and 31.34 (2.19. Conclusions The silorane-based system showed a similar performance to methacrylate-based materials on dentin. All systems were stable in terms of bond strength up to 6 month of water storage.

  13. Creep behavior of an epoxy resin and an epoxy-based FRP in condition of simultaneous supply of radiation and stress at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Tetsuya; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Okada, Toichi

    1995-01-01

    Creep tests of an epoxy resin and an epoxy-based FRP in bending under irradiation condition have been carried out, to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation and stress on mechanical properties of FRP. Simultaneous supply of stress and irradiation on the epoxy resin and the FRP enhanced creep rates in comparison with that supply of the stress on a post-irradiated one did. ESR spectra measurement was also carried out to study the change of molecule of the resin irradiated. Increase of molecular weight between crosslinks was found out to be enhanced by the synergistic effect of radiation and stress. The mechanism of increased damage of FRP induced by the effects of simultaneous stress and irradiation is discussed. (author)

  14. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanling; Strømme, Maria; Welch, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  15. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Cai

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  16. Effect of priming agents on shear bond strengths of resin-based luting agents to a translucent zirconia material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagawa, Shogo; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Kubochi, Kei; Kimura, Fumiaki; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of priming agents and artificial aging with thermocycling on shear bond strengths of two resin-based luting agents to a translucent zirconia material. A total of 308 pairs of translucent zirconia disk specimens were divided into seven treatment groups: Alloy Primer (ALP), Clearfil Ceramic Primer Plus (CCP), Meta Fast Bonding Liner (MFB), MR. bond (MRB), Super-Bond PZ Primer Liquid B (PZB), V-Primer (VPR), and an unprimed group (UP). The specimens in each group were bonded with Panavia V5 Universal (UNI) and Opaque shade (OPA). Shear bond strengths (n=11 each) were tested before and after 5000 thermocycles. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Steel-Dwass test. For both 0 and 5000 thermocycles, the ALP (47.8 and 41.5MPa, respectively) and CCP (45.8 and 42.3MPa, respectively) groups showed significantly higher bond strengths than other groups in the UNI luting agent. For the OPA luting agent, CCP group (45.8MPa) exhibited the highest pre-thermocycling bond strength in all groups. The ALP (32.4MPa) and CCP (36.5MPa) groups had significantly higher post-thermocycling shear bond strengths than other groups. In several groups, the shear bond strengths of the UNI luting agent were significantly higher than those of the OPA luting agent before and after thermocycling. Application of priming agents containing hydrophobic phosphate monomer (MDP) yielded the durable bond strengths of resin-based luting agents to a translucent zirconia material. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Dowling, Adam H; El-Safty, Samy; Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-04-01

    To explore experimental RBCs derived from a successful commercially available RBC (Grandio) to investigate resin monomer blend and filler parameters (volume fraction, density and diameter) on RBC performance. Six experimental RBCs modified from a commercial RBC were tested. The three-point flexure strength (σ(3)) and modulus (E) data was determined for groups of 20 bar-shaped specimens, prepared in a custom-made knife-edge split aluminum mold and irradiated using a modification of the ISO 4049 protocol. The biaxial flexure strength (BFS) and top and bottom Vickers hardness number (VHN) determination was performed on disc-shaped specimens (n=20). Normal distribution of the σ(3), E, BFS and top and bottom VHN data was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk's test. Paired groups were compared using independent samples t-test for the individual tests investigated (σ(3), E, BFS and top and bottom VHN) at a significance level of P<0.05. A significant decrease in the mean σ(3) (P<0.011) and mean E (P<0.001) were identified on increasing the filler fraction (from 71.4 to 74.5 vol%) or increasing the mean filler diameter (from 1.5 to 2.5 μm). Increasing the filler density resulted in a significant increase in the mean σ(3) (P<0.001), mean E (P<0.001) and mean top VHN (P≤0.001). Replacing the monomeric blend with an ormocer blend significantly reduced the mean σ(3), E, BFS and top and bottom VHNs (all P<0.001). For each RBC monomeric resin and filler (type, density and diameter) combination employed, a finite filler volume fraction exists. Operating at the finite filler volume fraction increases the difficulty in improving the mechanical properties of the RBCs tailored from a commercial product. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fiber Reinforced Polyester Resins Polymerized by Microwave Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, A. M.; Calabrese, L.; Cianciafara, P.; Bonaccorsi, L.; Proverbio, E.

    2007-12-01

    Polyester resin based composite materials are widely used in the manufacture of fiberglass boats. Production time of fiberglass laminate components could be strongly reduced by using an intense energy source as well as microwaves. In this work a polyester resin was used with 2% by weight of catalyst and reinforced with chopped or woven glass fabric. Pure resin and composite samples were cured by microwaves exposition for different radiation times. A three point bending test was performed on all the cured samples by using an universal testing machine and the resulting fracture surfaces were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of mechanical and microscopy analyses evidenced that microwave activation lowers curing time of the composite while good mechanical properties were retained. Microwaves exposition time is crucial for mechanical performance of the composite. It was evidenced that short exposition times suffice for resin activation while long exposure times cause fast cross linking and premature matrix fracture. Furthermore high-radiation times induce bubbles growth or defects nucleation within the sample, decreasing composite performance. On the basis of such results microwave curing activation of polyester resin based composites could be proposed as a valid alternative method for faster processing of laminated materials employed for large-scale applications.

  19. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements - What do we need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Vilela, Andomar Bruno Fernandes; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2017-08-28

    Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based materials have been related to several unwanted clinical consequences, such as enamel crack propagation, cusp deflection, marginal and internal gaps, and decreased bond strength. Despite the absence of strong evidence relating polymerization shrinkage to secondary caries or fracture of posterior teeth, shrinkage stress has been associated with post-operative sensitivity and marginal stain. The latter is often erroneously used as a criterion for replacement of composite restorations. Therefore, an indirect correlation can emerge between shrinkage stress and the longevity of composite restorations or resin-bonded ceramic restorations. The relationship between shrinkage and stress can be best studied in laboratory experiments and a combination of various methodologies. The objective of this review article is to discuss the concept and consequences of polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements. Literature relating to polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress generation, research methodologies, and contributing factors are selected and reviewed. Clinical techniques that could reduce shrinkage stress and new developments on low-shrink dental materials are also discussed.

  20. The effect of processing methods and acrylic resins on the accuracy of maxillary dentures and toothless denture bases: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Henrike; Boening, Klaus; Peroz, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    To compare the dimensional changes of two autopolymerising denture base resins using three different processing techniques. Sixty edentulous denture bases were made from the polymethylmethacrylates FuturaGen and PalaXpress. Ten bases were made from each resin using a manual injection technique (MI), a pneumatic injection technique (PI), and the fluid resin technique (F). Posterior palatal gap widths between casts and denture bases were measured. For an additional three-dimensional examination of occlusal changes, 10 maxillary dentures were made using FuturaGen/MI and 10 using PalaXpress/PI. Intermolar widths and changes in vertical dimension were determined. In all groups, measurements were taken after polymerization, after removal and repositioning, after polishing, and after storage in water for 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed by using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (P dentures were ⋜ 0.04 mm and below the recommended depth for carving a posterior palatal seal (0.4 to 3.0 mm). The processing technique rather than the choice of the two resins seems to be the dominate variable with respect to dimensional changes.

  1. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  2. [Contact allergy to epoxy resins plastics based on materials collected by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2003-01-01

    Of the 5604 patients examined in 1984-2001 for suspected occupational dermatitis, 160 persons (2.8%) showed allergy to epoxy resins plastics. Allergy was more frequent in men (4.9%) than in women (1.2%); in 154 persons, allergy was of occupational etiology (in a group of 160 patients with allergy to epoxy resins, the following proportions were observed: bricklayers, platelayers--17.5%; fitters, turners, machinist millers--13.8%; plastics molders--13.1%; laminators--11.3%; electrical equipment assemblers--10.6%; painters--10.0%). Having compared the frequency of allergy to components of epoxy resins in the years 1984-1993 and 1994-2001, it was found that allergy to resin, reactive diluents and plasticizers was on increase, whereas allergy to amines and acid anhydrides hardeners was on decrease. In a group of 13 chemical compounds entering into the composition of epoxy resins, epoxy resin contributed to the largest number of positive patch tests (77.5% of epoxy-allergic persons). This was followed by triethylenetetramine (23.1%), ethylenediamine (13.1%), phthalic anhydride (8.1%), diethylenetetramine (6.9%) and phenylglycidylether (6.2%). In addition, three patients reacted to both epoxy resin and cycloaliphatic resin.

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Resin based Sealers on Retention of Crown Cemented with Three Types of Cement – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumeet; Patel, J.R.; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Singh, Sarbjeet; Wazir, Nikhil Dev; Singh, Harvinder

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In an effort to control postoperative sensitivity, dentin sealers are being applied following crown preparations, with little knowledge of how crown retention might be affected. A previous study demonstrated no adverse effect when using a gluteraldehyde-based sealer, and existing studies have shown conflicting results for resin-based products. This study determined the retention of the casting cemented with three types of cement, with and without use of resin sealers and it determined the mode of failure. Materials and Methods: Extracted human molars (n=60) were prepared with a flat occlusal, 20-degree taper, and 4-mm axial length. The axial surface area of each preparation was determined and specimens were distributed equally among groups (n=10). A single-bottle adhesive system (one step single bottle adhesive system) was used to seal dentin, following tooth preparation. Sealers were not used on the control specimens. The test castings were prepared by using Ni-Cr alloy for each specimen and they were cemented with a seating force of 20 Kg by using either Zinc Phosphate (Harvard Cement), Glass Ionomer (GC luting and lining cement,GC America Inc.) and modified-resin cement (RelyXTMLuting2). Specimens were thermocycled for one month and were then removed along the path of insertion by using a Universal Testing Machine at 0.5 mm/min. A single-factor ANOVA was used with a p value of .05. The nature of failure was recorded and the data was analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: Mean dislodgement stress for Zinc phosphate (Group A) was 24.55±1.0 KgF and that for zinc phosphate with sealer (Group D) was 14.65±0.8 KgF. For glass ionomer (Group B) without sealer, the mean value was 32.0±1.0 KgF and mean value for glass ionomer with sealer (Group E) was 37.90±1.0 KgF. The mean value for modified resin cement (Group C) was 44.3±1.0KgF and that for modified resins with sealer (Group F) was 57.2±1.2 KgF. The tooth failed before casting dislodgement in 8 to 10

  4. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Resin based Sealers on Retention of Crown Cemented with Three Types of Cement - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumeet; Patel, J R; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Singh, Sarbjeet; Wazir, Nikhil Dev; Singh, Harvinder

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to control postoperative sensitivity, dentin sealers are being applied following crown preparations, with little knowledge of how crown retention might be affected. A previous study demonstrated no adverse effect when using a gluteraldehyde-based sealer, and existing studies have shown conflicting results for resin-based products. This study determined the retention of the casting cemented with three types of cement, with and without use of resin sealers and it determined the mode of failure. Extracted human molars (n=60) were prepared with a flat occlusal, 20-degree taper, and 4-mm axial length. The axial surface area of each preparation was determined and specimens were distributed equally among groups (n=10). A single-bottle adhesive system (one step single bottle adhesive system) was used to seal dentin, following tooth preparation. Sealers were not used on the control specimens. The test castings were prepared by using Ni-Cr alloy for each specimen and they were cemented with a seating force of 20 Kg by using either Zinc Phosphate (Harvard Cement), Glass Ionomer (GC luting and lining cement,GC America Inc.) and modified-resin cement (RelyXTMLuting2). Specimens were thermocycled for one month and were then removed along the path of insertion by using a Universal Testing Machine at 0.5 mm/min. A single-factor ANOVA was used with a p value of .05. The nature of failure was recorded and the data was analyzed by using Chi-square test. Mean dislodgement stress for Zinc phosphate (Group A) was 24.55±1.0 KgF and that for zinc phosphate with sealer (Group D) was 14.65±0.8 KgF. For glass ionomer (Group B) without sealer, the mean value was 32.0±1.0 KgF and mean value for glass ionomer with sealer (Group E) was 37.90±1.0 KgF. The mean value for modified resin cement (Group C) was 44.3±1.0KgF and that for modified resins with sealer (Group F) was 57.2±1.2 KgF. The tooth failed before casting dislodgement in 8 to 10 specimens cemented with modified-resin

  5. Electrospun melamine resin-based multifunctional nonwoven membrane for lithium ion batteries at the elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfu; Yu, Yong; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2016-09-01

    A flame retardant and thermally dimensional stable membrane with high permeability and electrolyte wettability can overcome the safety issues of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at elevated temperatures. In this work, a multifunctional thermoset nonwoven membrane composed of melamine formaldehyde resin (MFR) nano-fibers was prepared by a electro-spinning method. The resultant porous nonwoven membrane possesses superior permeability, electrolyte wettability and thermally dimensional stability. Using the electrospun MFR membrane, the LiFePO4/Li battery exhibits high safety and stable cycling performance at the elevated temperature of 120 °C. Most importantly, the MFR membrane contains lone pair electron in the nitrogen element, which can chelate with Mn2+ ions and suppress their transfer across the separator. Therefore, the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with the electrospun MFR multifunctional membranes reveal an improved cycle performance even at high temperature. This work demonstrated that electrospun MFR is a promising candidate material for high-safety separator of LIBs with stable cycling performance at elevated temperatures.

  6. Thermoset nanocomposites from waterborne bio-based epoxy resin and cellulose nanowhiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-min; Liu, Di; Liu, Gui-feng; Chen, Jian; Huo, Shu-ping; Kong, Zhen-wu

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset nanocomposites were prepared from a waterborne terpene-maleic ester type epoxy resin (WTME) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs). The curing behaviors of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were measured with rotational rheometer. The results show that the storage modulus (G') of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites increased with the increase of CNWs content. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate that the incorporation of CNWs in WTME matrix caused microphase separation and destroyed the compactness of the matrix. This effect leads to the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites slightly decrease with the increase of CNWs content, which were confirmed by both DSC and DMA tests. The mechanical properties of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were investigated by tensile testing. The Yong's modulus (E) and tensile strength (σb) of the nanocomposites were significantly reinforced by the addition of CNWs. These results indicate that CNWs exhibit excellent reinforcement effect on WTME matrix, due to the formation and increase of interfacial interaction by hydrogen bonds between CNWs nano-filler and the WTME matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanded graphite—Phenolic resin composites based double layer microwave absorber for X-band applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyoti Prasad; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi Saxena

    2014-11-01

    In this investigation, double layer microwave absorbers are designed and developed with paired combination of 5 wt. %, 7 wt. %, 8 wt. %, and 10 wt. % expanded graphite-novolac phenolic resin (EG-NPR) composites, in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. The thickness and compositional combination of the two layers constituting the absorber are optimized to achieve minimum value of reflection loss (dB) and a broad microwave absorption bandwidth. Double layer combinations showing -25 dB absorption bandwidth >2 GHz and -30 dB absorption bandwidth >1 GHz are chosen for fabrication. The total thickness of the fabricated double layer microwave absorber is varied from 3 mm to 3.4 mm. Absorption bandwidths at -10 dB, -20 dB, -25 dB and -30 dB are determined for the fabricated structure. The maximum -25 dB and -30 dB absorption bandwidth of 2.47 GHz and 1.77 GHz, respectively, are observed for the double layer structure with (5 wt. %-8 wt. %) EG-NPR composites with total thickness of 3.2 mm, while -10 dB bandwidth covers the entire X-band range.

  8. Identification of strong promoters based on the transcriptome of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Haiyan; Zheng, Junwei; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2017-06-01

    To expand the repertoire of strong promoters for high level expression of proteins based on the transcriptome of Bacillus licheniformis. The transcriptome of B. licheniformis ATCC14580 grown to the early stationary phase was analyzed and the top 10 highly expressed genes/operons out of the 3959 genes and 1249 operons identified were chosen for study promoter activity. Using beta-galactosidase gene as a reporter, the candidate promoter pBL9 exhibited the strongest activity which was comparable to that of the widely used strong promoter p43. Furthermore, the pro-transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (pro-MTG) was expressed under the control of promoter pBL9 and the activity of pro-MTG reached 82 U/ml after 36 h, which is 23% higher than that of promoter p43 (66.8 U/ml). In our analyses of the transcriptome of B. licheniformis, we have identified a strong promoter pBL9, which could be adapted for high level expression of proteins in the host Bacillus subtilis.

  9. Addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the acrylic resin denture base material: comparative study with the conventional and high impact types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; Beyari, Mohammed M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the conventional acrylic resin. The tested parameters were monomer release, deflection at fracture, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and toughness. The modified acrylic resin groups were compared to the conventional unmodified and high impact types. The correlation between the tested material properties was also evaluated. The materials used were conventional unmodified and high impact acrylic resins. The conventional acrylic resin was modified using 5% glass fibers and 5% titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and American Dental Association Specification No. 12. Monomer release was measured using isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. Deflection at fracture, flexural strength, and flexural modulus were measured using three point-bending test with a universal testing machine. The toughness was related to the total area under the load-deflection curve up to the breaking point. The correlation between the tested properties was clarified. All materials released monomer with varying values. The tested materials exhibited comparable values of deflection at fracture. Specimens modified with glass-fibers showed improved flexural strength and toughness similar to that of the high impact acrylic resin. Specimens modified with titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibited reduction in the flexural properties and toughness. No significant changes were observed in the flexural modulus. There were positive correlations between the flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness. On the contrary, there was negative correlation between deflection at fracture and flexural modulus. The most commercially successful method for reinforcement to date is the rubber toughening. The conventional acrylic resin denture base material could be reinforced by glass fibers while titanium dioxide nanoparticles

  10. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: pyisoethein@yahoo.com [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  11. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew R; Palin, William M; Fleming, Garry J P; Shortall, Adrian C C; Marquis, Peter M

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique. RBCs with microhybrid (Filtek Z250), 'nanohybrid' (Grandio) and 'nanofilled' (Filtek Supreme), filler particle morphologies were investigated. Filler particles were provided by the manufacturer or separated from the unpolymerized resin using a dissolution technique. Filler particles (n=30) were subjected to compression using a micromanipulation technique between a descending glass probe and a glass slide. The number of distinct fractures particles underwent was determined from force/displacement and stress/deformation curves and the force at fracture and pseudo-modulus of stress was calculated. Agglomerated fillers ('nanoclusters') exhibited up to four distinct fractures, while spheroidal and irregular particles underwent either a single fracture or did not fracture following micromanipulation. Z-tests highlighted failure of nanoclusters to be significant compared with spheroidal and irregular particles (P<0.05). The mean force at first fracture of the nanoclusters was greater (1702+/-909 microN) than spheroidal and irregular particles (1389+/-1342 and 1356+/-1093 microN, respectively). Likewise, the initial pseudo-modulus of stress of nanoclusters (797+/-555 MPa) was also greater than spheroidal (587+/-439 MPa) or irregular (552+/-275 MPa) fillers. The validity of employing the micromanipulation technique to determine the mechanical properties of filler particulates was established. The 'nanoclusters' exhibited a greater tendency to multiple fractures compared with conventional fillers and possessed a comparatively higher variability of pseudo-modulus and load prior to and at fracture, which may modify the damage tolerance of the overall RBC system.

  12. Anti-carburizing Coating for Resin Sand Casting of Low Carbon Steel Based on Composite Silicate Powder Containing Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Chunyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the structure and properties of anticarburizing coating based on composite silicate powder containing zirconium by X-ray diffraction analyzer, thermal expansion tester, digital microscope and other equipment. It is introduced that the application example of the coating in the resin-sand casting of ZG1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel impeller. The anti-carburizing effect of the coating on the surface layer of the cast is studied by using direct reading spectrometer and spectrum analyzer. The change of the micro-structure of the coating after casting and cooling is observed by scanning electron microscope. The analysis of anti-carburizing mechanism of the coating is presented. The results indicate that the coating possesses excellent suspension property, brush ability, permeability, levelling property and crackresistance. The coating exhibits high strength and low gas evolution. Most of the coating could be automatically stripped off flakily when the casting was shaken out. The casting possesses excellent surface finish and antimetal penetration effect. The carburizing layer thickness of the stainless steel impeller casting with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is about 1mm and maximum carburizing rate is 23.6%. The anticarburizing effect of casting surface is greatly improved than that of zircon powder coating whose maximum carburizing rate is 67.9% and the carburizing layer thickness with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is greater than 2mm. The composite silicate powder containing zirconium coating substantially reduces the zircon powder which is expensive and radioactive and mainly dependent on imports. The coating can be used instead of pure zircon powder coating to effectively prevent metal-penetration and carburizing of resin-sand-casting surface of low carbon steel, significantly improve the foundry production environment and reduce the production costs.

  13. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond Ng; Jimmy C. M. Hsiao; Keith C. T. Tong; Harry Kim; Yanjie Mai; Keith H. S. Chan

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin ...

  14. Resin Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to see plastic deformation of the surface. 8.1.4.3 Density: Density using the Archimedes principle (ASTM D 792). 8.1.4.4 Density as a Function of...the cure and postcure, quickly cool the sample to 0 °C or lower the temperature to quench the reaction, and then ramp the temperature at 5 °C/min to...prepared by pouring 10 g of resin into a 30-mL screw-cap scintillation vial and adding appropriate amounts of initiator, catalyst, and inhibitor

  15. Effects of silane- and MDP-based primers application orders on zirconia-resin adhesion-A ToF-SIMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Fen; Kang, Li-Li; Liu, Yi-Chuan; Lin, Jui-Che; Wang, Ching-Cheng; Chen, Hui-Min; Tai, Cheng-Kun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS)- and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP)-base primers, in their single or sequential applications, with regard to modifying zirconia surfaces and improving resin-zirconia adhesion. Zirconia disks received different treatments: without primer (Zr), MPS-base primer (S), MDP-base primer (M), MPS/MDP mixture (SMmix), MPS followed by MDP (SM), and MDP followed by MPS (MS). The compositions and chemical interactions of the coatings to zirconia were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and reconstructed 3D ion images. Surface wettability of these coatings to water and resin adhesive was assessed. The shear bond strength (SBS) between resin and the treated zirconia was also examined before and after thermocycling. Groups S and MS presented substantial OH - ions in the coatings and zirconia substrate. PO 2 - and PO 3 - fragments existed in all MDP-treatment groups with various proportions and distributions, while groups M and SM showed higher proportions of PO 3 - and the zirconium phosphate related ions. In 3D ion images, PO 3 - in groups M and SM was denser and segregated to the interface, but was dispersed or overlaid above PO 2 - in SMmix and MS. All the primers increased the surface wettability to water and resin, with M and SM presenting superhydrophilic surfaces. All MDP-treatment groups showed improved SBS before thermocycling, while M and SM retained higher SBS after this. The MDP-base primer shows a relevant function in facilitating POZr bonding and enhancing resin-zirconia bonding. The co-treated MPS impairs the chemical activity of MDP, especially if it is the final coat. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of bond strength of auto polymerizing, heat cure soft denture liners with denture base resin — An In Vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Neerja; Datta, Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Optimum bond strength between denture soft liner and denture base resin is very important for the success of any denture prosthesis. The tensile bond strength of two commercially available silicone-based heat cured (Molloplast B) and auto polymerizing (Mollosil) was compared with denture base material (trevalon). Molloplast B-trevalon bond in both un-polymerized (dough stage) and already polymerized forms were also compared. Lloyds Universal testing machine was used to test 60 samples. Mollop...

  17. Early arterial stasis during resin-based yttrium-90 radioembolization: incidence and preliminary outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Peachy Mae; Bar, Voichita; Doyle, Laura; Anne, Rani; Sato, Takami; Eschelman, David J; McCann, Jeffrey W; Gonsalves, Carin F; Brown, Daniel B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the incidence of early stasis in radioembolization using resin yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres, to evaluate potential contributing factors, and to review initial imaging outcomes. Methods Patients in whom early stasis occurred were compared with those in whom complete delivery was achieved for tumour type and vascularity, tumour : normal liver ratio (T : N ratio) at technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m-MAA) angiography, previous intra-arterial therapy, and infusion site (left, right or whole liver). Tumour response was evaluated at 3 months and defined according to whether a partial response and stable disease versus progressive disease were demonstrated. Results A total of 71 patients underwent 128 Y-90 infusions in which 26 (20.3%) stasis events occurred. Hypervascular and hypovascular tumours had similar rates of stasis (17.4% versus 27.8%; P = NS). The mean ± standard deviation T : N ratio was 3.03 ± 1.54 and 3.66 ± 2.79 in patients with and without stasis, respectively (P = NS). Stasis occurred in 14 of 81 (17.3%) and 12 of 47 (25.5%) infusions following previous intra-arterial therapy and in therapy-naïve territories, respectively (P = NS). Early stasis occurred in 15 of 41 (36.6%) left, 10 of 65 (15.4%) right and one of 22 (4.5%) whole liver infusions (P < 0.001). Rates of partial response and stable disease were similar in the stasis (88.3%) and non-stasis (76.0%) groups (P = NS). Conclusions Early stasis occurred in approximately 20% of infusions with similar incidences in hyper-and hypovascular tumours. Whole-liver therapy reduced the incidence of stasis. Stasis did not appear to affect initial imaging outcomes. PMID:23782387

  18. Diphonix trademark Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix trademark resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions

  19. Role of TiF4 in Microleakage of Silorane and Methacrylate-based Composite Resins in Class V Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpeima, Fatemeh; Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Jowkar, Zahra; Ahmadzadeh, Samaneh; Mokhtari, Mohammad Javad; Azarian, Babak

    2016-03-01

    and physical properties of modern composites than earlier methacrylate-based composites, polymerization shrinkage has been remaining as one of the main shortcomings of them. Different methods, such as using new low shrinkage resin composites and different dentin pretreatments, have been suggested to overcome this problem. This study evaluated the effect of TiF4 as pretreatment on microleakage of class V tooth preparations restored with a nanocomposite and a silorane-based resin composite.

  20. Breaking boundaries: optimizing reconsolidation-based interventions for strong and old memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, James W B; Kindt, Merel

    2017-09-01