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Sample records for strong antianaphylactic activity

  1. Lipid fraction constituents and evaluation of anti-anaphylactic activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipid fraction constituents as well as evaluation of anti-anaphylactic activity of Prunus mahaleb L. Kernels were studied. Prunus mahaleb L. kernels were obtained from the local market in Cairo, Egypt. Investigation of the fatty acids revealed that oleic and linoleic acids are the major constituents. 12 compounds were ...

  2. Mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activity of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages in the world. In the current study, aqueous extract of green tea (C. sinensis was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activities. Green tea extract (11, 13, 15 mg/ml significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited compound 48/80-induced rat mesentric mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. Anti-anaphylactic activity of green tea extract was performed in female mice. At a dose of 400, 500, 600 mg/kg BW, green tea extract showed significant reduction in the mortality of mice subjected to anaphylactic shock by compound C48/80. Ketotifen was used for comparison. In addition, IR and UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis of green tea extract revealed the presence of functional groups of bioactive compounds. These results suggest that green tea could be useful in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  3. Lipid Fraction Constituents and Evaluation of Anti-anaphylactic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starcom

    Abstract. The lipid fraction constituents as well as evaluation of anti-anaphylactic activity of Prunus mahaleb L. ... Key words: Prunus mahaleb L., Rosaceae, lipids, fatty acids, toxicity, antianaphylactic activity. .... congestion and bluish discoloration of the liver, spleen and kidneys as well as dilatation and stagnation of blood.

  4. Evaluation of anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh R. Naik

    Full Text Available The present study reports the anti-allergic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujubaMill., Rhamnaceae, and its possible mode of action. The effect of extract of Z. jujuba at different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, orally was simulated on studied animal models of asthma and allergy: a milk induced eosinophilia and leukocytosis; b compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation; and, c active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. In addition, extract of Z. jujuba's effect on sensitized guinea pig ileum (ex vivo and tracheal chain preparations (in vitro were investigated.Treatment with extract of Z. jujuba at all doses significantly: prevented the milk-induced eosinophilia and compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mesenteric mast cells; decreased passive cutaneous and active anaphylactic reactions. In addition, extract of Z. jujuba inhibited acetylcholine as well as histamine induced tracheal chain contraction, and also antigen induced contraction of sensitized guinea pig ileum (Shultz-Dale inhibition test. Furthermore, it exhibited also free radicals scavenging activity (in vitro. The observed anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of extract of Z. jujuba may be largely through the stabilization of mast cells by the membrane presence of phytoconstituents (steroidal saponins and flavonoids.

  5. Anti-anaphylactic effect of Euphorbia hirta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssouf, M S; Kaiser, P; Tahir, M; Singh, G D; Singh, S; Sharma, V K; Satti, N K; Haque, S E; Johri, R K

    2007-12-01

    The Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract (EH A001) was found to possess a prominent anti-anaphylactic activity. A preventive effect of EH-A001 given by oral route at dose from 100 to 1000 mg/kg was observed against compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis. At the same range of dose, EH-A001 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat and active paw anaphylaxis in mice. A suppressive effect of EH-A001 was observed on the release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 from anti-DNP-HSA activated rat peritoneal mast cells.

  6. Activity of Strongly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloborodov, Andrei

    This proposal is the continuation of a previous 3-year project that focused on modeling the nonthermal emission from magnetars and pulsars and testing the models against new observations, in particular by NuSTAR. The proposed project develops in two directions: (1) First-principle simulations of the magnetospheric electron-positron discharge using our code APERTURE (based on the particle-in-cell method), which is specifically designed for this purpose. Its performance is demonstrated by the first application to rotation-powered pulsars, and it can significantly advance our understanding of the magnetospheric activity of magnetars and pulsars. Our simulations involve a detailed implementation of radiative processes, tracking the emission and propagation of gammarays and production of electron-positron pairs. The results will provide new theoretical foundation for interpreting emission from the twisted magnetospheres of neutron stars. They will clarify, in particular, the radiative mechanism of magnetar bursts and persistent emission. (2) Investigation of magnetic field evolution inside neutron stars, which is ultimately responsible for driving the magnetospheric activity of magnetars and their surface heating. Our recent results suggest two novel phenomena in the solid crust of an active magnetar: thermoplastic waves and Hall-mediated avalanches. We propose to investigate scenarios for the global magnetic field evolution in the core and the crust, and its observables including (a) twisting of the external magnetosphere and the resulting nonthermal activity, (b) subsurface heating, and (c) sudden changes of the rotation rate. We will use our models and the rich accumulated data to disentangle the key dynamic processes inside magnetars. This analysis can constrain the magnetic fields hidden inside magnetars, the state of their core matter and its possible superfluidity.

  7. Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.

  8. The Activation of Free Dipeptides Promoted by Strong Activating Agents in Water Does not Yield Diketopiperazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Damien; Jepaul, Sandra; Liu, Ziwei; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The activation of dipeptides was studied in the perspective of the abiotic formation of oligopeptides of significant length as a requirement for secondary structure formation. The formation of piperazin-2,5-diones (DKP), previously considered as a dead end when activating free dipeptides, was shown in this work to be efficiently suppressed when using strong activating agents (e.g., carbodiimides). This behaviour was explained by the fast formation of a 5(4 H)-oxazolone intermediate at a rate that exceeds the time scale of the rotation of the peptide bond from the predominant trans-conformation into the cis-isomer required for DKP formation. No DKP was observed when using strong activating agents whereas phosphate mixed anhydrides or moderately activated esters were observed to predominantly yield DKP. The DKP side-reaction no longer constitutes a drawback for the C-terminus elongation of peptides. These results are considered as additional evidence that pathways involving strong activation are required to drive the emergence of living entities rather than close to equilibrium processes.

  9. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  10. Thermodynamic Study of Water Activity of Single Strong Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hashemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the natural decline of oil exploitation, the use of methods of oil recovery, has made significant progress. However, these methods are accompanied by accumulation and deposition of mineral deposits in oil field installations. In the present study, aqueous solutions, strontium sulfate, barium sulfate, manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate are studied, in terms of EUNIQUAC model and genetic algorithms. Based on the findings of this article, as temperature increases, in order to increase the solubility of the system, the ionic strength decreases; but with increasing pressure, the solubility of barium sulfate increases. Meanwhile, in this article, to evaluate water activity, aqueous solutions of manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate is studied.

  11. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  12. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, L; Fernandes, E; Escapa, A L; Fajardo, A; Aligue, R; Albericio, F; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Romano, A

    2011-07-13

    Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.

  13. Polarization and Strong Infra-Red Activity in Compressed Solid Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Ivo; Martin, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    Under a pressure of ~150 GPa solid molecular hydrogen undergoes a phase transition accompanied by a dramatic rise in infra-red absorption in the vibron frequency range. We use the Berry's phase approach to calculate the electric polarization in several candidate structures finding large, anisotropic dynamic charges and strongly IR-active vibron modes. The polarization is shown to be greatly affected by the overlap between the molecules in the crystal, so that the commonly used Clausius-Mossot...

  14. Routine daily physical activity and glucose variations are strongly coupled in adults with T1DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by altered glucose homeostasis resulting in wide glucose variations throughout a 24-h period. The relationship between routine daily physical activity and glucose variations has not been systematically investigated in adults with T1DM. The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the relationship between routine daily activity and glucose variations in a small group of adults with T1DM. Adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump were recruited for the study. Over a 3-day period, glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and routine daily physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer-based physical activity-monitoring band. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data for one 24-h period were used for analysis. Cross-correlation function and wavelet coherence analyses were employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Twelve subjects were included in the analysis. Cross-correlation function analysis revealed strong coupling between activity and glucose. Wavelet Coherence demonstrated that slower oscillations (120-340 min) of glucose and physical activity exhibited significantly greater coherence (F = 12.6, P < 0.0001) than faster oscillations (10 and 120 min). Physical activity and glucose demonstrate strong time and frequency-dependent coupling throughout a 24-h time period in adults with T1DM. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Lisa S; Muhs, Stefanie; Schiewek, Johanna; Grüb, Saskia; Nalaskowski, Marcus; Lin, Yuan-Na; Wikman, Harriet; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Lange, Tobias; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Konietzny, Anja; Mikhaylova, Marina; Windhorst, Sabine

    2017-12-15

    High expression of the actin bundling protein Fascin increases the malignancy of tumor cells. Here we show that fascin expression is up-regulated in more malignant sub-cell lines of MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to parental cells. Since also parental MDA-MB-231 cells exhibit high fascin levels, increased fascin expression was termed as "hyperexpression". To examine the effect of fascin hyperexpression, fascin was hyperexpressed in parental MDA-MB-231 cells and metastasis was analyzed in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. In addition, the effect of fascin mutants with inactive or constitutively active actin bundling activity was examined. Unexpectedly, we found that hyperexpression of both, wildtype (wt) and mutant fascin strongly increased metastasis in vivo , showing that the effect of fascin hyperexpression did not depend on its actin bundling activity. Cellular assays revealed that hyperexpression of wt and mutant fascin increased adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells while transmigration and proliferation were not affected. Since it has been shown that fascin controls adhesion by directly interacting with microtubules ( MTs), we analyzed if fascin hyperexpression affects MT dynamics. We found that at high concentrations fascin significantly increased MT dynamics in cells and in cell-free approaches. In summary our data show that strong expression of fascin in breast cancer cells increases metastasis independent of its actin bundling activity. Thus, it seems that the mechanism of fascin-stimulated metastasis depends on its concentration.

  16. Drag Effect of Kompsat-1 During Strong Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the orbital variation of the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-1(KOMPSAT-1 in a strong space environment due to satellite drag by solar and geomagnetic activities. The satellite drag usually occurs slowly, but becomes serious satellite drag when the space environment suddenly changes via strong solar activity like a big flare eruption or coronal mass ejections(CMEs. Especially, KOMPSAT-1 as a low earth orbit satellite has a distinct increase of the drag acceleration by the variations of atmospheric friction. We consider factors of solar activity to have serious effects on the satellite drag from two points of view. One is an effect of high energy radiation when the flare occurs in the Sun. This radiation heats and expands the upper atmosphere of the Earth as the number of neutral particles is suddenly increased. The other is an effect of Joule and precipitating particle heating caused by current of plasma and precipitation of particles during geomagnetic storms by CMEs. It also affects the density of neutral particles by heating the upper atmosphere. We investigate the satellite drag acceleration associated with the two factors for five events selected based on solar and geomagnetic data from 2001 to 2002. The major results can be summarized as follows. First, the drag acceleration started to increase with solar EUV radiation with the best cross-correlation (r = 0.92 for 1 day delayed F10.7. Second, the drag acceleration and Dst index have similar patterns when the geomagnetic storm is dominant and the drag acceleration abruptly increases during the strong geomagnetic storm. Third, the background variation of the drag accelerations is governed by the solar radiation, while their short term (less than a day variations is governed by geomagnetic storms.

  17. Siderophoregenic Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Isolated From Wheat Rhizosphere With Strong PGPR Activity

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    Chaudhari Bhushan, L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two bacterial isolates were obtained from wheat rhizosphere in black cotton soils of North Maharashtra region and subsequently tested for in-vitro siderophore production. Wheat isolate SCW1, being a strong siderophore producer, was selected, identified and confirmed as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The strain produced catechol type of siderophores during exponential phase which was influenced by iron content of medium. Seed bacterization with siderophoregenic A. calcoaceticus improved plant growth in pot and field studies. Such PGPR activity was attributed to the ability of strain to solubilise phosphates and produce IAA. Siderophore mediated antagonism was observed against common phytopathogens viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Colletotrichum capsicum and Fusarium oxysporum.

  18. Strong Optical Activity of HDE 245770/A0535+26 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Gualandi, Roberto; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2010-03-01

    The O9.7IIIe star HDE 245770, nicknamed Flavia' star, is the optical counterpart of the X-ray pulsar A0535+26. On March 19, 2010 from UT 18hh 45mm 37ss to 19hh 28mm 07ss at the Loiano 1.52 m telescope we performed optical spectroscopy of this star in the range 330 - 785 nm [Delta(lambda) from about 0.4 to 0.3 nm] by using the BFOSC (Bologna Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera). The first analysis of the spectra shows a strong optical activity of the star.

  19. Arginine-rich histones have strong antiviral activity for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; Tripathi, Shweta; White, Mitchell; Qi, Li; Taubenberger, Jeffery; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2015-10-01

    While histones are best known for DNA binding and transcription-regulating properties, they also have antimicrobial activity against a broad range of potentially pathogenic organisms. Histones are abundant in neutrophil extracellular traps, where they play an important role in NET-mediated antimicrobial killing. Here, we show anti-influenza activity of histones against both seasonal H3N2 and H1N1, but not pandemic H1N1. The arginine rich histones, H3 and H4, had greater neutralizing and viral aggregating activity than the lysine rich histones, H2A and H2B. Of all core histones, histone H4 is most potent in neutralizing IAV, and incubation with IAV with histone H4 results in a decrease in uptake and viral replication by epithelial cells when measured by qRT-PCR. The antiviral activity of histone H4 is mediated principally by direct effects on viral particles. Histone H4 binds to IAV as assessed by ELISA and co-sedimentation of H4 with IAV. H4 also induces aggregation, as assessed by confocal microscopy and light transmission assays. Despite strong antiviral activity against the seasonal IAV strains, H4 was inactive against pandemic H1N1. These findings indicate a possible role for histones in the innate immune response against IAV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibit strong activities, even though they belong to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Thirukonda, Gnanasagar Janardhanan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Yamauchi, Hirose; Suzuki, Nobuo; Li, Feng; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2017-05-15

    In mammalian assay systems, calcitonin peptides of non-mammalian species exhibit stronger activity than those of mammals. Recently, comparative analyses of a wide-range of species revealed that platypus and opossum, which diverged early from other mammals, possess calcitonins that are more similar in amino acid sequence to those of non-mammals than mammals. We herein determined whether platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibit similar biological activities to those of non-mammalian calcitonins using an assay of actin ring formation in mouse osteoclasts. We also compared the dose-dependent effects of each calcitonin on cAMP production in osteoclasts. Consistent with the strong similarities in their primary amino acid sequences, platypus and opossum calcitonins disrupted actin rings with similar efficacies to that of salmon calcitonin. Human calcitonin exhibited the weakest inhibitory potency and required a 100-fold higher concentration (EC 50 =3×10 -11 M) than that of salmon calcitonin (EC 50 =2×10 -13 M). Platypus and opossum calcitonins also induced cAMP production in osteoclast cultures with the same efficacies as that of salmon calcitonin. Thus, platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibited strong biological activities, similar to those of the salmon. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed that platypus and opossum calcitonins clustered with the salmon-type group but not human- or porcine-type group. These results suggest that platypus and opossum calcitonins are classified into the salmon-type group, in terms of the biological activities and amino acid sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Yucca gloriosa: a source of phenolic derivatives with strong antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarello, Carla; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Montoro, Paola; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Benidze, Mariam; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2007-08-08

    On the basis of the biological activities exhibited by the phenolic constituents of Yucca schidigera, the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Yucca gloriosa roots was evaluated in the TEAC assay. The strong activity exerted by this extract prompted investigation of its phenolic constituents, yielding three new phenolic derivatives, gloriosaols C, D, and E, along with gloriosaols A and B previously isolated from Y. gloriosa roots and yuccaols C-E isolated from Y. schidigera. ESIMS and NMR data of gloriosaols C-E closely resembled those reported for gloriosaols A and B, two diasteroisomers characterized by unusual spirostructures. Careful inspection of ROESY spectra revealed that gloriosaols C-E are diastereoisomers of gloriosaols A and B. A possible assignment of the relative configuration of gloriosaols C-E, derived according to an integrated NMR-quantum mechanical (QM) approach, which was already applied to the determination of the stereostructures of gloriosaols A and B, is also proposed. Gloriosaols A-E exhibited potent antioxidant activity measured by the TEAC assay, showing the potential use of Y. gloriosa as a source of antioxidant principles.

  2. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane

  3. Chandra and ALMA observations of the nuclear activity in two strongly lensed star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardi, M.; Enia, A. F. M.; Negrello, M.; Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Burkutean, S.; Danese, L.; Zotti, G. De

    2018-02-01

    Aim. According to coevolutionary scenarios, nuclear activity and star formation play relevant roles in the early stages of galaxy formation. We aim at identifying them in high-redshift galaxies by exploiting high-resolution and high-sensitivity X-ray and millimeter-wavelength data to confirm the presence or absence of star formation and nuclear activity and describe their relative roles in shaping the spectral energy distributions and in contributing to the energy budgets of the galaxies. Methods: We present the data, model, and analysis in the X-ray and millimeter (mm) bands for two strongly lensed galaxies, SDP.9 (HATLAS J090740.0-004200) and SDP.11 (HATLAS J091043.1-000322), which we selected in the Herschel-ATLAS catalogs for their excess emission in the mid-IR regime at redshift ≳1.5. This emission suggests nuclear activity in the early stages of galaxy formation. We observed both of them with Chandra ACIS-S in the X-ray regime and analyzed the high-resolution mm data that are available in the ALMA Science Archive for SDP.9. By combining the information available in mm, optical, and X-ray bands, we reconstructed the source morphology. Results: Both targets were detected in the X-ray, which strongly indicates highly obscured nuclear activity. ALMA observations for SDP.9 for the continuum and CO(6-5) spectral line with high resolution (0.02 arcsec corresponding to 65 pc at the distance of the galaxy) allowed us to estimate the lensed galaxy redshift to a better accuracy than pre-ALMA estimates (1.5753 ± 0.0003) and to model the emission of the optical, millimetric, and X-ray band for this galaxy. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is generated in the nuclear environment, which strongly supports that this object has nuclear activity. On the basis of the X-ray data, we attempt an estimate of the black hole properties in these galaxies. Conclusions: By taking advantage of the lensing magnification, we identify weak nuclear activity associated with high

  4. A polysaccharide from Armillaria mellea exhibits strong in vitro anticancer activity via apoptosis-involved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhou, Jinxu; Lang, Yaoguo; Yao, Lei; Xu, Hai; Shi, Hubo; Xu, Shidong

    2012-11-01

    Armillaria mellea is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal and edible fungus. In this study, we purified a water-soluble polysaccharide (AMP) from the fruiting bodies of this fungus. AMP contained 94.8% carbohydrate, 2.3% uronic acid and 0.5% protein. Its molecular weight was determined as 4.6 × 10⁵ Da, as determined by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that AMP was mainly composed of d-glucose. In vitro assay, AMP exhibited a potent tumor growth inhibitory effect on A549 cells, and induced cell cycle disruption in the G0/G1 phase, accompanied by an increment of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, AMP induced the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, thus leading to cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMP possesses strong antitumor activities through the mitochondria dependent pathway and activation of caspase cascade through cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Construction and analysis of a bacterial community exhibiting strong chitinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuaki; Kato, Yuichi; Fukamachi, Ayabi; Nogawa, Masahiro; Taguchi, Goro; Shimosaka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    A stable bacterial community expressing strong chitinolytic activity was constructed by mixing and cultivating chitinolytic bacteria collected from different natural sources. The DNA fragment pattern, after PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes using total DNA prepared from whole cells, indicated that the community was composed of four dominant bacterial species. All four species were isolated on agar medium, and one strain, SAY3, was deduced to be a novel species belonging to a new genus based on the 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence. The other strains showed high similarity in their 16S rRNA sequences to those of previously identified bacteria (Acinetobacter and Microbacterium). Strain SAY3 degraded and utilized larger particles of chitin faster than the community, indicating that it plays an important role in the chitin degradation conferred by the community.

  7. In situ synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-graphene oxide nanocomposites with strong SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zengliang; Hao, Xiaolong; Xu, Chunxiang

    2018-01-01

    Without any capping agents or multistep process, a simple and green method for in situ synthesis of the Ag nanoparticles-graphene oxide sheets (Ag NPs-GO) nanocomposites was proposed. The Ag NPs were well-distributed on the surface of the GO sheets with a uniform size. The formation mechanism of the resulting nanocomposites was discussed. The presence of Ag NPs enhanced the Raman signal of GO in the resulting nanocomposites with an enhancement factor (EF) of 43. The resulting nanocomposites exhibited strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity toward rhodamine 6G (R6G) with an EF of 1.4 × 107. The synergistic effects of the R6G molecules adsorbed on GO sheets and the coupled EM field caused by the Ag NPs lead to the significant SERS enhancement. This result makes the resulting Ag NPs-GO nanocomposites a more promising SERS substrate.

  8. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  9. CDK1 and CDK2 activity is a strong predictor of renal cell carcinoma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Fumiya; Takaha, Natsuki; Oishi, Masakatsu; Ueda, Takashi; Nakamura, Terukazu; Naitoh, Yasuyuki; Naya, Yoshio; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Matsushima, Tomoko; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ishihara, Hideki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2014-11-01

    In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the prediction of metastasis via tumor prognostic markers remains a major problem. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 activity as a prognostic marker in human RCC. Surgical specimens were obtained from 125 patients with RCC without metastasis. Protein expression and kinase activity of CDKs were analyzed using a newly developed assay system named C2P (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). We then examined the specific activities (SAs) of CDK1 and CDK2 and calculated CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio in RCC. Also, risk score (RS) was examined. A total of 125 cases were tested, though 34 cases were excluded because of low sample quality (25 cases) and assay failure (9 cases). In total, 91 cases were analyzed. They included 68 male and 23 female patients, ranging in age from 19 to 83 years. At a median follow-up of 36 months (1-109M), tumor with low CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio showed significantly better 5-year recurrence-free survival than those with high CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.00141). Also, RS enabled the classification of RCCs into high-risk and low-risk groups, and patients with tumors classified as low RS showed better recurrence-free survival than patients with tumors with high RS (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.0141). CDK1SA of tumors and the CDK2SA are both associated with recurrence and prognosis. CDK-based risk demonstrated is strongly associated with clinical outcome. CDK-based risk should be an accurate system for predicting recurrence and survival for planning follow-up. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Zachary S; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R; Echegoyen, Luis; Llano, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4(+) T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Aluminum nanostructures with strong visible-range SERS activity for versatile micropatterning of molecular security labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Chee Leng; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Wang, Jing; Lee, Yih Hong; Jiang, Ruibin; Yang, Yijie; Yang, Zhe; Phang, In Yee; Ling, Xing Yi

    2018-01-03

    The application of aluminum (Al)-based nanostructures for visible-range plasmonics, especially for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), currently suffers from inconsistent local electromagnetic field distributions and/or inhomogeneous distribution of probe molecules. Herein, we lithographically fabricate structurally uniform Al nanostructures which enable homogeneous adsorption of various probe molecules. Individual Al nanostructures exhibit strong local electromagnetic field enhancements, in turn leading to intense SERS activity. The average SERS enhancement factor (EF) for individual nanostructures exceeds 10 4 for non-resonant probe molecules in the visible spectrum. These Al nanostructures also retain more than 70% of their original SERS intensities after one-month storage, displaying superb stability under ambient conditions. We further achieve tunable polarization-dependent SERS responses using anisotropic Al nanostructures, facilitating the design of sophisticated SERS-based security labels. Our micron-sized security label comprises two-tier security features, including a machine-readable hybrid quick-response (QR) code overlaid with a set of ciphertexts. Our work demonstrates the versatility of Al-based structures in low-cost modern chemical nano-analytics and forgery protection.

  13. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  14. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  15. Noise-induced effects on multicellular biopacemaker spontaneous activity: Differences between weak and strong pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghighi, Alireza; Comtois, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Self-organization of spontaneous activity of a network of active elements is important to the general theory of reaction-diffusion systems as well as for pacemaking activity to initiate beating of the heart. Monolayer cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, consisting of resting and pacemaker cells, exhibit spontaneous activation of their electrical activity. Similarly, one proposed approach to the development of biopacemakers as an alternative to electronic pacemakers for cardiac therapy is based on heterogeneous cardiac cells with resting and spontaneously beating phenotypes. However, the combined effect of pacemaker characteristics, density, and spatial distribution of the pacemaker cells on spontaneous activity is unknown. Using a simple stochastic pattern formation algorithm, we previously showed a clear nonlinear dependency of spontaneous activity (occurrence and amplitude of spontaneous period) on the spatial patterns of pacemaker cells. In this study, we show that this behavior is dependent on the pacemaker cell characteristics, with weaker pacemaker cells requiring higher density and larger clusters to sustain multicellular activity. These multicellular structures also demonstrated an increased sensitivity to voltage noise that favored spontaneous activity at lower density while increasing temporal variation in the period of activity. This information will help researchers overcome the current limitations of biopacemakers.

  16. Strong complement activation after acute ischemic stroke is associated with unfavorable outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Széplaki, Gábor; Szegedi, Róbert; Hirschberg, Kristóf

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to data from animal models, complement activation plays a major role in the brain injury after acute ischemic stroke. Scarce findings are, however, available on the detection of complement activation products in stroke patients. METHODS: We have measured plasma levels...... of the five complement activation products (C1rC1sC1inh, C4d, C3a, C5a and SC5b-9) in samples of 26 patients with ischemic stroke upon admission. Twenty-six patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis served as patient controls. RESULTS: Levels of two activation products (SC5b-9 and C4d)) were significantly...... elevated in the plasma of stroke patients, SC5b-9 levels, exhibited significant positive correlation with the clinical severity of stroke, the severity of neurological deficit, as well as with the level of functional disability. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that complement activation plays an active...

  17. Characterization of a novel β-glucosidase from a compost microbial metagenome with strong transglycosylation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Miyazaki, Kentaro; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2013-06-21

    The β-glucosidase encoded by the td2f2 gene was isolated from a compost microbial metagenomic library by functional screening. The protein was identified to be a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. The recombinant β-glucosidase, Td2F2, exhibited enzymatic activity with β-glycosidic substrates, with preferences for glucose, fucose, and galactose. Hydrolysis occurred at the nonreducing end and in an exo manner. The order of catalytic efficiency for glucodisaccharides and cellooligosaccharides was sophorose > cellotetraose > cellotriose > laminaribiose > cellobiose > cellopentaose > gentiobiose, respectively. Intriguingly, the p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside hydrolysis activity of Td2F2 was activated by various monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. At a D-glucose concentration of 1000 mM, enzyme activity was 6.7-fold higher than that observed in the absence of D-glucose. With 31.3 mM D-glucose, Td2F2 catalyzed transglycosylation to generate sophorose, laminaribiose, cellobiose, and gentiobiose. Transglycosylation products were detected under all activated conditions, suggesting that the activity enhancement induced by monosaccharides and sugar alcohols may be due to the transglycosylation activity of the enzyme. These results show that Td2F2 obtained from a compost microbial metagenome may be a potent candidate for industrial applications.

  18. Characterization of a Novel β-Glucosidase from a Compost Microbial Metagenome with Strong Transglycosylation Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Miyazaki, Kentaro; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2013-01-01

    The β-glucosidase encoded by the td2f2 gene was isolated from a compost microbial metagenomic library by functional screening. The protein was identified to be a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. The recombinant β-glucosidase, Td2F2, exhibited enzymatic activity with β-glycosidic substrates, with preferences for glucose, fucose, and galactose. Hydrolysis occurred at the nonreducing end and in an exo manner. The order of catalytic efficiency for glucodisaccharides and cellooligosaccharides was sophorose > cellotetraose > cellotriose > laminaribiose > cellobiose > cellopentaose > gentiobiose, respectively. Intriguingly, the p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside hydrolysis activity of Td2F2 was activated by various monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. At a d-glucose concentration of 1000 mm, enzyme activity was 6.7-fold higher than that observed in the absence of d-glucose. With 31.3 mm d-glucose, Td2F2 catalyzed transglycosylation to generate sophorose, laminaribiose, cellobiose, and gentiobiose. Transglycosylation products were detected under all activated conditions, suggesting that the activity enhancement induced by monosaccharides and sugar alcohols may be due to the transglycosylation activity of the enzyme. These results show that Td2F2 obtained from a compost microbial metagenome may be a potent candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23661705

  19. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show strong activity to stimulate Th-1 immune response against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Yousef; Moradi, Bagher; Fasihi-Ramandi, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    Many materials such as aluminum hydroxide have been tried as adjuvants to compensate low inherent immunogenicity of subunit vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specific immune response following the administration of aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with EsxV antigen. The physiochemical properties of the nanoparticle were characterized in vitro. After subcutaneous immunization, cytokine secretion patterns including IFN-gama,IL-4, and TGF-beta levels were measured by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aluminum hydroxide-NPs were demonstrated excellent effects to raise of IFN-γ secretion in compare to EsxV alone. Administration of aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles stimulates strong cellular immune response and could be considered as appropriate adjuvant against TB infection.

  20. Steroid Alkaloids from Holarrhena africana with Strong Activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okeke Nnadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In our continued search for natural compounds with activity against Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, “sleeping sickness”, we have investigated extracts from the leaves and bark of the West African Holarrhena africana (syn. Holarrhena floribunda; Apocynaceae. The extracts and their alkaloid-enriched fractions displayed promising in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei rhodesiense (Tbr; East African HAT. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the alkaloid-rich fractions resulted in the isolation of 17 steroid alkaloids, one nitrogen-free steroid and one alkaloid-like non-steroid. Impressive activities (IC50 in µM against Tbr were recorded for 3β-holaphyllamine (0.40 ± 0.28, 3α-holaphyllamine (0.37 ± 0.16, 3β-dihydroholaphyllamine (0.67 ± 0.03, N-methylholaphyllamine (0.08 ± 0.01, conessimine (0.17 ± 0.08, conessine (0.42 ± 0.09, isoconessimine (0.17 ± 0.11 and holarrhesine (0.12 ± 0.08 with selectivity indices ranging from 13 to 302. Based on comparison of the structures of this congeneric series of steroid alkaloids and their activities, structure-activity relationships (SARs could be established. It was found that a basic amino group at position C-3 of the pregnane or pregn-5-ene steroid nucleus is required for a significant anti-trypanosomal activity. The mono-methylated amino group at C-3 represents an optimum for activity. ∆5,6 unsaturation slightly increased the activity while hydrolysis of C-12β ester derivatives led to a loss of activity. An additional amino group at C-20 engaged in a pyrrolidine ring closed towards C-18 significantly increased the selectivity index of the compounds. Our findings provide useful empirical data for further development of steroid alkaloids as a novel class of anti-trypanosomal compounds which represent a promising starting point towards new drugs to combat human African trypanosomiasis.

  1. Bacterial diversity is strongly associated with historical penguin activity in an Antarctic lake sediment profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Renbin; Shi, Yu; Ma, Dawei; Wang, Can; Xu, Hua; Chu, Haiyan

    2015-11-25

    Current penguin activity in Antarctica affects the geochemistry of sediments and their microbial communities; the effects of historical penguin activity are less well understood. Here, bacterial diversity in ornithogenic sediment was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The relative abundances of dominant phyla were controlled by the amount of historical penguin guano deposition. Significant positive correlations were found between both the bacterial richness and diversity, and the relative penguin number (p penguin activity drove the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities. The lowest relative abundances of individual phyla corresponded to lowest number of penguin population at 1,800-2,300 yr BP during a drier and colder period; the opposite was observed during a moister and warmer climate (1,400-1,800 yr BP). This study shows that changes in the climate over millennia affected penguin populations and the outcomes of these changes affect the sediment bacterial community today.

  2. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  3. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  4. Acrolein contributes strongly to antimicrobial and heterocyclic amine transformation activities of reuterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Christina; Schwab, Clarissa; Zhang, Jianbo; Stevens, Marc J A; Bieri, Corinne; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; McNeill, Kristopher; Sturla, Shana J; Lacroix, Christophe

    2016-11-07

    Glycerol/diol dehydratases catalyze the conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), the basis of a multi-component system called reuterin. Reuterin has antimicrobial properties and undergoes chemical conjugation with dietary heterocyclic amines (HCAs). In aqueous solution reuterin is in dynamic equilibrium with the toxicant acrolein. It was the aim of this study to investigate the extent of acrolein formation at various physiological conditions and to determine its role in biological and chemical activities. The application of a combined novel analytical approach including IC-PAD, LC-MS and NMR together with specific acrolein scavengers suggested for the first time that acrolein, and not 3-HPA, is the active compound responsible for HCA conjugation and antimicrobial activity attributed to reuterin. As formation of the HCA conjugate was observed in vivo, our results imply that acrolein is formed in the human gut with implications on detoxification of HCAs. We propose to re-define the term reuterin to include acrolein.

  5. Active gas adsorption-promoted evaporation of tungsten and niobium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Mikhajlovskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Field-ion methods and pulsed mass-spectrometeric analysis are used to study field evaporation of tungsten and niobium affected by nitrogen and hydrogen. Active gas-promoted evaporation is found to take place at field intensities high enough for the field ionization of active gases. The evaporating field intensity is established to increase from 1.45x10 8 to 5.5x10 8 V/cm while passing from continuous to pulsed conditions of evaporation, this testifies to the change of the mechanism of the promoted evaporation. Under the effect of active gases, the evaporation rate essentially depends on the surface state. It is shown that in the microcrystals irradiated with 1-3 kV helium ions, the dependence of the evaporation rate of Nb in hydrogen on the field intensity gets monotonous. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the recombination model of a promoted evaporation [ru

  6. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  7. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  8. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  9. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, {beta}-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  10. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, β-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  11. Strong geomagnetic activity forecast by neural networks under dominant southern orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2014), s. 589-598 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * interplanetary magnetic field * artificial neural network * ejection of coronal mass * X-ray flares Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  12. The Activation Mechanism of Bi3+ Ions to Rutile Flotation in a Strong Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead hydroxyl compounds are known as rutile flotation of the traditional activated component, but the optimum pH range for flotation is 2–3 using styryl phosphoric acid (SPA as collector, without lead hydroxyl compounds in slurry solution. In this study, Bi3+ ions as a novel activator was investigated. The results revealed that the presence of Bi3+ ions increased the surface potential, due to the specific adsorption of hydroxyl compounds, which greatly increases the adsorption capacity of SPA on the rutile surface. Bi3+ ions increased the activation sites through the form of hydroxyl species adsorbing on the rutile surface and occupying the steric position of the original Ca2+ ions. The proton substitution reaction occurred between the hydroxyl species of Bi3+ ions (Bi(OHn+(3−n and the hydroxylated rutile surface, producing the compounds of Ti-O-Bi2+. The micro-flotation tests results suggested that Bi3+ ions could improve the flotation recovery of rutile from 61% to 90%, and from 61% to 64% for Pb2+ ions.

  13. Cyclometalated Ruthenium(II) Anthraquinone Complexes Exhibit Strong Anticancer Activity in Hypoxic Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Huang, Huaiyi; Wang, Jinquan; Zhao, Donglei; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-10-19

    Hypoxia is the critical feature of the tumor microenvironment that is known to lead to resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Six novel ruthenium(II) anthraquinone complexes were designed and synthesized; they exhibit similar or superior cytotoxicity compared to cisplatin in hypoxic HeLa, A549, and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Their anticancer activities are related to their lipophilicity and cellular uptake; therefore, these physicochemical properties of the complexes can be changed by modifying the ligands to obtain better anticancer candidates. Complex 1, the most potent member of the series, is highly active against hypoxic HeLa cancer cells (IC50 =0.53 μM). This complex likely has 46-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 =24.62 μM) in HeLa cells. This complex tends to accumulate in the mitochondria and the nucleus of hypoxic HeLa cells. Further mechanistic studies show that complex 1 induced cell apoptosis during hypoxia through multiple pathways, including those of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the inhibition of DNA replication and HIF-1α expression, making it an outstanding candidate for further in vivo studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  15. Elk3 from hamster-a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G.M.; Weilguny, D.; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c......-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3...

  16. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, ppelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, ppelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  17. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient...

  18. Novel ruthenium methylcyclopentadienyl complex bearing a bipyridine perfluorinated ligand shows strong activity towards colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo G; Brás, Ana Rita; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Sanches, Anabela; Robalo, M Paula; Avecilla, Fernando; Moreira, Tiago; Garcia, M Helena; Haukka, Matti; Preto, Ana; Valente, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Three new compounds have been synthesized and completely characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The new bipyridine-perfluorinated ligand L1 and the new organometallic complex [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 ) 2 Cl] (Ru1) crystalize in the centrosymmetric triclinic space group P1¯. Analysis of the phenotypic effects induced by both organometallic complexes Ru1 and [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 )(L1)][CF 3 SO 3 ] (Ru2), on human colorectal cancer cells (SW480 and RKO) survival, showed that Ru2 has a potent anti-proliferative activity, 4-6 times higher than cisplatin, and induce apoptosis in these cells. Data obtained in a noncancerous cell line derived from normal colon epithelial cells (NCM460) revealed an intrinsic selectivity of Ru2 for malignant cells at low concentrations, showing the high potential of this compound as a selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  20. Generalized-active-space pair-density functional theory: an efficient method to study large, strongly correlated, conjugated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Predicting ground- and excited-state properties of open-shell organic molecules by electronic structure theory can be challenging because an accurate treatment has to correctly describe both static and dynamic electron correlation. Strongly correlated systems, i.e. , systems with near-degeneracy correlation effects, are particularly troublesome. Multiconfigurational wave function methods based on an active space are adequate in principle, but it is impractical to capture most of the dynamic correlation in these methods for systems characterized by many active electrons. We recently developed a new method called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), that combines the advantages of wave function theory and density functional theory to provide a more practical treatment of strongly correlated systems. Here we present calculations of the singlet-triplet gaps in oligoacenes ranging from naphthalene to dodecacene. Calculations were performed for unprecedently large orbitally optimized active spaces of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals, and we test a range of active spaces and active space partitions, including four kinds of frontier orbital partitions. We show that MC-PDFT can predict the singlet-triplet splittings for oligoacenes consistent with the best available and much more expensive methods, and indeed MC-PDFT may constitute the benchmark against which those other models should be compared, given the absence of experimental data.

  1. The hTAF II 68-TEC fusion protein functions as a strong transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sol; Lee, Hye Jin; Jun, Hee Jung; Kim, Jungho

    2008-06-01

    Human extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is caused by a chromosomal translocation that involves TEC (translocated in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma), and either EWS (Ewing's sarcoma) or hTAF(II)68 (human TATA-binding protein-associated factor II 68), which generates EWS-TEC or hTAF(II)68-TEC fusion proteins, respectively. Although there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing EWS-TEC, there is relatively little known about the biological function of hTAF(II)68-TEC. We have examined the functional consequences of the fusion of the amino terminal domain (NTD) of hTAF(II)68 to TEC in EMC. The chimeric gene encodes a nuclear protein that binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as parental TEC. Nuclear localization of hTAF(II)68-TEC was dependent on the DNA binding domain, and we identified a cluster of basic amino acids in the DNA binding domain, KRRR, that specifically mediate the nuclear localization of hTAF(II)68-TEC. The transactivation activity of hTAF(II)68-TEC was higher than TEC towards a known target promoter that contained several TEC binding sites. Finally, deletion analysis of hTAF(II)68-TEC indicated that the hTAF(II)68 NTD, and the AF1 and AF2 domains of hTAF(II)68-TEC are necessary for full transactivation potential. These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(9;17) translocation may be due to the hTAF(II)68-TEC chimeric protein and that fusion of the hTAF(II)68 NTD to the TEC protein produces a gain of function chimeric product. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Strong linkage between active microbial communities and microbial carbon usage in a deglaciated terrain of the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Gyeong, H. R.; Lee, Y. K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play pivotal roles in ecosystem development and carbon cycling in newly exposed glacier forelands. However, little is known about carbon utilization pattern by metabolically active microbes over the course of ecosystem succession in these nutrient-poor environments. We investigated RNA-based microbial community dynamics and its relation to microbial carbon usage along the chronosequence of a High Arctic glacier foreland. Among microbial taxa surveyed (bacteria, archaea and fungi), bacteria are among the most metabolically active taxa with a dominance of Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. There was a strong association between microbial carbon usage and active Actinobacterial communities, suggesting that member of Actinobacteria are actively involved in organic carbon degradation in glacier forelands. Both bacterial community and microbial carbon usage are converged towards later stage of succession, indicating that the composition of soil organic carbon plays important roles in structuring bacterial decomposer communities during ecosystem development.

  3. Intracellular calcium oscillations in strongly metastatic human breast and prostate cancer cells: control by voltage-gated sodium channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaner, Nahit; Onkal, Rustem; Fraser, Scott P; Pristerá, Alessandro; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2016-10-01

    The possible association of intracellular Ca 2+ with metastasis in human cancer cells is poorly understood. We have studied Ca 2+ signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cell lines of strongly versus weakly metastatic potential in a comparative approach. Intracellular free Ca 2+ was measured using a membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca 2+ -indicator dye (Fluo-4 AM) and confocal microscopy. Spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations were observed in a proportion of strongly metastatic human prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3M and MDA-MB-231, respectively). In contrast, no such oscillations were observed in weakly/non metastatic LNCaP and MCF-7 cells, although a rise in the resting Ca 2+ level could be induced by applying a high-K + solution. Various parameters of the oscillations depended on extracellular Ca 2+ and voltage-gated Na + channel activity. Treatment with either tetrodotoxin (a general blocker of voltage-gated Na + channels) or ranolazine (a blocker of the persistent component of the channel current) suppressed the Ca 2+ oscillations. It is concluded that the functional voltage-gated Na + channel expression in strongly metastatic cancer cells makes a significant contribution to generation of oscillatory intracellular Ca 2+ activity. Possible mechanisms and consequences of the Ca 2+ oscillations are discussed.

  4. Strong Transverse Photosphere Magnetic Fields and Twist in Light Bridge Dividing Delta Sunspot of Active Region 12673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimin; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Liu, Chang; Ahn, Kwangsu; Toriumi, Shin; Cao, Wenda

    2018-01-01

    Solar Active Region (AR) 12673 is the most flare productive AR in the solar cycle 24. It produced four X-class flares including the X9.3 flare on 06 September 2017 and the X8.2 limb event on 10 September. Sun and Norton (2017) reported that this region had an unusual high rate of flux emergence, while Huang et al. (2018) reported that the X9.3 flare had extremely strong white-light flare emissions. Yang at al. (2017) described the detailed morphological evolution of this AR. In this report, we focus on usual behaviors of the light bridge (LB) dividing the delta configuration of this AR, namely the strong magnetic fields (above 5500 G) in the LB and apparent photospheric twist as shown in observations with a 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution obtained by the 1.6m telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory.

  5. Glucose Variations and Activity Are Strongly Coupled in Sleep and Wake in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Quinn, Lauretta

    2017-05-01

    Glucose variations are common throughout sleep and wakefulness in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objective of this investigation was to characterize the time-varying coupling between glucose and unstructured physical activity over a 60-hr period in young adults with T1DM. The hypothesis was that coupling would differ during sleep versus wakefulness and would exhibit circadian variations. Young adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump participated in the study. Glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system, and activity was assessed using an activity-monitoring band worn on the nondominant wrist. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data across a continuous 60-hr period were used for analysis. Wavelet coherence analysis was employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Cosinor analysis was used to assess whether glucose/activity coherence exhibited significant circadian variations. Participants comprised 23 adults, aged 18-30 years, with T1DM. Coherence analysis demonstrated substantial coupling between physical activity and glucose variations during both wakefulness and sleep. For rapid (10-30 min) fluctuations, mean coherence was higher during sleep than wakefulness ( F = 10.86, p = .003). Rapid glucose variations consistently led to changes in activity ( p = .001) during sleep but not during wake. Cosinor analysis revealed significant circadian modulation of glucose/activity coupling, especially for fluctuation periods 2-4 hr. Unstructured physical activity and glucose variations demonstrated strong time- and frequency-dependent coupling over a 60-hr period in young adults with T1DM, with sleep/wake differences and circadian modulation evident in this relationship.

  6. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  7. Triterpene saponins of Quillaja saponaria show strong aphicidal and deterrent activity against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Ellen; Smagghe, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan; Geelen, Danny

    2012-02-01

    Saponins are a class of secondary plant metabolites consisting of a sugar moiety glycosidically linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (sapogenin) that often possess insecticidal activities. Four saponins were selected: two triterpene saponins, Q. saponaria saponins and aescin, and two steroidal saponins, digitonin and diosgenin. Their effects were investigated on an important pest species and a model piercing-sucking insect, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. The triterpene Q. saponaria saponins bark saponin received special attention because of its high activity. Aphids were challenged by oral and contact exposure to demonstrate aphicidal activities, and in choice experiments to support use as a natural deterrent. When aphids were exposed to supplemented artificial diet for 3 days, a strong aphicidal activity was recorded for three of the four saponins, with an LC50 of 0.55 mg mL(-1) for Q. saponaria saponins, 0.62 mg mL(-1) for aescin and 0.45 mg mL(-1) for digitonin. The LT50 values ranged between 1 and 4 days, depending on the dose. For diosgenin, only low toxicity (14%) was scored for concentrations up to 5 mg mL(-1). In choice experiments with treated diet, a deterrence index of 0.97 was scored for Q. saponaria saponins at 1 mg mL(-1). In contrast, direct contact showed no repellent effect. Spraying of faba bean plants with Q. saponaria saponins resulted in an LC50 of 8.2 mg mL(-1). Finally, histological analysis in aphids fed with Q. saponaria saponins demonstrated strong aberrations of the aphid gut epithelium, and exposure of midgut CF-203 cell lines to Q. saponaria saponins in vitro confirmed the cytotoxic effect. The present insect experiments provide strong evidence that saponins, as tested here with triterpene Q. saponaria saponins, can be useful as natural aphicides and deterrents. Furthermore, the insect midgut epithelium is suggested to be a primary target of saponin activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.

    2017-12-01

    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  9. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  10. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  11. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  12. The Shewanella algae strain YM8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against Aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong eGong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. Controlling these pests is a challenge. In this study, the Shewanella algae strain YM8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus pathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from YM8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. We obtained authentic reference standards for six of the VOCs; these all significantly reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination in Aspergillus; dimethyl trisulfide and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-phenol showed the strongest inhibitory activity. YM8 completely inhibited Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize and peanut samples stored at different water activity levels, and scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged conidia and a complete lack of mycelium development and conidiogenesis. YM8 also completely inhibited the growth of eight other agronomically important species of phytopathogenic fungi: A. parasiticus, A. niger, Alternaria alternate, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Monilinia fructicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of Aspergillus and other fungi to VOCs from marine bacteria and indicates a new strategy for effectively controlling these pathogens and the associated mycotoxin production in the field and during storage.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B15 isolated from grape skin, a strain of strong inhibitory activity against fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yinzhuo; Liu, Shiyu; Wang, Deliang; Xue, Jie; Guo, Danyang; Song, Xulei; Zhang, Fengjie; Huang, Shihai; Luan, Chunguang

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B15 is a Gram-positive, plant-associated bacterium which shows strong antifungal activity, isolated from grape skin in Xinjiang, China. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens B15 comprises a 4,006,754bp long circular chromosome containing 3991 protein coding genes and 109 RNA genes. Based on genomic analysis, we identified the giant gene clusters, nonribosomal peptidesynthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS), responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive metabolites. In addition, several functionally related genes, such as TasA, were also been identified for the antagonistic effect on pathogenic fungi but has no effect on the growth of itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The functional potential and active populations of the pit mud microbiome for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Wang, Xiang; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2017-11-01

    The popular distilled Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL) is produced by solid fermentation in the ground pit. Microbes inhabiting in the pit mud (PM) on the walls of the fermentation pit are responsible for the production of caproic acid (CA) that determines the quality of CSFL to a large degree. However, little is known about the active microbial populations and metabolic potential of the PM microbiome. Here, we investigated the overall metabolic features of the PM microbiome and its active microbial components by combining metagenomics and MiSeq-sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from DNA and RNA (cDNA). Results showed that prokaryotes were predominant populations in the PM microbiome, accounting for 95.3% of total metagenomic reads, while eukaryotic abundance was only 1.8%. The dominant prokaryotic phyla were Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, accounting for 48.0%, 19.0%, 13.5%, 2.5% and 2.1% of total metagenomic reads respectively. Most genes encoding putative metabolic pathways responsible for the putative CA production via chain elongation pathway were detected. This indicated that the PM microbiome owned functional potential for synthesizing CA from ethanol or lactate. Some key genes encoding enzymes involved in hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis pathways were detected in the PM metagenome, suggesting the possible occurrence of interspecies hydrogen transfer between CA-producing bacteria and methanogens. The 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA profiles showed that the Clostridial cluster IV, Lactobacillus, Caloramator, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter, Bacteroides and Porphyromonas were active populations in situ, in which Clostridial cluster IV and Clostridium were likely involved in the CA production. This study improved our understandings on the active populations and metabolic pathways of the PM microbiome involved in the CA synthesis in the CSFL fermentation. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology

  15. Coordinated activation of PTA-ACS and TCA cycles strongly reduces overflow metabolism of acetate in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Nahku, Ranno; Riis, Gethe; Oun, Mikk; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-06-01

    Elimination of acetate overflow in aerobic cultivation of Escherichia coli would improve many bioprocesses as acetate accumulation in the growth environment leads to numerous negative effects, e.g. loss of carbon, inhibition of growth, target product synthesis, etc. Despite many years of studies, the mechanism and regulation of acetate overflow are still not completely understood. Therefore, we studied the growth of E. coli K-12 BW25113 and several of its mutant strains affecting acetate-related pathways using the continuous culture method accelerostat (A-stat) at various specific glucose consumption rates with the aim of diminishing acetate overflow. Absolute quantitative exo-metabolome and proteome analyses coupled to metabolic flux analysis enabled us to demonstrate that onset of acetate overflow can be postponed and acetate excretion strongly reduced in E. coli by coordinated activation of phosphotransacetylase-acetyl-CoA synthetase (PTA-ACS) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Fourfold reduction of acetate excretion (2 vs. 8 % from total carbon) at fastest growth compared to wild type was achieved by deleting the genes responsible for inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase protein (pka) and TCA cycle regulator arcA. The Δpka ΔarcA strain did not accumulate any other detrimental by-product besides acetate and showed identical μ max and only ~5 % lower biomass yield compared to wild type. We conclude that a fine-tuned coordination between increasing the recycling capabilities of acetate in the PTA-ACS node through a higher concentration of active acetate scavenging Acs protein and downstream metabolism throughput in the TCA cycle is necessary for diminishing overflow metabolism of acetate in E. coli and achieving higher target product production in bioprocesses.

  16. Strongly lateralized activation in language fMRI of atypical dominant patients-implications for presurgical work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Weber, Bernd; Weis, Susanne; Klaver, Peter; Urbach, Horst; Reul, Jürgen; Fernandez, Guillen; Elger, Christian E

    2008-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being used increasingly for language dominance assessment in the presurgical work-up of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, the interpretation of bilateral fMRI-activation patterns is difficult. Various studies propose fMRI-lateralization index (LI) thresholds between +/-0.1 and +/-0.5 for discrimination of atypical from typical dominant patients. This study examines if these thresholds allow identifying atypical dominant patients with sufficient safety for presurgical settings. 65 patients had a tight comparison, fully controlled semantic decision fMRI-task and a Wada-test for language lateralization. According to Wada-test, 22 were atypical language dominant. In the remaining, Wada-test results were compatible with unilateral left dominance. We determined fMRI-LI for two frontal and one temporo-parietal functionally defined, protocol-specific volume of interest (VOI), and for the least lateralized of these VOIs ("low-VOI") in each patient. We find large intra-individual LI differences between functionally defined VOIs irrespective of underlying type of language dominance (mean LI difference 0.33+/-0.35, range 0-1.6; 15% of patients have inter-VOI-LI differences >1.0). Across atypical dominant patients fMRI-LI in the Broca's and temporo-parietal VOI range from -1 to +1, in the "remaining frontal" VOI from -0.93 to 1. The highest low-VOI-LI detected in atypical dominant patients is 0.84. Large intra-individual inter-VOI-LI differences and strongly lateralized fMRI-activation in patients with Wada-test proven atypical dominance question the value of the proposed fMRI-thresholds for presurgical language lateralization. Future studies have to develop strategies allowing the reliable identification of atypical dominance with fMRI. The low-VOI approach may be useful.

  17. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-03-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.

  18. The C-terminal domain of the Arabidopsis AtMBD7 protein confers strong chromatin binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemach, Assaf; Paul, Laju K.; Stambolsky, Perry; Efroni, Idan; Rotter, Varda; Grafi, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MBD7 (AtMBD7) - a naturally occurring poly MBD protein - was previously found to be functional in binding methylated-CpG dinucleotides in vitro and localized to highly methylated chromocenters in vivo. Furthermore, AtMBD7 has significantly lower mobility within the nucleus conferred by cooperative activity of its three MBD motifs. Here we show that besides the MBD motifs, AtMBD7 possesses a strong chromatin binding domain located at its C-terminus designated sticky-C (StkC). Mutational analysis showed that a glutamic acid residue near the C-terminus is essential though not sufficient for the StkC function. Further analysis demonstrated that this motif can render nuclear proteins highly immobile both in plant and animal cells, without affecting their native subnuclear localization. Thus, the C-terminal, StkC motif plays an important role in fastening AtMBD7 to its chromosomal, CpG-methylated sites. It may be possible to utilize this motif for fastening nuclear proteins to their chromosomal sites both in plant and animal cells for research and gene therapy applications.

  19. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo

    2017-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  20. Resveratrol exhibits a strong cytotoxic activity in cultured cells and has an antiviral action against polyomavirus: potential clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galati Gaspare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a non flavonoid polyphenol compound present in many plants and fruits and, at especially high concentrations, in the grape berries of Vitis vinifera. This compound has a strong bioactivity and its cytoprotective action has been demonstrated, however at high concentrations the drug exhibits also an effective anti-proliferative action. We recently showed its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells. In this work we assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. The results presented here show an evident toxic activity of the drug at high concentrations, on the other hand at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA. Methods The mouse fibroblast line 3T6 and the human tumor line HL60 were used throughout the work. Cell viability and vital cell count were assessed respectively, by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue staining. Cytotoxic properties and evaluation of viral DNA production by agarose gel electrophoresis were performed according to standard protocols. Results Our results show a clear dose dependent both cytotoxic and antiviral effect of resveratrol respectively at high and low concentrations. The cytotoxic action is exerted towards a stabilized cell-line (3T6 as well as a tumor-line (HL60. Furthermore the antiviral action is evident after the phase of virion entry, therefore data suggest that the drug acts during the synthesis of the viral progeny DNA. Conclusion Resveratrol is

  1. DndEi Exhibits Helicase Activity Essential for DNA Phosphorothioate Modification and ATPase Activity Strongly Stimulated by DNA Substrate with a GAAC/GTTC Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Pan; Cao, Bo; Cheng, Qiuxiang; Kong, Lingxin; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Hu, Qinghai; You, Delin

    2016-01-15

    Phosphorothioate (PT) modification of DNA, in which the non-bridging oxygen of the backbone phosphate group is replaced by sulfur, is governed by the DndA-E proteins in prokaryotes. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of PT modification, functional analysis of the recently found PT-modifying enzyme DndEi, which has an additional domain compared with canonical DndE, from Riemerella anatipestifer is performed in this study. The additional domain is identified as a DNA helicase, and functional deletion of this domain in vivo leads to PT modification deficiency, indicating an essential role of helicase activity in PT modification. Subsequent analysis reveals that the additional domain has an ATPase activity. Intriguingly, the ATPase activity is strongly stimulated by DNA substrate containing a GAAC/GTTC motif (i.e. the motif at which PT modifications occur in R. anatipestifer) when the additional domain and the other domain (homologous to canonical DndE) are co-expressed as a full-length DndEi. These results reveal that PT modification is a biochemical process with DNA strand separation and intense ATP hydrolysis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA...... production. In addition, T23-treatment strongly increased the molecular carbon labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, succinate, fumarate and malate, and significantly increased the incorporation of (13)C-labelling into the amino acids glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. These results clearly...... demonstrate that, in addition to glycolysis, also the mitochondrial TCA cycle is strongly accelerated after exposure of astrocytes to T23, suggesting that a protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle in astrocytes....

  3. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takanori, E-mail: kubo-t@yasuda-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Takei, Yoshifumi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mihara, Keichiro [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

  4. Body image dissatisfaction in pregnant and non-pregnant females is strongly predicted by immune activation and mucosa-derived activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Carvalho, André F; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Duleu, Sebastien; Geffard, Michel; Maes, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the associations between body image dissatisfaction in pregnant women and immune-inflammatory biomarkers, i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc and IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan and tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). We assessed 49 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant females and assessed Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) scores at the end of term (T1), and 2-4 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery. Subjects were divided in those with a lowered BIS score (≤ 3) versus those with a higher score. Logistic regression analysis showed that a lowered T1 BIS score was predicted by CRP levels and IgA responses to tryptophan (negative) and TRYCATs (positive), perinatal depression, body mass index (BMI) and age. The sum of quinolinic acid, kynurenine, 3-OH-kynurenine and 3-OH-anthranilic acid (reflecting brain quinolinic acid contents) was the single best predictor. In addition, a large part of the variance in the T1, T2 and T3 BIS scores was explained by IgA responses to tryptophan and TRYCATs, especially quinolinic acid. Body image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with inflammation and mucosa-derived IDO activation independently from depression, pregnancy, BMI and age. IgA responses to peripheral TRYCATs, which determine brain quinolinic acid concentrations, also predict body image dissatisfaction.

  5. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takanori; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Takei, Yoshifumi; Mihara, Keichiro; Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio

    2012-10-05

    Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  7. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vigren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM, which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. METHODS: fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. CONCLUSION: This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  8. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  9. Graphene-oxide-supported Pt nanoparticles with high activity and stability for hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Choi, Myong Yong; Choi, Hyun Chul

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-oxide-supported Pt (GO-Pt) nanoparticles were prepared by performing diimide-activated amidation and used in an electrocatalyst for hydrazine electro-oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The physico-chemical properties of the GO-Pt nanoparticles were characterized with various techniques, which revealed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 2.6 nm were densely deposited on the amidated GO due to their strong adhesion. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained and demonstrate that the GO-Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and long-term stability in hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt metal electrodes. These enhanced electrochemical properties are attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area that results from the smaller size and excellent dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles on amidated GO.

  10. Strongly lateralized activation in language fMRI of atypical dominant patients-implications for presurgical work-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellmer, J.; Weber, B.; Weis, S.; Klaver, P.; Urbach, H.; Reul, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being used increasingly for language dominance assessment in the presurgical work-up of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, the interpretation of bilateral fMRI-activation patterns is difficult. Various studies propose

  11. 'Artilysation' of endolysin λSa2lys strongly improves its enzymatic and antibacterial activity against streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Chang, Wai-Ling; Gutiérrez, Diana; Lavigne, Rob; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; Govers, Sander K; Aertsen, Abram; Hirl, Christine; Biebl, Manfred; Briers, Yves; García, Pilar

    2016-10-24

    Endolysins constitute a promising class of antibacterials against Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, endolysins have been engineered with selected peptides to obtain a new generation of lytic proteins, Artilysins, with specific activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that artilysation can also be used to enhance the antibacterial activity of endolysins against Gram-positive bacteria and to reduce the dependence on external conditions. Art-240, a chimeric protein of the anti-streptococcal endolysin λSa2lys and the polycationic peptide PCNP, shows a similar species specificity as the parental endolysin, but the bactericidal activity against streptococci increases and is less affected by elevated NaCl concentrations and pH variations. Time-kill experiments and time-lapse microscopy demonstrate that the killing rate of Art-240 is approximately two-fold higher compared to wildtype endolysin λSa2lys, with a reduction in viable bacteria of 3 log units after 10 min. In addition, lower doses of Art-240 are required to achieve the same bactericidal effect.

  12. kappa B elements strongly activate gene expression in non-lymphoid cells and function synergistically with NF1 elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Hennighausen, L; Furth, P A; Pittius, C W

    1989-01-01

    kappa B elements have been described as lymphoid-specific transcriptional activators. Here we show that kappa B elements are able to stimulate expression from test promoters more than 100-fold in T47D and 3T3 non-lymphoid cells. We also demonstrate that nuclear proteins from T47D cells form two prominent complexes with HIV kappa B sites. Since the complexes formed in nuclear extracts from T47D and PHA/PMA stimulated Jurkat cells comigrate in polyacrylamide gels, we suggest that the respective...

  13. Strong antimicrobial activity of xanthohumol and other derivatives from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on gut anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Pavel; Olsovska, Jana; Mikyska, Alexandr; Dusek, Martin; Kadleckova, Zuzana; Vanicek, Jiri; Nyc, Otakar; Sigler, Karel; Bostikova, Vanda; Bostik, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis or Clostridium perfringens, are part of indigenous human flora. However, Clostridium difficile represents also an important causative agent of nosocomial infectious antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection is problematic, making it imperative to search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain substances with antibacterial properties. We tested antimicrobial activity of purified hop constituents humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol against anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was established against B. fragilis, C. perfringens and C. difficile strains according to standard testing protocols (CLSI, EUCAST), and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were calculated. All C. difficile strains were toxigenic and clinically relevant, as they were isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Strongest antimicrobial effects were observed with xanthohumol showing MIC and MBC values of 15-107 μg/mL, which are close to those of conventional antibiotics in the strains of bacteria with increased resistance. Slightly higher MIC and MBC values were obtained with lupulone followed by higher values of humulone. Our study, thus, shows a potential of purified hop compounds, especially xanthohumol, as alternatives for treatment of infections caused by select anaerobic bacteria, namely nosocomial diarrhoea caused by resistant strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  15. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...

  16. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2003-01-01

    Disruption of the ZWF1 gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) has been shown to reduce the xylitol yield and the xylose consumption in the xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3255. In the present investigation we have studied the influence of different...... consumption, respectively, compared with the ZWF1-disrupted strain. Both strains exhibited decreased xylitol yields (0.13 and 0.19 g/g xylose) and enhanced ethanol yields (0.36 and 0.34 g/g xylose) compared with the control strain TMB3001 (0.29 g xylitol/g xylose, 0.31 g ethanol/g xylose). Cytoplasmic...... transhydrogenase (TH) from Azotobacter vinelandii has previously been shown to transfer NADPH and NAD(+) into NADP(+) and NADH, and TH-overproduction resulted in lower xylitol yield and enhanced glycerol yield during xylose utilization. Strains with low G6PDH-activity grew slower in a lignocellulose hydrolysate...

  17. Blue light treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Strong bactericidal activity, synergism with antibiotics and inactivation of virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kawiak, Anna; Grinholc, Mariusz Stanislaw

    2017-08-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most common pathogens responsible for both acute and chronic infections of high incidence and severity. Additionally, P. aeruginosa resistance to conventional antimicrobials has increased rapidly over the past decade. Therefore, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic options, particularly options that specifically target the pathogenic mechanisms of this microbe. The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to cause disease is dependent upon the production of agents termed 'virulence factors', and approaches to mitigate these agents have gained increasing attention as new antibacterial strategies. Although blue light irradiation is a promising alternative approach, only limited and preliminary studies have described its effect on virulence factors. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of lethal and sub-lethal doses of blue light treatment (BLT) on P. aeruginosa virulence factors. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of blue light irradiation on the production/activity of several virulence factors. Lethal BLT inhibited the activity of pyocyanin, staphylolysin, pseudolysin and other proteases, but sub-lethal BLT did not affect the production/expression of proteases, phospholipases, and flagella- or type IV pili-associated motility. Moreover, a eukaryotic cytotoxicity test confirmed the decreased toxicity of blue light-treated extracellular P. aeruginosa fractions. Finally, the increased antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa treated with sequential doses of sub-lethal BLT was demonstrated with a checkerboard test. Thus, this work provides evidence-based proof of the susceptibility of drug-resistant P. aeruginosa to BLT-mediated killing, accompanied by virulence factor reduction, and describes the synergy between antibiotics and sub-lethal BLT.

  18. The gallium complex KP46 exerts strong activity against primary explanted melanoma cells and induces apoptosis in melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiahdi, Seied Mojtaba; Heffeter, Petra; Jakupec, Michael A.; Marculescu, Rodrig; Berger, Walter; Rappersberger, Klemens; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2012-01-01

    The antineoplastic properties of gallium are well documented. Owing to their robust accumulation of gallium, melanoma cells should be amenable to gallium-based anticancer drugs. With the aim of improving the disappointingly low activity of inorganic gallium salts, we have developed the orally bioavailable gallium complex KP46 [tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III)] that was already successfully studied in a phase I clinical trial. To assess its therapeutic potential in malignant melanoma, its antiproliferative effects were investigated in series of human cell lines and primary explanted melanoma samples by means of the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the Human Tumor Cloning Assay, respectively. When compared with other cell lines, the majority of melanoma cells rank among the KP46-sensitive cell lines (50% inhibitory concentration values: 0.8–3.7 μmol/l). Clinically achievable concentrations of KP46 proved to be highly effective in melanoma cells from primary explants of cutaneous and lymph node metastases. Colony growth was inhibited in 10 of 10 specimens by 5 lmol/l KP46 (corresponding to the steady-state plasma concentration measured earlier in a study patient) and in four of 10 specimens by 0.5 μmol/l KP46. In-vitro potency of KP46 is higher than that of dacarbazine or fotemustine and comparable with that of cisplatin. The effects induced by KP46 in melanoma cell lines involve cell cycle perturbations (S-phase arrest) and apoptosis (activation of caspase-9, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage, formation of apoptotic bodies). No effects on DNA secondary structure could be observed in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay using double-stranded plasmid DNA. Thus, further studies on the therapeutic applicability of KP46 in malignant melanoma are warranted. PMID:19584767

  19. Serum level of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a strong and independent predictor of survival in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, N; Sier, CFM; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has been shown to result in up-regulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) on leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this up-regulation is paralleled by higher serum...... that the serum suPAR level is a novel, strong, and independent predictor of survival in HIV-1 infection. This report is the first to demonstrate an important association between the plasminogen activator system and disease progression in HIV-1 infection....

  20. Chemical Composition of Mentha spicata L. subsp. tomentosa and M. pulegium L., and their Antimicrobial Activity on Strong Pathogen Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha L., recognized as a medical and aromatic plant, is a general name affiliated to mint species and belongs to Labiatae family. Some species are used as fresh vegetables in the Turkish kitchen and they can also be used in salads. In addition, some species have been used as a spice in food. In this study, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity towards some pathogenics (gram + and gram - microorganisms of the essential oils Mentha spicata L. subsp. tomentosa (Briq. Harley, Mentha pulegium L. grown under West Anatolian ecological conditions were investigated. Extractions were carried out with Clevenger apparatus and essential oil composition was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Microorganisms used for the antimicrobial studies were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterecoccus faecium DSM 13590, Escherichia coli Q157:H7 and Bacillus cereus CCM99.  As a result, M. pulegium and M. spicata subsp. tomentosa were found to be rich in piperitenone oxide: 72.77% and 28.84%, respectively. Each of the oils was found to possess antimicrobial properties against test microorganisms. Essential oils obtained from Mentha species give positive effect on all microorganisms.

  1. Anthropometry at birth as a strong determinant factor of young women bone status: influence of high-level physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffré, Christelle; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the influence of anthropometry at birth on bone status and physical activity aptitudes of adult women. Our population was composed of 70 women (17-29 years): 40 athletes and 30 controls. Athletes participated in various long-lasting and high-level weight-bearing sports (10.2 ± 2.2h ours/week). Birth weight and height were collected. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA, at whole body, lumbar spine, non dominant femur (total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN)) and tibia. The Hip Structural Analysis software was applied to assess cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cortical thickness of three regions of the proximal femur: intertrochanter, narrow neck and femoral shaft. BMD and HSA measurements at all sites were significantly higher in athletes versus controls, as well as birth height (P = 0.009) and weight (P = 0.02). For the whole population, we found significant positive correlations between birth weight and BMDs (0.30 anthropometry, which can be used to predict fracture risk in later life. Predisposition to practice a weight-bearing sport could be related to the greater birth anthropometry described in athletes. The benefits of birth anthropometry on adult bone status appear to be maintained by sports. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Circumvention of regulatory CD4(+) T cell activity during cross-priming strongly enhances T cell-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Antje; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Lahl, Katharina; Neuenhahn, Michael; Schmitz, Frank; Anderl, Florian; Wagner, Hermann; Sparwasser, Tim; Busch, Dirk H; Kastenmüller, Kathrin

    2008-06-01

    Immunization with purified antigens is a safe and practical vaccination strategy but is generally unable to induce sustained CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Most efforts to improve the CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines have focused on co-administration of adjuvant to support cross-presentation and dendritic cell maturation. In addition, it has been shown that CD4(+) T cell help during the priming phase contributes to the generation of protective CD8(+) memory T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the depletion of CD4(+) T cells paradoxically enhances long-lasting CD8-mediated protective immunity upon protein vaccination. Functional and genetic in vivo inactivation experiments attribute this enhancement primarily to MHC class II-restricted CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which appear to physiologically suppress the differentiation process towards long-living effector memory T cells. Since, in functional terms, this suppression by Treg largely exceeds the positive effects of conventional CD4(+) T cell help, even the absence of all CD4(+) T cells or lack of MHC class II-mediated interactions on priming dendritic cells result in enhanced CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity. These findings have important implications for the improvement of vaccines against intracellular pathogens or tumors, especially in patients with highly active Treg.

  3. Strong effect of copper(II) coordination on antiproliferative activity of thiosemicarbazone-piperazine and thiosemicarbazone-morpholine hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Felix; Dömötör, Orsolya; Chugunova, Anastasia; Nagy, Nóra V; Filipović, Lana; Radulović, Siniša; Enyedy, Éva A; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-05-21

    In this study, 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and three different heterocyclic pharmacophores were combined to prepare thiosemicarbazone–piperazine mPip-FTSC (HL1) and mPip-dm-FTSC (HL2), thiosemicarbazone–morpholine Morph-FTSC (HL3) and Morph-dm-FTSC (HL4), thiosemicarbazone–methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate hybrids mPyrr-FTSC (HL5) and mPyrr-dm-FTSC (HL6) as well as their copper(II) complexes [CuCl(mPipH-FTSC-H)]Cl (1 + H)Cl, [CuCl(mPipH-dm-FTSC-H)]Cl (2 + H)Cl, [CuCl(Morph-FTSC-H)] (3), [CuCl(Morph-dm-FTSC-H)] (4), [CuCl(mPyrr-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (5) and [CuCl(mPyrr-dm-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (6). The substances were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (HL1–HL6), ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction (1–5). All compounds were prepared in an effort to generate potential antitumor agents with an improved therapeutic index. In addition, the effect of structural alterations with organic hybrids on aqueous solubility and copper(II) coordination ability was investigated. Complexation of ligands HL2 and HL4 with copper(II) was studied in aqueous solution by pH-potentiometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy. Proton dissociation processes of HL2 and HL4 were also characterized in detail and microscopic constants for the Z/E isomers were determined. While the hybrids HL5, HL6 and their copper(II) complexes 5 and 6 proved to be insoluble in aqueous solution, precluding antiproliferative activity studies, the thiosemicarbazone–piperazine and thiosemicarbazone–morpholine hybrids HL1–HL4, as well as copper(II) complexes 1–4 were soluble in water enabling cytotoxicity assays. Interestingly, the metal-free hybrids showed very low or even a lack of cytotoxicity (IC50 values > 300 μM) in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and A549 (alveolar basal adenocarcinoma), whereas their copper(II) complexes were cytotoxic showing IC50 values from 25.5 to 65.1

  4. Structural insights into the unusually strong ATPase activity of the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-10-11

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function.

  5. Measles Virus Mutants Possessing the Fusion Protein with Enhanced Fusion Activity Spread Effectively in Neuronal Cells, but Not in Other Cells, without Causing Strong Cytopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinji; Shirogane, Yuta; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Koga, Ritsuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is caused by persistent measles virus (MV) infection in the central nervous system (CNS). Since human neurons, its main target cells, do not express known MV receptors (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM] and nectin 4), it remains to be understood how MV infects and spreads in them. We have recently reported that fusion-enhancing substitutions in the extracellular domain of the MV fusion (F) protein (T461I and S103I/N462S/N465S), which are found in multiple SSPE virus isolates, promote MV spread in human neuroblastoma cell lines and brains of suckling hamsters. In this study, we show that hyperfusogenic viruses with these substitutions also spread efficiently in human primary neuron cultures without inducing syncytia. These substitutions were found to destabilize the prefusion conformation of the F protein trimer, thereby enhancing fusion activity. However, these hyperfusogenic viruses exhibited stronger cytopathology and produced lower titers at later time points in SLAM- or nectin 4-expressing cells compared to the wild-type MV. Although these viruses spread efficiently in the brains of SLAM knock-in mice, they did not in the spleens. Taken together, the results suggest that enhanced fusion activity is beneficial for MV to spread in neuronal cells where no cytopathology occurs, but detrimental to other types of cells due to strong cytopathology. Acquisition of enhanced fusion activity through substitutions in the extracellular domain of the F protein may be crucial for MV's extensive spread in the CNS and development of SSPE. IMPORTANCE Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal disease caused by persistent measles virus (MV) infection in the central nervous system (CNS). Its cause is not well understood, and no effective therapy is currently available. Recently, we have reported that enhanced fusion activity of MV through the mutations in its fusion protein is a major determinant of

  6. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-09

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).

  7. Insertion of Argos sequences into the B-loop of epidermal growth factor results in a low-affinity ligand with strong agonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll, M L; van Vugt, M J; Lenferink, A E; van Zoelen, E J

    1997-06-17

    Recently, it has been shown that the activation of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) by its natural ligand Spitz is inhibited by Argos [Schweitzer, R., et al. (1995) Nature 376, 699-702]. Argos and Spitz both have an EGF-like domain which in the case of Argos differs from that of Spitz and other EGF receptor agonists in that it has an extended B-loop of 20 amino acids instead of 10 amino acids which in addition contains an unusual cluster of charged residues. To investigate whether B-loop sequences are an important determinant for receptor activation and play a causal role in the antagonistic activity of Argos, three human (h)EGF mutants were constructed in which amino acids derived from the Argos B-loop were introduced. In one mutant (E3A4E/B10), replacement of four amino acids in the B-loop of hEGF (123, E24, D27, and K28) by the corresponding Argos residues neither altered the binding affinity of the growth factor for the hEGF receptor nor did it change its ability to induce a mitogenic response. Insertion of 2 additional Argos residues (E3A4E/B12) or extension of the B-loop by 10 amino acids (E3A4E/B20) resulted, however, in a significant loss of binding affinity. In spite of this, both E3A4E/B12 and E3A4E/B20 appeared to be strong agonists for the hEGF receptor with similar dose-response curves for mitogenic activity and MAPK activation as wild-type hEGF. These data show that several nonconservative substitutions in the hEGF B-loop are tolerated without affecting receptor binding or activation. Furthermore, they show that receptor binding and receptor signaling efficiency can be uncoupled which is a prerequisite for the development of receptor antagonists.

  8. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  9. Isolation, biosynthesis and biological activity of alkaloids of Tylophora asthmatica, a versatile medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    Tylophorine and related new alkaloids have been isolated from Tylophora asthmatics, Pergularia pallida and Ficus hispida plants. Biosynthesis of this group of alkaloids has been carried out using various labelled precursors for the first time and from the systematic degradation of the isolated radiolabelled tylophorine, it has been concluded that these alkaloids arise from one molecule each of tyrosine, phenylalanine and ornithine. The interactions of Tylophora alkaloids particularly tylophorinidine with biomolecules such as lysozyme and bovine serum albumin have also been studied and binding characteristics determined. It was found that Tylophora alkaloid extract possesses antianaphylactic activity as observed in passive peritoneal anaphylaxis in rats. The drug also possessed mild antihistaminic and anticholinergic activities. Studies of the extract on the bronchial smooth muscle both in vivo and in vitro did not reveal bronchiodilator potential of the drug. In addition, the distribution and metabolism of the drug was studied in vivo using 14 C radiolabelled alkaloids prepared by biosynthetic method. This study further revealed its usefulness since the drug is absorbed by vital organs and also it is not metabolised into fragments which could cause some other damage. Tylophora alkaloids have also been found to be anti-mutagenic. 10 tables, 5 figures, 24 refs. (author)

  10. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis cases, if the conventional stain-based HP detection is negative. Moreover, we recommend to use IHC more widely as basic HP stain. Helicobacter pylori FISH technique is primarily recommended to determine bacterial clarithromycin resistance. Furthermore, it is another accurate diagnostic tool for HP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  12. Insertional inactivation of hblC encoding the L2 component of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 haemolysin BL strongly reduces enterotoxigenic activity, but not the haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, T; Okstad, O A; Rishovd, A L; Kolstø, A B

    1999-11-01

    Haemolysin BL (HBL) is a Bacillus cereus toxin composed of a binding component, B, and two lytic components, L1 and L2. HBL is also the enterotoxin responsible for the diarrhoeal food poisoning syndrome caused by several strains of B. cereus. The three genes encoding the HBL components constitute an operon and are transcribed from a promoter 608 bp upstream of the hblC translational start site. The first gene of the hbl operon, hblC, in the B. cereus type strain, ATCC 14579, was inactivated in this study. Inactivation of hblC strongly reduced both the enterotoxigenic activity of B. cereus ATCC 14579 and the haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes, while maintaining full haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

  13. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  14. Highly activated RNA silencing via strong induction of dicer by one virus can interfere with the replication of an unrelated virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Sotaro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Viruses often coinfect single host organisms in nature. Depending on the combination of viruses in such coinfections, the interplay between them may be synergistic, apparently neutral with no effect on each other, or antagonistic. RNA silencing is responsible for many cases of interference or cross-protection between viruses, but such antagonistic interactions are usually restricted to closely related strains of the same viral species. In this study, we present an unprecedented example of RNA silencing-mediated one-way interference between unrelated viruses in a filamentous model fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. The replication of Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (RnVV1; Totiviridae) was strongly impaired by coinfection with the prototypic member of the genus Mycoreovirus (MyRV1) or a mutant of the prototype hypovirus (Cryphonectria hypovirus 1, CHV1) lacking the RNA silencing suppressor (CHV1-Δp69). This interference was associated with marked transcriptional induction of key genes in antiviral RNA silencing, dicer-like 2 (dcl2) and argonaute-like 2 (agl2), following MyRV1 or CHV1-Δp69 infection. Interestingly, the inhibition of RnVV1 replication was reproduced when the levels of dcl2 and agl2 transcripts were elevated by transgenic expression of a hairpin construct of an endogenous C. parasitica gene. Disruption of dcl2 completely abolished the interference, whereas that of agl2 did not always lead to its abolishment, suggesting more crucial roles of dcl2 in antiviral defense. Taken altogether, these results demonstrated the susceptible nature of RnVV1 to the antiviral silencing in C. parasitica activated by distinct viruses or transgene-derived double-stranded RNAs and provide insight into the potential for broad-spectrum virus control mediated by RNA silencing. PMID:26283371

  15. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  16. LUR models for particulate matters in the Taipei metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jui-Huna; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-05-01

    Traffic intensity, length of road, and proximity to roads are the most common traffic indicators in the land use regression (LUR) models for particulate matter in ESCAPE study areas in Europe. This study explored what local variables can improve the performance of LUR models in an Asian metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction. By following the ESCAPE procedure, we derived LUR models of PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse (PM₂.₅-₁₀) in Taipei. The overall annual average concentrations of PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse were 26.0 ± 5.6, 48.6 ± 5.9, and 23.3 ± 3.1 μg/m(3), respectively, and the absorption coefficient of PM₂.₅ was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-5)m(-1). Our LUR models yielded R(2) values of 95%, 96%, 87%, and 65% for PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse, respectively. PM₂.₅ levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, construction, and residential land-use variables and decreased by rivers; while PM₂.₅ absorbance levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, and commercial land-use variables in the models. PMcoarse levels were increased by elevated highways. Road area explained more variance than road length by increasing the incremental value of 27% and 6% adjusted R(2) for PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ models, respectively. In the PM₂.₅ absorbance model, road area and transportation facility explain 29% more variance than road length. In the PMcoarse model, industrial and new local variables instead of road length improved the incremental value of adjusted R(2) from 39% to 60%. We concluded that road area can better explain the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ absorbance concentrations than road length. By incorporating road area and other new local variables, the performance of each PM LUR model was improved. The results suggest that road area is a better indicator of traffic intensity rather

  17. Hyperosmotic stress strongly potentiates serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcriptional activity in ehrlich lettré ascites cells through a mechanism involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Wiwel, Maria; Klingberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are differentially regulated in ELA cells. SRF Ser103 phosphorylation and SRF-dependent transcriptional activity were strongly augmented 5–30¿min and 24¿h, respectively, after hyperosmotic stress (50% increase in extracellular ionic strength), in a p38...... is transiently inhibited while p38 MAPK is activated, in turn impacting on cell survival (Pedersen et al., 2007, Cell Physiol Biochem 20: 735–750). Here, we show that downstream of these kinases, two transcription factors with major roles in control of cell proliferation and death, serum response factor (SRF......Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway...

  18. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...

  19. Lipid Fraction Constituents and Evaluation of Anti-anaphylactic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starcom

    It should be added that the sedation, hypnosis and CNS depression noticed on the animals during experiments could be attributed to the coumarins present in these kernels (Marcos and El-Dakhakhany. 1962; El-Dakhakhany and Fayez 1963). Also, the noticed death among the subgroups receiving high dose medication of ...

  20. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  1. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  2. Physical fitness, rather than self-reported physical activities, is more strongly associated with low back pain: evidence from a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filip Staes; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; Susan Picavet; Drs. Henri Kiers; Hans Heneweer

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is suggested to be important for low back pain (LBP) but a major problem is the limited validity of the measurement of physical activities, which is usually based on questionnaires. Physical fitness can be viewed as a more objective measurement and our question was how

  3. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  4. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  5. A Mouse Monoclonal Antibody against Dengue Virus Type 1 Mochizuki Strain Targeting Envelope Protein Domain II and Displaying Strongly Neutralizing but Not Enhancing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Tomohiro; Konishi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever and its more severe form, dengue hemorrhagic fever, are major global concerns. Infection-enhancing antibodies are major factors hypothetically contributing to increased disease severity. In this study, we generated 26 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the dengue virus type 1 Mochizuki strain. We selected this strain because a relatively large number of unique and rare amino acids were found on its envelope protein. Although most MAbs showing neutralizing activities exhibited enhancing activities at subneutralizing doses, one MAb (D1-IV-7F4 [7F4]) displayed neutralizing activities without showing enhancing activities at lower concentrations. In contrast, another MAb (D1-V-3H12 [3H12]) exhibited only enhancing activities, which were suppressed by pretreatment of cells with anti-FcγRIIa. Although antibody engineering revealed that antibody subclass significantly affected 7F4 (IgG3) and 3H12 (IgG1) activities, neutralizing/enhancing activities were also dependent on the epitope targeted by the antibody. 7F4 recognized an epitope on the envelope protein containing E118 (domain II) and had a neutralizing activity 10- to 1,000-fold stronger than the neutralizing activity of previously reported human or humanized neutralizing MAbs targeting domain I and/or domain II. An epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that a dengue virus-immune population possessed antibodies sharing an epitope with 7F4. Our results demonstrating induction of these antibody species (7F4 and 3H12) in Mochizuki-immunized mice may have implications for dengue vaccine strategies designed to minimize induction of enhancing antibodies in vaccinated humans. PMID:24049185

  6. Synthesis, strong room-temperature PL and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Validzic, Ivana Lj., E-mail: validzic@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savic, Tatjana D.; Krsmanovic, Radenka M.; Jovanovic, Dragana J.; Novakovic, Mirjana M.; Popovic, Maja C.; Comor, Mirjana I. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel low temperature method for the synthesis of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL showed strong UV band peaked at 3.30 eV and a visible band at 2.71 and 2.53 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variations of the two PL bands were observed for different excitation wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band-gap energies of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were found to be 3.62 and 3.21 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic behaviour of ZnO is dependent on the formation of ZnWO{sub 4} phase. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO)/zinc tungstate (ZnWO{sub 4}) rod-like nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 6-11 nm and length of about 30 nm were synthesized by a low temperature soft solution method at 95 Degree-Sign C in the presence of non-ionic copolymer surfactant. It was found that their crystallinity was enhanced with the increase of heating time from 1 h up to 120 h. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed very strong, narrow UV band peaked at 3.30 eV and a broad visible band peaking at 2.71 eV with a shoulder at about 2.53 eV, for {lambda}{sub exc} < 300 nm. Quite large variations in the intensities of the two PL bands were observed for different excitation wavelengths. The intensity of the main visible band decreases with decreasing excitation energy and disappears when samples are excited {lambda} = 320 nm (E{sub exc} = 3.875 eV). We found that observed optical properties originate from ZnO phase. UV band gap PL had high intensity for all applied excitations, probably induced by ZnWO{sub 4} phase presence on the surface. In addition, two values were found for direct band-gap energy of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles 3.62 and 3.21 eV, determined from reflectance spectrum. The photocatalytic behaviour of ZnO is strongly dependent on the formation of ZnWO{sub 4} phase, of the obtained rod-like nanoparticles.

  7. Strong deviations from the NO-NO2-O3 photostationary state in the Pearl River Delta: Indications of active peroxy radical and chlorine radical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufang; Lu, Keding; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Li, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2017-08-01

    Simultaneous measurements of meteorological data, trace gases, and volatile organic compounds were made in two regional sites, viz. Backgarden and Kaiping, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) during summer and autumn, respectively. The strong deviations from the NO-NO2-O3 Photostationary State, quantified by the leighton ratios, are carefully deduced through a comprehensive data set consist of the high-quality measurements of NO, NO2, O3 and JNO2 as well as the peroxy radical measurements. This is the first report of the Leighton ratio in China, with relatively high recorded values of 2.3 ± 0.4 (Backgarden) and 3.1 ± 1.4 (Kaiping), suggesting a strongly oxidising atmosphere in the PRD, typical of the ozone pollution season. A sensitivity analysis using a zero-dimensional chemical box model based on the regional atmospheric chemistry mechanism, version 2 (RACM2) constrained by the experimental measurements, indicated that peroxy radicals account for 70 (Backgarden) and 66% (Kaiping) of the observed positive deviations from the NOx photostationary state (characterized by a Leighton ratio of 1) on average. We consider that the remaining deviations result from neglecting the effects of chlorine chemistry, so we introduced a Cl chemistry module into RACM2, and the modelled results for Cl were as follows: 4.7 × 10-4 pptv in Backgarden and 1.3 × 10-3 pptv in Kaiping; these results are lower than the Cl concentration derived from the NOx photostationary state. More work is required to confirm the role of additional peroxy radical sources at both high and low NOx regimes, as well as that of the halogen radicals, in perturbing the NO-NOx-O3 cycle, which would significantly enhance trace gas removal and photochemical ozone production.

  8. A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitution activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Woeste; Joseph J. Kieber

    2000-01-01

    A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resuited in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a...

  9. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  10. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  11. Strong Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetically Recyclable Sol-Gel-Synthesized ZnFe2O4 for Rhodamine B Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Lingbo; Jia, Yanmin; Hong, Yuantign; Ma, Jiangping; Wu, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Visible light-responsive ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst with a spinel structure was synthesized via a sol-gel method. The visible light photocatalysis of ZnFe2O4 was investigated by decomposing Rhodamine B (RhB) solution. Under ˜30 min of visible light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of RhB is up to ˜97.4%. The excellent photocatalytic performance of ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst is attributed to the high effective oxidation-reduction reaction caused by light irradiation excitation. With the increase of decomposition time, the wavelength of the maximum absorption peak of RhB solutions shifts from 557 nm to 498 nm ("blue shift"), which is because of the N-deethylation and cleavage of the conjugated chromophore structure of RhB. ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst also exhibits a weak ferromagnetism performance. The decomposition ratio of RhB for the magnetically recycled ZnFe2O4 is ˜94.6%. Strong visible light photocatalysis and convenience of magnetic recycling make ZnFe2O4 promising for photocatalytic applications in dye wastewater treatment.

  12. Functional and evolutionary analyses of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK protein with strong oxidative and chaperone activity characterized by a highly diverged dimerization domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation – periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595 with a -propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function.We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C, a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in E. coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (Escherichia coli DsbA protein were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity.

  13. Caprolactam-silica network, a strong potentiator of the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Ficai, Denisa; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Gheorghe, Irina; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2013-03-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of a novel ε-caprolactam-silica (ε-SiO2) network and assessed its biocompatibility and ability to improve the antimicrobial activity of kanamycin. The results of the quantitative antimicrobial assay demonstrate that the obtained ε-SiO2 network has efficiently improved the kanamycin activity on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 strains, with a significant decrease of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The ε-SiO2 network could be feasibly obtained and represents an alternative for the design of new antibiotic drug carriers or delivery systems to control bacterial infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ZnO nanoparticles impose a panmetabolic toxic effect along with strong necrosis, inducing activation of the envelope stress response in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Elder, Jeff; Medihala, Prabhakara; Lawrence, John R; Predicala, Bernardo; Zhang, Haixia; Korber, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of three metal nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO, MgO, and CaO NPs, against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid medium and on solid surfaces. Out of the three tested metal NPs, ZnO NPs exhibited the most significant antimicrobial effect both in liquid medium and when embedded on solid surfaces. Therefore, we focused on revealing the mechanisms of surface-associated ZnO biocidal activity. Using the global proteome approach, we report that a great majority (79%) of the altered proteins in biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were downregulated, whereas a much smaller fraction (21%) of proteins were upregulated. Intriguingly, all downregulated proteins were enzymes involved in a wide range of the central metabolic pathways, including translation; amino acid biosynthetic pathways; nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide biosynthetic processes; ATP synthesis-coupled proton transport; the pentose phosphate shunt; and carboxylic acid metabolic processes, indicating that ZnO NPs exert a panmetabolic toxic effect on this prokaryotic organism. In addition to their panmetabolic toxicity, ZnO NPs induced profound changes in cell envelope morphology, imposing additional necrotic effects and triggering the envelope stress response of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. The envelope stress response effect activated periplasmic chaperones and proteases, transenvelope complexes, and regulators, thereby facilitating protection of this prokaryotic organism against ZnO NPs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  16. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  17. Strongly coupled CeO2/Co3O4/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers with enhanced nanozyme activity for highly sensitive colorimetric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Maoqiang; Zhu, Yun; Yang, Zezhou; Gao, Mu; Chen, Sihui; Song, Na; Wang, Ce; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we have prepared CeO2/Co3O4 composite nanofibers via an electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. Then core-shell structured CeO2/Co3O4/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite nanofibers were fabricated through a redox reaction between the 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer and Co3O4 on the surface of CeO2/Co3O4 composite nanofibers. The morphology and composition of the two composite nanofibers were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectra measurements. Due to the synergistic effect between CeO2 and Co3O4, the catalytic activity was enhanced compared to that of independent oxide nanofibers. After the growth of PEDOT, the catalytic activity process was further improved, having achieved a secondary synergistic effect. Application of the two prepared composite nanofibers as peroxidase-like catalysts for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 was investigated. It is anticipated that this work can inspire researchers to develop various novel functional nanocomposites for applications in biosensing and environmental monitoring.

  18. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Wan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL−/spat5110/SCCmecV+ versus PVL+/spat159(etc./SCCmec−, but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  19. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  20. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouquaert Elke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNAmaize were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNAmaize recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results GNAmaize appeared to be ~20- to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNAmaize selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis revealed that GNA and GNAmaize interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (KD of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNAmaize selectively binds complex-type GlcNAcβ1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNAmaize to gp120, whereas GNAmaize cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAcβ1,2man specific or SNA (NeuAcα2,6X specific. Conclusion The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNAmaize compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNAmaize that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but

  1. A strong association between biologically active testosterone and leptin in non-obese men and women is lost with increasing (central) adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, S; Olsson, T; Eliasson, M; Johnson, O; Brismar, K; Carlström, K; Ahrén, B

    2001-01-01

    In both humans and rodents, males have lower levels of leptin than females at any level of adiposity. Experimental data support the idea that testosterone exerts a negative influence on leptin levels. There are, however, major inconsistencies in available data concerning the possible association between androgenicity and leptin in humans. Reasons could be the influence of androgenicity on leptin production being dependent on body composition, and incomplete measures of biologically active testosterone levels. In the present study we have characterized the relationship between biologically active testosterone and leptin after careful stratification for gender and adiposity. Healthy subjects (n=158; 85 men and 73 pre- and postmenopausal women) from the Northern Sweden MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) population were studied with a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Circulating levels of leptin, insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by radioimmunoassays or microparticle enzyme immunoassays. Apparent concentrations of free testosterone and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were calculated. After adjustments for age, BMI and insulin, leptin levels were inversely correlated to testosterone levels in non-obese men (r=-0.56, Ptestosterone correlated in a positive manner in non-obese women (r=0.59, Plow waist circumference (r=-0.59, Plow levels of biologically active testosterone and SHBG in men with low and medium waist circumference, insulin in men with high waist circumference, high levels of testosterone and insulin in non-obese women, and BMI in obese women. We conclude that low leptin levels are associated with androgenicity in non-obese men and women and that the direction of this association is dependent on gender and body fat

  2. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy can induce considerable, sustained viral suppression followed by immunological recovery, in which naive CD4 + cells are important. Long-term immunological recovery was investigated during the first 3 y of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 210 HIV-1......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression...

  3. A Facile Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Method to Prepare Anatase Titania/Cellulose Aerogels with Strong Photocatalytic Activities for Rhodamine B and Methyl Orange Degradations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caichao Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile low-temperature hydrothermal method for in situ preparation of anatase titania (TiO2 homogeneously dispersed in cellulose aerogels substrates was described. The formed anatase TiO2 aggregations composed of a mass of evenly dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes of 2−5 nm were embedded in the interconnected three-dimensional (3D architecture of the cellulose aerogels matrixes without large-scale reunion phenomenon; meanwhile, the obtained anatase titania/cellulose (ATC aerogels also had a high loading amount of TiO2 (ca. 35.7%. Furthermore, compared with commercially available Degussa P25, ATC aerogels displayed comparable photocatalytic activities for Rhodamine B and methyl orange degradations under UV radiation, which might be useful in the fields of catalysts, wastewater treatment, and organic pollutant degradation. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic reaction behaviors of ATC aerogels under UV irradiation were also illuminated.

  4. Growth of L-band scintillation at anomaly crest station in association with strong TEC gradient: A study covering wide solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, K.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Zahan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at to study the sources associated with growth of L band scintillation over Guwahati, an Appleton anomaly region. Starting with the analysis of diurnal and seasonal characteristic features of scintillation from a minimum sunspot number (Rz) of 10 to a maximum of 140, the paper shows that scintillations are more likely to develop during high solar activity period. It also highlights the explosive increase in occurrence of scintillation from post sunset to pre midnight hours in vernal equinoctial months when the background TEC is 50% more than on a normal day, accompanied by enhanced TEC decay rate. The role of equatorial anomaly effects through EXB drift processes are brought into discussion as possible sources on the growth of small scale irregularities leading to such scintillations.

  5. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2009-07-27

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  6. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2010-07-01

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of beta1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPK-pathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  7. Improvement of nonsuicidal self-injury following treatment with antipsychotics possessing strong D1 antagonistic activity: evidence from a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollweber, Bastian; Keck, Martin E; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    There is no drug treatment for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), a highly prevalent and burdensome symptom of several psychiatric diseases like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), personality disorders, and major depression (MD). Here, we present a retrospective series of three patients demonstrating a persistent remission in MD-associated NSSI in response to treatment with antipsychotics possessing marked D1 receptor antagonistic activity. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the case series presented is only the second clinical paper suggesting a role for D1 antagonists in NSSI drug therapy. Together with previously published data from rodent models, the findings suggest a role for D1 antagonists in NSSI drug therapy and hence for the D1 receptor in NSSI pathogenesis. This conclusion is limited by the facts that the patients presented here received polypharmacy and that the D1 receptor antagonistic antipsychotics suggested here as effective 'anti-auto-aggressants' do not address D1 receptors only but multiple neurotransmitter receptors/systems.

  8. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  9. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  10. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  13. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  14. <strong>Entropy>: a consolidation manager for clustersstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermenier, Fabien; Lorca, Xavier; Menaud, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    as their computational requirements change, both to reduce the number of nodes that need to be active and to eliminate temporary overload situations. Previous dynamic consolidation strategies have relied on task placement heuristics that use only local optimization and typically do not take migration overhead......Clusters provide powerful computing environments, but in practice much of this power goes to waste, due to the static allocation of tasks to nodes, regardless of their changing computational requirements. Dynamic consolidation is an approach that migrates tasks within a cluster...... in the number of nodes. Because migration overhead is taken into account, Entropy chooses migrations that can be implemented efficiently, incurring a low performance overhead....

  15. The Semi-Synthetic Peptide Lin-SB056-1 in Combination with EDTA Exerts Strong Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions Mimicking Cystic Fibrosis Sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Esin, Semih; Serra, Ilaria; Scorciapino, Mariano A; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-09-16

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The ability of the bacterium to form biofilms and the presence of a thick and stagnant mucus in the airways of CF patients largely contribute to antibiotic therapy failure and demand for new antimicrobial agents able to act in the CF environment. The present study investigated the anti- P. aeruginosa activity of lin-SB056-1, a recently described semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide, used alone and in combination with the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Bactericidal assays were carried out in standard culture conditions and in an artificial sputum medium (ASM) closely resembling the CF environment. Peptide's structure and interaction with large unilamellar vesicles in media with different ionic strengths were also investigated through infrared spectroscopy. Lin-SB056-1 demonstrated fast and strong bactericidal activity against both mucoid and non-mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa in planktonic form and, in combination with EDTA, caused significant reduction of the biomass of P. aeruginosa mature biofilms. In ASM, the peptide/EDTA combination exerted a strong bactericidal effect and inhibited the formation of biofilm-like structures of P. aeruginosa . Overall, the results obtained highlight the potential of the lin-SB056-1/EDTA combination for the treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infections in CF patients.

  16. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) is a strong inductor of smooth muscle cell migration via activation of the P2Y2 receptor and cross-communication to the PDGF receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedon, Annette; Tölle, Markus; Bastine, Joschika; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Huang, Tao; Jankowski, Vera; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Giet, Markus van der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up 4 A induces VSMC migration. ► VSMC migration towards Up 4 A involves P2Y 2 activation. ► Up 4 A-induced VSMC migration is OPN-dependent. ► Activation of ERK1/2 pathway is necessary for VSMC migration towards Up 4 A. ► Up 4 A-directed VSMC migration cross-communicates with the PDGFR. -- Abstract: The recently discovered dinucleotide uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up 4 A) was found in human plasma and characterized as endothelium-derived vasoconstrictive factor (EDCF). A further study revealed a positive correlation between Up 4 A and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Due to the dominant role of migration in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions our aim was to investigate the migration stimulating potential of Up 4 A. Indeed, we found a strong chemoattractant effect of Up 4 A on VSMC by using a modified Boyden chamber. This migration dramatically depends on osteopontin secretion (OPN) revealed by the reduction of the migration signal down to 23% during simultaneous incubation with an OPN-blocking antibody. Due to inhibitory patterns using specific and unspecific purinoreceptor inhibitors, Up 4 A mediates it’s migratory signal mainly via the P2Y 2 . The signaling behind the receptor was investigated with luminex technique and revealed an activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. By use of the specific PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor AG1296 and siRNA technique against PDGFR-β we found a strongly reduced migration signal after Up 4 A stimulation in the PDGFR-β knockdown cells compared to control cells. In this study, we present substantiate data that Up 4 A exhibits migration stimulating potential probably involving the signaling cascade of MEK1 and ERK1/2 as well as the matrix protein OPN. We further suggest that the initiation of the migration process occurs predominant through direct activation of the P2Y 2 by Up 4 A and via transactivation of the PDGFR.

  17. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  18. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  19. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  3. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  4. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  5. Study of the strongly ionized medium in active galactic n ('Warm Absorber'): multi-wavelength modelling and plasma diagnostics in the X-ray spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porquet, Delphine

    1999-01-01

    The so-called 'Warm Absorber' medium is observed in the central region of Active Galactic Nuclei and particularly in Seyfert l galaxies. lt is mainly characterized by O(VII) and O(VIII) absorption edges detected in the soft X-rays. Its study (modelization and observation) is an important key tool to understand Active Galactic Nuclei. The work presented here consists in modelling the Warm Absorber, and in developing X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics to constrain the physical parameters of any hot medium such as the Warm Absorber. The physical parameters of the Warm Absorber (density, temperature, ionization processes..) are difficult to determine only on the basis of present X-ray data. In particular, the value of the density cannot be derived only from the modelling of the resonance lines and of the soft X-ray absorption edges since there are almost insensitive to the density in the range of values expected for the Warm Absorber. lt is why we have developed diagnostic methods based on a multi-wavelength approach. The modelling is made with two complementary computational codes: PEGAS, and IRIS which takes into account the most accurate atomic data. With these two codes, we have modelled several types of plasma ionisation processes (photoionized plasmas and/or collisional). Results for the Warm Absorber were compared to multi-wavelength observations (mainly the optical iron coronal lines [Fe X] 6375 Angstroms, [Fe XI] 7892 Angstroms, and [Fe XIV] 5303 Angstroms). The proposed method has allowed to show that the Warm Absorber could be responsible of the emission of these lines totally or partially. All models of the Warm Absorber producing coronal line equivalent widths larger than observed were ruled out. This strongly constrains the physical parameters of the Warm Absorber, and particularly its density (n H ≥10 10 cm -3 ). The new generation of X-ray satellites (Chandra/AXAF, XMM...) will produce spectra at high spectral resolution and high sensitivity

  6. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  7. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  8. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  9. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  10. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  13. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  14. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  15. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  16. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  18. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  19. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  20. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  1. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  2. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  3. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  4. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  5. Strong piezoelectricity in bioinspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, Andrei; Amdursky, Nadav; Bdikin, Igor; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2010-02-23

    We show anomalously strong shear piezoelectric activity in self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes (PNTs), indicating electric polarization directed along the tube axis. Comparison with well-known piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and lateral signal calibration yields sufficiently high effective piezoelectric coefficient values of at least 60 pm/V (shear response for tubes of approximately 200 nm in diameter). PNTs demonstrate linear deformation without irreversible degradation in a broad range of driving voltages. The results open up a wide avenue for developing new generations of "green" piezoelectric materials and piezonanodevices based on bioactive tubular nanostructures potentially compatible with human tissue.

  6. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  7. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  8. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  9. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  10. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  11. Red wine polyphenolic compounds strongly inhibit pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and its activation in response to thrombin via direct inhibition of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Min-Ho; El Bedoui, Jasser; Anglard, Patrick; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2004-09-28

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of coronary disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that participate in extracellular matrix degradation have been involved in atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability. The present study examined whether red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPCs) inhibit activation of MMP-2, a major gelatinase, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Expression of pro-MMP-2 was assessed by Western and Northern blot analyses; MMP-2 activity was assessed by zymography and cell invasion by a modified Boyden's chamber assay. High levels of pro-MMP-2 and low levels of MMP-2 activity were found in conditioned medium from unstimulated VSMCs. Thrombin induced cell-associated pro-MMP-2 protein expression and MMP-2 activity in conditioned medium of VSMCs. The stimulatory effect of thrombin on MMP-2 activation was prevented by RWPCs in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. Thrombin markedly increased cell-associated membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP activity, the physiological activator of pro-MMP-2, and this response was not affected by RWPCs. However, addition of RWPCs directly to MT1-MMP abolished its metalloproteinase activity in a reversible manner. Finally, matrix invasion of VSMCs was stimulated by thrombin, and this response was prevented by RWPCs as efficiently as a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor. The present findings demonstrate that RWPCs effectively inhibit thrombin-induced matrix invasion of VSMCs, most likely by preventing the expression and activation of MMP-2 via direct inhibition of MT1-MMP activity. The inhibitory effect of RWPCs on the activation of pro-MMP-2 and matrix degradation might contribute to their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  13. Is It Possible to Predict Strong Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Y. S.; Ryabinin, G. V.; Solovyeva, A. B.; Timashev, S. F.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of earthquake prediction is one of the key open questions in modern geophysics. We propose an approach based on the analysis of common short-term candidate precursors (2 weeks to 3 months prior to strong earthquake) with the subsequent processing of brain activity signals generated in specific types of rats (kept in laboratory settings) who reportedly sense an impending earthquake a few days prior to the event. We illustrate the identification of short-term precursors using the groundwater sodium-ion concentration data in the time frame from 2010 to 2014 (a major earthquake occurred on 28 February 2013) recorded at two different sites in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The candidate precursors are observed as synchronized peaks in the nonstationarity factors, introduced within the flicker-noise spectroscopy framework for signal processing, for the high-frequency component of both time series. These peaks correspond to the local reorganizations of the underlying geophysical system that are believed to precede strong earthquakes. The rodent brain activity signals are selected as potential "immediate" (up to 2 weeks) deterministic precursors because of the recent scientific reports confirming that rodents sense imminent earthquakes and the population-genetic model of K irshvink (Soc Am 90, 312-323, 2000) showing how a reliable genetic seismic escape response system may have developed over the period of several hundred million years in certain animals. The use of brain activity signals, such as electroencephalograms, in contrast to conventional abnormal animal behavior observations, enables one to apply the standard "input-sensor-response" approach to determine what input signals trigger specific seismic escape brain activity responses.

  14. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  15. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  16. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  17. Altered Daytime Fluctuation Pattern of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Strong Association with Persistently Elevated Plasma Insulin, Increased Insulin Resistance, and Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lalić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating daily fluctuation of PAI-1 levels in relation to insulin resistance (IR and daily profile of plasma insulin and glucose levels in 26 type 2 diabetic (T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD (group A, 10 T2D patients without CAD (group B, 12 nondiabetics with CAD (group C, and 12 healthy controls (group D. The percentage of PAI-1 decrease was lower in group A versus group B (4.4 ± 2.7 versus 35.0 ± 5.4%; P<0.05 and in C versus D (14.0 ± 5.8 versus 44.7 ± 3.1%; P<0.001. HOMA-IR was higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01. Simultaneously, AUCs of PAI-1 and insulin were higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01, while AUC of glucose did not differ between groups. In multiple regression analysis waist-to-hip ratio and AUC of insulin were independent determinants of decrease in PAI-1. The altered diurnal fluctuation of PAI-1, especially in T2D with CAD, might be strongly influenced by a prolonged exposure to hyperinsulinemia in the settings of increased IR and abdominal obesity, facilitating altogether an accelerated atherosclerosis.

  18. <strong>Fate of xenobiotic compounds and plants activity in reed bed sludge treatment strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauli, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    unplanted in order to distinguish the impact of the root system on the performance of the containers. After twelve months OTNE, Triclosan and DEHP were significant degraded with half-lives of 187-204 days for OTNE, 330-462 days for Triclosan and 315-533 days for DEHP.  HHCB and AHTN have half-lives of 770...

  19. <strong>Active Fault Detection and Isolation for Hybrid Systems strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    models predicted outputs such that their discrepancies are observable by passive fault diagnosis technique. Isolation of different faults is done by implementation a bank of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) where the convergence criterion for EKF is confirmed by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method is applied...

  20. Anti-anaphylactic action of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in antigen sensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Dale R; Valentine, Jimmie L

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic natural products and medicinal herbs has gained popularity. The anti-antigenic action of the plant alkaloid nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) was studied in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs. In one series of experiments conscious, non-sedated guinea pigs were challenged with OA aerosol. Specific airway resistance (SR AW ) was monitored using a two-chambered whole-body plethysmograph. OA aerosol increased SR AW above that produced by vehicle administration. Prior NDGA administration by a 1min 0.9% aerosol (w/vol) attenuated the increase in SR AW resulting from OA challenge. In the anesthetized guinea pig pretreated with indomethacin, pyrilamine and propranolol, intravenous OA injection increased intra-tracheal pressure above vehicle injection. Intravenous NDGA administration (5mg/kg) reduced the intra-tracheal pressure increases. In a third series of experiments plasma leukotriene C 4 was measured by radio-immunoassay in 3 groups challenged with OA aerosol: vehicle-treated OA-sensitized, OA-sensitized receiving NDGA and vehicle treated guinea pigs. NDGA pretreatment reduced plasma LTC 4 in response to OA challenge in OA sensitized guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that NDGA is an effective antigenic agent when given by aerosol or intravenous injection in either conscious or anesthetized guinea pigs, respectively. The mechanism of action of NDGA is presumed primarily be due to the blockage of 5-lipoxygenase and therefore the synthesis of leukotrienes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  2. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  3. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  4. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current between Taipei and Tokyo at an average speed of 12 knots. Effective use of these strong currents can yield huge savings considering that a...and the top five importers are China, United States, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. Overall, strong economic activities take place in the Asian Pacific...ship routers. On the route of the KC region between Tokyo and Taipei (∼ 1100 nm), ships can save 2–6% fuel with sailing speeds of around 12 knots

  5. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  6. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  7. Listeriolysin o is strongly immunogenic independently of its cytotoxic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Carrero

    Full Text Available The presentation of microbial protein antigens by Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC molecules is essential for the development of acquired immunity to infections. However, most biochemical studies of antigen processing and presentation deal with a few relatively inert non-microbial model antigens. The bacterial pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO is paradoxical in that it is cytotoxic at nanomolar concentrations as well as being the source of dominant CD4 and CD8 T cell epitopes following infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Here, we examined the relationship of LLO toxicity to its antigenicity and immunogenicity. LLO offered to antigen presenting cells (APC as a soluble protein, was presented to CD4 T cells at picomolar to femtomolar concentrations- doses 3000-7000-fold lower than free peptide. This presentation required a dose of LLO below the cytotoxic level. Mutations of two key tryptophan residues reduced LLO toxicity by 10-100-fold but had no effect on its presentation to CD4 T cells. Thus there was a clear dissociation between the cytotoxic properties of LLO and its very high antigenicity. Presentation of LLO to CD8 T cells was not as robust as that seen in CD4 T cells, but still occurred in the nanomolar range. APC rapidly bound and internalized LLO, then disrupted endosomal compartments within 4 hours of treatment, allowing endosomal contents to access the cytosol. LLO was also immunogenic after in vivo administration into mice. Our results demonstrate the strength of LLO as an immunogen to both CD4 and CD8 T cells.

  8. Functional Analysis of Chromosome 18 in Pancreatic Cancer: Strong Evidence for New Tumour Suppressor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu P. Lefter

    2004-04-01

    Conclusion: These data represent strong functional evidence that chromosome 18q encodes strong tumour and metastasis suppressor activity that is able to switch human pancreatic cancer cells to a dormant phenotype.

  9. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  10. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  11. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  12. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  13. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  14. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  15. Discovery of novel plant peptides as strong inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Dina M; Duarte, Isabel C; Francisco, Rita; Ricardo, Cândido P P; Duque-Magalhães, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Five novel metalloproteinase protein inhibitors (MPIs) with molecular mass between 5.6 and 8.9 kDa and acid/neutral pI were detected in lupin seeds and exhibited strong inhibitory activities against thermolysin and/or gelatinase B. These novel peptides constitute not only the first MPIs described in plants but also the first plant peptides with inhibitory activity against a matrixin.

  16. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  17. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  18. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  19. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  20. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  1. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  2. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  3. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  4. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  5. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  6. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  7. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  8. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  9. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  10. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  11. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  12. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  13. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  14. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  15. Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...

  16. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  17. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  18. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  19. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.

  20. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  1. Strong boundedness of analytic functions in tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain classes of analytic functions in tube domains TC=ℝn+iC in n-dimensional complex space, where C is an open connected cone in ℝn, are studied. We show that the functions have a boundedness property in the strong topology of the space of tempered distributions g′. We further give a direct proof that each analytic function attains the Fourier transform of its spectral function as distributional boundary value in the strong (and weak topology of g′.

  2. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  3. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.

  4. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  7. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  8. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  9. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probes like photons, pions or protons or the heated and compressed hadronic matter generated in a heavy-ion collision. Leaving any nuclear medium without strong final-state interactions, dileptons are the optimum decay channel as they avoid any final-state distortion of the 4- momenta of the decay products entering eq.

  10. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of hadrons in strongly interacting matter provide a link between quantum chromodynamics in the ... Top: Spectral function of the ρ-meson at normal nuclear matter density as a function of mass and ... directly but folded with the branching ratio ΓV →p1+p2 /Γtot into the specific final channel one is investigating.

  11. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  12. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  13. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  14. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  15. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  16. Morphological modelling of strongly curved islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, D.; Den Heijer, C.; Van Thiel De Vries, J.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Land reclamations and island coasts often involve strongly curved shorelines, which are challenging to be properly modeled by numerical morphological models. Evaluation of the long term development of these types of coasts as well as their response to storm conditions requires proper representation

  17. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...

  18. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  19. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esberg, J.; Kirsebom, K.; Knudsen, H.; Thomsen, H.D.; Uggerhøj, E.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Sona, P.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ketel, T.J.; Ditzdar, A.; Dalton, M.M.; Ballestrero, S.; Connell, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single

  20. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  1. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  2. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  3. Controlling Josephson dynamics by strong microwave fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesca, B.; Savel'ev, E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We observe several sharp changes in the slope of the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of thin-film ramp-edge Josephson junctions between YBa2Cu3O7−delta and Nb when applying strong microwave fields. Such behavior indicates an intriguing Josephson dynamics associated with the switching from a

  4. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model ...

  5. Weak and strong nonlinearities in magnetic bearings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 7 (2004), s. 779-795 ISSN 0094-114X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471; GA AV ČR IBS2076301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : weak nonlinearitiy * strong nonlinearity * magnetics bearings Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004

  6. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  7. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  8. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  9. A Note on Strongly Dense Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2015), s. 721-730 ISSN 2199-675X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : strongly dense matrix * Boolean matrix * nonnegative matrix * idempotent matrix * intrinsic product * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Strongly 2-connected orientations of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a graph admits a strongly 2-connected orientation if and only if it is 4-edge-connected, and every vertex-deleted subgraph is 2-edge-connected. In particular, every 4-connected graph has such an orientation while no cubic 3-connected graph has such an orientation....

  11. The Shape of Strongly Disturbed Dayside Magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dmitriev Alla V. Suvorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During strong geomagnetic disturbances, the Earth¡¦s magnetosphere exhibits unusual and nonlinear interaction with the incident flow of magnetized solar wind plasma. Global Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD modeling of the magnetosphere predicts that the storm-time effects at the magnetopause result from the abnormal plasma transport and/or extremely strong field aligned currents. In-situ observations of the magnetospheric boundary, magnetopause, by Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES allowed us to find experimentally such effects as a saturation of the dayside reconnection, unusual bluntness and prominent duskward skewing of the nose magnetopause. The saturation and duskward skewing were attributed to the storm-time magnetopause formation under strong southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. The unusual bluntness was observed during both high solar wind pressure and strong southward IMF. We suggest that these phenomena are caused by a substantial contribution of the cross-tail current magnetic field and the hot magnetospheric plasma from the asymmetrical ring current into the pressure balance at the dayside magnetopause.

  12. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.

  13. Strong paleoearthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korzhenkov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Talas-Fergana Fault, the largest strike-slip structure in Centred. Asia, forms an obliquely oriented boundary between the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Tianshan mountain belt. The fault underwent active right-lateral strike-slip during the Paleozoic, with right-lateral movements being rejuvenated in the Late Cenozoic. Tectonic movements along the intracontinental strike-slip faults contribute to absorb part of the regional crustal shortening linked to the India-Eurasia collision; knowledge of strike-slip motions along the Talas-Fergana Fault are necessary for a complete assessment of the active deformation of the Tianshan orogen. To improve our understanding of the intracontinental deformation of the Tianshan mountain belt and the occurrence of strong earthquakes along the whole length of the Talas-Fergana Fault, we identify features of relief arising during strong paleoearthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault, fault segmentation, the length of seismogenic ruptures, and the energy and age of ancient catastrophes. We show that during neotectonic time the fault developed as a dextral strike-slip fault, with possible dextral displacements spreading to secondary fault planes north of the main fault trace. We determine rates of Holocene and Late Pleistocene dextral movements, and our radiocarbon dating indicates tens of strong earthquakes occurring along the fault zone during arid interval of 15800 years. The reoccurrence of strong earthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault zone during the second half of the Holocene is about 300 years. The next strong earthquake along the fault will most probably occur along its southeastern chain during the next several decades. Seismotectonic deformation parameters indicate that M > 7 earthquakes with oscillation intensity I > IX have occurred.

  14. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  15. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  16. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  17. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  18. Strong gauge boson scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rindani, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the standard model with electroweak symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism, electroweak gauge-boson scattering amplitudes are large if the Higgs boson is heavy, and electroweak gauge interactions become strong. In theories with electroweak symmetry breaking through alternative mechanisms, there could be a strongly interacting gauge sector, possibly with resonances in an accessible energy region. In general, the scattering of longitudinally polarized massive gauge bosons can give information on the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At energies below the symmetry breaking scale, the equivalence theorem relates the scattering amplitudes to those of the "would-be" Goldstone modes. In the absence of Higgs bosons, unitarity would be restored by some new physics which can be studied through WW scattering. Some representatives models are discussed. Isolating WW scattering at a hadron collider from other contributions involving W emission from parton lines needs a good understanding of the backgrou...

  19. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K

    2018-03-09

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  1. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  2. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  3. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...

  4. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  5. Strong Josephson Coupling in Planar Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Takane, Yositake; Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Hu-Jong

    A recent breakthrough of processing graphene, employing encapsulation by hexagonal boron nitride layers (BGB structure), allows realizing the ballistic carrier transport in graphene. Thereafter, ballistic Josephson coupling has been studied by closely edge-contacted BGB structure with two superconducting electrodes. Here, we report on the strong Josephson coupling with planar graphene junction in truly short and ballistic regime. Our device showed high transmission probability and the junction critical current (IC) oscillating for sweeping the gate voltage along with the normal conductance oscillation (Fabry-Perot oscillations), providing a direct evidence for the ballistic nature of the junction pair current. We also observed the convex-upward shape of decreasing critical currents with increasing temperature, canonical properties of the short Josephson coupling. By fitting these curves into theoretical models, we demonstrate the strong Josephson coupling in our devices, which is also supported by the exceptionally large value of ICRN ( 2 Δ / e RNis the normal resistance).

  6. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  7. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...

  8. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  9. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  10. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  11. Abnormally big magnetic resistance in a strongly compensated silicon doped with manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadullaev, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    The work is devoted to study of an influence of compensating impurities electro-active atoms concentration on galvanomagnetic properties of strongly compensated silicon doped with manganese. It was shown, the possibility for magnetic resistance control of the strongly compensated Si samples by manganese electro-active impurity atoms concentration regulation

  12. SUSY strong production (leptonic) with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most motivated scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. This article summarizes recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at LHC, which target supersymmetric particles produced by strong interaction in events with leptonic fi nal states. No signi ficant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed and exclusion limits have been set on squark and gluino masses in various scenarios.

  13. Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  15. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Strong-Q-sequences and small d

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounský, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2012), s. 2942-2946 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Katowice problem * strong-Q-sequence * dominating number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002222

  17. Superbainite. A novel very strong bainitic microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Caballero, E. G.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2005-01-01

    In this work very recent results are how that reveals the possibility of obtaining bainite by isothermal transformation at very low temperatures, of about 150 degree centigree, in high carbon high silicon steels. The microstructure thus obtained is a mixture of fine plates of bainite ferrite (20-40 nm thickness) and thin films of carbon enriched austenite. These microstructures are very hard (600 HV) and strong (2.5 GPa). (Author) 18 refs

  18. Strong decays of nonstrange q3 baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Iachello, F.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    We study strong decays of nonstrange baryons by making use of the algebraic approach to hadron structure. Within this framework we derive closed expressions for decay widths in an elementary-meson emission model and use these to analyze the experimental data for N * →N+π, N * →Δ+π, N * →N+η, Δ * →N+π, Δ * →Δ+π, and Δ * →Δ+η decays. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  20. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-12-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  1. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  2. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  3. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  4. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  5. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  6. 77 FR 16131 - Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Order 13602 of March 15, 2012 Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities By... enable them to develop and implement economic strategies to become more competitive, sustainable, and inclusive, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Cities, towns, and regions across our Nation...

  7. Renormalization in theories with strong vector forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.

    1991-01-01

    There are not many field theories in four dimensions that have sensible ultraviolet and interesting (non-trivial) infrared behavior. At present, asymptotically free theories seem to have deserved their legitimacy and there is a strong prejudice that they might be the only ones to have such a distinction. This belief stems mostly from the fact that most of the knowledge of field theory in four dimensions comes from perturbation theory. However, nonperturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that are perturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that perturbatively inaccessible. The lack of asymptotic freedom implies that the coupling constant grows at short distances and perturbation theory breaks down. Thus, in such theories, ultraviolet behavior requires nonperturbative treatment. Recently, the interest in strongly coupled gauge theories has been revived. In particularly, four dimensional quantum electrodynamics has received considerable attention. This was motivated by the discovery of an ultraviolet stable fixed point at strong couplings. If this fixed point would turn out to be non-gaussian, then QED would be the first nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory in four dimensions. The importance of such a result would be twofold. First, the old question of the existence of QED could be settled. Of course, this would be the case provided that the low energy limit of the theory actually describes photons and electrons; apriori, there is no reason to assume this. Second, the discovery of a nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory would be of great paradigmatic value. The theories which quenched QED resembles the most are nonabelian gauge theories with many flavors with beta-function positive or vanishing at weak couplings. These theories are at present considered as viable candidates for technicolor unification schemes

  8. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB∼m 2 π ∼ 0.02 GeV 2 at the RHIC and eB∼ 15m 2 π ∼ 0.3 GeV 2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B 0 and D 0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  9. Strong signatures of right-handed compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sanz, Veronica [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Vries, Maikel de; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, that are motivated by flavor physics, one expects large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupled to light quarks. We study experimental strong signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC, and constrain the parameter space of these models with recent results by ATLAS and CMS. We show that the LHC sensitivity could be significantly improved if dedicated searches were performed, in particular in multi-jet signals.

  10. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  11. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  12. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  13. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  14. Wormhole effect in a strong topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G.; Guo, H.-M.; Franz, M.

    2010-07-01

    An infinitely thin solenoid carrying magnetic flux Φ (a “Dirac string”) inserted into an ordinary band insulator has no significant effect on the spectrum of electrons. In a strong topological insulator, remarkably, such a solenoid carries protected gapless one-dimensional fermionic modes when Φ=hc/2e . These modes are spin-filtered and represent a distinct bulk manifestation of the topologically nontrivial insulator. We establish this “wormhole” effect by both general qualitative considerations and by numerical calculations within a minimal lattice model. We also discuss the possibility of experimental observation of a closely related effect in artificially engineered nanostructures.

  15. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  16. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  17. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  18. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.

    1981-05-01

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  19. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  20. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

  1. Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Ram Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.

  2. The Athens Acropolis Strong Motion Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, I. S.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Melis, N. S.; Boukouras, K.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, extensive restoration works through a dedicated "Acropolis Restoration Service" (YSMA) take place in the Acropolis, the greatest sanctuary of ancient Athens. Since 2008, a permanent strong motion array was deployed by the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens (NOA-IG) in collaboration with YSMA. Free field installations were decided at sites showing various characteristics, aiming to investigate differences in geotechnical properties as well as the structure response of Parthenon itself. The installation phase is presented, with the techniques used to overcome difficulties (i.e. extreme weather conditions, power and communication limitations, restoration works and visitors) and the special care taken for the specific archaeological site. Furthermore, indicative examples of seismic events recorded by the array are analyzed and the complexity of the hill and the monument is made apparent. Among them, the long distance events of Tohoku, Japan 2010 and Van, Turkey 2011, some regional moderate earthquakes in Greece and some weak earthquakes from the vicinity. Continuous ambient noise monitoring using PQLX software gives some first indicative results, showing a variety of characteristics at installation sites. Finally, further developments and future steps are presented such as: the extension of the array, the integration of seismic data within the GIS platform of YSMA at the site and the use of strong motion records, in conjunction with data from other monitoring systems operating in Acropolis for the study of specific monuments.

  3. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron-positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  4. Strong Double Higgs Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto; Moretti, Mauro; Piccinini, Fulvio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    The hierarchy problem and the electroweak data, together, provide a plausible motivation for considering a light Higgs emerging as a pseudo-Goldstone boson from a strongly-coupled sector. In that scenario, the rates for Higgs production and decay differ significantly from those in the Standard Model. However, one genuine strong coupling signature is the growth with energy of the scattering amplitudes among the Goldstone bosons, the longitudinally polarized vector bosons as well as the Higgs boson itself. The rate for double Higgs production in vector boson fusion is thus enhanced with respect to its negligible rate in the SM. We study that reaction in pp collisions, where the production of two Higgs bosons at high pT is associated with the emission of two forward jets. We concentrate on the decay mode hh -> WW^(*)WW^(*) and study the semi-leptonic decay chains of the W's with 2, 3 or 4 leptons in the final states. While the 3 lepton final states are the most relevant and can lead to a 3 sigma signal significa...

  5. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  6. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  7. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  8. NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Tou, H.; Zheng, G.-q.; Ishida, K.; Asayama, K.; Kobayashi, T. C.; Kohda, A.; Takeshita, N.; Amaya, K.; Onuki, Y.; Geibel, G.; Schank, C.; Steglich, F.

    1995-02-01

    Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu 2X 2 (X = Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM 2Al 3 (M = Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu 2X 2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu 2Ge 2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6 GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to tha CeCu 2Si 2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7 T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu 2.05Si 2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7 T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd 2Al 3 with a record high- Tc of 2 K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/ T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13 K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties.

  9. Some recent results on strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.

    1978-01-01

    A preview of a rapporteur talk is given on the three active fields of high energy hadron reactions with high multiplicity, charm searches and related topics, and ultrahigh energy events and exotic phenomena of cosmic radiation. 53 references

  10. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  11. Convex Modeling of Interactions with Strong Heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Asad; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the task of fitting a regression model involving interactions among a potentially large set of covariates, in which we wish to enforce strong heredity. We propose FAMILY, a very general framework for this task. Our proposal is a generalization of several existing methods, such as VANISH [Radchenko and James, 2010], hierNet [Bien et al., 2013], the all-pairs lasso, and the lasso using only main effects. It can be formulated as the solution to a convex optimization problem, which we solve using an efficient alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. This algorithm has guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, can be easily specialized to any convex penalty function of interest, and allows for a straightforward extension to the setting of generalized linear models. We derive an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of FAMILY, and explore its performance in a simulation study and on an HIV sequence data set.

  12. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k......-3/2 for the potential fluctuations in the production, coupling and inertia subranges, respectively. The coefficient of Bohm diffusion is reproduced, and its role in electrostatic coupling is derived. Comparison is made with measured power laws reported in the literature, from Q-devices, hot...

  13. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  14. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDAŞ Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy

  15. Strongly coupled band in 140Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, Kπ = 8 - isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in 128 Xe, 130 Ba, 132 Ce, 134 Nd, 136 Sm, and 138 Gd[. In 140 Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an Iπ = 8 - state. This could be the first case of a Kπ = 8 - state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the Kπ = 8 - isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The 140 Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in 140 Gd

  16. Thomson scattering in strong external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, S.; Ehlotzky, F.

    1992-09-01

    In the present paper we shall investigate relativistic Thomson scattering in two external fields. A free classical electron will be embedded in a strong, constant and homogeneous magnetic field and in a powerful electromagnetic field. Both fields will be considered in the Redmond configuration, in which case the electromagnetic wave is circularly polarized and propagates in the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. The electron will be allowed to have arbitrary initial conditions and the electromagnetic wave will be switched on either suddenly or adiabatically. We shall present the exact solution of the Lorentz equation of motion in the above external field configuration and we shall evaluate the spectrum and cross sections of the scattered radiation. In particular, we shall consider scattering close to resonance and we shall compare our results with the findings of earlier work.

  17. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N c arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma

  18. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  19. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  20. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...

  1. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown......One of the most intriguing recent results in physics is the growing evidence that an unknown energy field and an unknown kind of matter are the major components of the Universe (70% and 30%, respectively; see e.g. Riess et al. 1998, Spergel et al. 2007). Understanding and estimating the precise...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies...

  2. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  3. Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ch’ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.

  4. The new <Strong Italian Earthquakes>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valensise

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new catalogue of strong ltalian earthquakes that the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in collaboration with SGA, has recently made available to the international scientific community and to the general public. The new catalogue differs from previous efforts in that for each event the usual seismic parameters are complemented by a list of intensity rated localities, a complete list of relevant references, a series of synoptic comments describing different aspects of the earthquake phenomenology. and in most cases even the text of the original written sources. The printed part of the catalogue has been published as a special monograph which contains also a computer version of the full database in the form of a CD-ROM. The software package includes a computer program for retrieving, selecting and displaying the catalogue data.

  5. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  6. OGJ200 companies posted strong financial year in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Bell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Companies on the OGJ200 list of publicly traded oil and gas producers in the US posted a second straight strong financial year in 1997. Net income slipped but was still at the second highest level on record. Most other indicators of financial and operating performance remained at high levels or posted increases in 1997. As always, data for this year's list reflect the prior year's operations. The paper discusses and presents data for the following: assets, revenue, stockholder's equity, drilling activity, financial performance, group operation, changes in the group, the top 20 companies, and the fastest growing companies

  7. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The

  8. Noise Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali M.

    Strongly correlated materials are an interesting class of materials, thanks to the novel electronic and magnetic phenomena they exhibit as a result of the interplay of various degrees of freedom. This gives rise to an array of potential applications, from Mott-FET to magnetic storage. Many experimental probes have been used to study phase transitions in strongly correlated oxides. Among these, resistance noise spectroscopy, together with conventional transport measurements, provides a unique viewpoint to understand the microscopic dynamics near the phase transitions in these oxides. In this thesis, utilizing noise spectroscopy and transport measurements, four different strongly correlated materials were studied: (1) neodymium nickel oxide (NdNiO 3) ultrathin films, (2) vanadium dioxide (VO2) microribbons, (3) copper vanadium bronze (CuxV2O 5) microribbons and (4) niobium triselenide (NbSe3) microribbons. Ultra thin films of rare-earth nickelates exhibit several temperature-driven phase transitions. In this thesis, we studied the metal-insulator and Neel transitions in a series of NdNiO3 films with different lattice mismatches. Upon colling down, the metal-insulator phase transition is accompanied by a structural (orthorohombic to monoclinic) and magnetic (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic) transitions as well, making the problem more interesting and complex at the same time. The noise is of the 1/f type and is Gaussian in the high temperature phase, however deviations are seen in the low temperature phases. Below the metal-insulator transition, noise magnitude increases by orders of magnitude: a sign of inhomogeneous electrical conduction as result of phase separation. This is further assured by the non-Gaussian noise signature. At very low temperatures (T thesis, we tried to answer this question by utilizing three different tuning parameters: temperature, voltage bias and strain. Our results point to an unusual noise behavior in the high-temperature metallic phase

  9. Strong coupling of collection of emitters on hyperbolic meta-material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Xu, Chenran; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to the realization of a strong coupling regime of the radiation matter interaction in the context of an emitter at a meta surface. The strong interaction is well realized in cavity quantum electrodynamics, which also show that strong coupling is much easier to realize using a collection of emitters. Keeping this in mind, we study if emitters on a hyperbolic meta materials can yield a strong coupling regime. We show that strong coupling can be realized for densities of emitters exceeding a critical value. A way to detect strong coupling between emitters and hyperbolic metamaterials is to use the Kretschman-Raether configuration. The strong coupling appears as the splitting of the reflectivity dip. In the weak coupling regime, the dip position shifts. The shift and splitting can be used to sense active molecules at surfaces.

  10. Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Geneş, M. C.; Kacın, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.

    2009-04-01

    Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis

  11. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  12. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  13. Strong Correlation Physics in Aromatic Hydrocarbon Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Massimo; Giovannetti, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    We show, by means of ab-initio calculations, that electron-electron correlations play an important role in doped aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors, including potassium doped picene with Tc= 18K [1], coronene and phenanthrene [2]. For the case of picene the inclusion of exchange interactions by means of hybrid functionals reproduces the correct gap for the undoped compound and predicts an antiferromagnetic state for x=3, where superconductivity has been observed [3]. The latter finding is compatible with a sizable value of the correlation strength. The differences between the different compounds are analyzed and results of Dynamical Mean-Field Theory including both correlation effects and electron-phonon interactions are presented. Finally we discuss the consequences of strong correlations in an organic superconductor in relation to the properties of Cs3C60, in which electron correlations drive an antiferromagnetic state [4] but also lead to an enhancement of superconductivity [5]. 1. R. Mitsuhashi et al. Nature 464, 76 (2010)2. X.F. Wang et al, Nat. Comm. 2, 507 (2011)3. G. Giovannetti and M. Capone, Phys. Rev. B 83, 134508 (2011)4. Y. Takabayashi et al., Science 323, 1585 (2009)5. M. Capone et al. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 943 (2009

  14. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  15. Quasinormal Modes and Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Costa, João L.; Destounis, Kyriakos; Hintz, Peter; Jansen, Aron

    2018-01-01

    The fate of Cauchy horizons, such as those found inside charged black holes, is intrinsically connected to the decay of small perturbations exterior to the event horizon. As such, the validity of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture is tied to how effectively the exterior damps fluctuations. Here, we study massless scalar fields in the exterior of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. Their decay rates are governed by quasinormal modes of the black hole. We identify three families of modes in these spacetimes: one directly linked to the photon sphere, well described by standard WKB-type tools; another family whose existence and time scale is closely related to the de Sitter horizon; finally, a third family which dominates for near-extremally charged black holes and which is also present in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The last two families of modes seem to have gone unnoticed in the literature. We give a detailed description of linear scalar perturbations of such black holes, and conjecture that SCC is violated in the near extremal regime.

  16. Strong coupling from the Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Joseph A.

    2006-10-01

    It was recently observed that the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model reproduces the known part of the perturbative spectrum of planar {\\cal N}=4 super Yang Mills in the SU(2) sector. Assuming that this identification is valid beyond perturbation theory, we investigate the behaviour of this spectrum as the 't Hooft parameter λ becomes large. We show that the full dimension Δ of the Konishi superpartner is the solution of a sixth-order polynomial while Δ for a bare dimension 5 operator is the solution of a cubic. In both cases, the equations can be solved easily as a series expansion for both small and large λ and the equations can be inverted to express λ as an explicit function of Δ. We then consider more general operators and show how Δ depends on λ in the strong coupling limit. We are also able to distinguish those states in the Hubbard model which correspond to the gauge-invariant operators for all values of λ. Finally, we compare our results with known results for strings on AdS5 × S5, where we find agreement for a range of R-charges.

  17. Strongly coupled band in {sup 140}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in {sup 128}Xe, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 134}Nd, {sup 136}Sm, and {sup 138}Gd[. In {sup 140}Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an I{pi} = 8{sup -} state. This could be the first case of a K{pi} = 8{sup -} state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The {sup 140}Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in {sup 140}Gd.

  18. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  19. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  1. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  2. Strongly correlated superconductivity and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Doped Mott insulators and doped charge-transfer insulators describe classes of materials that can exhibit unconventional superconducting ground states. Examples include the cuprates and the layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family. I present results obtained from plaquette cellular dynamical mean-field theory. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo evaluation of the hybridization expansion allows one to study the models in the large interaction limit where quasiparticles can disappear. The normal state which is unstable to the superconducting state exhibits a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal phase. That transition is the finite-doping extension of the metal-insulator transition obtained at half-filling. This transition serves as an organizing principle for the normal and superconducting states of both cuprates and doped organic superconductors. In the less strongly correlated limit, these methods also describe the more conventional case where the superconducting dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Sponsored by NSERC RGPIN-2014-04584, CIFAR, Research Chair in the Theory of Quantum Materials.

  3. Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, F.

    1993-12-07

    Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric (LCP) compositions of matter are described. LCP backbones are combined with liquid crystalline (LC) side chains in a manner which maximizes molecular ordering through interdigitation of the side chains, thereby yielding materials which are predicted to have superior mechanical properties over existing LCPs. The theoretical design of LCPs having such characteristics includes consideration of the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and in the side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of the spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in sub-molecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone to which they are attached, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and the side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and the side chains for easy alignment. 27 figures.

  4. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  5. Toward a Strongly Interacting Scalar Higgs Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.; El-Houssieny, M.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory. Rather than the corresponding Hermitian theory and due to the asymptotic freedom property of the theory, the vacuum energy does not blow up for large energy scales which is a good sign to solve the hierarchy problem when using this model to break the U(1)xSU(2) symmetry in the standard model. The theory is strongly interacting and in fact, all the dimensionful parameters in the theory like mass and energy are finite even for very high energy scales. Moreover, relative to the vacuum energy for the Hermitian φ 4 theory, the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 theory is tiny, which is a good sign toward the solution of the cosmological constant problem. Remarkably, these features of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory make it very plausible to be employed as a Higgs mechanism in the standard model instead of the problematic Hermitian Higgs mechanism

  6. Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.

  7. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  8. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or

  9. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  10. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  11. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  12. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  13. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  14. <strong>Cell-surface expression of Hsp70 on hematopoietic cancer cells after inhibition of HDAC activity>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle

    frequently express Hsp70 on their cell surface, whereas the corresponding normal tissues do not. In addition, several clinically applied reagents, such as alkyl-lysophospholipides, chemotherapeutic agents, and anti-inflammatory reagents, have been found to enhance Hsp70 cell surface expression on cancer...

  15. Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.

  16. ''Strong gammas''. List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides. Documentation of the PC diskette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, T.; Narita, T.; Kitao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The PC diskette containing the ''List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides'' as published by T. Narita et al. in the report JAERI-M-94-059, March 1994, is described. The diskette is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  17. Strong Feller solutions to SPDEďs are strong Feller in the weak topology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 2 (2001), s. 111-129 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/1454 Keywords : strong Feller property% stochastic parabolic equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001

  18. Strong-field ionization of polar molecules: Stark-shift-corrected strong-field approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Martiny, Christian P. J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We extend the molecular strong-field approximation for ionization, in the tunneling limit, to include systematically the linear and quadratic static Stark shifts of the ionizing molecular orbital. This approach, simple to implement, is capable of describing the essential physics of the process of...

  19. Mechanism of antianaphylactic action of beta-agonists in allergic inflammation of air pouch type in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchi, K; Hirasawa, N; Takeda, H; Asano, K; Watanabe, M; Tsurufuji, S

    1987-01-01

    Using an experimental model of allergic inflammation of air pouch type in rats, the mechanism of antiallergic action of beta-agonists was examined. In this model an immediate increase in vascular permeability and histamine level in the pouch fluid was observed after injecting the antigen (azobenzene arsonate-conjugated acetyl bovine serum albumin) solution into the preformed air pouch on the back of the sensitized rats. The same type of reaction was inducible by injecting anti-rat IgE into the preformed air pouch, but not IgG2a. This fact indicates that the immediate increase in vascular permeability and histamine level is an IgE-mediated anaphylactic reaction. When beta-agonists such as isoproterenol, procaterol and salbutamol were injected into the air pouch together with the antigen, the anaphylactic increase in vascular permeability was suppressed dose-dependently without concomitant decrease in histamine level in the pouch fluid. In contrast, disodium cromoglycate, an inhibitor of degranulation of mast cells, the anaphylactic vascular permeability increase was suppressed in parallel with a decrease of the histamine level. Propranolol, a beta-antagonist, counteracted the effect of beta-agonists. Serotonin-induced vascular permeability was also suppressed dose-dependently by treatment with beta-agonists. Furthermore, vascular permeability in the postanaphylactic phase of the present experimental model was also suppressed by isoproterenol. These results indicate that beta-agonists exert their antiallergic effect by inhibiting the reactivity of local vasculature to chemical mediators released from mast cells.

  20. The anti-anaphylactic and histamine-releasing properties of the antihistamines. Their effect on the mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, I.; Da Silva, W. Dias

    1960-01-01

    It has been shown that, depending upon their concentration, antihistamines act in three different ways: (a) by competitive inhibition of histamine as already known; (b) by destroying mast cells and releasing histamine; and (c) by preventing mast cell damage and histamine release in anaphylaxis. Furthermore, antihistamines potentiated mast cell damage and histamine release by compound 48/80, when acting on guinea-pig tissues, and inhibited these same phenomena when acting on rat tissues. It is concluded that the effect of antihistamines in anaphylaxis is possibly due both to their competitive inhibition of histamine on smooth muscle receptors and to their inhibition of mast cell damage and histamine release by antigen. PMID:13773171

  1. Supporting aboriginal knowledge and practice in health care: lessons from a qualitative evaluation of the strong women, strong babies, strong culture program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne; Kildea, Sue; Liddle, Marlene; Cox, Barbara; Paterson, Barbara

    2015-02-05

    The Strong Women, Strong Babies, Strong Culture Program (the Program) evolved from a recognition of the value of Aboriginal knowledge and practice in promoting maternal and child health (MCH) in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Commencing in 1993 it continues to operate today. In 2008, the NT Department of Health commissioned an evaluation to identify enabling factors and barriers to successful implementation of the Program, and to identify potential pathways for future development. In this paper we focus on the evaluation findings related specifically to the role of Aborignal cultural knowledge and practice within the Program. A qualitative evaluation utilised purposive sampling to maximise diversity in program history and Aboriginal culture. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 76 participants were recorded in their preferred language with a registered Interpreter when required. Thematic analysis of data was verified or modified through further discussions with participants and members of the evaluation team. Although the importance of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is widely acknowledged, there has been considerable variation across time and location in the extent to which these cultural dimensions have been included in practice. Factors contributing to this variation are complex and relate to a number of broad themes including: location of control over Program activities; recognition and respect for Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a legitimate component of health care; working in partnership; communication within and beyond the Program; access to transport and working space; and governance and organisational support. We suggest that inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is key to its survival over more than twenty years despite serious challenges. Respect for the legitimacy of Aboriginal knowledge and practice within health

  2. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  3. Strong earthquakes can be predicted: a multidisciplinary method for strong earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Li

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The imminent prediction on a group of strong earthquakes that occurred in Xinjiang, China in April 1997 is introduced in detail. The prediction was made on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the results obtained by multiple innovative methods including measurements of crustal stress, observation of infrasonic wave in an ultra low frequency range, and recording of abnormal behavior of certain animals. Other successful examples of prediction are also enumerated. The statistics shows that above 40% of 20 total predictions jointly presented by J. Z. Li, Z. Q. Ren and others since 1995 can be regarded as effective. With the above methods, precursors of almost every strong earthquake around the world that occurred in recent years were recorded in our laboratory. However, the physical mechanisms of the observed precursors are yet impossible to explain at this stage.

  4. Strong Convergence for Hybrid Implicit S-Iteration Scheme of Nonexpansive and Strongly Pseudocontractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let K be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Banach space E, let S:K→K be nonexpansive, and let  T:K→K be Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings such that p∈FS∩FT=x∈K:Sx=Tx=x and x-Sy≤Sx-Sy and x-Ty≤Tx-Ty for all x, y∈K. Let βn be a sequence in 0, 1 satisfying (i ∑n=1∞βn=∞; (ii limn→∞⁡βn=0. For arbitrary x0∈K, let xn be a sequence iteratively defined by xn=Syn, yn=1-βnxn-1+βnTxn, n≥1. Then the sequence xn converges strongly to a common fixed point p of S and T.

  5. Inhomogeneities in a strongly correlated d-wave superconductors in the limit of strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The complex interplay of the strong correlations and impurities in a high temperature superconductor is analyzed within a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, augmented with Gutzwiller approximation for taking care of the strong electronic repulsion. The inclusion of such correlations is found to play a crucial role in reducing inhomogeneities in both qualitative and quantitative manner. This difference is comprehended by investigating the underlying one-particle ``normal states'' that includes the order parameters in the Hartree and Fock channels in the absence of superconductivity. This amounts to the renormalization of disorder both on the lattice sites and also on links. These two components of disorder turn out to be spatially anti-correlated through self-consistency. Interestingly, a simple pairing theory in terms of these normal states is found to describe the complex behaviors of dirty cuprates with reasonable accuracy. However, this framework needs modifications in the limit where disorder strengths are comparable to the band width. We will discuss appropriate updates in the formalism to describe physics of inhomogeneities with strong disorder.

  6. Strong leadership: the case for global connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Elizabeth A; Scammell, Janet; Bevan, Ann; Hundley, Vanora A

    2017-04-01

    To identify how nurse leaders view and experience the opportunities offered by one of the largest global nursing organisations Sigma Theta Tau International. Worldwide, nursing leadership is challenged with addressing the complex issues impacting on care delivery. International nursing organisations are a means to bring together individuals to promote leadership and scholarship for nursing practice to promote patient safety and quality care. The newly established all-England chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International is a recent addition to the society in terms of nurse leadership in Europe, as such faces challenges as it establishes its identity and seeks to interpret the organisational vision: to advance world health through nursing leadership and scholarship. Moving forward, members views were sought on the goals of the chapter and how they may be enacted. In July 2013, all chapter members at that time had been nominated on the basis of achievement in nurse leadership; all were invited to participate in an online survey. The online questionnaire contained a series of closed and open questions. Most respondents joined because they believed in the vision and networking opportunities Sigma Theta Tau International provides. Three themes were extracted from the data: the value of networking and communication, leadership and the development of culturally sensitive organisations and the need for shared scholarship for nursing practice. Findings indicate the growth of effective leadership at all levels of nursing could be harnessed through successful collaboration and keen support for robust connections between practice and education to promote quality care. Whilst challenging, globalisation presents an opportunity for a nursing society such as Sigma Theta Tau International to work collaboratively to address healthcare issues. A nursing society that explores and resolves its own complex issues by actively promoting leadership and collaborative scholarship reveals a

  7. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous radon (Rn222) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth's crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  8. <strong>Why Evil won't go Awaystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    , namely, (1) natural evil; (2) pure accidental moral evil; (3) belief-based accidental moral evil; (4) active but non-responsible moral evil and (5) active and responsible moral evil. Furthermore, I will argue that it is important to take into account the relation between religion, worldviews, religious...

  9. Source characteristics of moderate-to-strong earthquakes in the Nantou area, Taiwan: insight from strong ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi-Ying; Chao, Shen-Yu; Yen, Yin-Tung; Wen, Strong

    2017-09-01

    In Taiwan, the Nantou area is a seismically active region where several moderate events have occurred, causing some disasters during the past century. Here, we applied the strong ground motion simulation with the empirical Green's function method to investigate the source characteristics for the eight moderate blind-fault events that struck the Nantou area in 1999 and 2013. The results show that for these Nantou events, a high stress drop and focal depth dependence were noted, which might be related to the immature buried fault in this area. From the viewpoint of seismic hazard prevention and preparation, future earthquake scenarios that include high stress drop should be applied to more analyses, especially the moderate-to-large events originating from the immature blind faulting.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  11. Strong and weak hydrogen bonds in drug–DNA complexes: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in the list of 70 complexes mentioned above, and 19 inhibitors for which the drug–DNA complex crystal structures are unknown. The virtual geometries so generated correlate well with published activities for these 26 inhibitors, justifying our assumption that strong and weak hydrogen bonds are optimized in the active site.

  12. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., 2010. ADDRESSES: 2010 Strong Tether Challenge will be conducted at the 2010 Space Elevator Conference... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is...

  13. Wave Breaking Phenomenon for DGH Equation with Strong Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is mainly concerned with the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm (DGH equation with strong dissipative term. We establish some sufficient conditions to guarantee finite time blow-up of strong solutions.

  14. <strong>ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVEDFOOD SECURITY IN AFRICAstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Ssekyewa, Charles; Halberg, Niels

    Organic farming offers a way to increase productivity, and improve food security and livelihood for African smallholder farmers, given that agro-ecological methods are properly and appropriately implemented, and that trade, consumption patterns and policies enable a fair development of food systems...... of this report were discussed and the experience among the approx. 150 participants from throughout Africa strongly supported the conclusions. The following points were highlighted: - Organic farming should be used as a strategy for community development and a sustainable food system for improved family food...... security. - Organic farming and management is very knowledge intensive, and education as well as access to knowledge is crucial. Many small-scale farmers are illiterate. Capacity building as a social process which support the local communities and create valuable networks. - Gender issues must be addressed...

  15. Correlated Fluctuations in Strongly Coupled Binary Networks Beyond Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dahmen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Randomly coupled Ising spins constitute the classical model of collective phenomena in disordered systems, with applications covering glassy magnetism and frustration, combinatorial optimization, protein folding, stock market dynamics, and social dynamics. The phase diagram of these systems is obtained in the thermodynamic limit by averaging over the quenched randomness of the couplings. However, many applications require the statistics of activity for a single realization of the possibly asymmetric couplings in finite-sized networks. Examples include reconstruction of couplings from the observed dynamics, representation of probability distributions for sampling-based inference, and learning in the central nervous system based on the dynamic and correlation-dependent modification of synaptic connections. The systematic cumulant expansion for kinetic binary (Ising threshold units with strong, random, and asymmetric couplings presented here goes beyond mean-field theory and is applicable outside thermodynamic equilibrium; a system of approximate nonlinear equations predicts average activities and pairwise covariances in quantitative agreement with full simulations down to hundreds of units. The linearized theory yields an expansion of the correlation and response functions in collective eigenmodes, leads to an efficient algorithm solving the inverse problem, and shows that correlations are invariant under scaling of the interaction strengths.

  16. On generalized fuzzy strongly semiclosed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bedre Ozbakir

    2002-01-01

    semiclosed, generalized fuzzy almost-strongly semiclosed, generalized fuzzy strongly closed, and generalized fuzzy almost-strongly closed sets. In the light of these definitions, we also define some generalizations of fuzzy continuous functions and discuss the relations between these new classes of functions and other fuzzy continuous functions.

  17. <strong>Integrated homecare to bridge transition from health to social services in EUstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    environment which benefits limbic activity, see poster. 2. Stroke, COPD and congestive heart failure (HF) are selected as examples of IHC. Complementary trials and surveys are scheduled to consolidate a preliminary hypothesis of IHC as a health economic dominant intervention. 3. Based on a SWOT-analysis...

  18. <strong>Integrated homecare to bridge transition from health to social services in EUstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    environment which benefits limbic activity, see poster. 2. Stroke, COPD and congestive heart failure (HF) are selected as examples of IHC. Complementary trials and surveys are scheduled to consolidate a preliminary hypothesis of IHC as a health economic dominant intervention. 3. Based on a SWOT...

  19. Building Strong Geoscience Departments Through the Visiting Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Bralower, T. J.; Clemens-Knott, D.; Doser, D. I.; Feiss, P. G.; Rhodes, D. D.; Richardson, R. M.; Savina, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project focuses on helping geoscience departments adapt and prosper in a changing and challenging environment. From 2005-2009, the project offered workshop programs on topics such as student recruitment, program assessment, preparing students for the workforce, and strengthening geoscience programs. Participants shared their departments' challenges and successes. Building on best practices and most promising strategies from these workshops and on workshop leaders' experiences, from 2009-2011 the project ran a visiting workshop program, bringing workshops to 18 individual departments. Two major strengths of the visiting workshop format are that it engages the entire department in the program, fostering a sense of shared ownership and vision, and that it focuses on each department's unique situation. Departments applied to have a visiting workshop, and the process was highly competitive. Selected departments chose from a list of topics developed through the prior workshops: curriculum and program design, program elements beyond the curriculum, recruiting students, preparing students for the workforce, and program assessment. Two of our workshop leaders worked with each department to customize and deliver the 1-2 day programs on campus. Each workshop incorporated exercises to facilitate active departmental discussions, presentations incorporating concrete examples drawn from the leaders' experience and from the collective experiences of the geoscience community, and action planning to scaffold implementation. All workshops also incorporated information on building departmental consensus and assessing departmental efforts. The Building Strong Geoscience Departments website complements the workshops with extensive examples from the geoscience community. Of the 201 participants in the visiting workshop program, 140 completed an end of workshop evaluation survey with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.8 out of a possible 10

  20. Ionosphere TEC disturbances before strong earthquakes: observations, physics, modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgaladze, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances is discussed. A number of typical TEC (Total Electron Content) relative disturbances is presented for several recent strong earthquakes occurred in different ionospheric conditions. Stable typical TEC deviations from quiet background state are observed few days before the strong seismic events in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter and treated as ionospheric earthquake precursors. They don't move away from the source in contrast to the disturbances related with geomagnetic activity. Sunlit ionosphere approach leads to reduction of the disturbances up to their full disappearance, and effects regenerate at night. The TEC disturbances often observed in the magnetically conjugated areas as well. At low latitudes they accompany with equatorial anomaly modifications. The hypothesis about the electromagnetic channel of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances' creation is discussed. The lithosphere and ionosphere are coupled by the vertical external electric currents as a result of ionization of the near-Earth air layer and vertical transport of the charged particles through the atmosphere over the fault. The external electric current densities exceeding the regular fair-weather electric currents by several orders are required to produce stable long-living seismogenic electric fields such as observed by onboard measurements of the 'Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300' satellite over the seismic active zones. The numerical calculation results using the Upper Atmosphere Model demonstrate the ability of the external electric currents with the densities of 10-8-10-9 A/m2 to produce such electric fields. The sumulations reproduce the basic features of typical pre-earthquake TEC relative disturbances. It is shown that the plasma ExB drift under the action of the seismogenic electric field leads to the changes of the F2 region electron number density and TEC. The upward drift velocity component enhances NmF2 and TEC and

  1. Nonlinear phononics and structural control of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankowsky, Roman

    2016-01-20

    Mid-infrared light pulses can be used to resonantly excite infrared-active vibrational modes for the phase control of strongly correlated materials on subpicosecond timescales. As the energy is transferred directly into atomic motions, dissipation into the electronic system is reduced, allowing for the emergence of unusual low energy collective properties. Light-induced superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions and melting of magnetic order demonstrate the potential of this method. An understanding of the mechanism, by which these transitions are driven, is however missing. The aim of this work is to uncover this process by investigating the nonlinear lattice dynamics induced by the excitation and to elucidate their contribution to the modulation of collective properties of strongly correlated materials. The first signature of nonlinear lattice dynamics was reported in the observation of coherent phonon oscillations, resonant with the excitation of an infrared-active phonon mode in a manganite. This nonlinear phononic coupling can be described within a model, which predicts not only oscillatory coherent phonons dynamics but also directional atomic displacements along the coupled modes on average, which could cause the previously observed transitions. We verified this directional response and quantified the anharmonic coupling constant by tracing the atomic motions in a time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction experiment with sub-picometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. In a subsequent study, we investigated the role of nonlinear lattice dynamics in the emergence of superconductivity far above the equilibrium transition temperature, an intriguing effect found to follow lattice excitation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the anharmonic coupling constants with time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments, we identified a structural rearrangement, which appears and decays with the same temporal

  2. <strong>Why Evil won't go Awaystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    , namely, (1) natural evil; (2) pure accidental moral evil; (3) belief-based accidental moral evil; (4) active but non-responsible moral evil and (5) active and responsible moral evil. Furthermore, I will argue that it is important to take into account the relation between religion, worldviews, religious......The aim of the present article is to critically analyse Richard Dawkins' and Sam Harris' view on the relationship between religion and evil and to argue that the problem of evil is far more complex than they want us to believe. I will argue that attention needs to be paid to different types of evil...... experiences per se, religious interpretations, religiosity, theology and religious and non-religious ideologies. It will be seen that religion is a very complex issue. It will also become clear that evil related to religions does not differ from evil related to non-religious ideologies. Dawkins' statement...

  3. <strong>Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... for patients or for persons with pre-conditions of diseases like pre-hypertension and pre-diabetes and for the most vulnerable parts of the populations....

  4. Using Strong Solar Coronal Emission Lines as Coronal Flux Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Jordan, Studart D.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Hara, Hirosha

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of Skylab results with observations of the strong EUV lines of Fe XVI at 335 A and 361 A from the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) flight of 1989 suggests that these lines, and perhaps others observed with SERTS, might offer good proxies for estimating the total coronal flux over important wavelength ranges. In this paper, we compare SERTS observations from a later, 1993 flight with simultaneous cospatial Yohkoh soft X-ray observations to test this suggestion over the energy range of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Both polynomial and power-law fits are obtained, and errors are estimated, for the SERTS lines of Fe XVI 335 A and 361 A, Fe XV 284 A and 417 A, and Mg IX 368 A. It is found that the power-law fits best cover the full range of solar conditions from quiet Sun through active region, though not surprisingly the 'cooler' Mg IX 368 A line proves to be a poor proxy. The quadratic polynomial fits yield fair agreement over a large range for all but the Mg IX line, but the linear fits fail conspicuously when extrapolated into the quiet Sun regime. The implications of this work for the He 11 304 A line formation problem are briefly considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of these iron lines observed with SERTS for estimating stellar coronal fluxes, as observed for example with the EUVE satellite.

  5. Strong intermediate-depth Vreancea earthquakes: Damage capacity in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouteva-Guentcheva, M.P.; Paskaleva, I.P.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-08-01

    The sustainable development of the society depends not only on a reasonable policy for economical growth but also on the reasonable management of natural risks. The regional earthquake danger due to the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes dominates the hazard of NE Bulgaria. These quakes have particularly long-period and far-reaching effects, causing damages at large epicentral distances. Vrancea events energy attenuates considerably less rapidly than that of the wave field radiated by the seismically active zones in Bulgaria. The available strong motion records at Russe, NE Bulgaria, due to both Vrancea events - August 30, 1986 and May 30, 1990 show higher seismic response spectra amplitudes for periods up to 0.6 s for the horizontal components, compared to the values given in the Bulgarian Code and Eurocode 8. A neo-deterministic analytical procedure which models the wavefield generated by a realistic earthquake source, as it propagates through a laterally varying anelastic medium, is applied to obtain the seismic loading at Russe. After proper validation, using the few available data and parametric analyses, from the synthesized seismic signals damage capacity of selected scenario Vrancea quakes is estimated and compared with available capacity curves for some reinforced concrete and masonry structures, representative of the Balkan Region. The performed modelling has shown that the earthquake focal mechanisms control the seismic loading much more than the local geology, and that the site response should be analyzed by considering the whole thickness of sediments until the bedrock, and not only the topmost 30 m. (author)

  6.  <strong>MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA IN FAST TRACK HIP AND KNEE ARTHROPLASTYstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bak, Mikkel; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    and amount of physiotherapy is required. This study is the first step towards developing guidelines for future physiotherapy for patients with hip or knee arthroplasty. DESCRIPTION: Material: Sixteen patients with unilateral, total hip arthroplasty (THA) and sixteen patients with unilateral, total knee....... Patients started mobilisation on the day of the operation with further physiotherapy the following days, including transfer and ambulation training, and specific joint and muscle exercises. In connection with all activities, pain scores were assessed, using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). All patients......-up after rehabilitation are needed. IMPLICATIONS: Due to the short LOS goals and guidelines for outpatients physiotherapy treatment including functional tests and outcome measurements are needed....

  7. Investigation of methanol oxidation on unsupported platinum electrodes in strong alkali and strong acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhuram, J.; Manoharan, R.

    Porous unsupported electrodes are made from platinum powder prepared by a room-temperature NaBH 4 reduction method. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) are recorded in different electrolytes of high and low pH in the presence and the absence of different concentrations of methanol. Various electrochemical processes occurring in different potential regions of the CVs are discussed. Steady-state galvanostatic polarisation measurements for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) on these electrodes in different electrolyte/methanol mixtures are also carried out. The MOR performance increases from a highly acidic range to a highly alkaline range. On increasing the KOH concentration above 6 M, however, the activity declines. Also, the MOR performance changes on changing the methanol concentration in a solution of a given pH. The highest MOR activity is obtained in a 6 M KOH+6 M CH 3OH mixture. It is concluded that by choosing the proper ratio of OH - ions and CH 3OH in solution, it is possible to remove completely the intermediate organic species and/or poisonous species that retard the MOR rate on the electrode surface.

  8. Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Matthias

    2014-09-11

    The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.

  9. QCD : the theory of strong interactions Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), predicts that the strong interaction is transmitted by the exchange of particles called gluons. Unlike the messengers of electromagnetism photons, which are electrically neutral - gluons carry a strong charge associated with the interaction they mediate. QCD predicts that the strength of the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes weaker at higher energies. LEP has measured the evolution of the strong coupling constant up to energies of 200 GeV and has confirmed this prediction.

  10. QCD : the theory of strong interactions Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The theory of strong interactions,Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD),predicts that the strong interac- tion is transmitted by the exchange of particles called glu- ons.Unlike the messengers of electromagnetism -pho- tons,which are electrically neutral -gluons carry a strong charge associated with the interaction they mediate. QCD predicts that the strength of the interaction between quarks and gluons becomes weaker at higher energies.LEP has measured the evolution of the strong coupling constant up to energies of 200 GeV and has confirmed this prediction.

  11.  <strong>MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA IN FAST TRACK HIP AND KNEE ARTHROPLASTYstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bak, Mikkel; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    and amount of physiotherapy is required. This study is the first step towards developing guidelines for future physiotherapy for patients with hip or knee arthroplasty. DESCRIPTION: Material: Sixteen patients with unilateral, total hip arthroplasty (THA) and sixteen patients with unilateral, total knee....... Patients started mobilisation on the day of the operation with further physiotherapy the following days, including transfer and ambulation training, and specific joint and muscle exercises. In connection with all activities, pain scores were assessed, using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). All patients......, and for TKA patients from 3.9 to 3.5 days. At day one (day of operation) 28 of the 32 patients were able to walk with a walking aid. At the day of discharge patients used crutches as walking aids. Pain registered with VAS in connection with transfer showed a mean score of 3.2 at day one, reduced at discharge...

  12. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    example of a poor country moving along a path toward strong sustainability. To this end, a sincere intervention at the social and natural capital along with economic growth is necessary. Poverty alleviation efforts should target the socio-economically deprived households by enriching their human capital. Since community based social structures, such as the forest user groups, are already setting an example of strong sustainability, such community based social capital initiatives should be encouraged by granting rights and other resources to augment further economic activities like harnessing hydropower that may eventually transform the socio-ecological-economic system.

  13. Classical trajectory perspective of atomic ionization in strong laser fields semiclassical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is an active field in modern physics and has versatile applications in such as attosecond physics, X-ray generation, inertial confined fusion (ICF), medical science and so on. Classical Trajectory Perspective of Atomic Ionization in Strong Laser Fields covers the basic concepts in this field and discusses many interesting topics using the semiclassical model of classical trajectory ensemble simulation, which is one of the most successful ionization models and has the advantages of a clear picture, feasible computing and accounting for many exquisite experiments quantitatively. The book also presents many applications of the model in such topics as the single ionization, double ionization, neutral atom acceleration and other timely issues in strong field physics, and delivers useful messages to readers with presenting the classical trajectory perspective on the strong field atomic ionization. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers...

  14. Characteristics of global strong earthquakes and their implications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    the Global/Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalogue, the characteristics of global strong earthquakes and the. 18 present-day stress pattern were analyzed based on these data. The majority of global strong earthquakes are located around. 19 plate boundaries, shallow-focus, and thrust faulting (TF) regime.

  15. Strong reciprocity is not uncommon in the "wild".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, W G

    2012-02-01

    Guala is right to draw attention to the difficulty of extrapolating from the experimental evidence for weak or strong reciprocity to what is observed in the "wild." However, there may be more strong reciprocity in real-world communities than he allows for, as strikingly illustrated in the example of the Mafia.

  16. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...

  17. Quantum Liquid Crystal Phases in Strongly Correlated Fermionic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of the quantum liquid crystal phases in strongly correlated electronic systems. Such phases are characterized by their partially broken spatial symmetries and are observed in various strongly correlated systems as being summarized in Chapter 1. Although quantum liquid crystal phases often involve…

  18. inverse correction of fourier transforms for one-dimensional strongly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hsin Ying-Fei

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... As it is widely used in periodic lattice design theory and is particularly useful in aperiodic lattice design [12,13], the accuracy of the FT algorithm under strong scattering conditions is the focus of this paper. We propose an inverse correction approach for the inaccurate FT algorithm in strongly scattering ...

  19. Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pellegrino and Santos [10] raise the question whether there are true inclusion results for the class of strongly multiple summing operators. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the results proven in [16] for multiple summing operators can be adapted to obtain similar results for strongly multiple summing operators ...

  20. Strong-Superstrong Transition in Glass Transition of Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Wang; Hong-Yan, Peng; Xiao-Yu, Xu; Bao-Ling, Chen; Chun-Lei, Wu; Min-Hua, Sun

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic fragility of bulk metallic glass (BMG) of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 alloy is studied by three-point beam bending methods. The fragility parameter mfor Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG is calculated to be 24.5 at high temperature, which means that the liquid is a 'strong' liquid, while to be 13.4 at low temperature which means that the liquid is a 'super-strong' liquid. The dynamical behavior of Zr 64 Cu 16 Ni 10 Al 10 BMG in the supercooled region undergoes a strong to super-strong transition. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a strong-to-superstrong transition is found in the metallic glass. Using small angle x-ray scattering experiments, we find that this transition is assumed to be related to a phase separation process in supercooled liquid. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  1. Electrodynamics of a hydrogenlike atom in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskij, V.A.; Perel'man, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    The quasienergy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in strong electromagnetic radiation is studied, the luminescence of the atom under these conditions is considered. It is shown that in a strong field the atom, being even in the ground state, radiates a spectrum of frequencies corresponding to transitions from the ground state into excited states, the strong field photons being involved. The intensity of such a luminescence is basically a non-linear function of the strong field. The exposure of the atom to two strong electromagnetic fields Ω and ω (Ω>>ω) is considered, the Ω coinciding with one of the natural frquencies of the atom. The effct of modulation of the resonance shift for an atomic level by the ω-field strength is predicted. The dependence of Ω-absorption in the ω-field on the statistic properties of the latter is investigated. (author)

  2. <strong>The role of pain for early rehabilitation in fast track surgery.strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Myhrmann, Lis

    , which was assessed together with pain intensity, measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), active range of knee extension-flexion, functional mobility using "Timed Up & Go" (TUG), walking distance and length of stay (LOS). Results: On POD 1, 84% of the patients were able to transfer and 89% to ambulate...... independently with pain intensity of 4.0 (VAS). The remaining part of patients  was restricted by pain 7.0 (VAS) (53%), dizziness (32%) and exhaustion (15%). Range of motion was assessed to 10-700 (for 93% of the patients), TUG to 28.1 sec. with highwalker and 19.9 sec. with crutches (for 68% of the patients......), and 73% of the patients walked more than 70 meters. At discharge patients showed improved range of motion: 10-800, TUG: 19.1 sec. and walking distance > 70 meters for all patients. All median values. Patients were discharged on median day 3 (range 1-7), mean 2.76 (0.965). There was a significant...

  3.  <strong>MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA IN FAST TRACK HIP AND KNEE ARTHROPLASTYstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Bak, Mikkel; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    . Patients started mobilisation on the day of the operation with further physiotherapy the following days, including transfer and ambulation training, and specific joint and muscle exercises. In connection with all activities, pain scores were assessed, using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). All patients...... underwent the "Timed Up & Go" test, a test for functional mobility. Patients were discharged according to criteria mentioned above and were asked to evaluate the quality of the hospital stay. EVALUATION: LOS was decreased for the THA patients from an already accelerated track of 3.8 days to 3.1 days...... to 2.5 for THA, and for TKA from 5.0 to 3.6. Gait VAS mean score for THA was 2.8 at day one, reduced to 1.9 at discharge, and for TKA from 5.2 to 2.4. The TUG test for THA showed a mean value of 27.4 sec. at day two, reduced at discharge to 21.0 sec. For TKA from 31.3 to 22.0 sec. At discharge patients...

  4. Strong Helioseismic Constraints on Weakly-Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfonov, Alan

    The extraordinary accuracy of helioseismic data allows detailed theoretical studies of solar plasmas. The necessity to produce solar models matching the experimental results in accuracy imposes strong constrains on the equations of state of solar plasmas. Several discrepancies between the experimental data and models have been successfully identified as the signatures of various non-ideal phenomena. Of a particular interest are questions of the position of the energy levels and the continuum edge and of the effect of the excited states in the solar plasma. Calculations of energy level and continuum shifts, based on the Green function formalism, appeared recently in the literature. These results have been used to examine effects of the shifts on the thermodynamic quantities. A comparison with helioseismic data has shown that the calculations based on lower-level approximations, such as the static screening in the effective two-particle wave equation, agree very well with the experimental data. However, the case of full dynamic screening produces thermodynamic quantities inconsistent with observations. The study of the effect of different internal partition functions on a complete set of thermodynamic quantities has revealed the signature of the excited states in the MHD (Mihalas, Hummer, Dappen) equation of state. The presence of exited states causes a characteristic 'wiggle' in the thermodynamic quantities due to the density-dependent occupation probabilities. This effect is absent if the ACTEX (ACTivity EXpansion) equation of state is used. The wiggle has been found to be most prominent in the quantities sensitive to density. The size of this excited states effect is well within the observational power of helioseismology, and very recent inversion analyses of helioseismic data seem to indicate the presence of the wiggle in the sun. This has a potential importance for the helioseismic determination of the helium abundance of the sun.

  5. Least-rattling feedback from strong time-scale separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvykov, Pavel; England, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    In most interacting many-body systems associated with some "emergent phenomena," we can identify subgroups of degrees of freedom that relax on dramatically different time scales. Time-scale separation of this kind is particularly helpful in nonequilibrium systems where only the fast variables are subjected to external driving; in such a case, it may be shown through elimination of fast variables that the slow coordinates effectively experience a thermal bath of spatially varying temperature. In this paper, we investigate how such a temperature landscape arises according to how the slow variables affect the character of the driven quasisteady state reached by the fast variables. Brownian motion in the presence of spatial temperature gradients is known to lead to the accumulation of probability density in low-temperature regions. Here, we focus on the implications of attraction to low effective temperature for the long-term evolution of slow variables. After quantitatively deriving the temperature landscape for a general class of overdamped systems using a path-integral technique, we then illustrate in a simple dynamical system how the attraction to low effective temperature has a fine-tuning effect on the slow variable, selecting configurations that bring about exceptionally low force fluctuation in the fast-variable steady state. We furthermore demonstrate that a particularly strong effect of this kind can take place when the slow variable is tuned to bring about orderly, integrable motion in the fast dynamics that avoids thermalizing energy absorbed from the drive. We thus point to a potentially general feedback mechanism in multi-time-scale active systems, that leads to the exploration of slow variable space, as if in search of fine tuning for a "least-rattling" response in the fast coordinates.

  6. Endangerment of cultural heritage sites by strong rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Thomas; Fischer, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Due to climate change extreme weather conditions become more and more frequent in the last years. Especially in Germany nearly every year a large flood event happens. Most of these events are caused by strong rain. There are at most two causes for these floodings: The first is locally strong rain in the area of damage, the second happens at damage sites located near confluxes and strong rain in the upper stream areas of the joining rivers. The amount of damage is often strongly correlated with unreasonable designation of new construction in such endangered regions. Our presented study is based on an earlier project together with a German insurance company. In this project we analyzed correlations of geographical settings with the insurance data of flood damages over ten years. The result of this study was a strong relation of the terrain with the amount and the probability of damages. Further investigations allow us to derive a system for estimating potential endangerment due to strong rain just from suitable digital terrain models (DTMs). In the presented study we apply this method to different types of cultural heritage (CH) sites in Germany and other parts of the world to detect which type of CH sites were build with potential endangerment of strong rain events in mind and which ones are prone to such events.

  7. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  8. Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao

    2014-10-01

    A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.

  9. Making operations on standard-library containers strongly exception safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    An operation on an element container is said to provide a strong guarantee of exception safety if, in case an exception is thrown, the operation leaves the container in the state in which it was before the operation. In this paper, we explore how to adjust operations on C++ standard......-library containers to provide the strong guarantee of exception safety, instead of the default guarantee, without violating the stringent performance requirements specified in the C++ standard. In particular, we show that every strongly exception-safe operation on dynamic arrays and ordered dictionaries is only...

  10. Strong convergence of modified Ishikawa iterations for nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we prove a strong convergence theorem of modified Ishikawa iterations for relatively asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Banach space. Our results extend and improve the recent results by Nakajo, Takahashi, Kim, X u , Matsushita and some others.

  11. Strong anti-radiation research of nuclear monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Zhang Songshou

    2002-01-01

    Strong anti-radiation research of nuclear monitoring instrument is a main question for study. The author introduces the research circumstance. The text recounts the important cause and adoptable measures

  12. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . © Indian Academy of Sciences. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier series. BOGDAN SZAL. Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics,. University of Zielona Góra, 65-516 Zielona Góra, ul.

  13. Strong Convergence of Modified Ishikawa Iterations for Nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we prove a strong convergence theorem of modified Ishikawa iterations for relatively asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Banach space. Our results extend and improve the recent results by Nakajo, Takahashi, Kim, X u , Matsushita and some others.

  14. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-06-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle α˜1/γ. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  15. Development of strongly coupled FSI technology involving thin walled structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Suliman, Ridhwaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available the most desirable results and is coupled with an in-house fluid-flow solver. The developed technology is evaluated on representative strongly coupled fluid-structure interaction test problems....

  16. Rhie-Chow interpolation in strong centrifugal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    Rhie-Chow interpolation formulas are derived from the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. These formulas are generalized to gas dynamics in strong centrifugal fields (as high as 106 g) occurring in gas centrifuges.

  17. Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.

  18. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Eidelman, S. [SB RAS, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Foka, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gardner, S. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Kronfeld, A.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States); Alford, M.G.; Schwenzer, K. [Washington University, Department of Physics, St Louis, MO (United States); Alkofer, R. [University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Butenschoen, M. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Wien (Austria); Cohen, T.D. [University of Maryland, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Erdmenger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Fabbietti, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Faber, M.; Hoellwieser, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Goity, J.L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Ketzer, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lin, H.W. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Llanes-Estrada, F.J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Department Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain); Meyer, H.B.; Wittig, H.; Hippel, G.M. von [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Pakhlov, P.; Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Pallante, E.; Papadodimas, K. [University of Groningen, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Groningen (Netherlands); Sazdjian, H. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Schmitt, A. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States); Vuorinen, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Arnold, P. [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Christakoglou, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Nezza, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Frascati (Italy); Fodor, Z. [Wuppertal University, Wuppertal (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Janik, M.A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Kalweit, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Keane, D. [Kent State University, Department of Physics, Kent, OH (United States); Kiritsis, E. [University of Crete, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, Sorbonne Paris-Cite (France); CERN, Theory Group, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mizuk, R. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Physical Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Odyniec, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pich, A. [Universitat de Valencia, CSIC, IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Pittau, R. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Qiu, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook University, C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ricciardi, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Salgado, C.A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas y IGFAE, Galicia (ES); Stefanis, N.G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (DE); Zakharov, V.I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (DE); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (RU); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (RU)

    2014-10-15

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments. (orig.)

  19. Nanorheology of strongly confined molecular fluids : a compter simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manias, Evangelos D.

    1995-01-01

    The method of Molecular Dynamics (MD) computer simulations is employed to study ultra thin films of oligomer fluids, confined in spaces comparable to their molecular dimensions and subjected to (very) strong flows. ... Zie: Summary

  20. Prospects for strong interaction physics at ISABELLE. [Seven papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, D P; Trueman, T L

    1977-01-01

    Seven papers are presented resulting from a conference intended to stimulate thinking about how ISABELLE could be used for studying strong interactions. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (PMA)

  1. Strong profiling is not mathematically optimal for discovering rare malfeasors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a large population of individuals labeled j = 1,2,...,N, governments attempt to find the rare malfeasor j = j, (terrorist, for example) by making use of priors p{sub j} that estimate the probability of individual j being a malfeasor. Societal resources for secondary random screening such as airport search or police investigation are concentrated against individuals with the largest priors. They may call this 'strong profiling' if the concentration is at least proportional to p{sub j} for the largest values. Strong profiling often results in higher probability, but otherwise innocent, individuals being repeatedly subjected to screening. They show here that, entirely apart from considerations of social policy, strong profiling is not mathematically optimal at finding malfeasors. Even if prior probabilities were accurate, their optimal use would be only as roughly the geometric mean between a strong profiling and a completely uniform sampling of the population.

  2. Integration of strong motion networks and accelerometric data in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, L.; Clinton, J. F.; Akkar, S.; Sleeman, R.; Van Eck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts for an organized collection of strong motion data in Europe started during the Fourth Framework Program granted by the European Union, with the first release of the European Strong Motion database. Subsequently other attempts were made, but the initiatives were carried out within a project by a single or few institutions, often isolated from data providers. During the Seventh Framework Program, in the context of the project NERA, parallel to the establishment of infrastructures, major efforts were devoted on the improvement of networking among strong-motion data providers in the broader European countries. Two major infrastructures for storing and disseminating accelerometric data and metadata were built: a. The Rapid-Raw Strong Motion (RRSM) database that automatically delivers strong motion products in near-real time. The system collects and uses all relevant, unrestricted waveform data from the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) within minutes after an earthquake (M>=3.5) in the European- Mediterranean region. The RRSM web interface is available at http://orfeusdev.knmi.nl:8080/opencms/rrsm b. A prototype of strong-motion database (Engineering Strong Motion database, ESM) that contains an initial core formed by the accelerograms recorded by Italian and Turkish strong-motion data providers. ESM is structured to contain not only the data available in EIDA but also off-line data; earthquake and strong-motion metadata contain more detailed information than the corresponding metadata in RRSM. A Working Group (WG5 - acceleration and strong motion data), operating under ORFEUS, has been created to build the basis for the sustainable integrated pan-European accelerometric data distribution. The responsibilities and duties of the WG5 are envisaged as follows: 1. Setting rules for data dissemination; 2. Establishing MoU's with data providers; 3. Collaborating with the European project EPOS for the preparation of projects; 4. Contacting similar

  3. Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B

  4. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, and find the same angular distribution of radiated power, up to an overall prefactor. In both regimes, the angular distribution is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circula...

  5. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  6. Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...

  7. Solvability of Extended General Strongly Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh Thakur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of extended general strongly mixed variational inequalities is introduced and studied in Hilbert spaces. An existence theorem of solution is established and using resolvent operator technique, a new iterative algorithm for solving the extended general strongly mixed variational inequality is suggested. A convergence result for the iterative sequence generated by the new algorithm is also established.

  8. On a strong law of large numbers for monotone measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Ouyang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 4 (2013), s. 1213-1218 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : capacity * Choquet integral * strong law of large numbers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-on a strong law of large numbers for monotone measures.pdf

  9. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  10. Strong solutions of semilinear stochastic partial differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 757-778 ISSN 1021-9722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic partial differential equations * strongly elliptic differential operator * strongly continuous semigroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.971, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/hofmanova-0393085.pdf

  11. Strongly-Interacting Fermi Gases in Reduced Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    superconductivity), nuclear physics (nuclear matter), high - energy physics (effective theories of the strong interactions ), astrophysics (compact stellar objects...strongly- interacting Fermi gases confined in a standing- wave CO2 laser trap. This trap produces a periodic quasi-two-dimensional pancake geometry...predictions of the phase diagram and high temperature superfluidity. Our recent measurements reveal that pairing energy and cloud profiles can be

  12. Red-shifted carrier multiplication energy threshold and exciton recycling mechanisms in strongly interacting silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Govoni, Marco; Ossicini, Stefano

    2014-09-24

    We present density functional theory calculations of carrier multiplication properties in a system of strongly coupled silicon nanocrystals. Our results suggest that nanocrystal-nanocrystal interaction can lead to a reduction of the carrier multiplication energy threshold without altering the carrier multiplication efficiency at high energies, in agreement with experiments. The time evolution of the number of electron-hole pairs generated in a system of strongly interacting nanocrystals upon absorption of high-energy photons is analyzed by solving a system of coupled rate equations, where exciton recycling mechanisms are implemented. We reconsider the role played by Auger recombination which is here accounted also as an active, nondetrimental process.

  13. Potential of future seismogenesis in Hebei Province (NE China) due to stress interactions between strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Jin, Xueshen; Liu, Zhihui; Paradisopoulou, Parthena; He, Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Northeast China, a densely populated area, is affected by intense seismic activity, which includes large events that caused extensive disaster and tremendous loss of life. For contributing to the continuous efforts for seismic hazard assessment, the earthquake potential from the active faults near the cities of Zhangjiakou and Langfang in Hebei Province is examined. We estimate the effect of the coseismic stress changes of strong (M ⩾ 5.0) earthquakes on the major regional active faults, and mapped Coulomb stress change onto these target faults. More importantly our calculations reveal that positive stress changes caused by the largest events of the 1976 Tangshan sequence make the Xiadian and part of Daxing fault, thus considered the most likely sites of the next strong earthquake in the study area. The accumulated static stress changes that reached a value of up to 0.4 bar onto these faults, were subsequently incorporated in earthquake probability estimates for the next 30 years.

  14. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  15. Strong Gravitational Lensing in a Brane-World Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GuoPing; Cao, Biao; Feng, Zhongwen; Zu, Xiaotao

    2015-09-01

    Adopting the strong field limit approach, we investigated the strong gravitational lensing in a Brane-World black hole, which means that the strong field limit coefficients and the deflection angle in this gravitational field are obtained. With this result, it can be said with certainly that the strong gravitational lensing is related to the metric of gravitational fields closely, the cosmology parameter α and the dark matter parameter β come from the Brane-World black hole exerts a great influence on it. Comparing with the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime and the Schwarzschild-XCMD spacetime, the parameters α, β of black holes have the similar effects on the gravitational lensing. In some way, we infer that the real gravitational fields in our universe can be described by this metric, so the results of the strong gravitational lensing in this spacetime will be more reasonable for us to observe. Finally, it has to be noticed that the influence which the parameters α, β exerted on the main observable quantities of this gravitational field is discussed.

  16. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Strong Purifying Selection at Synonymous Sites in D. melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, David S.; Messer, Philipp W.; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated. PMID:23737754

  18. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir

    1990-01-01

    This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc­ ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater­ gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom­ ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso­ lution laser spectroscop...

  20. The chloroindole auxins of pea, strong plant growth hormones or endogenous herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work the three theses below are discussed: (1) Identification and quantitative determination of the very strong plant hormone, the auxin 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester, in immature seeds of Pisum, Vicia, Lathyrus, and Lens spp. by incorporation of radioactive {sup 36}Cl, thin layer chromatography, autoradiography, colour reactions, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (2) The strong biological activity of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and its analogues and its ability to induce strong, almost irreversible, ethylene evolution. (3) The possible role of chloroindole auxin in plants, particularly if it might be the hypothetical death hormone, secreted from developing seeds, which induces senescence and kills the mother plant at maturity; if plants generally have several auxin types, growth promoters and endogenous herbicides; and if other chlorine-containing plant hormones occur in developing seeds of other crop species. (au) (7 tabs., 8 ills., 144 refs.).

  1. The chloroindole auxins of pea, strong plant growth hormones or endogenous herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work the three theses below are discussed: 1) Identification and quantitative determination of the very strong plant hormone, the auxin 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester, in immature seeds of Pisum, Vicia, Lathyrus, and Lens spp. by incorporation of radioactive 36 Cl, thin layer chromatography, autoradiography, colour reactions, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2) The strong biological activity of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid and its analogues and its ability to induce strong, almost irreversible, ethylene evolution. 3) The possible role of chloroindole auxin in plants, particularly if it might be the hypothetical death hormone, secreted from developing seeds, which induces senescence and kills the mother plant at maturity; if plants generally have several auxin types, growth promoters and endogenous herbicides; and if other chlorine-containing plant hormones occur in developing seeds of other crop species. (au) (7 tabs., 8 ills., 144 refs.)

  2. Ultrafast control of strong light–matter coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Panna, Dmitry; Whittaker, David M.; Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Hayat, Alex

    2018-01-01

    We dynamically modulate strong light–matter coupling in a GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity using intense ultrashort laser pulses tuned below the interband exciton energy, which induce a transient Stark shift of the cavity polaritons. For 225-fs pulses, shorter than the cavity Rabi cycle period of 1000 fs, this shift decouples excitons and cavity photons for the duration of the pulse, interrupting the periodic energy exchange between photonic and electronic states. For 1500-fs pulses, longer than the Rabi cycle period, however, the Stark shift does not affect the strong coupling. The two regimes are marked by distinctly different line shapes in ultrafast reflectivity measurements—regardless of the Stark field intensity. The crossover marks the transition from adiabatic to diabatic switching of strong light–matter coupling.

  3. Strong localization of photonics in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y H; Tsao, C W; Chen, C H; Hsueh, W J

    2015-01-01

    Strong localization from the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances that occur in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices is presented in this study. When compared with traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices, the middle space is a variant rather than an invariant half-wavelength thickness for each resonance with different orders. In addition, the electric fields of the resonances may be located on both sides of the space layer in the superlattice, which is in contrast to those in a traditional Fabry–Pérot resonator. The electric field of the resonances is strongly localized as the generation order increases. Moreover, the group delays of these peaks increase with generation order. More strongly localized modes can be found from the symmetric Fibonacci superlattices than from the traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, which makes the proposed structure an attractive alternative to a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  4. A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...

  5. Approximation of fixed points of strongly pseudo-contractive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1991-10-01

    Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Let T:K→K be a continuous strongly pseudocontractive mapping of K into itself. Let {c n } n=1 ∞ be a real sequence satisfying: (i) 0 n n=1 ∞ c n =∞; and (iii) Σ n=1 ∞ c n b(c n ) n } n=1 ∞ generated by x 1 is an element of K. x n+1 =(1-c n )x n +c n Tx n , n≥1, converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when T is Lipschitzian and strongly pseudocontractive. (author). 28 refs

  6. Atomic and Free Electrons in a Strong Light Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Mikhail V.

    1998-02-01

    This book presents and describes a series of unusual and striking strong-field phenomena concerning atoms and free electrons. Some of these phenomena are: multiphoton stimulated Bremsstrahlung, free-electron lasers, ave-packet physics, above-threshold ionization, and strong-field stabilization in Rydberg atoms. The theoretical foundations and causes of the phenomena are described in detail, with all the approximations and derivations discussed. All the known and relevant experiments are described oo, and their results are compared with those of the existing theoretical models. An extensive general theoretical introduction gives a good basis for subsequent parts of the book and is an independent and self-sufficient description of the most efficient theoretical methods of the strong-field and multiphoton physics. This book can serve as a textbook for graduate students

  7. Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert

    2018-03-01

    Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.

  8. Strong-Weak CP Hierarchy from Non-Renormalization Theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, Gudrun

    2002-01-28

    We point out that the hierarchy between the measured values of the CKM phase and the strong CP phase has a natural origin in supersymmetry with spontaneous CP violation and low energy supersymmetry breaking. The underlying reason is simple and elegant: in supersymmetry the strong CP phase is protected by an exact non-renormalization theorem while the CKM phase is not. We present explicit examples of models which exploit this fact and discuss corrections to the non-renormalization theorem in the presence of supersymmetry breaking. This framework for solving the strong CP problem has generic predictions for the superpartner spectrum, for CP and flavor violation, and predicts a preferred range of values for electric dipole moments.

  9. Ishikawa iteration process for nonlinear Lipschitz strongly accretive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1994-05-01

    Let E=L p , p≥2 and let T:E→ E be a Lipschitzian and strongly accretive mapping. Let S:E → E be defined by Sx=f-Tx+x. It is proved that under suitable conditions on the real sequences {α n } ∞ n=0 and {β n } ∞ n=0 , the iteration process, x 0 is an element of E, x n+1 =(1-α n ) x n +α n S[(1-β n ) x n +β n Sx n ], n≥0, converges strongly to the unique solution of Tx=f. A related result deals with the iterative approximation of fixed points for Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings in E. A consequence of our results gives an affirmative answer to a problem posed by one of the authors in 1990. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 151, 2 (1990) p. 460). (author). 36 refs

  10. Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field

  11. Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.

  12. Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Krausz, Ferenc; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.

    2018-04-01

    The advent of visible-infrared laser pulses carrying a substantial fraction of their energy in a single field oscillation cycle has opened a new era in the experimental investigation of ultrafast processes in semiconductors and dielectrics (bulk as well as nanostructured), motivated by the quest for the ultimate frontiers of electron-based signal metrology and processing. Exploring ways to approach those frontiers requires insight into the physics underlying the interaction of strong high-frequency (optical) fields with electrons moving in periodic potentials. This Colloquium aims at providing this insight. Introduction to the foundations of strong-field phenomena defines and compares regimes of field-matter interaction in periodic systems, including (perfect) crystals as well as optical and semiconductor superlattices, followed by a review of recent experimental advances in the study of strong-field dynamics in crystals and nanostructures. Avenues toward measuring and controlling electronic processes up to petahertz frequencies are discussed.

  13. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  14. Low-temperature fabrication of mesoporous solid strong bases by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Lin-Bing; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Li, Ai-Guo; Lu, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Qin

    2013-10-09

    Mesoporous solid strong bases are highly promising for applications as environmentally benign catalysts in various reactions. Their preparation attracts increasing attention for the demand of sustainable chemistry. In the present study, a new strategy was designed to fabricate strong basicity on mesoporous silica by using multifunction of a carbon interlayer. A typical mesoporous silica, SBA-15, was precoated with a layer of carbon prior to the introduction of base precursor LiNO3. The carbon interlayer performs two functions by promoting the conversion of LiNO3 at low temperatures and by improving the alkali-resistant ability of siliceous host. Only a tiny amount of LiNO3 was decomposed on pristine SBA-15 at 400 °C; for the samples containing >8 wt % of carbon, however, LiNO3 can be entirely converted to strongly basic sites Li2O under the same conditions. The guest-host redox reaction was proven to be the answer for the conversion of LiNO3, which breaks the tradition of thermally induced decomposition. More importantly, the residual carbon layer can prevent the siliceous frameworks from corroding by the newly formed strongly basic species, which is different from the complete destruction of mesostructure in the absence of carbon. Therefore, materials possessing both ordered mesostructure and strong basicity were successfully fabricated, which is extremely desirable for catalysis and impossible to realize by conventional methods. We also demonstrated that the resultant mesoporous basic materials are active in heterogeneous synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and the yield of DMC can reach 32.4%, which is apparently higher than that over the catalysts without a carbon interlayer (<12.9%) despite the same lithium content. The strong basicity, in combination with the uniform mesopores, is believed to be responsible for such a high activity.

  15. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  16. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  17. Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of 41 K induces a significant loss of coherence in 87 Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices

  18. Finding strongly interacting symmetry breaking at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.

    1989-02-01

    Pairs of gauge bosons, W and Z, are a probe of the electroweak symmetry-breaking sector, since the numbers of two gauge boson events are much larger in strongly coupled models than weak. The doubly charged channels W + W + and W/sup /minus//W/sup/minus// are cleanest, since they do not suffer from q/bar q/ or gg fusion backgrounds. The like-charged gauge boson events are observable only if the symmetry breaking sector is strongly interacting. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning.

  20. Explicit strong stability preserving multistep Runge–Kutta methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bresten, Christopher

    2015-10-15

    High-order spatial discretizations of hyperbolic PDEs are often designed to have strong stability properties, such as monotonicity. We study explicit multistep Runge-Kutta strong stability preserving (SSP) time integration methods for use with such discretizations. We prove an upper bound on the SSP coefficient of explicit multistep Runge-Kutta methods of order two and above. Numerical optimization is used to find optimized explicit methods of up to five steps, eight stages, and tenth order. These methods are tested on the linear advection and nonlinear Buckley-Leverett equations, and the results for the observed total variation diminishing and/or positivity preserving time-step are presented.

  1. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.

    1988-03-01

    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  2. Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popruzhenko, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how the strong-field approximation, widely used for description of multiphoton and tunneling ionization, can be extended to analyse the excitation of bound states in intense low-frequency laser pulses. The proposed theory is based on the formalism of quantum trajectories and fills the gap between the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and classical simulations. In particular, it allows identifying non-adiabatic and interference effects in strong-field excitation of Rydberg states.

  3. Vortex-lattice states at strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akera, H.; MacDonald, A.H.; Girvin, S.M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Norman, M.R. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (USA))

    1991-10-21

    At strong magnetic fields, Landau quantization invalidates the semiclassical approximations which underly the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory of the mixed states of type-II superconductors. We have solved the {ital microscopic} mean-field equations for the case of a two-dimensional electron system in the strong magnetic-field limit. For delta-function attractive interactions there exist {ital n}+1 pairing channels in the {ital n}th Landau level. For {ital n}{gt}0, two channels share the maximum {ital T}{sub {ital c}}, and the order parameter differs markedly from expectations based on GL theory.

  4. Atomic and free electrons in a strong light field

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, Mikhail V

    1997-01-01

    This book presents and describes a series of unusual and striking strong-field phenomena concerning atoms and free electrons. Some of these phenomena are: multiphoton stimulated bremsstrahlung, free-electron lasers, wave-packet physics, above-threshold ionization, and strong-field stabilization in Rydberg atoms. The theoretical foundations and causes of the phenomena are described in detail, with all the approximations and derivations discussed. All the known and relevant experiments are described too, and their results are compared with those of the existing theoretical models.An extensive ge

  5. Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Lun Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.

  6. The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boito, Diogo; Golterman, Maarten; Jamin, Matthias; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    We review our recent determination of the strong coupling αs from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that αs (mτ2)= 0.325 ± 0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and αs (mτ2)= 0.347 ± 0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.

  7. The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boito, Diogo [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Golterman, Maarten [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Jamin, Matthias [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Maltman, Kim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON Canada M3J 1P3 (Canada); CSSM, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Osborne, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Peris, Santiago [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    We review our recent determination of the strong coupling α{sub s} from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.325±0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.347±0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.

  8. Driven transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    The linear dispersion properties of transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma are experimentally studied in a DC discharge device by exciting them in a controlled manner with a variable frequency external source. The dusty plasma is maintained in the strongly coupled fluid regime with (1 c ) where Γ is the Coulomb coupling parameter and Γ c is the crystallization limit. A dispersion relation for the transverse waves is experimentally obtained over a frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz and found to show good agreement with viscoelastic theoretical results

  9. Spectrum of absorption of a weak signal by an atom in a strong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakaev, D.S.; Vdovin, Y.A.; Ermachenko, V.M.; Yakovlenko, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the spectrum of absorption of a weak probe electromagnetic field by two-level atoms in a strong resonant laser field, undergoing collision with buffer gas atoms. The analysis is made using an approach that allows for the direct influence of a strong electromagnetic field on the dynamics of an elastic collision between an active atom and a buffer gas atom. Rate equations are analyzed for a combined ''atom--strong electromagnetic field'' system (an atom ''dressed'' by the field) allowing for spontaneous and optical collisional transitions, and also for the interaction with the probe field. In the steady-state case, an expression is derived for the electric susceptibility of the medium at the small-signal frequency. This expression contains the rates of the optical collisional transitions that depend nontrivially on the parameters of the strong electromagnetic field. The phenomenological characteristics of optical collisional transitions generally used are only valid at low intensities and for small frequency detunings of the strong electromagnetic field, i.e., in the impact limit

  10. Mode of Strong Earthquake Recurrence In Central Ionian Islands (greece). Possible Triggering Due To Coulomb Stress Changes Generated By The Occurrence of Previous Strong Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, E.

    The spatial-temporal distribution of shallow strong (M>6.3) earthquakes occurring in the area of central Ionian Islands is analyzed. These shocks generated on two adja- cent fault segments with different strike, but both associated with strike-slip faulting, constituting the boundary between continental collision to the north and oceanic sub- duction to the south. Seismic activity is confined in short time intervals alternating by much longer relatively quiescent periods. Each active period consists of a relatively large event or series (two to four) of events occurring closely both in space and time. This alteration was observed to happen four times since 1867, from when complete data exist for the study area. Since the phenomenon is not strictly periodic and during each active period multiple events occurred, it is attempted to interpret the seismic behavior on the basis of possible triggering. It is then investigated how changes in Coulomb Failure Function (DCFF) associated with one or more earthquakes may trig- ger subsequent events. Both the coseismic slip due to the generation of the strong earthquakes and stress build up associated with the two major fault segments were taken into account for the DCFF calculation. Earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half-space, and the stress pattern has been inverted according to the geometry and slip of each of the faults that ruptured in the chain of events. These calculations show that 13 out of 14 earthquakes with M>6.3 were preceded by a static stress change that encouraged failure. The magnitude of the stress increases transferred from one earthquake to another ranged from 0.01 MPa (0.1 bar) to over 0.1 MPa (1 bar). Maps of current DCFF provide additional information to long-term earthquake prediction. Areas of positive DCFF have been identified at two sites in Ke- falonia and Lefkada faults, respectively, where the next strong events are expected to occur.

  11. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  12. Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.

  13. Quark imprisonment as the origin of strong interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1974-01-01

    A formal scheme is suggested in which the only dynamical ingredients are weak and electro-magnetic interactions with quarks and leptons treated on the same footing. Strong interactions are generated by the requirement that quarks do not appear physically. (7 refs).

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using strong base electrolyte ... Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed that the CuO ..... Hydrogen bub- bles play a key role in generation of sparks and metal removal in the electrochemical discharge process. Flower-like morphology could be attained with both the.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by electrochemical discharge process using strong base electrolytes. The experiments were carried out separately using NaOH and KOH electrolytes.The mass output rate and the crystal size were obtained with variation of the rotation speed of ...

  16. Strong typing of object-oriented languages revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Magnusson, Boris; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relation between subtyping and subclassing and their influence on programming language design. Traditionally subclassing as introduced by Simula has also been used for defining a hierarchical type system. The type system of a language can be characterized as strong...

  17. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...

  18. The predominance of strong initial syllables in the English vocabulary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Carter, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of human speech processing have provided evidece for a segmentation strategy in the perception of continuous speech, whereby a word boundary is postulated, and a lexical access procedure initiated, at each metrically strong syllable. The likely success of this strategy was here estimated

  19. Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and extended to ...

  20. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.