WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong annual cycle

  1. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  2. Annual Cycles of Surface Shortwave Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Gupta, Shashi K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The annual cycles of surface shortwave flux are investigated using the 8-yr dataset of the surface radiation budget (SRB) components for the period July 1983-June 1991. These components include the downward, upward, and net shortwave radiant fluxes at the earth's surface. The seasonal cycles are quantified in terms of principal components that describe the temporal variations and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) that describe the spatial patterns. The major part of the variation is simply due to the variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, especially for the first term, which describes 92.4% of the variance for the downward shortwave flux. However, for the second term, which describes 4.1% of the variance, the effect of clouds is quite important and the effect of clouds dominates the third term, which describes 2.4% of the variance. To a large degree the second and third terms are due to the response of clouds to the annual cycle of solar forcing. For net shortwave flux at the surface, similar variances are described by each term. The regional values of the EOFs are related to climate classes, thereby defining the range of annual cycles of shortwave radiation for each climate class.

  3. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  4. Strong hydrological control on nutrient cycling of subtropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Chang, C. T.; Huang, J. C.; Wang, L.; Lin, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    Forest nutrient cycling is strongly controlled by both biological and hydrological factors. However, based on a close examination of earlier reports, we highlight the role of hydrological control on nutrient cycling at a global scale and is more important at humid tropical and subtropical forests. we analyzed the nutrient budget of precipitation input and stream water output from 1994 to 2013 in a subtropical forest in Taiwan and conducted a data synthesis using results from 32 forests across the globe. The results revealed that monthly input and output of ions were positively correlated with water quantity, indicating hydrological control on nutrient cycling. Hydrological control is also evident from the greater ions export via stream water during the warm and wet growing season. The synthesis also illustrates that strong hydrological control leads to lower nitrogen retention and greater net loss of base cations in humid regions, particularly in the humid tropical and subtropical forests. Our result is of great significance in an era of global climate change because climate change could directly affect ecosystem nutrient cycling particularly in the tropics through changes in patterns of precipitation regime.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF STREINGHT IN ANNUAL CYCLE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Rašović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, strength training important place because it belongs to the forces should ensure the formation of such physical fitness swimmers that would provide up to arrival of top sports achievements. Strength training should be planned and systematic work during the micro, mezo and macro cycle during many years of training plan. Preparation of land and water should be planned so that the exercises in a dry supplement and compensate for deficiencies of preparation that is done directly in the water.

  6. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  7. Population identification of western hemisphere shorebirds throughout the annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Gratto-Trevor, C. L.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Colwell, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Identification of relationships among geographically distinct populations of migratory species can provide an understanding of breeding and natal philopatry, migration pathways, and population mixing during winter. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses to search for markers specific to difficult-to-differentiate shorebird species (e.g. long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus and short-billed dowitcher L. griseus) as well as geographically distinct breeding populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica, red-necked phalaropes Phalaropus lobatus, semipalmated plovers Charadrius semipalmatus, dunlin Calidris alpina, pectoral sandpipers C. melanotos, semipalmated sandpipers C. pusilla and western sandpipers C. mauri. Markers clearly differentiated all shorebird species. Estimates of population differentiation varied greatly among species (FST= 0.095a??0.685) and correlated with interspecific variation in philopatry and geographical separation of breeding populations. We assigned individuals to putative breeding locales with greater certainty in well-differentiated species than in poorly differentiated species. Our findings indicate specific phylogeographical structure varies among species, which has strong implications for conservation of habitats within migratory corridors. We suggest that RAPDs are useful in identifying geographical populations of migratory species and that molecular markers should be considered for tracking migratory birds throughout the annual cycle.

  8. Annual cycle of the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual cycle of southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, was studied at Marion Island (46°54'S, 37°45' E), between August 1973 and December 1976. Data on the breeding and moulting haul-out of different age and sex classes were obtained by conducting once weekly censuses in a selected study area.

  9. Satellite observations of an annual cycle in the Agulhas Current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krug, Marjolaine, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available years of along-track altimetry and merged altimetry and close to 7 years of high frequency Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations. While the position and width of the Agulhas Current’s dynamical core do not display an annual cycle, the geostrophic...

  10. Hydro-Quebec 2004 annual report : growing strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a consolidated review of the operations of Hydro-Quebec, with a focus on energy production, energy sales, and environmental commitment. Hydro-Quebec is a major producer, transmission provider and distributor of electricity, conducting research and promotional activities in energy and energy transformation and conservation. The Quebec government is its sole shareholder. The company is divided into six divisions and now competes freely with other power producers, while its transmission and distribution remain regulated. Sales totalled $10.7 billion, up 1.8 per cent over 2003. Net income rose to $2.4 billion, up $497 million over 2003, the increase being largely due to lower financial expenses and the disposal of interests in Noverco. Dividends declared amounted to $1.3 billion, or 55 per cent of net income. Cash from operations totaled $4.0 billion, Sources of revenue also included the sale of interests in Noverco, and investment in Meiya Power Company, with the consequent repayment of nearly $1 billion in debt. Major projects of 2004 included the start of operations at the Rocher-de-Grand-Mere generating station as well as work proceeding on Eastmain-1, Peribonka, Toulnustouc and Mercier. Other projects included a partnership with the Crees of Eeyou and the filing of the Energy Efficiency Plan 2005-2010. This annual report presented the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, the auditor's report as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and capital. tabs., figs

  11. The annual cycle in lower stratospheric temperatures revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Observed lower stratospheric temperatures show a prominent annual cycle. The cycles in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere are in phase and the cycle in the Southern Hemisphere has the opposite phase. In an elegant and influential paper, Yulaeva, Holton and Wallace (1994 explained the observed pattern as a direct consequence of hemispheric asymmetries in the dynamical forcing of the stratospheric circulation. They showed that in Microwave Sounding Unit channel 4 (weighting centered in the lower stratosphere data the combined extratropical and the tropical temperature cycle nearly compensate and interpreted the out-of-phase temperature variations between tropics and extratropics as the temperature response to an annual cycle in the wave driven residual circulation. We show that the near-compensation of temperature variations observed by Yulaeva et al. (1994 is artefact of the weighting function of the MSU-4 channel and does not hold on individual pressure levels. We discuss in detail the conditions required that temperature variations compensate, and what insights can be obtained from analysis of tropical, extratropical and global mean temperature variations. Dynamically induced seasonal variations of lower stratospheric ozone lead to an amplification of the seasonal temperature cycle particularly in the tropics. The latitudinal structure of static stability also induces a significant deviation from compensation of tropical and combined extratropical temperature variations. In line with Yulaeva et al. (1994 we affirm that the see-saw pattern in the annual cycles of tropical and combined extratropical temperatures provides an important pointer to mechanistic models for interannual variability and trends, but additionally conclude that the feedback of dynamically induced ozone variations on temperatures and the latitudinal structure of static stability should be included as leading order processes in such models.

  12. Trends and annual cycles in soundings of Arctic tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Christiansen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone soundings from nine Nordic stations have been homogenized and interpolated to standard pressure levels. The different stations have very different data coverage; the longest period with data is from the end of the 1980s to 2014. At each pressure level the homogenized ozone time series have been analysed with a model that includes both low-frequency variability in the form of a polynomial, an annual cycle with harmonics, the possibility for low-frequency variability in the annual amplitude and phasing, and either white noise or noise given by a first-order autoregressive process. The fitting of the parameters is performed with a Bayesian approach not only giving the mean values but also confidence intervals. The results show that all stations agree on a well-defined annual cycle in the free troposphere with a relatively confined maximum in the early summer. Regarding the low-frequency variability, it is found that Scoresbysund, Ny Ålesund, Sodankylä, Eureka, and Ørland show similar, significant signals with a maximum near 2005 followed by a decrease. This change is characteristic for all pressure levels in the free troposphere. A significant change in the annual cycle was found for Ny Ålesund, Scoresbysund, and Sodankylä. The changes at these stations are in agreement with the interpretation that the early summer maximum is appearing earlier in the year. The results are shown to be robust to the different settings of the model parameters such as the order of the polynomial, number of harmonics in the annual cycle, and the type of noise.

  13. Full annual cycle climate change vulnerability assessment for migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Leah A.; Cohen, Emily B.; Scarpignato, Amy L.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a serious challenge faced by all plant and animal species. Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are one method to assess risk and are increasingly used as a tool to inform management plans. Migratory animals move across regions and continents during their annual cycles where they are exposed to diverse climatic conditions. Climate change during any period and in any region of the annual cycle could influence survival, reproduction, or the cues used to optimize timing of migration. Therefore, CCVAs for migratory animals best estimate risk when they include climate exposure during the entire annual cycle. We developed a CCVA incorporating the full annual cycle and applied this method to 46 species of migratory birds breeding in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes (UMGL) region of the United States. Our methodology included background risk, climate change exposure × climate sensitivity, adaptive capacity to climate change, and indirect effects of climate change. We compiled information about migratory connectivity between breeding and stationary non-breeding areas using literature searches and U.S. Geological Survey banding and re-encounter data. Climate change exposure (temperature and moisture) was assessed using UMGL breeding season climate and winter climate from non-breeding regions for each species. Where possible, we focused on non-breeding regions known to be linked through migratory connectivity. We ranked 10 species as highly vulnerable to climate change and two as having low vulnerability. The remaining 34 species were ranked as moderately vulnerable. In general, including non-breeding data provided more robust results that were highly individualistic by species. Two species were found to be highly vulnerable throughout their annual cycle. Projected drying will have the greatest effect during the non-breeding season for species overwintering in Mexico and the Caribbean. Projected temperature increases will have the greatest

  14. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term memory in long historical temperature records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Fu, Zuntao

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the estimation of long-term correlation induced by inter-annual variability of annual cycle have been investigated by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). In a consequence of the intrinsic nonlinearity of the climate system, the annual cycle suffers from both amplitude and phase fluctuations. How does this changing annual cycle affect the fluctuation of temperature anomalies? A recently developed adaptive data analysis tool, the Nonlinear Mode Decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle. We compared the differences of the long-term correlation calculated by removing different annual cycle, time-varying and stationary. The study was based on long historical temperature records around the North Atlantic Ocean. The traditional climatology annual cycle which lack characteristic of inter-annual fluctuation would lead to: (1) the estimation of Hurst exponent (2) how to choose scaling range and (3) the goodness of fit. Especially removing steady climatology annual cycle would introduce an artificial crossover around one-year period in the DFA curve. The conclusion is verified by generating deterministic time series through Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. [The annual cycle in the Djungarian Hamster Phodopus sungorus Pallas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figala, J; Hoffmann, K; Goldau, G

    1973-06-01

    Seasonal variations in several functions were observed in a strain of Phodopus s. sungorus bred and kept in the laboratory at Erling-Andechs (47° 58'N, 11° 11'E) under natural illumination: 1. During their first winter most hamsters changed into a whitish winter coat (Figs. 2, 5, and 14). The change in fur coloration is described (Fig. 1). In most animals molt into the winter coat started in October or November, and was completed in December. Molt into the summer coat started in January or February, and was completed in March or early April. Hamsters kept at outdoor temperatures started molt into winter pelt earlier, and finished molt into summer pelt later, than animals kept indoors (Figs. 3 and 4). Winter coloration was more extreme in animals kept at outdoor temperatures. 2. Molt into the winter coat was induced in summer by exposing hamsters to short photoperiods (Fig. 6). However, these animals spontaneously changed back into summer fur while remaining under short-day conditions. 3. The animals had a marked annual cycle in body weight with maximum weight in July and August, and minimum weight in December and January, while they were in winter pelage (Figs. 7 and 8). 4. Reproduction was observed only between February and November (Fig. 9). Young were born within 18 days (2 cases) or 19 days (27 cases) after the breeding pairs were established. Mean litter size was 5 (range 1-9) (Fig. 10). Average litter size was smaller in the first litter of a ♀ than in the second, but was smaller again in subsequent litters (Fig. 11). 5. Growth curves of young hamsters were compared with data from the literature (Fig. 12). In the mean ♂ ♂ were heavier than ♀ ♀ (Table 1). 6. The majority of ♂ ♂ showed testis involution during the first winter. The weight of winter testes was about 1/9th that of summer testes (Fig. 13). The cauda epididymidis contained no spermatozoa in winter animals, and many in summer animals. 7. Daily torpor was observed in many animals, but

  16. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  17. The Martian annual atmospheric pressure cycle - Years without great dust storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, James E.; Johnson, Neal C.; Guttorp, Peter; Percival, Donald B.

    1993-01-01

    A model of the annual cycle of pressure on Mars for a 2-yr period, chosen to include one year at the Viking Lander 2 and to minimize the effect of great dust storms at the 22-deg N Lander 1 site, was developed by weighted least squares fitting of the Viking Lander pressure measurements to an annual mean, and fundamental and the first four harmonics of the annual cycle. Close agreement was obtained between the two years, suggesting that an accurate representation of the annual CO2 condensation-sublimation cycle can be established for such years. This model is proposed as the 'nominal' Martian annual pressure cycle, and applications are suggested.

  18. The annual cycle of snowfall at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Benjamin B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Hudak, David R.; Sheppard, Brian E.

    2015-07-01

    While snow accumulation over central Greenland has been extensively studied, interannual variability of snowfall in the region is not well understood due to a dearth of observations. The Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) project at Summit, Greenland, offers a unique, ground-based opportunity to study precipitation in central Greenland where the surface mass balance is positive. Combining data from a Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS), Millimeter-wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR), and snow stake field, the annual cycle of precipitation at Summit is examined. Average daily snowfall is higher by a factor of 3 from June to October compared to November to May, while surface height change is only higher by 15% during the same timeframes. This reduced variability in surface height is explained by the seasonally varying nature of latent heat flux, compaction, and wind contributions. The ICECAPS remote sensors and stake field measurements do not agree as far as total annual water equivalent. This discrepancy is likely due to a low bias in the POSS and MMCR snowfall retrievals for Summit. To further examine the seasonal cycle, snowfall measurements by the POSS were linked to local meteorological parameters, including wind direction, liquid water path (LWP), 2 m temperature, and precipitable water vapor. An observed wind direction and moisture dependence are consistent with snowfall being linked to pulses of moist air that originate over nearby, ice-free ocean, a resource that becomes more readily available in summertime as the winter sea ice retreats. LWP is shown to have little relationship to snowfall, indicating that ice-phase precipitation processes are quite important for snowfall at Summit.

  19. The annual cycle of the North Atlantic phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, A.; Ferrari, R. M.; Dutkiewicz, S.

    2016-02-01

    Phytoplankton populations in the North Atlantic rise at the end of winter and decay in the fall. This yearly modulation of the phytoplankton standing stock exerts a strong control on the entire marine food web and the sequestration of organic carbon in the deep ocean. Yet, it remains poorly understood what are the environmental and ecological factors that control these periodic fluctuations. In this presentation, we will use a combination of bio-Argo floats observations collected in the North Atlantic and numerical simulations to study in detail the full yearly cycle of phytoplankton. Our analysis suggest that the phytoplankton standing stock is controlled by the rate of grazing during most of the year, except at the end of winter and in late fall when atmospheric forcing suddenly promotes strong and weak division rates respectively. At these times the phytoplankton population rise and fall precipitously, before the grazing rate catches up and a new equilibrium is established.

  20. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a

  1. The Biogeochemical Cycling of Nitrogen in Annual and Perennial Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, A.; Cogger, C.

    2010-12-01

    Organic agricultural systems are dependent upon fertilizer amendments that undergo ammonification prior to the release of plant available nitrogen (N) as ammonium. Ammonia may be further transformed via nitrification to nitrate resulting in greater potential for leaching or volatilization. Additions of plant residue and animal amendments contribute to soil N and carbon pools improving soil quality and the potential for release of ammonium. Therefore, agricultural systems that relay on organic inputs as fertilizer sources must be monitored to insure stored nutrients are released during plant uptake to prevent N losses. Our experimental design allows us to determine the effects of several organic cropping systems and fertility regimes on plant available N, nitrification potential and nitrifier gene copy number g-1 dry soil across season in a grass ley and two annual systems receiving chicken manure or compost. Nitrification potentials measured via the shaken slurry method, KCl extractable N and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers g-1 dry soil measured via quantitative PCR were monitored. Nitrification potentials measured in March revealed increases in nitrification where compost had historically been applied (7.78 vs. 5.26 ± 0.856). Treatment affects were significant in June the closest date to application of amendments and when ammonification from soil N was optimal. Animal amendments were added yearly in annual systems (31.0 ± 2.91) vs every three years in the ley pasture (12.9 ± 2.91) resulting in a management effect. Copy numbers of AOB (2.69 x 108 ± 4.94 x 107) were greatest in plots receiving compost vs chicken manure. Preliminary measurements of AOA gene copy numbers reveal a similar trend to that of AOB. But, gene copy numbers of AOA (105 to 106) were lower than those of AOB. Nitrification potentials were not different across treatments in September, 11.8 ± 2.28. This research will contribute to the development of novel

  2. Enhanced Modeling of Remotely Sensed Annual Land Surface Temperature Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z.; Zhan, W.; Jiang, L.

    2017-09-01

    Satellite thermal remote sensing provides access to acquire large-scale Land surface temperature (LST) data, but also generates missing and abnormal values resulting from non-clear-sky conditions. Given this limitation, Annual Temperature Cycle (ATC) model was employed to reconstruct the continuous daily LST data over a year. The original model ATCO used harmonic functions, but the dramatic changes of the real LST caused by the weather changes remained unclear due to the smooth sine curve. Using Aqua/MODIS LST products, NDVI and meteorological data, we proposed enhanced model ATCE based on ATCO to describe the fluctuation and compared their performances for the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The results demonstrated that, the overall root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the ATCE was lower than ATCO, and the improved accuracy of daytime was better than that of night, with the errors decreased by 0.64 K and 0.36 K, respectively. The improvements of accuracies varied with different land cover types: the forest, grassland and built-up areas improved larger than water. And the spatial heterogeneity was observed for performance of ATC model: the RMSEs of built-up area, forest and grassland were around 3.0 K in the daytime, while the water attained 2.27 K; at night, the accuracies of all types significantly increased to similar RMSEs level about 2 K. By comparing the differences between LSTs simulated by two models in different seasons, it was found that the differences were smaller in the spring and autumn, while larger in the summer and winter.

  3. The radiative role of ozone and water vapour in the temperature annual cycle in the tropical tropopause layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Alison; Maycock, Amanda; Hitchcock, Peter; Haynes, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The prominent annual cycle in temperatures (with maximum peak to peak amplitude of 8 K around 70 hPa and 6 K at 90 hPa) is a key feature of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). There is also a strong annual cycle observed in both ozone and water vapour in the TTL, with the latter understood as a consequence of the temperature annual cycle. The radiative contributions of the annual cycle in ozone and water vapour to the temperature annual cycle are studied, first with a seasonally evolving fixed dynamical heating calculation (SEFDH) where the dynamical heating is assumed to be unaffected by the radiative heating. In this framework, the variations in ozone and water vapour derived from satellite data lead to variations in temperature that are respectively in phase and out of phase with the observed annual cycle. The ozone contribution is at the upper range of previous calculations. This difference in phasing can be understood from the fact that an increase in water vapour cools the TTL, predominantly through enhanced local emission, whereas an increase in ozone warms the TTL, mostly through enhanced absorption of upwelling longwave radiation from the troposphere. The relative phasing of the water vapour and ozone effects on temperature is further influenced by the fact that for water vapour there is a strong non-local effect on temperatures from variations in concentrations occurring in lower layers of the TTL. In contrast, for ozone it is the local variations in concentration that have the strongest impact on local temperature variations. The factors that determine the vertical structure of the annual cycle in temperature are also examined. Radiative damping time scales are shown to maximize over a broad layer centred on the cold point. Non-radiative processes in the upper troposphere are inferred to impose a strong constraint on temperature perturbations below 130 hPa. These effects, combined with the annual cycles in dynamical and radiative heating, which both

  4. Impact of the Annual Training Cycle on the Physical Capacity of Young Rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klusiewicz Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in the physical capacity of a group of leading Polish young male rowers after they completed the annual training cycle.

  5. Optimizing conservation of migratory species over their full annual cycle in the Western Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Joseph; Auer, Tom; Fink, Daniel; Arcese, Peter; Rodewald, Amanda; Wilson, Scott; Schuster, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Strategic plans to conserve migratory species require detailed knowledge on species distribution, abundance, and habitat use over the annual cycle, but such data are lacking for most species. We developed a hemispheric approach to planning using spatiotemporally explicit species abundance models to prioritize land needed to conserve ≥17% of the global populations of 109 species of Neotropical migratory birds. The efficiency of annual cycle plans was evaluated in comparisons to single-season p...

  6. Carrier envelope phase effects in molecular dissociation by few-cycle strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, K I [Hellenic Army Academy, Department of Natural Science and Applications, Vari (Greece); Constantoudis, V [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Mercouris, Th [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens (Greece); Nicolaides, C A, E-mail: dimi@eie.g [Physics Department, National Technical University, Athens (Greece)

    2009-11-01

    Multiphoton molecular dissociation produced by few-cycle strong laser fields of mid-infrared wave lengths is studied theoretically. The dependence of the carrier envelope phase (CEP) on the photodissociation dynamics is investigated using both quantum and classical nonperturbative approaches. Our results show that dissociation is affected by the changes of the CEP. A detailed analysis shows that this dependence is sensitive to the duration and to the shape of the pulse.

  7. The annual cycle of African climate and its variability | Jury | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A statistical analysis of African rainfall and temperature, and surface wind components and sea level pressure over the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans is done in the period 1965 to 1995. The annual cycle is found to be the dominant mode, exhibiting a subtropical north - south dipole with a cycle period of 12 months.

  8. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  9. Reproductive status of opisthoteuthis sp . Over an annual cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of deepwater cephalopods has received relatively little attention. The cirrate octopus Opisthoteuthis sp. is a regular bycatch in deep benthic trawls from 800 to 1 200 m deep west of Scotland. Specimens were sampled throughout the seasonal cycle. Mature females occurred over a broad size range ...

  10. Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Russell G; Roenneberg, Till

    2008-09-09

    Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.

  11. Annual cycle of solar radiation in a deciduous forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic solar radiation measurements within and above an east Tennessee Liriodendron forest and continuous records of insolation from a nearby NOAA weather station were used to derive an approximation of the animal radiation regime within and above the deciduous forest. The interaction of changing solar elevations, insolation, and forest phenology are shown to control the radiation climate within the forest. Maximum radiation penetrates the forest in early spring as solar paths rise higher in the sky each day just prior to leaf expansion. After leaf expansion begins, average radiation received within the forest decreases rapidly despite continued increases in solar elevations and daily insolation. This forest attains full leaf in early June and from then until the advent of leaf abscission near the autumnal equinox, forest structure remains relatively static. Solar elevations and daily insolation decline following the summer solstice, however, and as a result, average radiation penetrating the forest slowly declines throughout the summer reaching an annual minimum in early autumn. With leaf fall, slightly increased amounts of radiation penetrate the forest but as within-forest solar paths continue to lengthen, radiation within the forest again declines. Minimum amounts of solar radiation penetrate the leafless forest around the winter solstice

  12. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  13. Annual cycle in lakes and rivers from CryoSat-2 altimetry — The Brahmaputra river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2014-01-01

    A key concern of the CryoSat-2 orbit has been its long repeat period of 369 days, which is usually undesirable for river and lake monitoring. However, the results of this study show that CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub-cycle...... in which the two missions overlapped (2010–2012). Time series constructed using simple linear interpolation are fitted with a model to compare the captured annual signals and amplitudes. The annual cycles seen in CryoSat-2 and Envisat altimetry data agree very well and provide confidence in using CryoSat-2...

  14. The annual cycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.; Marland, G.; Broniak, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Time-series of estimated monthly carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of coal, petroleum and natural gas in the United States from 1981 to 2002 have been derived from energy consumption data. The data series for coal and natural gas each reveal a consistent seasonal pattern, with a winter peak for gas and two peaks (summer and winter) for coal. The annual cycle of total emissions has an amplitude of about 20 Tg-C, and is dominated by CO 2 released from consumption of natural gas. Summation of the monthly estimates to obtain annual values reveals good agreement with other estimates of CO 2 emissions. The varying proportions of CO 2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio ( 13 C), with a range of about 2 . These monthly carbon emissions estimates should be helpful in understanding the carbon cycle by providing (1) monthly/seasonal input for carbon cycle models, (2) estimates of the annual cycle of the 13 C isotope ratio in fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions and (3) data at fine enough time intervals to investigate effects of seasonal climate variations and changes in seasonally dependent use patterns of certain appliances (e.g. air conditioners) on fossil-fuel carbon emissions

  15. Energetic bottlenecks and other design constraints in avian annual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2002-02-01

    The flexible phenotypes of birds and mammals often appear to represent adjustments to alleviate some energetic bottleneck or another. By increasing the size of the organs involved in digestion and assimilation of nutrients (gut and liver), an individual bird can increase its ability to process nutrients, for example to quickly store fuel for onward flight. Similarly, an increase in the exercise organs (pectoral muscles and heart) enables a bird to increase its metabolic power for sustained flight or for thermoregulation. Reflecting the stationary cost of organ maintenance, changes in the size of any part of the "metabolic machinery" will be reflected in Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) unless changes in metabolic intensity also occur. Energetic bottlenecks appear to be set by the marginal value of organ size increases relative to particular peak requirements (including safety factors). These points are elaborated using the studies on long-distance migrating shorebirds, especially red knots Calidris canutus. Red knots encounter energy expenditure levels similar to experimentally determined ceiling levels of ca. 5 times BMR in other birds and mammals, both during the breeding season on High Arctic tundra (probably mainly a function of costs of thermoregulation) and during winter in temperate coastal wetlands (a function of the high costs of processing mollusks, prey poor in nutrients but rich in shell material and salt water). During migration, red knots phenotypically alternate between a "fueling [life-cycle] stage" and a "flight stage." Fueling red knots in tropical areas may encounter heat load problems whilst still on the ground, but high flight altitudes during migratory flights seem to take care of overheating and unacceptably high rates of evaporative water loss. The allocation principles for the flexible phenotypes of red knots and other birds, the costs of their organ flexibility and the ways in which they "organize" all the fast phenotypic changes, are yet to be

  16. The distribution of the annual and semiannual cycles in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumathipala, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The distributions of annual and semiannual cycles in the tropics are studied using outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), and FGGE level III b wind data. Amplitudes and variances of first and second harmonics (in the time domain) of low level zonal wind (U) are largest over monsoon regions of the eastern hemisphere and account for more than 80% of the variance. The first harmonic of OLR shows largest amplitudes over the continental regions between 10-15 degrees from the equator. The first harmonics of both low-level wind and OLR show standing character. The second and third harmonics of U are characterized by cross equatorial and clockwise phase propagation. All three harmonics are ''phase locked'' in the monsoon region of the eastern hemisphere during summer. Amplitude of the first harmonic of low level meridonal wind (V) is prominent at the Somalia coast and Malaysia. Amplitude variations of first and second harmonics of upper level zonal wind exhibit the response of subtropical jet streams to monsoon and inter-monsoon convective activity. Fairly strong amplitudes of OLR are found over the equatorial land areas where rainfall is maximum during the transition periods. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  17. Annual cycles of metabolic rate are genetically determined but can be shifted by phenotypic flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M. A.; Helm, B.; Gwinner, E.; Tieleman, B. I.

    2012-01-01

    Birds have adjusted their life history and physiological traits to the characteristics of the seasonally changing environments they inhabit. Annual cycles in physiology can result from phenotypic flexibility or from variation in its genetic basis. A key physiological trait that shows seasonal

  18. Growth patterns and annual growth cycle of Acacia karroo Hayne in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves in Acacia karroo is closely related to the successive events of the annual growth cycle. Acacia karroo displayed the rapid and substantial decline in non-structural carbohydrates typical of deciduous woody species. In addition, each time shoot, leaf or reproductive organs ...

  19. Tracking males and females: investigating protandry throughout the annual cycle in a small migratory songbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Thorup, Kasper

    in further detail. Here, we use data derived from geolocator tracking of red-backed shrikes, Lanius collurio, from a Scandinavian breeding population over a five year period (2009-2014) to assess whether males precede females throughout the annual cycle by comparing differences in the migration speed...

  20. Formation of a strong southward IMF near the solar maximum of cycle 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed observations of the solar activities and the solar wind parameters associated with large geomagnetic storms near the maximum of solar cycle 23. This analysis showed that strong southward interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs, formed through interaction between an interplanetary disturbance, and background solar wind or between interplanetary disturbances are an important factor in the occurrence of intense geomagnetic storms. Based on our analysis, we seek to improve our understanding of the physical processes in which large negative Bz's are created which will lead to improving predictions of space weather.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (Flare and stream dynamics; Interplanetary magnetic fields; Interplanetary shocks

  1. STATISTICAL STUDY OF STRONG AND EXTREME GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES AND SOLAR CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpua, E. K. J.; Olspert, N.; Grigorievskiy, A.; Käpylä, M. J.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Pelt, J.; Miyahara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Liu, Y. D.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between strong and extreme geomagnetic storms and solar cycle characteristics. The analysis uses an extensive geomagnetic index AA data set spanning over 150 yr complemented by the Kakioka magnetometer recordings. We apply Pearson correlation statistics and estimate the significance of the correlation with a bootstrapping technique. We show that the correlation between the storm occurrence and the strength of the solar cycle decreases from a clear positive correlation with increasing storm magnitude toward a negligible relationship. Hence, the quieter Sun can also launch superstorms that may lead to significant societal and economic impact. Our results show that while weaker storms occur most frequently in the declining phase, the stronger storms have the tendency to occur near solar maximum. Our analysis suggests that the most extreme solar eruptions do not have a direct connection between the solar large-scale dynamo-generated magnetic field, but are rather associated with smaller-scale dynamo and resulting turbulent magnetic fields. The phase distributions of sunspots and storms becoming increasingly in phase with increasing storm strength, on the other hand, may indicate that the extreme storms are related to the toroidal component of the solar large-scale field

  2. First-Annual Global Clean Energy Manufacturing Report Shows Strong Domestic Benefits for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EERE Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) commissioned the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center to conduct the first-ever annual assessment of the economic state of global clean energy manufacturing. The report, Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing, makes economic data on clean energy technology widely available.

  3. No evidence for melatonin-linked immunoenhancement over the annual cycle of an avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Deborah M; Koolhaas, Anita; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Schwabl, Ingrid; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis; Tieleman, B Irene

    2009-05-01

    The winter immunoenhancement hypothesis associates long nights and increased exposure to melatonin with enhanced immune function in winter when resource availability is low and the chances of becoming ill are high. Thus, increased exposure to melatonin in the winter could be adaptive for species facing difficult winter conditions. This idea has found some support in studies of resident mammals. In birds, the link between day length and melatonin over the annual cycle is weaker, and contributions of melatonin to seasonal timing are unclear. Furthermore, many species, especially migrants, do not experience the most difficult conditions of their annual cycle in winter. In this study, we tested whether the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis holds in an avian species, the red knot Calidris canutus. We found that melatonin duration and amplitude varied significantly over the annual cycle with the highest values occurring in winter. However, peaks did not correspond to the winter solstice or with annual variation in immune function. Our findings do not support the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis in knots and question whether the idea that immune function should be bolstered in winter can be generalized to systems where winter is not the most difficult time of the year.

  4. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2018-05-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  5. Disentangling density-dependent dynamics using full annual cycle models and Bayesian model weight updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.

    2017-01-01

    Density dependence regulates populations of many species across all taxonomic groups. Understanding density dependence is vital for predicting the effects of climate, habitat loss and/or management actions on wild populations. Migratory species likely experience seasonal changes in the relative influence of density dependence on population processes such as survival and recruitment throughout the annual cycle. These effects must be accounted for when characterizing migratory populations via population models.To evaluate effects of density on seasonal survival and recruitment of a migratory species, we used an existing full annual cycle model framework for American black ducks Anas rubripes, and tested different density effects (including no effects) on survival and recruitment. We then used a Bayesian model weight updating routine to determine which population model best fit observed breeding population survey data between 1990 and 2014.The models that best fit the survey data suggested that survival and recruitment were affected by density dependence and that density effects were stronger on adult survival during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season.Analysis also suggests that regulation of survival and recruitment by density varied over time. Our results showed that different characterizations of density regulations changed every 8–12 years (three times in the 25-year period) for our population.Synthesis and applications. Using a full annual cycle, modelling framework and model weighting routine will be helpful in evaluating density dependence for migratory species in both the short and long term. We used this method to disentangle the seasonal effects of density on the continental American black duck population which will allow managers to better evaluate the effects of habitat loss and potential habitat management actions throughout the annual cycle. The method here may allow researchers to hone in on the proper form and/or strength of

  6. Temperature and precipitation in the context of the annual cycle over Asia: Model evaluation and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suyeon; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-05-01

    Since the early or late arrival of monsoon rainfall can be devastating to agriculture and economy, the prediction of the onset of monsoon is a very important issue. The Asian monsoon is characterized by a strong annual cycle with rainy summer and dry winter. Nevertheless, most of monsoon studies have focused on the seasonal-mean of temperature and precipitation. The present study aims to evaluate a total of 27 coupled models that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for projection of the time evolution and the intensity of Asian monsoon on the basis of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. And future changes of onset, retreat, and intensity of monsoon are analyzed. Four models for good seasonal-mean (GSM) and good harmonic (GH) groups, respectively, are selected. GSM is based on the seasonal-mean of temperature and precipitation in summer and winter, and GH is based on the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation which represents a characteristic of the monsoon. To compare how well the time evolution of the monsoon is simulated in each group, the onset, retreat, and duration of Asian monsoon are examined. The highest pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of onset, retreat, and duration between the reanalysis data and model outputs demonstrates that GH models' MME predicts time evolution of monsoon most precisely, with PCC values of 0.80, 0.52, and 0.63, respectively. To predict future changes of the monsoon, the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2073-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from CMIP5 using GH models' MME. The Asian monsoon domain is expanded by 22.6% in the future projection. The onset date in the future is advanced over most parts of Asian monsoon region. The duration of summer Asian monsoon in the future projection will be lengthened by up to 2 pentads over the Asian monsoon region, as a result of advanced

  7. Trend and Cycle Analysis of Annual and Seasonal Precipitation in Liaoning, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual and seasonal precipitation data for 49 meteorological stations over the period of 1960–2006 in Liaoning province were analyzed. Liaoning experienced province-wide decreases in precipitation over the 47-year period, with annual precipitation decreasing by 96% of the stations, followed by 92, 84, 63, and 27%, respectively, for summer, autumn, spring, and winter precipitation. Regional trend analysis confirmed the province-wide decrease, which was detected by the site-specific analysis, but a greater number of significant declines were found for annual, summer, and autumn precipitation for Liaoning province and for three of its four subregions. Four significant cycles with alternation patterns were detected mainly at the time scales of 3–5, 10-11, 20–23, and 31.2 years for each of the four subregions (Liaodong Peninsula, Northeastern Mountain, Western Highland, and Central Plain and the entire Liaoning province, with the dominant periodicities being 10-11 years. The 10-11-year periodic variation of Liaoning annual precipitation was negatively associated with sunspot activity and positively associated with the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM at the same time scale, while the 31.2-year periodic variation of Liaoning annual precipitation was positively correlated with both the EASM and ENSO activities at the 30–33-year time scale.

  8. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature, Tropospheric Humidity and Lapse Rate on the Annual Cycle of the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The implication of this work will provide modeling study a surrogate of annual cycle of the greenhouse effect. For example, the model should be able to simulate the annual cycle before it can be used for global change study.

  9. The Plight of Migrant Birds Wintering in the Caribbean: Rainfall Effects in the Annual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we summarize results of migrant bird research in the Caribbean as part of a 75th Anniversary Symposium on research of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (IITF. The fate of migratory birds has been a concern stimulating research over the past 40 years in response to population declines documented in long-term studies including those of the IITF and collaborators in Puerto Rico’s Guánica dry forest. Various studies indicate that in addition to forest loss or fragmentation, some migrant declines may be due to rainfall variation, the consequences of which may carry over from one stage of a migrant’s annual cycle to another. For example, the Guánica studies indicate that rainfall extremes on either the temperate breeding or tropical wintering grounds affect migrant abundance and survival differently depending on the species. In contrast, IITF’s collaborative studies of the migrant Kirtland’s Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii in the Bahamas found that late winter droughts affect its annual survival and breeding success in Michigan. We review these IITF migrant studies and relate them to other studies, which have improved our understanding of migrant ecology of relevance to conservation. Particularly important is the advent of the full annual cycle (FAC approach. The FAC will facilitate future identification and mitigation of limiting factors contributing to migrant population declines, which for some species, may be exacerbated by global climate change.

  10. Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2015-02-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α -HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC+CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  11. Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , indicating that the bird was mostly sleeping between these long migratory flights. Annual activity and flight data for free-living songbirds will open up many new research possibilities. Main topics that can be addressed are e.g. migratory flight performance (total flight investment, numbers...... the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be distinguished. Measurements from a light sensor were stored from preprogrammed key stationary periods during...... > 66 (max. 73) nocturnal migratory flights (29 flights in autumn and > 37, max. 44, in spring) adding up to a total of > 434 (max. 495) flight hours. Migratory flights lasted on average 6.6 h with maximum 15.9 h. These flights were aggregated into eight travel episodes (periods of 4-11 nights when...

  12. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA...... production. In addition, T23-treatment strongly increased the molecular carbon labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, succinate, fumarate and malate, and significantly increased the incorporation of (13)C-labelling into the amino acids glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. These results clearly...... demonstrate that, in addition to glycolysis, also the mitochondrial TCA cycle is strongly accelerated after exposure of astrocytes to T23, suggesting that a protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle in astrocytes....

  13. Inelastic strong interactions at high energies. Annual progress report, June 1, 1979-May 1, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suranyi, P.

    1980-02-01

    Investigations in the area of Grand Unified Field Theories were begun. Various ways of breaking the SU(5) symmetric theory of Georgi and Glashow were studied. As usual, an approx. 24 of Higgs breaks the symmetry from SU(5) to SU(3)/sub c/xSU(2)xU(1). It was found that an approx. 45 of Higgs is acceptable for breaking the symmetry from SU(3)/sub c/xSU(2)xU(1) to SU(3)/sub c/xU(1)/sub em/. In addition phenomenologically correct quark-lepton mass ratios are obtained by use of renormalization-group techniques if there are 6 generations of particles in the theory. Efforts directed at the development of approximate methods for extracting information from quantum field theories were continued. The quantum mechanics of polynomial potentials as a model for quantum field theories was investigated. A perturbation expansion for the energy levels and wave functions was constructed and has been proven to be convergent for arbitrary values of the coupling constants, in contrast to ordinary perturbation expansions that have a zero radius of convergence. The physical significance of the new perturbation expansions was explored both in the weak and strong coupling limits

  14. Replication of Annual Cycles in Mn in Hudson River Cores: Mn Peaks During High Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Hutson, D.; Marrero, A. M.; Block, K. A.; Chang, C.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using the results from an ITRAX, XRF scanner, we previously reported apparent annual cycles in Mn in a single, high sedimentation rate Hudson River core, LWB1-8, taken off Yonkers, NY (Carlson et al., 2016). We replicated these results in three more high sedimentation rate cores and found stratigraphic markers that verify our inferences about the annual nature of the Mn cycles. The three new cores are LWB4-5 taken off Peekskill, NY, and LWB3-44 and LWB3-25, both taken in Haverstraw Bay. The cores are from water depths of 7-9 meters and all have high magnetic susceptibilities (typically > 30 cgs units) in their upper 1 to 2 meters. The high susceptibilities are primarily produced by magnetite from modern industrial combustion. One core, LWB1-8, has reconnaissance Cs dates that verify the annual nature of the cycles. More Cs dates are expected before the meeting. We developed several new methods of verifying the annual nature of our layer counts. The first is looking at the grain size distribution and age of layers with unusually high Mn peaks. Peaks in Si, Ni and Ti and peaks in percentage of coarse material typically accompany the peaks in Mn. Some are visible as yellow sandy layers. The five highest peaks in Mn in LWB1-8 have layer counted ages that correspond (within 1 year in the top meter and within 2 years in the bottom meter) to 1996, 1948, 1913, 1857 and 1790. The latter three events are the three largest historical spring freshets on the Hudson. 1996 is a year of unusually high flow rate during the spring freshet. Based on our work and previous work on Mn cycling in rivers, we infer that the peaks in Mn are produced by extreme erosional events that erode sediment and release pore water Mn into the water column. The other methods of testing our chronology involve marine storms that increase Ca and Sr and a search for fragments of the Peekskill meteorite that fell in October 1992. More information on the latter will be available by the meeting.

  15. Planning the annual cycle in groups of cadet combat sports perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananchenko Konstantin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within a large training cycle in conditions of high general level of stress the authors recommend optimal implementation of planning undulating dynamics of cadets’ combat exercise stress. The article proves the efficiency of one-cycle construction of training highly- qualified single-combat cadets at the stage of maximal realization of sporting possibilities, which includes both features of traditional cycles (preparatory, competitional, transitional and module-sectional composition of training. It scientifically substantiates, that the choice of those or other types of microcycles which present the structure of mesocycles is determined by a few basic factors which must be necessarily taken into account while planning the training process of sportsmen of different qualification. It is suggested to use certain varieties of microcycles in the practice of preparation of single combat cadets. It is substantiated that accounting in planning the annual cycle in groups of sporting perfection of students of the educed types of microcycles for every type of single combats is an actual task of further scientific research.

  16. Using Screening Level Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Aid Decision Making: A Case Study of a College Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.; Curran, Mary Ann; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Hawkins, Troy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences' current printed annual report to a version distributed via the internet. Design/methodology/approach: Life cycle environmental impacts of both versions of the report are modeled using…

  17. Variation in survivorship of a migratory songbird throughout its annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillett, T. Scott; Holmes, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    1. Demographic data from both breeding and non-breeding periods are needed to manage populations of migratory birds, many of which are declining in abundance and are of conservation concern. Although habitat associations, and to a lesser extent, reproductive biology, are known for many migratory species, few studies have measured survival rates of these birds at different parts of their annual cycle. 2. Cormack-Jolly-Seber models and Akaike's information criterion model selection were used to investigate seasonal variation in survival of a Nearctic - Neotropical migrant songbird, the black-throated blue warbler, Dendroica caerulescens. Seasonal and annual survival were estimated from resightings of colour-ringed individuals on breeding grounds in New Hampshire, USA from 1986 to 2000 and on winter quarters in Jamaica, West Indies from 1986 to 1999. Warblers were studied each year during the May-August breeding period in New Hampshire and during the October-March overwinter period in Jamaica. 3. In New Hampshire, males had higher annual survival (0.51 + 0.03) and recapture probabilities (0.93 + 0.03) than did females (survival: 0.40 + 0.04; recapture: 0'87 + 0.06). In Jamaica, annual survival (0.43 + 0.03) and recapture (0'95 + 0.04) probabilities did not differ between sexes. Annual survival and recapture probabilities of young birds (i.e. yearlings in New Hampshire and hatch-year birds in Jamaica) did not differ from adults, indicating that from the time hatch-year individuals acquire territories on winter quarters in mid-October, they survive as well as adults within the same habitat. 4. Monthly survival probabilities during the summer (May-August) and winter (October-March) stationary periods were high: 1'0 for males in New Hampshire, and 0.99 + 0.01 for males in Jamaica and for females in both locations. 5. These annual and seasonal survival estimates were used to calculate warbler survival for the migratory periods. Monthly survival probability during migration

  18. Seasonal redistribution of immune function in a migrant shorebird: annual-cycle effects override adjustments to thermal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Deborah M; Piersma, Theunis; Matson, Kevin; Tieleman, B Irene

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the annual cycle, demands on competing physiological systems change, and animals must allocate resources to maximize fitness. Immune function is one such system and is important for survival. Yet detailed empirical data tracking immune function over the entire annual cycle are lacking for most wild animals. We measured constitutive immune indices once a month for a year on captive red knots (Calidris canutus). We also examined temperature as an environmental contributor to immune variation by manipulating ambient temperature to vary energy expenditure. To identify relationships among immune indices, we performed principal-component analysis. We found significant repeatability in immune indices over the annual cycle and covariation of immune indices within and among individuals. This covariation suggests immune strategies as individual traits among individuals and the use of different immune strategies during different annual-cycle stages within individuals. Over the annual cycle, both higher-cost phagocyte-based immunity and lower-cost lymphocyte-based immunity were high during mass change, but there was a clear shift toward lower-cost lymphocyte-based immunity during peak molt. Experimental manipulation of temperature had little effect on annual variation in immune function. This suggests that other environmental factors, such as food availability and disease, should also be examined in the future.

  19. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

  1. Planning of physical load of annual cycle of students’, practicing cyclic kinds of sports, training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Nagovitsyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to offer the variant of physical load’s distribution in annual cycle of students’, practicing cyclic kinds of sports training. Material: in the research pedagogic HEE students, specializing in skiing and light athletic participated (n=18 - boys, n=8 -girls, age - 18-23 years. The students were divided into two groups: experimental and control. Results: by comparison we determined the following: volume and intensity of physical load in micro-cycle and macro-cycle; indicators of cyclic load’s distribution in year plan of students’ training. In cyclic group of skiers we used the method of standard-interval and alternative exercises. I.e. exercises of one load are fulfilled repeatedly. Other method implies variable, increasing or decreasing physical load. Cyclic load, fulfilled at heart beats rate of 160-190 bpm, accented on intensity, prevails. The main requirement is: fulfillment of movements with maximal quickness. In group of light athletic sportsmen the method of standard - continuous exercises, implying moderate intensity, was used. For example: standard current exercises - passing distance of 3 km, 5 km or 10 km. Cyclic load, fulfilled at heart beats rate of 140-160 bpm, accented on volume. Conclusions: In cyclic load of light athletic group aerobic character of work prevails. In cyclic load of skiers’ group mixed and anaerobic character of work prevails.

  2. Travelling on a budget: predictions and ecological evidence for bottlenecks in the annual cycle of long-distance migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Deborah M; Piersma, Theunis

    2008-01-27

    Long-distance migration, and the study of the migrants who undertake these journeys, has fascinated generations of biologists. However, many aspects of the annual cycles of these migrants remain a mystery as do many of the driving forces behind the evolution and maintenance of the migrations themselves. In this article we discuss nutritional, energetic, temporal and disease-risk bottlenecks in the annual cycle of long-distance migrants, taking a sandpiper, the red knot Calidris canutus, as a focal species. Red knots have six recognized subspecies each with different migratory routes, well-known patterns of connectivity and contrasting annual cycles. The diversity of red knot annual cycles allows us to discuss the existence and the effects of bottlenecks in a comparative framework. We examine the evidence for bottlenecks focusing on the quality of breeding plumage and the timing of moult as indicators in the six subspecies. In terms of breeding plumage coloration, quality and timing of prealternate body moult (from non-breeding into breeding plumage), the longest migrating knot subspecies, Calidris canutus rogersi and Calidris canutus rufa, show the greatest impact of bottlenecking. The same is true in terms of prebasic body moult (from breeding into non-breeding plumage) which in case of both C. c. rogersi and C. c. rufa overlaps with southward migration and may even commence in the breeding grounds. To close our discussion of bottlenecks in long-distance migrants, we make predictions about how migrants might be impacted via physiological 'trade-offs' throughout the annual cycle, using investment in immune function as an example. We also predict how bottlenecks may affect the distribution of mortality throughout the annual cycle. We hope that this framework will be applicable to other species and types of migrants, thus expanding the comparative database for the future evaluation of seasonal selection pressures and the evolution of annual cycles in long

  3. Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Christi, Ketan S; Morley, Craig G; Cockrem, John F

    2010-03-01

    Annual cycles of reproductive steroid metabolites were measured in urine collected from free-living and captive tropical endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana) a terrestrial breeding. Free-living frogs were sampled on Viwa Island, Fiji and captive frogs were maintained in an outdoor enclosure in Suva, Fiji. Urinary estrone, progesterone and testosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male and female frogs after hCG challenges, with clear peaks in steroid concentrations 2 or 3 days after the challenges. There were annual cycles of testosterone metabolites in wild and captive males, and of estrone and progesterone metabolites in wild and captive females. Peaks of steroid concentrations in the wet season corresponded with periods of mating and egg laying in females in December and January. Steroid concentrations declined in January and February when maximum egg sizes in females were also declining. Body weights of wild male and vitellogenic female frogs showed annual cycles. Body weights of non-vitellogenic female frogs varied significantly between months, although there was no clear pattern of annual changes. Body weights of the 3 captive male frogs and 4 captive female frogs were similar to those of the wild frogs. Estrone metabolites were 80% successful in identifying non-vitellogenic females from males. The results suggest that the Fijian ground frog is a seasonal breeder with an annual gonadal cycle, and this species is likely to be photoperiodic. Urinary steroid measurements can provide useful information on reproductive cycles in endangered amphibians. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  5. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Changes in Muscle Strength in U19 Soccer Players During an Annual Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors, and conventional (H/QCONV and functional (H/QFUNC hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios in highly trained adolescent soccer players. The players (n=11; age 17.8±0.3 were measured at the end of the competitive season (autumn, at the beginning and the end of pre-season (winter and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. Isokinetic peak torque (concentric and eccentric was measured at 60°•s-1 in a sitting position with the hip flexed at 100°. The testing range of motion was set from 10 - 90° of knee flexion. The players performed a set of five maximum repetitions for both the dominant and non-dominant leg. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 between the four seasonal measurements were noted for peak torque of the dominant leg knee flexors in concentric muscle action only. A post hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in peak torque from the 1st to the 4th measurement (p<0.001; d=0.692 and from the 2nd to the 4th (p<0.01; d=0.564. The differences in the changes of peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors depending on type of muscle action and tendencies found in the H/Q ratios throughout the annual training cycle indicate that strength assessment of the knee flexors and extensors and their balance throughout the annual training cycle could be beneficial for elite male adolescent soccer players both in terms of performance and risk of injury.

  7. Testicular cell cytoskeleton in the newt, Triturus marmoratus marmoratus, during the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; De Miguel, M P; Arenas, M I; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R

    1996-04-15

    Light and electron microscopy immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analysis of cytoskeletal proteins have been carried out in the testis of the marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus marmoratus) during the annual testicular cycle. The present findings revealed homologies and differences with regard to those reported in the testes of mammals and other vertebrates. Changes in immunohistochemical expression have also been detected in the course of the annual cycle. Actin and tubulin, which were scanty and diffusely located in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, increased their expression and reorganized during spermiogenesis. Vimentin and keratin, undetected in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, were expressed in differentiating spermatids and spermatozoa. In these cells, actin might be related with the connection of the axial fiber to the undulating membrane and the coordination of movement by both structures, while vimentin might be involved in the maintenance of the spatial relationship between the axoneme and the marginal fiber. During the first stages of spermatogenesis, the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells (follicular cells) showed a diffuse immunoreaction to actin, myosin, and tubulin and no vimentin immunolabeling. In advanced spermiogenesis, the follicular cells showed an intense immunoreaction to actin, myosin, tubulin, and vimentin in the apical projections that surrounded the spermatid heads. These apical cytoskeletal components might be involved in spermatid elongation, since the spermatids display no manchette, and in spermatozoon positioning and grouping. The colocalization of myosin and actin in the follicular cells suggests that actin filaments from contractile bundles and that contraction might be involved in changes in the Sertoli cell shape that accompany germ cell development during spermatogenesis. The interstitial cells immunostained to actin, myosin, tubulin, and vimentin. These cells, together with follicular cells, seemed to form the glandular

  8. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Sympatric breeding auks shift between dietary and spatial resource partitioning across the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Fries Linnebjerg

    Full Text Available When species competing for the same resources coexist, some segregation in the way they utilize those resources is expected. However, little is known about how closely related sympatric breeding species segregate outside the breeding season. We investigated the annual segregation of three closely related seabirds (razorbill Alcatorda, common guillemot Uriaaalge and Brünnich's guillemot U. lomvia breeding at the same colony in Southwest Greenland. By combining GPS and geolocation (GLS tracking with dive depth and stable isotope analyses, we compared spatial and dietary resource partitioning. During the breeding season, we found the three species to segregate in diet and/or dive depth, but less in foraging area. During both the post-breeding and pre-breeding periods, the three species had an increased overlap in diet, but were dispersed over a larger spatial scale. Dive depths were similar across the annual cycle, suggesting morphological adaptations fixed by evolution. Prey choice, on the other hand, seemed much more flexible and therefore more likely to be affected by the immediate presence of potential competitors.

  10. A model of the plasma flow and current in Saturn's polar ionosphere under conditions of strong Dungey cycle driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Jackman

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model of the flow and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere. This model is motivated by theoretical reasoning, and guided quantitatively by in situ field and flow data from space missions, ground-based IR Doppler measurements, and Hubble Space Telescope images. The flow pattern consists of components which represent (1 plasma sub-corotation in the middle magnetosphere region resulting from plasma pick-up and radial transport from internal sources; (2 the Vasyliunas-cycle of internal plasma mass-loss down the magnetospheric tail at higher latitudes; and (3 the polar Dungey-cycle flow driven by the solar wind interaction. Upstream measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF indicate the occurrence of both extended low-field rarefaction intervals with essentially negligible Dungey-cycle flow, and few-day high-field compression regions in which the Dungey-cycle voltage peaks at a few hundred kV. Here we model the latter conditions when the Dungey-cycle is active, advancing on previous axi-symmetric models which may be more directly applicable to quiet conditions. For theoretical convenience the overall flow pattern is constructed by adding together two components - a purely rotational flow similar to previous axi-symmetric models, and a sun-aligned twin vortex representing the dawn-dusk asymmetry effects associated with the Vasyliunas-and Dungey-cycle flows. We calculate the horizontal ionospheric current associated with the flow and the field-aligned current from its divergence. These calculations show that a sheet of upward-directed field-aligned current flows at the boundary of open field lines which is strongly modulated in local-time by the Dungey-cycle flows. We then consider implications of the field-aligned current for magnetospheric electron acceleration and aurorae using two plasma source populations (hot outer magnetospheric electrons and cool dense magnetosheath electrons. Both sources display a strong dawn

  11. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-06-16

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months.

  12. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Guyot, Jean Loup; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Espinoza, Raúl; Junquas, Clementine; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010–11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m 3 s −1 ) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m 3 s −1 ) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010–11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific. (letter)

  13. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  14. Annual cycle and migration strategies of a trans-Saharan migratory songbird : A geolocator study in the great reed warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemke, Hilger W.; Tarka, Maja; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Akesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan; Hasselquist, Dennis; Hansson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advancements now allow us to obtain geographical position data for a wide range of animal movements. Here we used light-level geolocators to study the annual migration cycle in great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a passerine bird breeding in Eurasia and wintering in

  15. Annual reproductive cycle of a bitterling, Tanakia tanago, reared in an outdoor tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Rui; Akiyama, Nobuhiko

    2007-06-01

    From June 2000 to September 2001, we investigated the presence of eggs spawned in Margaritifera laevis and the seasonal changes in the gonads of Tanakia tanago. Eggs were observed from mid-March to mid-September. In females with a shrunken ovipositor, as the GSI gradually increased, most ovaries were in the prespawning phase (Oct-Mar). As the GSI increased further, most ovaries were in the early spawning phase (Mar-Jun). As the GSI gradually deceased, ovaries in the late spawning phase appeared (Jun-Sep). When the GSI was very low, most ovaries were in the postspawning phase (Sep-Oct). In males, when the GSI was low, most testes were in the early prespawning phase from Oct-Dec. As the GSI gradually increased, most testes were in the late prespawning phase (Dec-Jan). As the GSI increased further, testes were in the early spawning phase (Jan-Jun). As the GSI gradually decreased, amost testes were in the late spawning phase (Jun-Sep). When the GSI was very low, most testes were in the postspawning phase (Sep-Oct). These results indicate that T. tanago has a distinct annual reproductive cycle and is a spring-autumn spawner. Based on the relationship between reproductive activity and environmental factors, the spawning season of T. tanago appears to be initiated by increasing temperature and / or longer days in spring and to be terminated by shorter days in autumn.

  16. Sensitivity of inter-annual variation of CO2 seasonal cycle at Mauna Loa to atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Shoichi; Murayama, Shohei; Higuchi, Kaz

    2003-01-01

    Origins of the inter-annual variations of the Mauna Loa atmospheric CO 2 seasonal cycle related to atmospheric transport were examined using a global atmospheric transport model with prescribed land biota CO 2 source functions at 11 land sections. On average, the seasonal variation of atmospheric CO 2 at Mauna Loa is influenced mostly by the Siberian CO 2 flux, followed by temperate Asia and North America. The inter-annual variability of the seasonal cycle is caused mainly by the inter-annual variation in the transport of the Siberian signal to Mauna Loa. The characteristics of the simulated seasonal cycle and its inter-annual variability at Mauna Loa are found to be sensitive to the quality of the wind data used to drive the transport model. Implication of this result is that for studying a long-term variations of atmospheric transport a meteorological data set for driving an atmospheric transport model should be obtained from the same production procedure

  17. Coordinated activation of PTA-ACS and TCA cycles strongly reduces overflow metabolism of acetate in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Nahku, Ranno; Riis, Gethe; Oun, Mikk; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-06-01

    Elimination of acetate overflow in aerobic cultivation of Escherichia coli would improve many bioprocesses as acetate accumulation in the growth environment leads to numerous negative effects, e.g. loss of carbon, inhibition of growth, target product synthesis, etc. Despite many years of studies, the mechanism and regulation of acetate overflow are still not completely understood. Therefore, we studied the growth of E. coli K-12 BW25113 and several of its mutant strains affecting acetate-related pathways using the continuous culture method accelerostat (A-stat) at various specific glucose consumption rates with the aim of diminishing acetate overflow. Absolute quantitative exo-metabolome and proteome analyses coupled to metabolic flux analysis enabled us to demonstrate that onset of acetate overflow can be postponed and acetate excretion strongly reduced in E. coli by coordinated activation of phosphotransacetylase-acetyl-CoA synthetase (PTA-ACS) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Fourfold reduction of acetate excretion (2 vs. 8 % from total carbon) at fastest growth compared to wild type was achieved by deleting the genes responsible for inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase protein (pka) and TCA cycle regulator arcA. The Δpka ΔarcA strain did not accumulate any other detrimental by-product besides acetate and showed identical μ max and only ~5 % lower biomass yield compared to wild type. We conclude that a fine-tuned coordination between increasing the recycling capabilities of acetate in the PTA-ACS node through a higher concentration of active acetate scavenging Acs protein and downstream metabolism throughput in the TCA cycle is necessary for diminishing overflow metabolism of acetate in E. coli and achieving higher target product production in bioprocesses.

  18. Climate change leads to differential shifts in the timing of annual cycle stages in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotani, Barbara M; van der Jeugd, Henk; Gienapp, Phillip; de la Hera, Iván; Pilzecker, Jos; Teichmann, Corry; Visser, Marcel E

    2018-02-01

    Shifts in reproductive phenology due to climate change have been well documented in many species but how, within the same species, other annual cycle stages (e.g. moult, migration) shift relative to the timing of breeding has rarely been studied. When stages shift at different rates, the interval between stages may change resulting in overlaps, and as each stage is energetically demanding, these overlaps may have negative fitness consequences. We used long-term data of a population of European pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) to investigate phenological shifts in three annual cycle stages: spring migration (arrival dates), breeding (egg-laying and hatching dates) and the onset of postbreeding moult. We found different advancements in the timing of breeding compared with moult (moult advances faster) and no advancement in arrival dates. To understand these differential shifts, we explored which temperatures best explain the year-to-year variation in the timing of these stages, and show that they respond differently to temperature increases in the Netherlands, causing the intervals between arrival and breeding and between breeding and moult to decrease. Next, we tested the fitness consequences of these shortened intervals. We found no effect on clutch size, but the probability of a fledged chick to recruit increased with a shorter arrival-breeding interval (earlier breeding). Finally, mark-recapture analyses did not detect an effect of shortened intervals on adult survival. Our results suggest that the advancement of breeding allows more time for fledgling development, increasing their probability to recruit. This may incur costs to other parts of the annual cycle, but, despite the shorter intervals, there was no effect on adult survival. Our results show that to fully understand the consequences of climate change, it is necessary to look carefully at different annual cycle stages, especially for organisms with complex cycles, such as migratory birds. © 2017

  19. ANNUAL AND DIURNAL CYCLES OF THE INVERSE RELATION BETWEEN PLANT TRANSPIRATION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Moreno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding biogeochemical cycles and especially carbon budgets is clue to validate global change models in the present and near future. As a consequence, sinks and sources of carbon in the world are being studied. One of those sinks is the non-well known behavior of the planet vegetation which involves the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sequestration rates are highly related to the transpiration through a molecular diffusion process occurring at the stomatal level which can be recorded by an eddy covariance micrometeorological station. This paper explores annual and diurnal cycles of latent heat (LE and CO2 net (FC fluxes over 6 different ecosystems. Based on the physics of the transpiration process, different time-scale analysis are performed, finding a near-linear relation between LE and CO2 net fluxes, which is stronger at the more vegetated areas. The North American monsoon season increases carbon up taking and LE-CO2 flux relation preserves at different time scales analysis (hours to days to months.El conocimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos y, en especial, de los balances de carbono es clave para la validación de los modelos de cambio global para el presente y el futuro cercano. Como consecuencia, en el mundo se estudian las fuentes y los sumideros de carbono. Uno de esos sumideros es la vegetación del planeta, que involucra los procesos de respiración y fotosíntesis y cuyo comportamiento se empieza a estudiar. Las tasas de captura del carbono están muy ligadas a la transpiración mediante un proceso de difusión molecular en los estomas, que puede registrarse por un sistema micrometeorológico de eddy covarianza. Este artículo explora los ciclos anuales y diurnos de los flujos netos de CO2 y calor latente de seis ecosistemas diferentes. Se desarrollan diversos análisis de escala temporal, basados en la física de la transpiración, y se halla una relación cuasilineal entre los flujos netos de calor

  20. Drivers and environmental responses to the changing annual snow cycle of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Stone, Robert S.; Douglas, David C.; Stanitski, Diane; Divoky, George J.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Sweeney, Colm; George, J. Craig; Longenecker, David U.

    2017-01-01

    On the North Slope of Alaska, earlier spring snowmelt and later onset of autumn snow accumulation are tied to atmospheric dynamics and sea ice conditions, and result in environmental responses.Linkages between atmospheric, ecological and biogeochemical variables in the changing Arctic are analyzed using long-term measurements near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. Two key variables are the date when snow disappears in spring, as determined primarily by atmospheric dynamics, precipitation, air temperature, winter snow accumulation and cloud cover, as well as the date of onset of snowpack in autumn that is additionally influenced by ocean temperature and sea ice extent. In 2015 and 2016 the snow melted early at Utqiaġvik due mainly to anomalous warmth during May of both years attributed to atmospheric circulation patterns, with 2016 having the record earliest snowmelt. These years are discussed in the context of a 115-year snowmelt record at Utqiaġvik with a trend toward earlier melting since the mid- 1970s (-2.86 days/decade, 1975-2016). At nearby Cooper Island, where a colony of seabirds, Black Guillemots, have been monitored since 1975, timing of egg laying is correlated with Utqiaġvik snowmelt with 2015 and 2016 being the earliest years in the 42-year record. Ice-out at a nearby freshwater lagoon is also correlated with Utqiaġvik snowmelt. The date when snow begins to accumulate in autumn at Utqiaġvik shows a trend towards later dates (+4.6 days/decade, 1975-2016), with 2016 the latest on record. The relationships between the lengthening snow-free season and regional phenology, soil temperatures, fluxes of gases from the tundra, and to regional sea ice conditions are discussed. Better understanding of these interactions is needed to predict the annual snow cycles in the region at seasonal to decadal scales, and to anticipate coupled environmental responses.

  1. In situ observations of the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda reveal a long fruiting cycle overlapping two annual flowering periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, Fanny; Pouteau, Robin; Jaffré, Tanguy; Marmey, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Amborella trichopoda is the sole living angiosperm species belonging to the sister lineage of all other extant flowering plants. In the last decade, the species has been the focus of many phylogenetic, genomic and reproductive biology studies, bringing new highlights regarding the evolution of flowering plants. However, little attention has been paid to in situ A. trichopoda populations, particularly to their fruiting cycle. In this study, an A. trichopoda population was observed during three annual flowering cycles. Individuals and branches were labeled in order to monitor the fruiting cycle precisely, from the flowering stage until the abscission of the fruit. Fruit exocarp was green during the first 9 months following flowering, turned red when the next flowering started a year later then remained on the branch during another year, between fruit ripping and abscission. Presence of fruits with two stages of maturity on shrubs was always noticed. Germination tests showed that seeds acquired their germination capacity 1 year after flowering, when fruits changed color. A. trichopoda's fruiting cycle is a long process overlapping two annual flowering periods. These results introduce a new model for flowering and fruiting cycles. The availability of mature seeds on shrubs for more than 1 year is likely to maximize opportunities to be dispersed, thus promoting the survival of this basal angiosperm.

  2. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  3. Summary of annual cycle energy system workshop I held October 29--30, 1975, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H.C.; Moyers, J.C.; Hise, E.C.; Nephew, E.A. (eds.)

    1976-07-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) concept provides space heating, air conditioning, and water heating by means of a heat pump and an energy storage tank. Heat is removed in winter from the water in the tank and is added during the following summer. A workshop was held on October 29-30, 1975 in Oak Ridge, Tenn. to disseminate information on ACES. This report gives summaries of the presentations, which covered technical, economic, and institutional aspects of the concept.

  4. Connecting the dots: Stopover strategies of an intercontinental migratory songbird in the context of the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Kristina L; Moore, Frank R

    2017-09-01

    The phases of the annual cycle for migratory species are inextricably linked. Yet, less than five percent of ecological studies examine seasonal interactions. In this study, we utilized stable hydrogen isotopes to geographically link individual black-and-white warblers ( Mniotilta varia) captured during spring migration with breeding destinations to understand a migrant's stopover strategy in the context of other phases of the annual cycle. We found that stopover strategy is not only a function of a bird's current energetic state, but also the distance remaining to breeding destination and a bird's time-schedule, which has previously been linked to habitat conditions experienced in the preceding phase of the annual cycle. Birds in close proximity to their breeding destination accumulate additional energy reserves prior to arrival on the breeding grounds, as reflected by higher migratory condition upon arrival, higher refueling rates measured via blood plasma metabolites, and longer stopover durations compared to birds migrating to breeding destinations farther from the stopover site. However, late birds near their breeding destination were more likely to depart on the day of arrival (i.e., transients), and among birds that stopped over at the site, the average duration of stopover was almost half the time of early conspecifics, suggesting late birds are trying to catch-up with the overall time-schedule of migration for optimal arrival time on the breeding grounds. In contrast, birds with long distances remaining to breeding destinations were more likely to depart on the day of arrival and primarily used stopover to rest before quickly resuming migration, adopting similar strategies regardless of a bird's time-schedule. Our study demonstrates that migrants adjust their en route strategies in relation to their time-schedule and distance remaining to their breeding destination, highlighting that strategies of migration should be examined in the context of other phases

  5. Strong genetic differentiation in the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum across the Mojave-Great Basin ecological transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Elizabeth A. Leger; Desiree R. Eldon; Craig E. Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Bromus tectorum, an inbreeding annual grass, is a dominant invader in sagebrush steppe habitat in North America. It is also common in warm and salt deserts, displaying a larger environmental tolerance than most native species. We tested the hypothesis that a suite of habitat-specific B. tectorum lineages dominates warm desert habitats. We sampled 30 B....

  6. Mid-Holocene tropical Pacific climate state, annual cycle, and ENSO in PMIP2 and PMIP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

    2014-08-01

    Using the Paleoclimate Modeling Inter-comparison Project Phase 2 and 3 (PMIP2 and PMIP3), we investigated the tropical Pacific climate state, annual cycle, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the mid-Holocene period (6,000 years before present; 6 ka run). When the 6 ka run was compared to the control run (0 ka run), the reduced sea surface temperature (SST) and the reduced precipitation due to the basin-wide cooling, and the intensified cross-equatorial surface winds due to the hemispheric discrepancy of the surface cooling over the tropical Pacific were commonly observed in both the PMIP2 and PMIP3, but changes were more dominant in the PMIP3. The annual cycle of SST was weaker over the equatorial eastern Pacific, because of the orbital forcing change and the deepening mixed layer, while it was stronger over the equatorial western pacific in both the PMIP2 and PMIP3. The stronger annual cycle of the equatorial western Pacific SST was accompanied by the intensified annual cycle of the zonal surface wind, which dominated in the PMIP3 in particular. The ENSO activity in the 6 ka run was significantly suppressed in the PMIP2, but marginally reduced in the PMIP3. In general, the weakened air-sea coupling associated with basin-wide cooling, reduced precipitation, and a hemispheric contrast in the climate state led to the suppression of ENSO activity, and the weakening of the annual cycle over the tropical eastern Pacific might lead to the intensification of ENSO through the frequency entrainment. Therefore, the two opposite effects are slightly compensated for by each other, which results in a small reduction in the ENSO activity during the 6 ka in the PMIP3. On the whole, in PMIP2/PMIP3, the variability of canonical (or conventional) El Niño tends to be reduced during 6 ka, while that of CP/Modoki El Niño tends to be intensified.

  7. Temperature, light and nitrate sensing coordinate Arabidopsis seed dormancy cycling, resulting in winter and summer annual phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footitt, Steven; Huang, Ziyue; Clay, Heather A; Mead, Andrew; Finch-Savage, William E

    2013-01-01

    Seeds use environmental cues to sense the seasons and their surroundings to initiate the life cycle of the plant. The dormancy cycling underlying this process is extensively described, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. To address this we selected a range of representative genes from published array experiments in the laboratory, and investigated their expression patterns in seeds of Arabidopsis ecotypes with contrasting life cycles over an annual dormancy cycle in the field. We show how mechanisms identified in the laboratory are coordinated in response to the soil environment to determine the dormancy cycles that result in winter and summer annual phenotypes. Our results are consistent with a seed-specific response to seasonal temperature patterns (temporal sensing) involving the gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) that indicates the correct season, and concurrent temporally driven co-opted mechanisms that sense spatial signals, i.e. nitrate, via CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE 23 (CIPK23) phosphorylation of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1 (NRT1.1), and light, via PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA). In both ecotypes studied, when all three genes have low expression there is enhanced GIBBERELLIN 3 BETA-HYDROXYLASE 1 (GA3ox1) expression, exhumed seeds have the potential to germinate in the laboratory, and the initiation of seedling emergence occurs following soil disturbance (exposure to light) in the field. Unlike DOG1, the expression of MOTHER of FLOWERING TIME (MFT) has an opposite thermal response in seeds of the two ecotypes, indicating a role in determining their different dormancy cycling phenotypes. PMID:23590427

  8. Benthic studies in Goa estuaries. Part 3. Annual cycle of macrofaunal distribution, production and trophic relations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    and bivalves together contribute 70% of the macrofauna, by number and weight. Biomass production, inspite of large temporal and spatial variations, is high (54.17 g m-2) with proportionately high organic matter production of 4.08 g C m-2 y-1. Estimated annual...

  9. Absolute consistency: individual versus population variation in annual-cycle schedules of a long-distance migrant bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Conklin

    Full Text Available Flexibility in scheduling varies throughout an organism's annual cycle, reflecting relative temporal constraints and fitness consequences among life-history stages. Time-selection can act at different scales, either by limiting the range of alternative strategies in the population, or by increasing the precision of individual performance. We tracked individual bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica baueri for two full years (including direct observation during non-breeding seasons in New Zealand and geolocator tracking of round-trip migrations to Alaska to present a full annual-cycle view of molt, breeding, and migration schedules. At both population and individual scales, temporal variation was greater in post-breeding than pre-breeding stages, and greater in molts than in movements, but schedules did not tighten across successive stages of migration toward the breeding grounds. In general, individual godwits were quite consistent in timing of events throughout the year, and repeatability of pre-breeding movements was particularly high (r = 0.82-0.92. However, we demonstrate that r values misrepresent absolute consistency by confounding inter- and intra-individual variation; the biological significance of r values can only be understood when these are considered separately. By doing so, we show that some stages have considerable tolerance for alternative strategies within the population, whereas scheduling of northbound migratory movements was similar for all individuals. How time-selection simultaneously shapes both individual and population variation is central to understanding and predicting adaptive phenological responses to environmental change.

  10. Annual Cycles of Two Cyanobacterial Mat Communities in Hydro-Terrestrial Habitats of the High Arctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tashyreva, D.; Elster, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2016), s. 887-900 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Phormidium * Life cycle * Polar Regions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  11. Ammonia oxidizer populations vary with nitrogen cycling across a tropical montane mean annual temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Pierre; I. Hewson; J. P. Sparks; C. M. Litton; C. Giardina; P. M. Groffman; T. J. Fahey

    2017-01-01

    Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of...

  12. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  13. Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2009-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a three-cycle circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with an atom. The photoelectron momentum distributions show counterintuitive shifts, similar to those observed in a recent experiment (Eckle et al 2008 Science 322 1525...

  14. Expression of annual cycles in preen wax composition in red knots: constraints on the changing phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2007-03-01

    Birds living in seasonal environments change physiology and behavior in correspondence to temporally changing environmental supplies, demands and opportunities. We recently reported that the chemical composition of uropygial gland secretions of sandpipers (Scolopacidae, order Charadriformes) changes during the breeding season from mixtures of monoesters to diesters, which fulfill specific functions related to incubation. A proper temporal match between the expression of diester preen waxes and incubation requires a flexible organization of the trait. Here we analyze the possible degrees of flexibility with reference to the functionality of better-understood molt and body mass cycles of free-living and captive red knots (Calidris canutus). The relative flexibility of seasonal cycles in preen wax composition was examined by two experimental perturbations: (1) giving birds restricted access to food and (2) monitoring them long-term under a constant photoperiodic regime. We found that wax type cannot change instantaneously, but that changing the type of wax is under similar organizational time constraints as the replacement of feathers. Just as molt and mass cycles, the seasonal rhythm of diester secretion appeared to be under endogenous control: most birds placed in a constant photoperiod still maintained seasonally changing preen waxes. Diester preen wax secretion was synchronized with the peak in body mass in spring, but became less well expressed under constant photoperiodic conditions and when food availability was limited. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. MUREX: a land-surface field experiment to study the annual cycle of the energy and water budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The MUREX (monitoring the usable soil reservoir experimentally experiment was designed to provide continuous time series of field data over a long period, in order to improve and validate the Soil-vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT parameterisations employed in meteorological models. Intensive measurements were performed for more than three years over fallow farmland in southwestern France. To capture the main processes controlling land-atmosphere exchanges, the local climate was fully characterised, and surface water and energy fluxes, vegetation biomass, soil moisture profiles, surface soil moisture and surface and soil temperature were monitored. Additional physiological measurements were carried out during selected periods to describe the biological control of the fluxes. The MUREX data of 1995, 1996, and 1997 are presented. Four SVAT models are applied to the annual cycle of 1995. In general, they succeed in simulating the main features of the fallow functioning, although some shortcomings are revealed.Key words. Hydrology (evapotranspiration; soil moisture; water-energy interactions.

  16. On the annual cycle of the sea surface temperature and the mixed layer depth in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, V.M.; Villanueva, E.E.; Adem, J. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-01

    Using an integrated mixed layer model, we carry out a simulation of the annual cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST) and of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the Gulf of Mexico. We also compute the annual cycle of the entrainment velocity in the deepest region of the Gulf of Mexico. The model is based on the thermal energy equation and on an equation of mechanical and thermal energy balance based on the Kraus-Turner theory; both equation are coupled and are vertically integrated in the mixed layer. The model equations are solved in a uniform grid of 25 km in the Gulf of Mexico, the northwestern region of the Caribbean Sea and the eastern coast of Florida. The surface ocean current velocity and the atmospheric variables are prescribed in the model using observed values. We show the importance of the Ekman pumping in the entrainment velocity. We found that the upwelling plays an important role in increasing the entrainment velocity, producing an important reduction in the SST and diminishing the depth of the mixed layer in the Campeche Bay. In the rest of the Gulf of Mexico the downwelling tends to reduce the entrainment velocity, increasing the SST and the MLD. Comparison of the computed annual cycle of the SST and the MLD with the corresponding observations reported by Robinson (1973) shows a good agreement. In the deepest region of the Gulf of Mexico, the photosynthetic pigment concentration data obtained from the Mexican Pacific Cd-Rom of environmental analysis shows significant correlation with the computed annual cycle of the computed entrainment velocity only in January, April, May, June and September. [Spanish] Usando un modelo integrado en la capa de mezcla hemos obtenido una simulacion del ciclo anual de la temperatura de la superficie del mar (SST), de la profundidad de la capa de mezcla (MLD) en el Golfo de Mexico, asi como el ciclo anual de la velocidad de penetracion vertical turbulenta a traves de la termoclina en la region mas profunda del golfo de

  17. The annual cycle of oogenesis in the shanny, Lipophrys pholis (Pisces: Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipophrys pholis has been shown to be responsive to a variety of environmental contaminants, some of them able to impair reproduction. Description of the normal cycle of oogenesis of this newly proposed sentinel species is important since this data may function as a baseline for comparison in ecotoxicological studies, among other applications. Based on histological observations, L. pholis ovarian development in adult is asynchronous, and 7 ovarian germ cells can be described (oogonia, early and late perinuclear oocytes, cortical-alveolar oocytes, early vitellogenic oocytes, vitellogenic oocytes and spawning oocytes. Using a stereological approach together with the morphologic characteristics of ovarian cells, the ovarian cycle of L. pholis was divided into 3 maturation stages: early oogenesis (May; mid-oogenesis (September, and spawning (November to January. Ovarian cell proportions and gonadosomatic index confirmed that the reproductive period of L. pholis near the southern limit of distribution of the species occurs during cold-water periods, between November and May. The collected data will help to fill some of the gaps in information that still exist on L. pholis oogenesis, thus allowing a better integration of this species as a sentinel for the detection of contaminants in European coastal waters.

  18. Effect of photoperiod on serum hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Z; Gao, G L; Wang, H W; Li, Q; Zhang, K S; Zhong, H; Wang, Q G

    2017-03-22

    The poor egg-laying rate of geese hinders the development of the goose industry; therefore, the reproductive performance of geese is an important area of investigation. To evaluate the relationship between photoperiod, reproductive hormones, and reproductive activity during the egg-laying cycle in geese under natural conditions, we collected blood samples from Sichuan white geese and Xupu geese to quantify changes in prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also calculated the rate of egg laying for the two populations during the egg-laying cycle. We show that the egg-laying rate and the serum concentration of some hormones (PRL, E2, VIP, FSH, GnIH, and LH) differed significantly between the two populations during the pre-laying, laying, and ceased-laying periods. Serum LH concentrations may be associated with maturation of the ovary and oviducts, whereas FSH, PRL, and GnIH play important roles in egg laying. These results provide a useful resource for future studies examining the laying rate in geese.

  19. Interhemispheric ratio and annual cycle of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) total column from ground-based solar FTIR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, David W. T.; Jones, Nicholas B.; Matthews, W. Andrew

    1998-04-01

    We have made extensive measurements of total column OCS by ground-based high-resolution solar Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy from two southern hemisphere sites to complement earlier measurements in the northern hemisphere and to investigate the interhemispheric ratio, variability, and seasonal cycles of OCS in the atmosphere. The measurements were made at Lauder, New Zealand (45.0°S, 169.7°E, 370 m asl, 547 spectra March 1993 through April 1997), and Wollongong, Australia (34.45°S, 150.88°E, 30 m asl, 358 spectra May 1996 through April 1997). The annual mean column amounts are 9.15×1015 molecules cm-2 above Lauder and 9.84×1015 molecules cm-2 above Wollongong, corresponding to tropospheric mixing ratios of 480 and 490 parts per trillion by volume, respectively, with the assumed mixing ratio vertical profiles. The secular trend in total column OCS is less than 1% per year. Variability of all measurements about the means implies an atmospheric lifetime for OCS of at least 2.8 years. Comparison with earlier measurements in the northern hemisphere yields a north/south interhemispheric ratio in the range 1.1-1.2. There are peak-to-peak apparent annual cycles in total column OCS of 6% at Lauder and 18% at Wollongong with a late summer maximum. Seasonal tropopause height variation accounts for a 5-6% amplitude, and the remainder of the amplitude in Wollongong is assumed to be due to changes in the tropospheric mixing ratio.

  20. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Annual progress report Jul 1974--Jun 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, K.G.

    1975-06-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization (typically from 5-160 psia) is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by a thermoelectric module interposed between the engine superheater and boiler. The TRE is direct coupled to an assist blood pump which also acts as a blood-cooled heat exchanger, pressure-volume transformer and sensor for the electronic logic. Engine efficiencies in excess of 14% have been demonstrated. Efficiency values as high as 13% have been achieved to date

  1. Spatial Evolution of a Strong Field of Few-cycle Light Beam in Dielectric Media with Induced Plasma Nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, S A; Korolev, A A; Kozlov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports results of computer simulation of strong light beam propagation in dielectric media in case of plasma generation. We investigate an extra-broadening of radiation spectrum to a 'violet' wing of visible range. We show that the resulting pulse spectrum is represented by sequence of well-separated maximums, broadening as propagation distance increases. Experimental data are compared with simulation results, showing a good mutual correspondence of spectral representations

  2. Canalization of Seasonal Phenology in the Presence of Developmental Variation: Seed Dormancy Cycling in an Annual Weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brianne; Burghardt, Liana T; Kovach, Katherine E; Donohue, Kathleen

    2017-11-01

    Variation in the developmental timing in one life stage may ramify within and across generations to disrupt optimal phenology of other life stages. By focusing on a common mechanism of developmental arrest in plants-seed dormancy-we investigated how variation in flowering time influenced seed germination behavior and identified potential processes that can lead to canalized germination behavior despite variation in reproductive timing. We quantified effects of reproductive timing on dormancy cycling by experimentally manipulating the temperature during seed maturation and the seasonal timing of seed dispersal/burial, and by assessing temperature-dependent germination of un-earthed seeds over a seasonal cycle. We found that reproductive timing, via both seed-maturation temperature and the timing of dispersal, strongly influenced germination behavior in the weeks immediately following seed burial. However, buried seeds subsequently canalized their germination behavior, after losing primary dormancy and experiencing natural temperature and moisture conditions in the field. After the complete loss of primary dormancy, germination behavior was similar across seed-maturation and dispersal treatments, even when secondary dormancy was induced. Maternal effects themselves may contribute to the canalization of germination: first, by inducing stronger dormancy in autumn-matured seeds, and second by modifying the responses of those seeds to their ambient environment. Genotypes differed in dormancy cycling, with functional alleles of known dormancy genes necessary for the suppression of germination at warm temperatures in autumn through spring across multiple years. Loss of function of dormancy genes abolished almost all dormancy cycling. In summary, effects of reproductive phenology on dormancy cycling of buried seeds were apparent only as long as seeds retained primary dormancy, and a combination of genetically imposed seed dormancy, maternally induced seed dormancy, and

  3. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2018-01-01

    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  4. Remote sensing observation of annual dust cycles and possible causality of Kawasaki disease outbreaks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, Hesham; LaHaye, Nick; Linstead, Erik; Sprigg, William A; Yacoub, Magdi

    2017-10-31

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare vascular disease that, if left untreated, can result in irreparable cardiac damage in children. While the symptoms of KD are well-known, as are best practices for treatment, the etiology of the disease and the factors contributing to KD outbreaks remain puzzling to both medical practitioners and scientists alike. Recently, a fungus known as Candida, originating in the farmlands of China, has been blamed for outbreaks in China and Japan, with the hypothesis that it can be transported over long ranges via different wind mechanisms. This paper provides evidence to understand the transport mechanisms of dust at different geographic locations and the cause of the annual spike of KD in Japan. Candida is carried along with many other dusts, particles or aerosols, of various sizes in major seasonal wind currents. The evidence is based upon particle categorization using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine Mode Fraction (FMF) and Ångström Exponent (AE), the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) attenuated backscatter and aerosol subtype, and the Aerosol Robotic Network's (AERONET) derived volume concentration. We found that seasonality associated with aerosol size distribution at different geographic locations plays a role in identifying dominant abundance at each location. Knowing the typical size of the Candida fungus, and analyzing aerosol characteristics using AERONET data reveals possible particle transport association with KD events at different locations. Thus, understanding transport mechanisms and accurate identification of aerosol sources is important in order to understand possible triggers to outbreaks of KD. This work provides future opportunities to leverage machine learning, including state-of-the-art deep architectures, to build predictive models of KD outbreaks, with the ultimate goal of early forecasting and intervention within a

  5. Coccolithophore populations and their contribution to carbonate export during an annual cycle in the Australian sector of the Antarctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigual Hernández, Andrés S.; Flores, José A.; Sierro, Francisco J.; Fuertes, Miguel A.; Cros, Lluïsa; Trull, Thomas W.

    2018-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is experiencing rapid and relentless change in its physical and biogeochemical properties. The rate of warming of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current exceeds that of the global ocean, and the enhanced uptake of carbon dioxide is causing basin-wide ocean acidification. Observational data suggest that these changes are influencing the distribution and composition of pelagic plankton communities. Long-term and annual field observations on key environmental variables and organisms are a critical basis for predicting changes in Southern Ocean ecosystems. These observations are particularly needed, since high-latitude systems have been projected to experience the most severe impacts of ocean acidification and invasions of allochthonous species. Coccolithophores are the most prolific calcium-carbonate-producing phytoplankton group playing an important role in Southern Ocean biogeochemical cycles. Satellite imagery has revealed elevated particulate inorganic carbon concentrations near the major circumpolar fronts of the Southern Ocean that can be attributed to the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Recent studies have suggested changes during the last decades in the distribution and abundance of Southern Ocean coccolithophores. However, due to limited field observations, the distribution, diversity and state of coccolithophore populations in the Southern Ocean remain poorly characterised. We report here on seasonal variations in the abundance and composition of coccolithophore assemblages collected by two moored sediment traps deployed at the Antarctic zone south of Australia (2000 and 3700 m of depth) for 1 year in 2001-2002. Additionally, seasonal changes in coccolith weights of E. huxleyi populations were estimated using circularly polarised micrographs analysed with C-Calcita software. Our findings indicate that (1) coccolithophore sinking assemblages were nearly monospecific for E. huxleyi morphotype B/C in the Antarctic zone waters in 2001-2002; (2

  6. Coccolithophore populations and their contribution to carbonate export during an annual cycle in the Australian sector of the Antarctic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rigual Hernández

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Ocean is experiencing rapid and relentless change in its physical and biogeochemical properties. The rate of warming of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current exceeds that of the global ocean, and the enhanced uptake of carbon dioxide is causing basin-wide ocean acidification. Observational data suggest that these changes are influencing the distribution and composition of pelagic plankton communities. Long-term and annual field observations on key environmental variables and organisms are a critical basis for predicting changes in Southern Ocean ecosystems. These observations are particularly needed, since high-latitude systems have been projected to experience the most severe impacts of ocean acidification and invasions of allochthonous species. Coccolithophores are the most prolific calcium-carbonate-producing phytoplankton group playing an important role in Southern Ocean biogeochemical cycles. Satellite imagery has revealed elevated particulate inorganic carbon concentrations near the major circumpolar fronts of the Southern Ocean that can be attributed to the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Recent studies have suggested changes during the last decades in the distribution and abundance of Southern Ocean coccolithophores. However, due to limited field observations, the distribution, diversity and state of coccolithophore populations in the Southern Ocean remain poorly characterised. We report here on seasonal variations in the abundance and composition of coccolithophore assemblages collected by two moored sediment traps deployed at the Antarctic zone south of Australia (2000 and 3700 m of depth for 1 year in 2001–2002. Additionally, seasonal changes in coccolith weights of E. huxleyi populations were estimated using circularly polarised micrographs analysed with C-Calcita software. Our findings indicate that (1 coccolithophore sinking assemblages were nearly monospecific for E. huxleyi morphotype B/C in the Antarctic zone

  7. Menopause transition: Annual changes in serum hormonal patterns over the menstrual cycle in women during a nine-year period prior to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Britt-Marie; Collins, Aila; Csemiczky, Giorgy; Burger, Henry G; Baksheev, Lyrissa; Robertson, David M

    2004-06-01

    To examine the hormonal characteristics of menstrual cycles in healthy women approaching menopause, serum hormone profiles were investigated annually in this longitudinal study of 13 healthy women between 4 and 9 yr before menopause and the year of the menopause. Serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, total inhibin, inhibins A and B, and prolactin were determined in blood samples collected annually three times weekly for 4 wk beginning with the onset of menses. Menstrual bleeding diaries covering this 4- to 9-yr period were also collected allowing the prospective identification of the final menstrual period. A change in serum hormone patterns was observed in cycles approaching menopause, exemplified by an increasing number of cycles of prolonged length with a prolonged follicular phase resulting in a failure to detect a luteal phase rise in serum progesterone within the 4-wk collection period. These prolonged cycles (designated B cycles based on a previous work) were analyzed separately and compared with the remaining ovulatory (D) cycles. No B cycles were identified in any women earlier than 27 cycles from menopause. The proportion of B cycles increased as menopause approached, reaching 62% in the last 10 cycles. The proportion of D cycles decreased accordingly. The B cycles during the initial 4-wk collection period were characterized by elevated FSH, LH, FSH/inhibin A and FSH/inhibin B ratios, and longer duration, although cycle length/subject was not significantly different presumably due to the small number of B cycles. The D cycles showed no changes in hormonal profiles over the 4- to 9-yr time period. These data indicate that there is a time-related change in the character of menstrual cycles as menopause approaches, with an increasing proportion of cycles observed with prolonged follicular phases that may either be delayed ovulatory cycles or anovulatory cycles. The increase in the proportion of B cycles with elevated early follicular phase FSH levels and

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of the P. falciparum genome during the erythrocytic cycle reveals a strong connection between genome architecture and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Ferhat; Bunnik, Evelien M.; Varoquaux, Nelle; Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Noble, William Stafford; Le Roch, Karine G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is controlled by coordinated changes in gene expression throughout its complex life cycle, but the corresponding regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. To study the relationship between genome architecture and gene regulation in Plasmodium, we assayed the genome architecture of P. falciparum at three time points during its erythrocytic (asexual) cycle. Using chromosome conformation capture coupled with next-generation sequencing technology (Hi-C), we obtained high-resolution chromosomal contact maps, which we then used to construct a consensus three-dimensional genome structure for each time point. We observed strong clustering of centromeres, telomeres, ribosomal DNA, and virulence genes, resulting in a complex architecture that cannot be explained by a simple volume exclusion model. Internal virulence gene clusters exhibit domain-like structures in contact maps, suggesting that they play an important role in the genome architecture. Midway during the erythrocytic cycle, at the highly transcriptionally active trophozoite stage, the genome adopts a more open chromatin structure with increased chromosomal intermingling. In addition, we observed reduced expression of genes located in spatial proximity to the repressive subtelomeric center, and colocalization of distinct groups of parasite-specific genes with coordinated expression profiles. Overall, our results are indicative of a strong association between the P. falciparum spatial genome organization and gene expression. Understanding the molecular processes involved in genome conformation dynamics could contribute to the discovery of novel antimalarial strategies. PMID:24671853

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of the P. falciparum genome during the erythrocytic cycle reveals a strong connection between genome architecture and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Ferhat; Bunnik, Evelien M; Varoquaux, Nelle; Bol, Sebastiaan M; Prudhomme, Jacques; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Noble, William Stafford; Le Roch, Karine G

    2014-06-01

    The development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is controlled by coordinated changes in gene expression throughout its complex life cycle, but the corresponding regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. To study the relationship between genome architecture and gene regulation in Plasmodium, we assayed the genome architecture of P. falciparum at three time points during its erythrocytic (asexual) cycle. Using chromosome conformation capture coupled with next-generation sequencing technology (Hi-C), we obtained high-resolution chromosomal contact maps, which we then used to construct a consensus three-dimensional genome structure for each time point. We observed strong clustering of centromeres, telomeres, ribosomal DNA, and virulence genes, resulting in a complex architecture that cannot be explained by a simple volume exclusion model. Internal virulence gene clusters exhibit domain-like structures in contact maps, suggesting that they play an important role in the genome architecture. Midway during the erythrocytic cycle, at the highly transcriptionally active trophozoite stage, the genome adopts a more open chromatin structure with increased chromosomal intermingling. In addition, we observed reduced expression of genes located in spatial proximity to the repressive subtelomeric center, and colocalization of distinct groups of parasite-specific genes with coordinated expression profiles. Overall, our results are indicative of a strong association between the P. falciparum spatial genome organization and gene expression. Understanding the molecular processes involved in genome conformation dynamics could contribute to the discovery of novel antimalarial strategies. © 2014 Ay et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. A model of the plasma flow and current in Saturn's polar ionosphere under conditions of strong Dungey cycle driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Jackman

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model of the flow and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere. This model is motivated by theoretical reasoning, and guided quantitatively by in situ field and flow data from space missions, ground-based IR Doppler measurements, and Hubble Space Telescope images. The flow pattern consists of components which represent (1 plasma sub-corotation in the middle magnetosphere region resulting from plasma pick-up and radial transport from internal sources; (2 the Vasyliunas-cycle of internal plasma mass-loss down the magnetospheric tail at higher latitudes; and (3 the polar Dungey-cycle flow driven by the solar wind interaction. Upstream measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF indicate the occurrence of both extended low-field rarefaction intervals with essentially negligible Dungey-cycle flow, and few-day high-field compression regions in which the Dungey-cycle voltage peaks at a few hundred kV. Here we model the latter conditions when the Dungey-cycle is active, advancing on previous axi-symmetric models which may be more directly applicable to quiet conditions. For theoretical convenience the overall flow pattern is constructed by adding together two components - a purely rotational flow similar to previous axi-symmetric models, and a sun-aligned twin vortex representing the dawn-dusk asymmetry effects associated with the Vasyliunas-and Dungey-cycle flows. We calculate the horizontal ionospheric current associated with the flow and the field-aligned current from its divergence. These calculations show that a sheet of upward-directed field-aligned current flows at the boundary of open field lines which is strongly modulated in local-time by the Dungey-cycle flows. We then consider implications of the field-aligned current for magnetospheric electron acceleration and aurorae using two plasma source populations (hot outer magnetospheric electrons and cool dense magnetosheath electrons. Both sources display a

  11. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  12. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  13. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  14. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 1. Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, William; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert; Steffen. Konrad; Phillips, Thomas; Zwally, H. Jay; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    We apply a novel one-dimensional glacier hydrology model that calculates hydraulic head to the tidewater-terminating Sermeq Avannarleq flowline of the Greenland ice sheet. Within a plausible parameter space, the model achieves a quasi-steady-state annual cycle in which hydraulic head oscillates close to flotation throughout the ablation zone. Flotation is briefly achieved during the summer melt season along a approx.17 km stretch of the approx.50 km of flowline within the ablation zone. Beneath the majority of the flowline, subglacial conduit storage closes (i.e. obtains minimum radius) during the winter and opens (i.e. obtains maximum radius) during the summer. Along certain stretches of the flowline, the model predicts that subglacial conduit storage remains open throughout the year. A calculated mean glacier water residence time of approx.2.2 years implies that significant amounts of water are stored in the glacier throughout the year. We interpret this residence time as being indicative of the timescale over which the glacier hydrologic system is capable of adjusting to external surface meltwater forcings. Based on in situ ice velocity observations, we suggest that the summer speed-up event generally corresponds to conditions of increasing hydraulic head during inefficient subglacial drainage. Conversely, the slowdown during fall generally corresponds to conditions of decreasing hydraulic head during efficient subglacial drainage.

  15. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  16. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  17. The annual cycle of primary productivity in a tropical estuary: the inner regions of the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocke, K; Cortés, J; Murillo, M M

    2001-12-01

    A one year cycle of primary productivity (PP) was studied using the "light and dark bottle" technique in the Golfo de Nicoya, located at 10 degrees N and 85 degrees W at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Samples were always incubated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 m depth for 5 hrs from 8:30 till 13:30. The measurements were performed twice per month, first around high tide and one week later at low tide to account for tidal influences. This routine study was supplemented by special measurements about regional and short-term variations of primary productivity using the 14C-method, which mainly served to account for the shortcomings of the routinely employed incubation technique. The upper Golfo de Nicoya is an extremely productive, phytoplankton dominated estuarine system with an annual gross PP of 1037, a net PP of 610 and a community respiration of 427 g C m(-2) a(-1). Highest monthly PP values occurred during the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. Peaks in primary productivity coincided with massive blooms of red tide forming algae. Internal biological dynamics, estuarine circulation and land run-off are the most important nutrient sources. High water turbidity reduces the euphotic layer to 4-5 m depth, making the underwater light regime the rate limiting factor. On an annual basis, 41% of the organic carbon produced in the system is already consumed in the euphotic layer. Considering the entire water column (mean depth at mean tidal water level is around 7.7 m) 79% is consumed in the pelagial. Taking into account the organic material consumed and stored in the sediments the carbon budget of the upper gulf is probably balanced. Since, however, the system receives a considerable amount of organic material from its terrestrial surroundings (especially from the mangrove forests), a surplus of organic carbon is exported from the upper Golfo de Nicoya, which enhances the overall water productivity of the lower gulf and the adjacent area.

  18. Characterizing an Integrated Annual Global Measure of the Earth's Maximum Land Surface Temperatures from 2003 to 2012 Reveals Strong Biogeographic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildrexler, D. J.; Zhao, M.; Running, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a good indicator of the surface energy balance because it is determined by interactions and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and the ground. The variability of land surface properties and vegetation densities across the Earth's surface changes these interactions and gives LST a unique biogeographic influence. Natural and human-induced disturbances modify the surface characteristics and alter the expression of LST. This results in a heterogeneous and dynamic thermal environment. Measurements that merge these factors into a single global metric, while maintaining the important biophysical and biogeographical factors of the land surface's thermal environment are needed to better understand integrated temperature changes in the Earth system. Using satellite-based LST we have developed a new global metric that focuses on one critical component of LST that occurs when the relationship between vegetation density and surface temperature is strongly coupled: annual maximum LST (LSTmax). A 10 year evaluation of LSTmax histograms that include every 1-km pixel across the Earth's surface reveals that this integrative measurement is strongly influenced by the biogeographic patterns of the Earth's ecosystems, providing a unique comparative view of the planet every year that can be likened to the Earth's thermal maximum fingerprint. The biogeographical component is controlled by the frequency and distribution of vegetation types across the Earth's land surface and displays a trimodal distribution. The three modes are driven by ice covered polar regions, forests, and hot desert/shrubland environments. In ice covered areas the histograms show that the heat of fusion results in a convergence of surface temperatures around the melting point. The histograms also show low interannual variability reflecting two important global land surface dynamics; 1) only a small fraction of the Earth's surface is disturbed in any given year, and 2) when

  19. Bring in the genes: genetic-ecophysiological modelling of the adaptive response of trees to environmental change. With application to the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen eKramer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree populations to changes in environmental conditions are not taken into account, e.g. in models on species distributions that use phenological sub-models. This omission of simulating adaptive response in tree models may over- or underestimate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions, as well as the impacts of climate change on tree growth and productivity.Here, we present an approach to model the adaptive response of traits to environmental change based on an integrated process-based eco-physiological and quantitative genetic model of adaptive traits. Thus, the parameter values of phenological traits are expressed in genetic terms (allele effects and - frequencies, number of loci for individual trees. These individual trees thereby differ in their ability to acquire resources, grow and reproduce as described by the process-based model, leading to differential survival. Differential survival is thus the consequence of both differences in parameters values and their genetic composition. By simulating recombination and dispersal of pollen, the genetic composition of the offspring will differ from that of their parents. Over time, the distribution of both trait values and the frequency of the underlying alleles in the population change as a consequence of changes in environmental drivers leading to adaptation of trees to local environmental conditions.This approach is applied to an individual-tree growth model that includes a phenological model on the annual cycle of trees whose parameters are allowed to adapt. An example of the adaptive response of the onset of the growing season across Europe is presented.

  20. Bring in the genes: genetic-ecophysiological modeling of the adaptive response of trees to environmental change. With application to the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Koen; van der Werf, Bert; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan

    2014-01-01

    The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree populations to changes in environmental conditions are not taken into account, e.g., in models on species distributions that use phenological sub-models. This omission of simulating adaptive response in tree models may over- or underestimate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions, as well as the impacts of climate change on tree growth and productivity. Here, we present an approach to model the adaptive response of traits to environmental change based on an integrated process-based eco-physiological and quantitative genetic model of adaptive traits. Thus, the parameter values of phenological traits are expressed in genetic terms (allele effects and-frequencies, number of loci) for individual trees. These individual trees thereby differ in their ability to acquire resources, grow and reproduce as described by the process-based model, leading to differential survival. Differential survival is thus the consequence of both differences in parameters values and their genetic composition. By simulating recombination and dispersal of pollen, the genetic composition of the offspring will differ from that of their parents. Over time, the distribution of both trait values and the frequency of the underlying alleles in the population change as a consequence of changes in environmental drivers leading to adaptation of trees to local environmental conditions. This approach is applied to an individual-tree growth model that includes a phenological model on the annual cycle of trees whose parameters are allowed to adapt. An example of the adaptive response of the onset of the growing season across Europe is presented.

  1. Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

  2. Mean Annual Temperature Drives Microbial Nitrogen Cycling and Fine Root Nutrient Foraging Across a Tropical Montane Wet Forest Elevation Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, S.; Litton, C. L. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Sparks, J. P.; Groffman, P. M.; Hewson, I.; Fahey, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mean annual temperature (MAT) is positively correlated with rates of primary production and carbon (C) turnover in forests globally, but the underlying biotic drivers of these relationships remain poorly resolved. We hypothesized that (1) MAT increases nitrifier abundance and thereby nitrate (NO-) bioavailability in soils and (2) increased NO- bioavailability reduces fine root nitrogen (N) demand. We used an ecologically well-constrained natural elevation gradient (13˚C -18˚C) in a tropical wet motane forest on the Island of Hawaii to study to role of MAT in situ. Our previous work showed that MAT drives increased soil NO- bioavailability in situ (r²=0.79, P=0.003), and indicated that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea is strongly and positively correlated with MAT in situ (r²=0.34, Pfertilized fine root ingrowth cores (+N, +P, +N+P, control) across the same MAT gradient, we found that increasing MAT and bulk soil NO- bioavailability produced a significant negative fine root response to the +N+P treatment (P=0.023), and no response to other fertilization treatments. Increasing MAT and soil NO- bioavailability led to increased percent arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of fine roots (r²=0.43, P=0.004), but no treatment effect on AM colonization was observed. Our results suggest that N and P generally co-limit fine root foraging across the gradient, while higher MAT and bulk soil NO- bioavailability interact to reduce fine root foraging effort. Further, higher MAT and greater N fertility in soils may reduce the C limitation of AM fungal colonization. We conclude that MAT drives N-rich conditions, which allow for lower N foraging effort, but greater C investment in P acquisition through AM fine root colonization.

  3. Optical Parametric Amplification Techniques for the Generation of High-Energy Few-Optical-Cycles IR Pulses for Strong Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Ciriolo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the investigation of ultrafast phenomena occurring in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems under a strong-field regime of light-matter interaction has attracted great attention. The increasing request for a suitable optical technology is significantly boosting the development of powerful ultrafast laser sources. In this framework, Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA is currently becoming a leading solution for applications in high-power ultra-broadband light burst generation. The main advantage provided by the OPA scheme consists of the possibility of exploring spectral ranges that are inaccessible by other laser technologies, as the InfraRed (IR window. In this paper, we will give an overview on recent progress in the development of high-power few-optical-cycle parametric amplifiers in the near-IR and in the mid-IR spectral domain. In particular, the design of the most advanced OPA implementations is provided, containing a discussion on the key technical aspects. In addition, a review on their application to the study of strong-field ultrafast physical processes is reported.

  4. Resource utilization efficiency improvement of geothermal binary cycles: Phase I. Annual report, June 15, 1975--June 15, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starling, K.E.; Fish, L.W.; West, H.; Johnson, D.W.; Iqbal, K.Z.; Lee, C.O.; Vasudevan, M.K.

    1976-01-01

    The following were performed: (1) evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mixtures as working fluids in geothermal binary cycles, (2) development of a geothermal binary cycle simulation computer program capable of both mixture and pure fluid cycle simulation, (3) development of an accurate thermodynamic properties computer program package (applicable as a minimum to hydrocarbon mixture and pure fluid cycles), (4) comparison of mixture and pure fluid cycles, including relative equipment sizing and economics, (5) comparison of boiling and condensing heat transfer for mixtures and pure fluids, (6) evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of turbine expansion into the two-phase region, and (7) sensitivity analysis of various binary cycle equipment parameters and operating conditions on total geothermal power system cost. A primary conclusion from the Phase I investigation is that mixtures offer advantages over pure working fluids in situations where there is a mismatch of resource brine and pure fluid characteristics.

  5. Research of the cost-benefit analysis for FR cycle research and development. The annual report of the FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Hirao, Kazunori

    2002-07-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of the research and development (R and D) in the FY 2001 on cost-benefit analysis of FR (Fast Reactor) cycle system concepts. The work was conducted as a part of the JNC's Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (the F/S)'. In the FY 2001, the work conducted in the JNC was summed up as the followings: Conceptual study on cost-benefit analysis for FR cycle R and D. Refinement on the evaluation procedure and improvement over operation efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis of the reference FR cycle and sensitivity analysis with the revised system. Cost-benefit analyses of R and Ds for various FR cycle candidate concepts including FR cycle concepts studied in the F/S phase 1. The work made it possible to evaluate the cost effectiveness of various FR cycle systems efficiently. The cost-benefit analysis, which is often used for the policy evaluation, is considered to be applicable to FR cycle system concepts in the F/S. (author)

  6. A twelve-month field study of the West African Thrush Turdus pelios (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: Part 2: annual cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola I Akinpelu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, birds inhabiting forested regions are less seasonal in their activities than those from open areas. In order to study annual cycles in forest regions of South western Nigeria, West African Thrushes (Turdus pelios were mist-netted and banded during the last two weeks of each month. The nest is a cup-shaped structure built out of grasses, herbs, weeds, roots and earth laid out in a clockwise manner. Only the nesting tree and feeding sites were defended during the breeding period. The clutch size was 2.69 ±0.20 eggs with a mean incubation period of 14.11 ±0.26 days. The mean nestling period was 15 ±1.00 days. The nestlings were fed on a variety of plant and animal matter, of which grass seeds and insects were predominant. Moult was found to be protracted with a population moult period of 194 days and a much shorter individual moult period. Moult and breeding periods were spread out: moult period dovetailed into the breeding period. The birds were found to gain weight during the period but they attained their maximum weight in August after the moult period. The lowest weight was recorded in February, during the peak of the dry season, when food availability was lower. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:239-247. Epub 2005 Jun 24El nido del tordo africano occidental es una estructura en forma de copa construida con pastos, hierbas, malezas, raíces y tierra, proyectado en el sentido de las manecillas del reloj. Solamente el árbol con el nido y los sitios de alimentación son defendidos durante la crianza. El tamaño de la nidada fue 2.69 ± 0.20 huevos con un periodo de incubación de 14.11 ± 0.26 días. El periodo promedio de cría fue de 15 ± 1.00 días. Los polluelos fueron alimentados con una variedad de material animal y vegetal, predominando las semillas de pasto y los insectos. La muda del plumaje alar es prolongada, con un período poblacional de muda de 194 días y un periodo individual mucho menor. La muda y crianza son tan prolongados

  7. Apple dwarfing rootstocks and interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle: precocious transition to flowering affects the composition and vigour of annual shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznyova, Alla N; Tustin, D Stuart; Thorp, T Grant

    2008-04-01

    Precocious flowering in apple trees is often associated with a smaller tree size. The hypothesis was tested that floral evocation in axillary buds, induced by dwarfing rootstocks, reduces the vigour of annual shoots developing from these buds compared with shoots developing from vegetative buds. The experimental system provided a wide range of possible tree vigour using 'Royal Gala' scions and M.9 (dwarfing) and MM.106 (non-dwarfing) as rootstocks and interstocks. Second-year annual shoots were divided into growth units corresponding to periods (flushes) of growth namely, vegetative spur, extension growth unit, uninterrupted growth unit, floral growth unit (bourse) and extended bourse. The differences between the floral and vegetative shoots were quantified by the constituent growth units produced. The dwarfing influence was expressed, firstly, in reduced proportions of shoots that contained at least one extension growth unit and secondly, in reduced proportions of bicyclic shoots (containing two extension growth units) and shoots with an uninterrupted growth unit. In treatments where floral shoots were present, they were markedly less vigorous than vegetative shoots with respect to both measures. In treatments with M.9 rootstock, vegetative and floral shoots produced on average 0.52 and 0.17 extension growth units, compared with 0.77 extension growth units per shoot in the MM.106 rootstock treatment. Remarkably, the number of nodes per extension growth unit was not affected by the rootstock/interstock treatments. These results showed that rootstocks/interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle, reducing the number of extension growth units, thus affecting the composition and vigour of annual shoots. This effect is particularly amplified by the transition to flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks. The division of annual shoot into growth units will also be useful for measuring and modelling effects of age on apple tree

  8. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  9. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Influence of seasonal changes in daily activity and annual life cycle of Geotrigona mombuca (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a Cerrado habitat, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Gobatto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of Geotrigona mombuca Smith, 1863 was studied under natural conditions aiming to verify the influence of seasonal changes on daily flight activity and annual cycle of the colony. Daily flight activity was monitored for a year based on the observation and counting of foragers leaving and entering the hive, as well as the kind of material transported and meteorological factors such as day time, temperature and relative humidity. The influence of seasonal changes was evidenced by alterations on daily rhythm of flight activity and by differences on transportation of food resources, building material and garbage. These data indicate that forager behavior is related to daily microclimate conditions and it is synchronized with the requirements of colony annual cycle, which determines an intense pollen collection in the summer. Thus, the recomposition of the intranidal population in spring and summer can be ensured, which is characterized both for a higher intensity of flight activity and increase in garbage and resin transport, as well as the swarming process in the spring. In this way, an action targeting the preservation or management of the species in a natural environment should consider that survival and reproduction of the colony depends greatly on the amount of available pollen in late winter.

  11. Environmental drivers of heterogeneity in the trophic-functional structure of protozoan communities during an annual cycle in a coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjian; Yang, Eun Jin; Xu, Henglong

    2017-08-15

    Trophic-functional groupings are an important biological trait to summarize community structure in functional space. The heterogeneity of the tropic-functional pattern of protozoan communities and its environmental drivers were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year cycle. Samples were collected using the glass slide method at four stations within a water pollution gradient. A second-stage matrix-based analysis was used to summarize spatial variation in the annual pattern of the functional structure. A clustering analysis revealed significant variability in the trophic-functional pattern among the four stations during the 1-year cycle. The heterogeneity in the trophic-functional pattern of the communities was significantly related to changes in environmental variables, particularly ammonium-nitrogen and nitrates, alone or in combination with dissolved oxygen. These results suggest that the heterogeneity in annual patterns of protozoan trophic-functional structure may reflect water quality status in coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported

  13. Insights Into the Morphology of the East Asia PM2.5Annual Cycle Provided by Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daji; Zewdie, Gebreab K; Liu, Xun; Kneen, Melanie Anne; Lary, David John

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM 2.5 ) is a significant environmental and health issue. Many tools have been used to examine the relationship between PM 2.5 abundance and meteorological variables, but some of the relationships are nonlinear, non-Gaussian, and even unknown. Machine learning provides a broad range of practical algorithms to help examine this issue. In this study, we use machine learning to classify the morphology of PM 2.5 seasonal cycles in East Asia. Machine learning is able to objectively classify the seasonal cycles and, without a priori assumption, is able to clearly distinguish between urban and rural areas. We show an example of this in the Sichuan Basin of China. Furthermore, machine learning is also able to provide physical insights by identifying the key factors associated with each distinct shape of the seasonal cycle, such as highlighting the key role played by the topography and the built environment.

  14. The Role of Local and Remote Anthropogenic Aerosol Forcing on Long-term Variations in the South Asian Monsoon Annual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-12-01

    Detection and attribution of long-term variations of the South Asian monsoon is of extreme importance: even small changes in the onset and duration of the monsoon season or in the spatial distribution of the seasonal mean precipitation may severely impact agriculture, health, water availability, ecosystems, and economy for a substantial fraction of the world's population. In the past decades emissions of aerosols have dramatically increased over South Asia due to rapid urbanization and population growth. As a result, the study of the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the monsoon has recently emerged as one of the topics of highest priority in the scientific community. This study makes use of a state-of-the-art coupled climate model, the GFDL CM3, to investigate two aspects of the aerosol influence on the observed late 20th century changes in the monsoon annual cycle. The model has fully-interactive aerosols and a representation of both direct and indirect aerosol effects. Aerosols are responsible for an earlier shift of the monsoon onset over India, leading, in agreement with observations, to enhanced precipitation in June over most parts of the subcontinent. Our experiments show that the shift is preceded in early spring by strong aerosol forcing over the Bay of Bengal and Indochina, mostly attributable to the direct effect, resulting in increased atmospheric stability that inhibits the monsoon migration in May. The adjusted atmospheric circulation leads to thermodynamical changes over the northwestern continental region, including increased surface heating and near-surface moist static energy, which support a stronger June flow and, facilitated by a relative warming of the Indian Ocean, a vigorous northwestward precipitation shift. These findings underscore the importance of dynamical feedbacks and regional land-surface processes for the aerosol-monsoon link. We also performed historical experiments with time-evolving radiative forcings aimed at isolating the

  15. Photoperiod, temperature, and food availability as drivers of the annual reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Echinometra sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Omri; Loya, Yossi

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the efforts invested in the search for the environmental factors that regulate discrete breeding periods in marine invertebrates, they remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first account of the annual reproductive cycle of the pantropical sea urchin Echinometra sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat (Red Sea) and explore some of the main environmental variables that drive echinoid reproduction. Monthly measurements of gonado-somatic indexes and histological observations of 20 specimens revealed a single seasonal reproductive cycle, with gametogenesis in males and females being highly synchronized. Gametogenesis commenced in June and peak spawning occurred between September and October. Gonado-somatic indexes were significantly correlated with seawater temperatures but not with photoperiod. The latter cycle lagged behind the gonado-somatic cycle by two months, suggesting that the onset of gametogenesis corresponds to shortening day length, while spawning may be driven by warming seawater temperatures. Gonads remained quiescent throughout the winter and spring (January through May) when temperatures were at their lowest. Chlorophyll- a concentrations increased significantly in the months following spawning (October through January). These high concentrations are indicative of high phytoplankton abundance and may reflect the increase in food availability for the developing larvae. Of the external test dimensions, length presented the highest correlation to body weight, indicating length as the best predictor for body size in Echinometra. Neither sexual dimorphism nor size differences between males and females were detected, and the sex ratios were approximately 1:1 in three distant Echinometra populations. Environmentally regulated reproduction, as occurs in sea urchins, might face severe outcomes due to anthropogenic disturbances to the marine environment. Consequently, there is a need to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms that drive and

  16. El Niño And The East Asian Monsoon: Unraveling The Roles Of The Annual Cycle And Air/Sea Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuecker, M. F.; Jin, F. F.; Timmermann, A.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest source of seasonal climate predictability in the tropics and the subtropical monsoon systems. In previous work we demonstrated that nonlinear interactions between ENSO and the warm pool annual cycle generate rich spatial and temporal diversity and complexity of climate variability in the aforementioned regions, well beyond of what have been known as the canonical ENSO impact patterns. In this talk we present a unifying concept that captures ENSO's nonlinear impacts throughout the march of the seasons, as well as the role of air/sea interactions in this interplay between ENSO and the East Asian monsoon system. Furthermore, we will use the recent extreme 2015/2016 El Niño event to highlight the climate impacts over East Asia associated with our conceptual framework.

  17. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

  18. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by α particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis

  19. Annual burning of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Jennifer L; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of burning may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C- and (15) N-labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an annually burned and an infrequently burned tallgrass prairie site for 11 months. We traced litter and py-OM C and N into uncomplexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N-limited annually burned site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together, these results demonstrate how, although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of annual removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Diel feeding activity and intensity in the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L. during an annual cycle in a Cantabrian stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lobón-Cerviá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diel and seasonal shifts in the feeding activity and intensity of a riverine stock of European eels, Anguilla anguilla (L., were assessed in the Río LLorín, a right-side tributary of the Río Esva drainage (northwestern Spain. No consistent diel cycles were detected in either season (eels feed with similar intensity in the day and at night, but increased feeding activity was evidenced during the warmer months relative to weaker but still significant activity in winter. Heterogeneity in both feeding activity and intensity may stem from the high rates of secondary production in the form of benthic food available for eels, and mild temperatures all year round.

  1. Outcome of Treatment of Human HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells With Roscovitine Strongly Depends on the Dosage and Cell Cycle Status Prior to the Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Borza, A.; Walzi, E.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Maurer, M.; Komina, O.; Wandl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2009), s. 937-955 ISSN 0730-2312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : APOPTOSIS * CELL CYCLE ARREST * CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2009

  2. Strong Gradients in Forest Sensitivity to Climate Change Revealed by Dynamics of Forest Fire Cycles in the Post Little Ice Age Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Girardin, Martin P.; Gauthier, Sylvie; Ols, Clémentine; Ojal, John

    2017-10-01

    The length of the fire cycle is a critical factor affecting the vegetation cover in boreal and temperate regions. However, its responses to climate change remain poorly understood. We reanalyzed data from earlier studies of forest age structures at the landscape level, in order to map the evolution of regional fire cycles across Eastern North American boreal and temperate forests, following the termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA). We demonstrated a well-defined spatial pattern of post-LIA changes in the length of fire cycles toward lower fire activity during the 1800s and 1900s. The western section of Eastern North America (west of 77°W) experienced a decline in fire activity as early as the first half of the 1800s. By contrast, the eastern section showed these declines as late as the early 1900s. During a regionally fire-prone period of the 1910s-1920s, forests in the western section of Eastern boreal North America burned more than forests in the eastern section. The climate appeared to dominate over vegetation composition and human impacts in shaping the geographical pattern of the post-LIA change in fire activity. Changes in the atmospheric circulation patterns following the termination of the LIA, specifically changes in Arctic Oscillation and the strengthening of the Continental Polar Trough, were likely drivers of the regional fire dynamics.

  3. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether repatriated populations are cycling naturally.

  4. Effects of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray cycles on the modulation of the annual average temperature at two sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Frigo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic variations in solar activity and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs on decadal and bidecadal timescales have been suggested as a climate forcing mechanism for many regions on Earth. One of these regions is southern Brazil, where the lowest values during the last century were observed for the total geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface. These low values are due to the passage of the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA, which crosses the Brazilian territory from east to west following a latitude of ∼ 26°. In areas with low geomagnetic intensity, such as the SAMA, the incidence of GCRs is increased. Consequently, possible climatic effects related to the GCRs tend to be maximized in this region. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the ∼ 11-year and  ∼ 22-year cycles that are related to solar activity and GCRs and the annual average temperature recorded between 1936 and 2014 at two weather stations, both located near a latitude of 26° S but at different longitudes. The first of these stations (Torres – TOR is located in the coastal region, and the other (Iraí – IRA is located in the interior, around 450 km from the Atlantic Ocean. Sunspot data and the solar modulation potential for cosmic rays were used as proxies for the solar activity and the GCRs, respectively. Our investigation of the influence of decadal and bidecadal cycles in temperature data was carried out using the wavelet transform coherence (WTC spectrum. The results indicate that periodicities of 11 years may have continuously modulated the climate at TOR via a nonlinear mechanism, while at IRA, the effects of this 11-year modulation period were intermittent. Four temperature maxima, separated by around 20 years, were detected in the same years at both weather stations. These temperature maxima are almost coincident with the maxima of the odd solar cycles. Furthermore, these maxima occur after transitions

  5. Effects of solar activity and galactic cosmic ray cycles on the modulation of the annual average temperature at two sites in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, Everton; Antonelli, Francesco; da Silva, Djeniffer S. S.; Lima, Pedro C. M.; Pacca, Igor I. G.; Bageston, José V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-periodic variations in solar activity and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) on decadal and bidecadal timescales have been suggested as a climate forcing mechanism for many regions on Earth. One of these regions is southern Brazil, where the lowest values during the last century were observed for the total geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface. These low values are due to the passage of the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), which crosses the Brazilian territory from east to west following a latitude of ˜ 26°. In areas with low geomagnetic intensity, such as the SAMA, the incidence of GCRs is increased. Consequently, possible climatic effects related to the GCRs tend to be maximized in this region. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the ˜ 11-year and ˜ 22-year cycles that are related to solar activity and GCRs and the annual average temperature recorded between 1936 and 2014 at two weather stations, both located near a latitude of 26° S but at different longitudes. The first of these stations (Torres - TOR) is located in the coastal region, and the other (Iraí - IRA) is located in the interior, around 450 km from the Atlantic Ocean. Sunspot data and the solar modulation potential for cosmic rays were used as proxies for the solar activity and the GCRs, respectively. Our investigation of the influence of decadal and bidecadal cycles in temperature data was carried out using the wavelet transform coherence (WTC) spectrum. The results indicate that periodicities of 11 years may have continuously modulated the climate at TOR via a nonlinear mechanism, while at IRA, the effects of this 11-year modulation period were intermittent. Four temperature maxima, separated by around 20 years, were detected in the same years at both weather stations. These temperature maxima are almost coincident with the maxima of the odd solar cycles. Furthermore, these maxima occur after transitions from even to odd solar cycles, that is

  6. The correlation between isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in adolescent soccer players in an annual training cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isokinetic testing is often used to provide coaches with important information about the physical status of athletes. Therefore, a number of studies focused on the assessment of the relationship between isokinetic and functional tests including soccer. The results of a limited number of studies indicate that the relationship changes in different training periods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in three different periods of the annual training cycle in adolescent soccer players. METHODS: A group of adolescent soccer players (n = 16; average age 16.7 ± 0.7 years was tested at the end of the competitive season, at the beginning of the off-season and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. The isokinetic concentric peak torque (PT, peak power (Pmax and time to peak torque (TPT of the dominant leg and non-dominant leg were measured at angular velocities of 60°•s–1, 180°•s–1, 360°•s–1. The explosive strength of the lower extremities was measured using the countermovement jump with free arms (CMJF method and countermovement jump with the arms crossed over the chest. Based on literary reviews, a logically significant value of the correlation was set at > 0.30. RESULTS: The correlations between the isokinetic strength characteristics and vertical jump performance irrespective of the training period were low to moderate; 56% of the correlations were > 0.30. In the different periods of the annual training cycle, the occurrence of correlations > 0.30 as well as their value varied – 67% at the end of the competitive season, 31% at the beginning of the off-season and 64% at the beginning of the competitive season. For both types of jumps, the correlations for Pmax and PT parameters were the lowest during the second measurement in most cases; no trend was observed for the TPT

  7. Physical and Biogeochemical Controls of the Phytoplankton Blooms in North Western Mediterranean Sea: A Multiplatform Approach Over a Complete Annual Cycle (2012-2013 DEWEX Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Prieur, Louis; de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Claustre, Hervé; Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea exhibits recurrent and significant autumnal and spring phytoplankton blooms. The existence of these two blooms coincides with typical temperate dynamics. To determine the potential control of physical and biogeochemical factors on these phytoplankton blooms, data from a multiplatform approach (combining ships, Argo and BGC-Argo floats, and bio-optical gliders) were analyzed in association with satellite observations in 2012-2013. The satellite framework allowed a simultaneous analysis over the whole annual cycle of in situ observations of mixed layer depth, photosynthetical available radiation, particle backscattering, nutrients (nitrate and silicate), and chlorophyll-a concentrations. During the year 2012-2013, satellite ocean color observations, confirmed by in situ data, have revealed the existence of two areas (or bioregions) with comparable autumnal blooms but contrasting spring blooms. In both bioregions, the ratio of the euphotic zone (defined as the isolume 0.415 mol photons m-2 d-1, Z0.415) and the MLD identified the initiation of the autumnal bloom, as well as the maximal annual increase in [Chl-a] in spring. In fact, the autumnal phytoplankton bloom might be initiated by mixing of the summer shallowing deep chlorophyll maximum, while the spring restratification (when Z0.415/MLD ratio became >1) might induce surface phytoplankton production that largely overcomes the losses. Finally, winter deep convection events that took place in one of the bioregions induced higher net accumulation rate of phytoplankton in spring associated with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community principally. We suggest that very deep winter MLD lead to an increase in surface silicates availability, which favored the development of diatoms.

  8. Changes and Projections in the Annual Cycle of the Southern Hemisphere Circulation, Storm Tracks and Australian Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Carsten; Frederiksen, Jorgen; Sisson, Janice; Osbrough, Stacey

    2013-04-01

    Large changes in the seasonal cycle of the Southern Hemisphere circulation over the last sixty years are shown to have impacted on the properties of weather systems associated with mid-latitude storms and consequently reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. In particular, there have been significant negative trends in the baroclinic instability of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation resulting in a reduction in storm formation at these latitudes, while increases in baroclinicity further poleward has led to increased storm development. These effects have become more pronounced with time and are likely to worsen under future climate change scenarios. We consider the observed changes in the baroclinicity of the Southern Hemisphere circulation in all months and examine the corresponding changes in the growth rate and structure of dynamical modes of variability with emphasis on the mid-latitude storm track modes, in the four seasons. We focus on the periods 1949-1968, 1975-1994 and 1997-2006, and relate the reduction in the rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia since the mid-1970s and in South-eastern Australia since the mid-1990s to changes in growth rate and structures of the leading storm track modes. Southwest of Western Australia get most of it's rainfall in autumn and winter. We find that in winter there are considerable reductions in the growth rates (by around 30%) of the leading storm track modes that cross southern Australia between the periods 1969-68 and 1975-94 and that these reductions continue into the period 1997-2007. In autumn growth rates of leading cyclogenesis modes with peak amplitudes across southern Australia decrease by between 10% and 20% between 1949-68 and the latter periods. Importantly, during the more recent periods, storm activity increasingly moves from the latitudes of the subtropical jet to the latitudes of the polar jet. These changes in storm activity are consistent with and provide an

  9. Long-term variations in the South Asian monsoon annual cycle: the role of regional anthropogenic aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollasina, Massimo; Ming, Yi

    2013-04-01

    Detection and attribution of long-term variations of the South Asian monsoon is of extreme importance. Indeed, even small changes in the onset and duration of the monsoon season or in the spatial distribution of the seasonal mean precipitation may severely impact agriculture, health, water availability, ecosystems, and economy for a substantial fraction of the world's population. In the past decades emissions of aerosols have dramatically increased over South Asia due to rapid urbanization and population growth. As a result, the study of the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the monsoon has recently emerged as one of the topics of highest priority in the scientific community. This study makes use of a state-of-the-art coupled climate model, the GFDL CM3, to investigate two aspects of the aerosol influence on the 20th-century changes in the monsoon. The model has fully-interactive aerosols and a representation of both direct and indirect effects. Aerosols are responsible for the advancement of the monsoon onset over India, leading, in agreement with observations, to enhanced precipitation in June over most parts of the subcontinent. Our experiments show that the earlier onset is preceded in early spring by a strong aerosol forcing over the Bay of Bengal and Indonesia and associated atmospheric circulation anomalies. The latter triggers thermodynamical changes over the northwestern part of the Subcontinent in May and June, including enhanced surface heating, which in turn drive the movement of the monsoon to the west. We also performed historical experiments with time-evolving radiative forcings aimed at isolating the contribution of regional versus remote anthropogenic aerosol emissions on the observed 20th century widespread drying of the Indian monsoon. Indian-only aerosol sources are found to play a predominant role in generating suppressed rainfall over the subcontinent, especially during early summer. Remote aerosols contribute, although in a minor way, to

  10. Control of annual reproductive cycle in the subtropical house sparrow (Passer domesticus): evidence for conservation of photoperiodic control mechanisms in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Amit K; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2006-08-22

    In many birds, day length (= photoperiod) regulates reproductive cycle. The photoperiodic environment varies between different seasons and latitudes. As a consequence, species at different latitudes may have evolved separate photoperiodic strategies or modified them as per their adaptive need. We studied this using house sparrow as a model since it is found worldwide and is widely investigated. In particular, we examined whether photoperiodism in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) at 27 degrees N, 81 degrees E shared features with those exhibited by its conspecifics at high latitudes. Initial experiment described in the wild and captive conditions the gonad development and molt (only in captives) cycles over a 12-month period. Both male and female sparrows had similar seasonal cycles, linked with annual variations in day length; this suggested that seasonal reproduction in house sparrows was under the photoperiodic control. However, a slower testis and attenuated follicular growth among captives indicated that other (supplementary) factors are also involved in controlling the reproductive cycle. Next experiment examined if sparrows underwent seasonal variations in their response to stimulatory effects of long day lengths. When birds were transferred every month over a period of 1 year to 16 hours light:8 hours darkness (16L:8D) for 17-26 weeks, there was indeed a time-of-year effect on the growth-regression cycle of gonads. The final experiment investigated response of house sparrows to a variety of light-dark (LD) cycles. In the first set, sparrows were exposed for 31 weeks to photoperiods that were close to what they receive in between the period from sunrise to sunset at this latitude: 9L:15D (close to shortest day length in December), 12L:12D (equinox, in March and September) 15L:9D (close to longest day length in June). They underwent testicular growth and regression and molt in 12L and 15L photoperiods, but not in 9L photoperiod. In the second set, sparrows

  11. How do migratory species stay healthy over the annual cycle? A conceptual model for immune function and for resistance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Deborah M; Tieleman, B Irene; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-09-01

    Migration has fascinated researchers for years and many active areas of study exist. However, the question of how migratory species stay healthy within the context of their annual cycle remains relatively unexplored. This article addresses this question using Red Knots (Calidris canutus) as a model migrant species. We review recent research on immune function in Red Knots and integrate this work with the broader eco-immunological literature to introduce a conceptual model. This model synthesizes earlier ideas about resource allocation and the costs of immunity with recent increases in our knowledge about the vertebrate immune system and then puts these concepts into the context of defense against real pathogens in environments where a myriad of factors change in time and space. We also suggest avenues for further research, which will help to test the model and better link measures of immune function to pressure from pathogens and to optimal defense against disease. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing sex steroid levels during the annual cycles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diploid female (XX) and triploid female (XXX) genotypic sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Mitjana, O

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared for two populations of rainbow trout, XX diploid females (n = 40) and XXX triploid females (n = 15). In females, E2 and DHP levels were found to be significantly related to body weight (r = 0.22513; p 0.001, respectively). In this group, E2 concentrations peaked in November (25.05 ng/ml), while maximum DHP levels, only measurable from October to April, were attained in February (64.14 ng/ml). No significant differences in hormone ranges related to egg output ability were observed. Finally, sex steroid concentrations were low in the triploid female XXX fish compared to the female XX population. Nevertheless, maximum T (33.85 ng/ml) and 11-KT (32.35 ng/ml) levels were recorded in January, for XXX. The levels for these two hormones are relatively high and are also significantly associated (r = 0.8430; p < 0.0001). Diploid females showed significantly higher levels of E2 than triploids over the 12-month study period. The female triploid fish produced the lowest steroid hormone levels, such that these would be the most suitable for human consumption. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.

  14. No evidence for parasitism-linked changes in immune function or oxidative physiology over the annual cycle of an avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter L; Sesarman, Alina; Vágási, Csongor I; Buehler, Deborah M; Pătraş, Laura; Versteegh, Maaike A; Banciu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Temporally changing environmental conditions occur in most parts of the world and can exert strong pressure on the immune defense of organisms. Seasonality may result in changes in physiological traits over the year, and such changes may be essential for the optimization of defense against infections. Evidence from field and laboratory studies suggest the existence of links between environmental conditions, such as infection risk, and the ability of animals to mount an immune response or to overcome infections; however, the importance of parasites in mediating seasonal change in immune defense is still debated. In this study, we test the hypothesis that seasonal change in immune function and connected physiological traits is related to parasite infection. We sampled captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) once every 2 mo over 14 mo and compared the annual variation in 12 measures of condition, immune function, antioxidant status, and oxidative damage among birds naturally infested with coccidians or medicated against these parasites. We found significant variation in 10 of 12 traits over the year. However, we found little support for parasite-mediated change in immune function and oxidative status in captive house sparrows. Of the 12 measures, only one was slightly affected by parasite treatment. In support of the absence of any effect of coccidians on the annual profile of the condition and physiological traits, we found no consistent relationships between the intensity of infestation and these response variables over the year. Our results show that chronic coccidian infections have limited effect on the seasonal changing of physiological traits and that the patterns of these measures are probably more affected by acute infection and/or virulent parasite strains.

  15. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As noted by Gray et al., Sir William Herschel was the first to suggest a possible close connection between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The Sun, being the source of energy that impacts and drives the Earth’s climate system, displays a variety of changes over both short and long term time scales, the most obvious examples being the somewhat regular waxing and waning of sunspots with time (i.e., the sunspot cycle (SC)), first described by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, a German apothecary and amateur astronomer who observed the Sun from Dessau, Germany, and the now well established variation of the Sun’s irradiance over the SC. Other factors related to the SC have been linked to changes in climate as well. Some of these other factors include the role of cosmic rays and the solar wind (i.e., the geomagnetic cycle) on climate, as well as the apparent close association between trends in global and northern hemispheric temperature and the length of the SC, although some investigators have described the inferred association between climate and, in particular, SC length as now being weak. More recently, Solheim et al. have reported on the relation between SC length and the average temperature in the same and immediately following SC for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. They noted that while they found no significant trend (correlation) between SC length and the average temperature when measured for the same cycle, in contrast, they found a significant negative trend when SC length was compared with the following cycle’s average temperature. From this observation, they suggested that average northern hemispheric temperature during the present ongoing SC (SC24) will be lower by about 0.9 °C than was seen in SC23 (spanning 1996–2007, based on yearly averages of sunspot number (SSN), and onset for SC24 occurring in 2008). The purpose of this Technical Publication (TP) is to examine the annual variations of the Armagh

  16. The climatic variability inter annual associated to El Nino - la Nina cycle, oscillation of the south and their effect in the pluviometric patron of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montealegre Bocanegra Jose Edgar; Pabon Caicedo, Jose Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In the present article we study the influence that on a year-to-year scale the interactions between the atmosphere and the Tropical North and South Atlantic, as well as the Pacific Ocean, have on the inter annual variability of the precipitation in Colombia. We identify and quantify the existing relations between the indexes of the macro-scale, characteristic of the inter annual variability of those oceans, and the indexes characteristic of the inter annual precipitation variability, for selected regions in Colombia. The determination of these relations is of fundamental importance in order to develop objective schemes, based on physic-statistical methods, aimed at predicting the climate in Colombia

  17. An Examination of Sunspot Number Rates of Growth and Decay in Relation to the Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of annual sunspot number averages, sunspot number rates of growth and decay are examined relative to both minimum and maximum amplitudes and the time of their occurrences using cycles 12 through present, the most reliably determined sunspot cycles. Indeed, strong correlations are found for predicting the minimum and maximum amplitudes and the time of their occurrences years in advance. As applied to predicting sunspot minimum for cycle 24, the next cycle, its minimum appears likely to occur in 2006, especially if it is a robust cycle similar in nature to cycles 17-23.

  18. Impacts of disturbance history on annual carbon stocks and fluxes in southeastern US forests during 1986-2010 using remote sensing, forest inventory data, and a carbon cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H.; Zhou, Y.; Williams, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate assessment of forest carbon storage and uptake is central to policymaking aimed at mitigating climate change and understanding the role forests play in the global carbon cycle. Disturbance events are highly heterogeneous in space and time, impacting forest carbon dynamics and challenging the quantification and reporting of carbon stocks and fluxes. This study documents annual carbon stocks and fluxes from 1986 and 2010 mapped at 30-m resolution across southeastern US forests, characterizing how they respond to disturbances and ensuing regrowth. Forest inventory data (FIA) are used to parameterize a carbon cycle model (CASA) to represent post-disturbance carbon trajectories of carbon pools and fluxes with time following harvest, fire and bark beetle disturbances of varying severity and across forest types and site productivity settings. Time since disturbance at 30 meters is inferred from two remote-sensing data sources: disturbance year (NAFD, MTBS and ADS) and biomass (NBCD 2000) intersected with FIA-derived curves of biomass accumulation with stand age. All of these elements are combined to map carbon stocks and fluxes at a 30-m resolution for the year 2010, and to march backward in time for continuous, annual reporting. Results include maps of annual carbon stocks and fluxes for forests of the southeastern US, and analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of carbon sources/sinks at local and regional scales.

  19. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W.; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide 210 Po/ 210 Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995–November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and 210 Po/ 210 Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton “bloom” was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of 210 Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest 210 Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained 210 Po and 210 Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5–486 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more 210 Po and 210 Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the 210 Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  20. Changing water cycle over Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, Korea experienced relatively strong drought, and annual mean precipitation was the third lowest since observation started at 1969 causing adverse impact on the several sectors including farming industry. Most precipitation in Korea occurs during summer season. In case of 2015 Korean drought, summer rainfall was much below than normal. On the other hand, another severe drought occurred in 2017 spring, which was followed by a couple of heavy rainfall cases that caused human casualties and damage in various sectors. Here we want to analyze this fast shifting of water cycle over Korea with a focus on its causing mechanisms and large scale atmospheric circulation features.

  1. Energy price indices and discount factors for life-cycle cost analysis 1997. Annual supplement to NIST handbook 135 and NBS special publication 709. (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.R.

    1996-07-01

    This report is the FY 1997 edition of energy price indices and discount factors for performing life-cycle cost analyses of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects in federal facilities. It supports the federal life-cycle costing methodology by updating the energy price projections and discount factors that are described, explained, and illustrated in NIST Handbook 135 (HB 135, Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (PB96-172317)). It supports private-sector life-cycle cost analysis by updating the energy price indices that are described, explained, and illustrated in NBS Special Publication 709 (SP 709 (PB87-180253)). It also supports the Energy Conservation Mandatory Performance Standards for New Federal Residential Building (10 CFR 435) by providing a table of factors for updating appliance label values.

  2. Variações do ciclo anual da temperatura da superfície do mar no pacífico tropical Annual cycle variations of sea surface temperature in the tropical pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Orrú Pedroso Gerólamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Variações do ciclo anual da Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM do Pacífico Tropical entre 20ºN e 20ºS, para o período de 1854 a 2006, foram estudadas usando análises de ondaletas. O estudo mostrou que o ciclo anual, considerando-se a variância para em torno de 1 ano, de TSM possui variabilidade interanual e interdecenal. Existem indicações de que a maior parte das variações interanuais no ciclo anual de TSM das áreas do hemisfério Norte (HN e do hemisfério Sul (HS, está relacionada ao ciclo do El Niño-Oscilação Sul (ENOS. A maioria dos picos da Média por Escalas da Potência localizada da ondaleta (MEPO para a escala entre 0,7 e 1,2 anos, para as áreas de ambos os hemisférios, coincide com extremos do ENOS. Os Espectros da Potência Global (EPGs mostraram variância máxima do ciclo anual de TSM entre 120ºE e 140ºE na faixa do HN (entre equador e 20ºN, e variância crescente da linha da data para leste com o máximo entre 100ºW e 80ºW na faixa do HS (entre equador e 20ºS. Portanto, o ciclo anual de TSM apresenta variações entre os HN e HS com a máxima variância localizando-se no hemisfério leste para o HN e no hemisfério oeste para o HS.Annual cycle variations of the sea surface temperature (SST in the Tropical Pacific Ocean between 20ºN and 20ºS for the period from 1854 to 2006 were studied using wavelet analysis. The study showed that the SST annual cycle, considered the variance around 1 year, contains interannual and interdecadal variabilities. There are indications that most of the SST annual cycle variations at Northern Hemisphere (NH and at Southern Hemisphere (SH areas is related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO cycle. Most peaks of the localized Scale Average Power (SAP for the 0.7-1.2 year scale for the areas on both hemispheres coincides with ENSO extremes. The Wavelet Power Spectra (WPS shows maximum variance of the SST annual cycle between 120ºE and 140ºE for the northern

  3. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  4. Stress Models of the Annual Hydrospheric, Atmospheric, Thermal, and Tidal Loading Cycles on California Faults: Perturbation of Background Stress and Changes in Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Fu, Yuning; Bürgmann, Roland

    2017-12-01

    Stresses in the lithosphere arise from multiple natural loading sources that include both surface and body forces. The largest surface loads include near-surface water storage, snow and ice, atmosphere pressure, ocean loading, and temperature changes. The solid Earth also deforms from celestial body interactions and variations in Earth's rotation. We model the seasonal stress changes in California from 2006 through 2014 for seven different loading sources with annual periods to produce an aggregate stressing history for faults in the study area. Our modeling shows that the annual water loading, atmosphere, temperature, and Earth pole tides are the largest loading sources and should each be evaluated to fully describe seasonal stress changes. In California we find that the hydrological loads are the largest source of seasonal stresses. We explore the seasonal stresses with respect to the background principal stress orientation constrained with regional focal mechanisms and analyze the modulation of seismicity. Our results do not suggest a resolvable seasonal variation for the ambient stress orientation in the shallow crust. When projecting the seasonal stresses into the background stress orientation we find that the timing of microseismicity modestly increases from an 8 kPa seasonal mean-normal-stress perturbation. The results suggest that faults in California are optimally oriented with the background stress field and respond to subsurface pressure changes, possibly due to processes we have not considered in this study. At any time a population of faults are near failure as evident from earthquakes triggered by these slight seasonal stress perturbations.

  5. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Draft annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M.; Mountford, H.S. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Research aimed at gaining a better understanding of selenium cycling in marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait is being performed by scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and collaborators from the University of California at Davis. This work was initiated in the Fall of 1994 and is scheduled to continue through the Fall of 1996. This report summarizes the results of the effort to date.

  6. Development of the ultrasonic fatigue testing machine due to study on giga-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature. 2001 annual report. Document on collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Itoh, Takamoto

    2002-03-01

    An ultrasonic fatigue testing machine was developed to obtain the giga-cycle fatigue life at elevated temperature for safety and reliability of structural components in the faster breeder reactor (FBR). This testing machine consists of an amplifier, booster, horn and the equipments such as a system controller and data acquisition. The test specimen is attached at the end of the horn. The electric power generated in the amplifier is transformed into the mechanical vibration in the converter and is magnified in the booster and horn. The vibration was enough to fatigue the specimen. Since the test frequency is set at a resonant frequency, the shape and dimensions of specimen were designed so as to vibrate itself resonantly. However, the maximum amplitudes of stress and strain in the specimen can be calculated easily by measuring the amplitude of displacement at the end of the specimen. The developed ultrasonic fatigue testing machine enables to carry out the fatigue tests at 20 kHz so that it can perform the giga-cycle fatigue test within a very short time as compared with the regular fatigue testing machines such as a hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By clarifying the material strength characteristics in giga-cycle region, the life evaluation, design and examination of components will be more suitable than ever. This study will contribute to improve the safety and reliability of components in FBR. In this technical report, the specification and characteristics of the testing machine were described along with the several experimental results. (author)

  7. Bring in the genes: genetic-ecophysiological modelling of the adaptive response of trees to environmental change. With application to the annual cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Werf, van der D.C.; Schelhaas, M.

    2015-01-01

    The observation of strong latitudinal clines in the date of bud burst of tree species indicate that populations of these species are genetically adapted to local environmental conditions. Existing phenological models rarely address this clinal variation, so that adaptive responses of tree

  8. No evidence for parasitism-linked changes in immune function or oxidative physiology over the annual cycle of an avian species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pap, Peter L.; Sesarman, Alina; Vagasi, Csongor I.; Buehler, Deborah M.; Patras, Laura; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Banciu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Temporally changing environmental conditions occur in most parts of the world and can exert strong pressure on the immune defense of organisms. Seasonality may result in changes in physiological traits over the year, and such changes may be essential for the optimization of defense against

  9. Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Epp, Tasha; Leighton, Frederick A.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Berhane, Yohannes; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Soos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE) sampled in 2007 to 2010 year round during AIV surveillance programs in Canada and the United States. Our analyses revealed that during late summer staging (July-August) and fall migration (September-October), hatch year (HY) birds were more likely to be infected than after hatch year (AHY) birds, however there was no difference between age categories for the remainder of the year (winter, spring migration, and breeding period), likely due to maturing immune systems and newly acquired immunity of HY birds. Probability of infection increased non-linearly with latitude, and was highest in late summer prior to fall migration when densities of birds and the proportion of susceptible HY birds in the population are highest. Birds in the Central and Mississippi flyways were more likely to be infected compared to those in the Atlantic flyway. Seasonal cycles and spatial variation of AIV infection were largely driven by the dynamics of AIV infection in HY birds, which had more prominent cycles and spatial variation in infection compared to AHY birds. Our results demonstrate demographic as well as seasonal, latitudinal and flyway trends across Canada and the US, while illustrating the importance of migratory host life cycle and age in driving cyclical patterns of prevalence.

  10. Hormonal regulation of the annual pelage color cycle in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus. I. Role of the gonads and pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Goldman, B D

    1984-04-01

    The Djungarian hamster exhibits an agouti pelage in the summer and a predominantly white pelage in the winter. This pelage color cycle is known to be regulated by the length of the daily photoperiod probably acting through the pineal gland, as is the seasonal cycle of reproductive function with which it is closely correlated ( Figala et al., '73; Hoffmann, ' 78b ). The possibility of a causal relationship between the decline in gonadal hormone secretion and the coat color change occurring in short photoperiod was examined. Gonadectomized and intact male and female hamsters were exposed to either long (16L:8D) or short ( 10L : 14D ) photoperiod for several months. Gonadectomy neither induced the change to the winter pelage color in long photoperiod-housed animals, nor prevented either the change to the winter pelage or the spontaneous return to summer pelage color in short photoperiod-housed animals. Chronic implants of testosterone in castrated males delayed and attenuated the short photoperiod-induced coat color change. Administration of ovine prolactin (100 micrograms/day) stimulated pigmentation in hamsters with the winter pelage, whereas administration of a alpha MSH (30 micrograms/day) was without effect. These results suggest that changes in pelage color may be regulated largely by changes in pituitary prolactin secretion and modified to some extent by changes in gonadal steroid hormone secretion.

  11. Annual Developmental Cycle of Gonads of European Perch Females (Perca fluviatilis L.) from Natural Sites and a Canal Carrying Post-cooling Water from the Dolna Odra Power Plant (NW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirczuk, Lucyna; Domagała, Józef; Pilecka-Rapacz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The European perch is a species endowed with high adaptation capabilities as regards different environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to analyse the annual developmental cycle of ovaries of the European perch from the Oder river, Lake Dąbie and a drainage canal (Warm Canal) carrying post-cooling water from the Dolna Odra power plant (annual average water temperature in the canal is higher by 6-8°C than the water of the other sampling sites). Most of the female perch caught in the canal carrying post-cooling water had immature stage 2 gonads (delayed development of the gonads) and were smaller than the fish from the other sites. No traces of spawning in the form of deposed egg strings were found in the drainage canal. Adult individuals avoid high temperatures found in the Warm Canal. In April, in perch from all sites, ovaries with post-spawning oocytes were observed. The spawning season of the females lasted from the beginning of April until May. Stage 4 of gonad development, with oocytes in advanced vitellogenesis, was the longest and ranged from September through February.

  12. Comparison of D-region Doppler drift winds measured by the SuperDARN Finland HF radar over an annual cycle using the Kiruna VHF meteor radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available The SuperDARN chain of oblique HF radars has provided an opportunity to generate a unique climatology of horizontal winds near the mesopause at a number of high latitude locations, via the Doppler shifted echoes from sources of ionisation in the D-region. Ablating meteor trails form the bulk of these targets, but other phenomena also contribute to the observations. Due to the poor vertical resolution of the radars, care must be taken to reduce possible biases from sporadic-E layers and Polar Mesospheric Summer echoes that can affect the effective altitude of the geophysical parameters being observed. Second, there is strong theoretical and observational evidence to suggest that the radars are picking up echoes from the backward looking direction that will tend to reduce the measured wind strengths. The effect is strongly frequency dependent, resulting in a 20% reduction at 12 MHz and a 50% reduction at 10 MHz. A comparison of the climatologies observed by the Super-DARN Finland radar between September 1999 and September 2000 and that obtained from the adjacent VHF meteor radar located at Kiruna is also presented. The agreement between the two instruments was very good. Extending the analysis to the SuperDARN Iceland East radar indicated that the principles outlined above could be applied successfully to the rest of the SuperDARN network.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; instruments and techniques – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  13. When a year takes 18 months: evidence for a strong circannual clock in a shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2002-04-01

    During the last three of 20 years kept as a pet, a red knot (Calidris canutus) went through two complete 'circannual' cycles of body mass and plumage. With a record cycle length of 18 months, this individual shorebird provides evidence for an exceptionally strong circannual clock system. The absence of synchronisation to outdoor but visible periodic cues suggests that the constant, socially-induced, day-night environment was of overriding importance. So far, only for songbirds is there firm experimental evidence that annual cycles are orchestrated by an endogenous circannual clock system. In constant environments the circannual cycles of these passerines tend to have periods that are shorter, rather than longer, than a year.

  14. CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WHO TRAIN SPORTS SWIMMING AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (IN ANNUAL TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Eider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of

  15. Annual cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products and other water-soluble organic compounds in coarse and fine aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse particulate matter were collected over a period of one year and analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds, including the pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) and a variety of dicarboxylic acids (C5-C16) and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks and data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid (C6) and phthalic acid (Ph) to azelaic acid (C9) indicate that the investigated aerosols samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. An Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature. Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence is largely due to enhanced emissions and OH radical concentrations at elevated temperatures, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. Enhanced ratios of pinic acid to 3-MBTCA indicate strong chemical aging of the investigated aerosols in summer and spring. Acknowledgment: The authors would like to thank M. Claeys for providing synthetic 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid standards for LC-MS analysis and J. Fröhlich for providing filter samples and related information.

  16. Gene Expression of Pneumocystis murina after Treatment with Anidulafungin Results in Strong Signals for Sexual Reproduction, Cell Wall Integrity, and Cell Cycle Arrest, Indicating a Requirement for Asci Formation for Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Melanie T; Ashbaugh, Alan; Hendrix, Keeley; Linke, Michael J; Tisdale, Nikeya; Sayson, Steven G; Porollo, Aleksey

    2018-02-20

    The echinocandins are a class of anti-fungal agents that target β-1,3-D-glucan (BG) biosynthesis. In the ascigerous Pneumocystis species, treatment with these drugs deplete the asci life cycle stage which contain BG, but large numbers of forms which do not express BG remain in the infected lungs. In the present study, the gene expression profiles of Pneumocystis murina were compared between infected untreated mice and those treated with anidulafungin for 2 weeks to understand the metabolism of the persisting forms. Almost 80 genes were significantly up- or down-regulated. Like other fungi exposed to echinocandins, genes associated with sexual replication, cell wall integrity, cell cycle arrest and stress comprised the strongest up-regulated signals in P. murina from the treated mice. The up-regulation of the P. murina β-1,3-D-glucan endohydrolase and endo-1,3-glucanase was notable and may explain the disappearance of the existing asci in the lungs of treated mice since both enzymes can degrade BG. The biochemical measurement of BG in the lungs of treated mice and fluorescent microscopy with an anti-BG antibody supported the loss of BG. Down-regulated signals included genes involved in cell replication, genome stability, ribosomal biogenesis and function, and the Pneumocystis -specific genes encoding the major surface glycoproteins (Msg). These studies suggest that P. murina attempted to undergo sexual replication in response to a stressed environment and were halted in any type of proliferative cycle, likely due to a lack of BG. Asci appear to be a required part of the life cycle stage of Pneumocystis and BG may be needed to facilitate progression through the life cycle via sexual replication. Copyright © 2018 Cushion et al.

  17. 2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2002 provides information on financial highlights, corporate governance, organization of the Group, share, sustainable development policy (integration into the management practices, financial and environmental responsibility, responsibility to the employees and to the society), nuclear power (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division), connectors division, equity interests and financial report. (A.L.B.)

  18. On the Trend of the Annual Mean, Maximum, and Minimum Temperature and the Diurnal Temperature Range in the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, Dataset, 1844 -2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Examined are the annual averages, 10-year moving averages, decadal averages, and sunspot cycle (SC) length averages of the mean, maximum, and minimum surface air temperatures and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) for the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, during the interval 1844-2012. Strong upward trends are apparent in the Armagh surface-air temperatures (ASAT), while a strong downward trend is apparent in the DTR, especially when the ASAT data are averaged by decade or over individual SC lengths. The long-term decrease in the decadaland SC-averaged annual DTR occurs because the annual minimum temperatures have risen more quickly than the annual maximum temperatures. Estimates are given for the Armagh annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and the DTR for the current decade (2010-2019) and SC24.

  19. Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive General email updates Enter email Submit Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is the hormonal process ... Preventing problems with your menstrual cycle View more Menstrual Cycle resources Related information Endometriosis Infertility Polycystic ovary ...

  20. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  1. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  2. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle

  3. Yearly variation and annual cycle of total column ozone over New Delhi (29°N, 77°E), India and Halley Bay (76°S, 27°W), British Antarctic Survey Station and its effect on night airglow intensity of OH(8, 3) for the period 1979-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, P. K.; Saha, D. K.; Sarkar, D.

    2012-12-01

    A critical analysis made on the long-term monthly, seasonal, yearly variation and annual cycle of total column ozone (TCO) concentration at New Delhi (29°N, 77°E), India and Halley Bay (76°S, 27°W), a British Antarctic Service Station reveals more decline in yearly mean ozone concentration at Halley Bay than at New Delhi from 1979 to 2005. The nature of variations of monthly mean TCO during the months of August and September was the most identical with that of yearly mean ozone values at New Delhi and Halley Bay, respectively, for the same period. Annual cycles of TCO over these stations are completely different for the above period. The effect of O3 depletion on night airglow emission of OH(8, 3) line at New Delhi and Halley Bay has been studied. Calculations based on chemical kinetics show that the airglow intensity of OH(8, 3) has also been affected due to the depletion of O3 concentration. The yearly variations and annual cycle of intensities of OH(8, 3) line for the above two stations are depicted and compared. It has been shown that the rate of decrease of intensity of OH(8, 3) line was comparatively more at Halley Bay due to dramatic decrease of Antarctic O3 concentration.

  4. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  5. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  6. 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.)

  7. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  8. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  9. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  10. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  11. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  12. Nutrient cycling in a strongly acidified mesotrophic lake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Brzáková, Martina; Hejzlar, Josef; Nedoma, Jiří; Porcal, Petr; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2004), s. 1202-1213 ISSN 0024-3590 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/0063; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : acidification * nutrients * water chemistry Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.024, year: 2004

  13. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  14. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  15. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  16. Greenhouse Gas Induced Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of the Amazon Basin in Coupled Climate-Vegetation Regional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Justino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work suggests that changes in seasonality could lead to a 70% reduction in the extent of the Amazon rainforest. The primary cause of the dieback of the rainforest is a lengthening of the dry season due to a weakening of the large-scale tropical circulation. Here we examine these changes in the seasonal cycle. Under present day conditions the Amazon climate is characterized by a zonal separation of the dominance of the annual and semi-annual seasonal cycles. This behavior is strongly modified under greenhouse warming conditions, with the annual cycle becoming dominant throughout the Amazon basin, increasing differences between the dry and wet seasons. In particular, there are substantial changes in the annual cycle of temperature due to the increase in the temperature of the warmest month, but the lengthening of the dry season is believed to be particularly important for vegetation-climate feedbacks. Harmonic analysis performed to regional climate model simulations yields results that differ from the global climate model that it is forced from, with the regional model being more sensitive to changes in the seasonal cycle.

  17. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  18. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  19. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  20. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  1. Energy price indices and discount factors for life-cycle analysis, April 1998. Annual supplement to NIST handbook 135 and NBS special publication 709, April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, S.K.

    1998-04-01

    This report is the April 1998 edition of energy price indices and discount factors for performing life-cycle cost analyses of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects in federal facilities. It will be effective from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. This publication supports the federal life-cycle costing methodology by updating the energy price projections and discount factors that are described, explained, and illustrated in NIST Handbook 135 (HB 135, Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (PB96-172317)). It supports private-sector life-cycle cost analysis by updating the energy price indices that are described, explained, and illustrated in NBS Special Publication 709 (SP 709).

  2. NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) Annual Climatology of the 1st decade of the 21st Century V1.0 (NEWS_WEB_ACLIM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) Climatology of the 1st decade of the 21st Century Dataset summarizes the original observationally-based mean fluxes of water...

  3. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  4. NEA Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    recovery. Furthermore, third party liability aspects of the accident are being examined by the Nuclear Law Committee, and the accident's impact on the future of nuclear power is being investigated by the Nuclear Development Committee. In parallel, the NEA has devoted significant efforts to directly support the technical needs of the Japanese government, with this assistance primarily focusing on 1) the recovery of land and decontamination, 2) the development and implementation of national reviews and stress tests, and 3) enhancements to the regulatory infrastructure. Several NEA missions of experts from member countries have already been sent to Japan, and the Agency has actively participated in the organisation of, and discussions which took place at, various meetings and symposia. This annual report comments the activities of the Agency for the year 2011: 1 - Message from the Director-General; 2 - The Fukushima Daiichi Accident and NEA Follow-up; 3 - Nuclear Power in 2011; 4 - Technical Programmes: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radioactive Waste Management, Radiological Protection, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects; 5 - Technical Secretariat: Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); 6 - General Information: Information and Communications, Nuclear Energy and Civil Society, Organisational Structure of the NEA, NEA Publications and Brochures Produced in 2011

  5. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  6. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  7. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...

  8. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 1999 annual report of the Authorities of Nuclear Safety presents the main technical topics of the year: time evolution of nuclear installations, crisis and particular plan of intervention, impacts of the nuclear activities on the human and the environment, the criticality risk, EdF, the EPR project, the ANDRA, transportation events and the nuclear safety at the East. It provides also information on nuclear safety, organization of nuclear safety supervision, BIN regulatory provisions, plant supervision, information of the public, international relations, emergency response, radiation protection, radioactive material transportation, radioactive waste, PWR reactors, research reactors and other installations, nuclear fuel cycle installations and final shutdown and dismantling of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  9. 2012 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a message from the Director-General of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA, a semi-autonomous body within the OECD) and an overview of the Fukushima accident and NEA follow-up, this annual report presents the various technical programmes in which the NEA is committed. These programmes deal with nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, data bank, legal affairs, joint projects and other cooperative projects. The report then presents activities of the technical secretariat (Generation IV International Forum or GIF, Multinational Design Evaluation Programme or MDEP), and some general information about the NEA (organisational structure, publications in 2012) and about its activities of information and communication activities, and regarding the relationship between nuclear energy and civil society

  10. NEA annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this 2000 annual report, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), notes that in the medium and long term, the evolution of the nuclear energy programs in OECD countries is likely to be influenced by the implementation of sustainable development policies integrating economic, environmental and socials goals. This report is divided in four chapters. The first one gives general information on nuclear industry. The chapter 2 deals with trends in nuclear power. The chapter 3 gathers technical programs in nuclear development and fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, nuclear science and data bank, legal affairs, joint projects and other co-operative projects. The last chapter gathers general information on information program, NEA publications, main workshops and seminar and organisation charts of the NEA. (A.L.B.)

  11. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The resources of international co-operation, notably through the Nuclear Energy Agency, can substantially help 'keep the nuclear option open' in a sustainable development perspective, for example by helping preserve and develop scientific and technical know-how, maintaining adequate human resources both in quantity and quality, contributing to greater cost-effectiveness of nuclear operations, and improving stakeholder confidence in radioactive waste management solutions. The 1999 Annual Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency illustrates various facets of the international co-operation made available to Member governments which assists them in rising to these challenges: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Science, Data Banks, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co-operative Projects. (author)

  12. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Associated to the CEA, the CEA-Industry subsidiaries and the whole Group submit a very satisfying financial, economic and technological accounting which able to play a major role in international cooperations and to satisfy the shareholders. To illustrate these results, this annual report presents the activities of the CEA-Industry group during the year 1998. It is divided in eight chapters. The first six chapters gives general information and main financial data on respectively the CEA-Industry Group profile, economics, the fuel cycle, the nuclear power plants, the nuclear medicine and the semiconductors. The chapter 7 deals with the financial results of the fiscal year 1998 and the last chapter is devoted to the management report of the administration council. (A.L.B.)

  13. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support

  14. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  15. Skin cancer, irradiation, and sunspots: the solar cycle effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovic, Edward; Zurbenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is diagnosed in more than 2 million individuals annually in the United States. It is strongly associated with ultraviolet exposure, with melanoma risk doubling after five or more sunburns. Solar activity, characterized by features such as irradiance and sunspots, undergoes an 11-year solar cycle. This fingerprint frequency accounts for relatively small variation on Earth when compared to other uncorrelated time scales such as daily and seasonal cycles. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters, applied to the solar cycle and skin cancer data, separate the components of different time scales to detect weaker long term signals and investigate the relationships between long term trends. Analyses of crosscorrelations reveal epidemiologically consistent latencies between variables which can then be used for regression analysis to calculate a coefficient of influence. This method reveals that strong numerical associations, with correlations >0.5, exist between these small but distinct long term trends in the solar cycle and skin cancer. This improves modeling skin cancer trends on long time scales despite the stronger variation in other time scales and the destructive presence of noise.

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  18. Relationships between Tropical Rainfall Events and Regional Annual Rainfall Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, C.; Varble, A.; Zipser, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Regional annual precipitation anomalies strongly impact the health of regional ecosystems, water resources, agriculture, and the probability of flood and drought conditions. Individual event characteristics, including rain rate, areal coverage, and stratiform fraction are also crucial in considering large-scale impacts on these resources. Therefore, forecasting individual event characteristics is important and could potentially be improved through correlation with longer and better predicted timescale environmental variables such as annual rainfall. This study examines twelve years of retrieved rainfall characteristics from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite at a 5° x 5° resolution between 35°N and 35°S, as a function of annual rainfall anomaly derived from Global Precipitation Climatology Project data. Rainfall event characteristics are derived at a system scale from the University of Utah TRMM Precipitation Features database and at a 5-km pixel scale from TRMM 2A25 products. For each 5° x 5° grid box and year, relationships between these characteristics and annual rainfall anomaly are derived. Additionally, years are separated into wet and dry groups for each grid box and are compared versus one another. Convective and stratiform rain rates, along with system area and volumetric rainfall, generally increase during wetter years, and this increase is most prominent over oceans. This is in agreement with recent studies suggesting that convective systems become larger and rainier when regional annual rainfall increases or when the climate warms. Over some land regions, on the other hand, system rain rate, volumetric rainfall, and area actually decrease as annual rainfall increases. Therefore, land and ocean regions generally exhibit different relationships. In agreement with recent studies of extreme rainfall in a changing climate, the largest and rainiest systems increase in relative size and intensity compared to average systems, and do

  19. Some features of Pc5 pulsations during a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.R.K.; Gupta, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The morphological features of Pc5 pulsations during a solar cycle are studied using Fort Churchill data for the years 1962 to 1972. Some of the characteristics noted are as follows: (1) Increasing sunspot numbers show little influence on the diurnal variations of the occurrence, amplitude and the period except perhaps some noticeable change in the absolute magnitude of these parameters during different hours of the day. (2) The morning occurrence peak dominates during all phases of the solar cycle. (3) With increasing magnetic activity the day side region(s) of generation of Pc5 is found to shift closer to the subsolar point and in the midnight sector, the occurrence region seemed to shift towards earlier hours with increasing magnetic activity and towards later hours with increasing sunspot numbers. (4) The amplitude of Pc5 pulsations is directly related to all the levels of magnetic activity. (5) The periods of Pc5 pulsations show strong correlation with increasing sunspot numbers and the amplitude and occurrences are found to vary in accordance with the magnetic activity all through the cycle. (6) The annual and semi-annual variations of Pc5 parameters have been demonstrated especially for the pulsations occurring in the morning close to 8 +- 1 h LT and for those occurring near the midnight hours. (7) a suspected 27-day recurrence tendency has been clearly noticed for the occurrence, amplitude and period of Pc5 pulsations. (author)

  20. Life cycle cost analysis of aging aircraft airframe maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Kenneth Robert

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between an aircraft's age and its annual airframe maintenance costs. Common life cycle costing methodology has previously not recognized the existence of this cost growth potential, and has therefor not determined the magnitude nor significance of this cost element. This study analyzed twenty-five years of DOT Form 41-airframe maintenance cost data for the Boeing 727, 737, 747 and McDonnell Douglas DC9 and DC-10 aircraft. Statistical analysis included regression analysis, Pearson's r, and t-tests to test the null hypothesis. Findings and conclusion. Airframe maintenance cost growth was confirmed to be increasing after an aircraft's age exceeded its designed service objective of approximately twenty-years. Annual airframe maintenance cost growth increases were measured ranging from 3.5% annually for a DC-9, to approximately 9% annually for a DC-10 aircraft. Average measured coefficient of determination between age and airframe maintenance, exceeded .80, confirming a strong relationship between cost: and age. The statistical significance of the difference between airframe costs sampled in 1985, compared to airframe costs sampled in 1998 was confirmed by t-tests performed on each subject aircraft group. Future cost forecasts involving aging aircraft subjects must address cost growth due to aging when attempting to model an aircraft's economic service life.

  1. Annual report 2003; Rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  2. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  3. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  4. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  5. Ciclo anual de la clorofila-α satelital en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°S, Chile Annual cycle of the satellite chlorophyll-a in the Juan Fernandez archipelago (33°S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad espacial y temporal del ciclo anual de la clorofila-α en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández se analiza usando ocho anos de datos satelitales de clorofila-α, viento, corrientes y nivel del mar. Este archipiélago está conformado por tres islas: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC y Alejandro Selkirk (AS. Las islas RC-SC se encuentran en una región de alta energía cinética y mayores concentraciones de clorofila-α definida como Zona de Transición Costera, en cambio la isla AS se encuentra en una región de baja energía cinética y menores concentraciones de clorofila-α denominada Zona Oceánica. RC-SC posee un incremento de las concentraciones de clorofila-a en el lado suroeste, mientras que AS posee sus mayores concentraciones en el lado oeste, indicando la presencia de procesos forzantes diferentes. En ambas islas el ciclo anual de la clorofila es significativo y comienza a incrementar en abril, alcanzando valores relativamente altos entre junio y noviembre, disminuyendo hacia diciembre, hasta alcanzar un mínimo hacia fines de marzo. Este ciclo anual aparece desacoplado con el viento y acoplado con la energía cinética. Incrementos invernales de clorofila-a aparecen vinculados con remolinos de mesoescala provenientes de la zona continental, mientras que incrementos primaverales se podrían asociar a procesos locales vinculados al "efecto masa de isla". En ambas islas existen incrementos significativos de la clorofila-a en la banda anual y cuasi-bianual, pero sólo en AS se encontró una fluctuación significativa en la banda interanual vinculada con el Nino y la Oscilación del Sur.The spatial and temporal variability of the annual cycle of chlorophyll-a in the Juan Fernandez archipelago is analyzed through eight years of satellite data of chlorophyll-a, wind, currents and sea level. This archipelago consists of three islands: Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC and Alexander Selkirk (AS. The RC-SC islands are in a

  6. 96. Annual report: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The annual report of the Chamber of Mines of South Africa covers various aspects of mining in South Africa during 1985. The report deals with coal, diamonds, gold, platinum and uranium. It also covers research, safety, industrial relations, taxation and the South African economy. Statistical tables on information concerning coal, gold, silver and uranium are also given. Long-term economic views strongly favour nuclear-generated electricity in most parts of the world and thus the demand for uranium can be expected to increase with rising energy needs. During 1985 members of the Nuclear Fuels Corporation of South Africa (Nufcor) produced 5541 metric ton U 3 O 8 . Statistics are given on the production of Uranium Oxide U 3 O 8 at the different South African mines. A quarterley analysis of working results during the year 1985 are given

  7. EDF - 2012 full-year results: Strong results and commitments delivered. Confirmation of the solidity of EDF's integrated and diversified business model. Annual results 2012. Electricite de France S.A.: Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements. Management report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2012 annual results, management report and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2012: EBITDA: euro 16.1 billion, +7.7% of which 4.6% organic growth; Net income excluding non-recurring items: euro 4.2 billion, +16.9%; Net income - Group share: euro 3.3 billion, + 5.3%; Allocation in 2013 of the CSPE receivable to dedicated assets, bringing coverage of eligible provisions to 100% starting as early as 2013; Net financial debt/EBITDA: 2.4x2; Proposed dividend of euro 1.25/share for the 20123 financial year, i.e. a pay-out ratio of 55% of net income excluding non-recurring items. 2013: a decisive year: Launch of 'Spark': plan targeting savings of euro 1 billion as soon as 2013; EBITDA: between 0% and 3% in organic growth excluding Edison; Edison: expectation for recurring EBITDA in line with 2012, with fluctuation in results possible in 2013-2014 linked to calendar effect from the re-negotiation of gas supply contracts; Net investments stable at euro 12 billion; Net financial debt/EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; Pay-out ratio: between 55% and 65% of net income excluding non-recurring items. Consolidated Financial Statements: Group accounting standards; comparability; significant events and transactions; regulatory events in France; changes in the scope of consolidation; segment reporting; sales; fuel and energy purchases; other external expenses; personnel expenses; taxes other than income taxes; other operating income and expenses; impairment / reversals; other income and expenses; financial result

  8. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  9. AREVA annual results 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA expanded its backlog and increased its revenues compared with 2008, on strong installed base business and dynamic major projects, fostering growth in operating income of 240 million euros. As announced previously, Areva is implementing a financing plan suited to its objectives of profitable growth. The plan was implemented successfully in 2009, including the conclusion of an agreement, under very satisfactory terms, to sell its Transmission and Distribution business for 4 billion euros, asset sales for more than 1.5 billion euros, and successful bond issues of 3 billion euros. The plan will continue in 2010 with a capital increase, the completion of asset disposals and cost reduction and continued operational performance improvement programs. Areva bolstered its Renewable Energies business segment by supplementing its offshore wind power and biomass businesses with the acquisition of Ausra, a California-based leader in concentrated solar power technology. Despite the sale of T and D, Areva is maintaining its financial performance outlook for 2012: 12% average annual revenue growth to 12 billion euros in 2012, double digit operating margin and substantially positive free operating cash flow. Annual results 2009: - For the group as a whole, including Transmission and Distribution: Backlog: euros 49.4 bn (+2.5%), Revenues: euros 14 bn (+6.4%), Operating income: euros 501 m (+20.1%); - Nuclear and Renewable Energies perimeter: Backlog: euros 43.3 bn (+1.8%), Strong revenue growth: +5.4% to euros 8.5 bn, Operating income before provision for the Finnish project in the first half of 2009: euros 647 m, Operating income: euros 97 m, for a euros 240 m increase from 2008; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euros 552 m, i.e. euros 15.59 per share; - Net debt: euros 6,193 m; - Pro-forma net debt, including net cash to be received from the sale of T and D in 2010: euros 3,022 m; - Dividend of euros 7.06 per share to be proposed during the Annual

  10. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  11. The annual report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The most significant achievements of the International Atomic Energy Agency during 1992 are summarized in the Introduction. The following topics are considered in detail: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of nuclear power and other energy sources; (v) food and agriculture; (vi) human health; (vii) industry and earth science; (viii) physical and chemical sciences; (ix) radiation protection; (x) safety of nuclear installations; and (xi) safeguards. The annual report ends with a description of the direction and support, statistical appendices, a list of abbreviations, and an organization chart

  12. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle; Transparence associee au cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  13. 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 issue of the annual report of the French nuclear safety authority (ASR) presents the activities of the ASR in the following domains: 2003 highlights (the project of law relative to the nuclear transparency and safety, the EPR reactor project, the radioprotection priorities, the inspection of radioprotection, the action plan for the monitoring of patients' exposure to ionizing radiations, the 2003 heat wave and the operation of nuclear power plants, the national plan of radioactive wastes management, the behaviour of long living and high level radioactive wastes, and the European 'nuclear package'), nuclear activities, ionizing radiations and health hazards, organisation of nuclear safety control and radioprotection, radioprotection and nuclear facilities regulation, control of nuclear activities, public information and transparency, international relations, radiological emergency situations, radiological and biomedical activities, industrial and research activities, transport of radioactive materials, safety and radioprotection of nuclear power plants, research and other nuclear facilities, fuel cycle centers, safety of the definitive shut-down and dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management and cleansing of polluted sites. (J.S.)

  14. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  15. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexi...

  16. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  17. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  18. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  19. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 24 April 2017. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  20. Predicting Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle 24

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Considering the geomagnetic activity aa indices during the descending phase of the preceding solar cycle as the precursor, we predict the maximum amplitude of annual mean sunspot number in cycle 24 to be 111 ± 21. This suggests that the maximum amplitude of the upcoming cycle 24 will be less than ...

  1. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  2. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  3. Annual Report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Herma G.; Leadbetter, Alan J. [eds.] [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-11-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  4. Annual Report, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Herma G.; Leadbetter, Alan J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  6. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  7. Strongly seasonal Proterozoic glacial climate in low palaeolatitudes: Radically different climate system on the pre-Ediacaran Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran glaciations occurred under strongly seasonal climates near sea level in low palaeolatitudes. Metre-scale primary sand wedges in Cryogenian periglacial deposits are identical to those actively forming, through the infilling of seasonal (winter thermal contraction-cracks in permafrost by windblown sand, in present-day polar regions with a mean monthly air temperature range of 40 °C and mean annual air temperatures of −20 °C or lower. Varve-like rhythmites with dropstones in Proterozoic glacial successions are consistent with an active seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. The seasonal (annual oscillation of sea level recorded by tidal rhythmites in Cryogenian glacial successions indicates a significant seasonal cycle and extensive open seas. Palaeomagnetic data determined directly for Proterozoic glacial deposits and closely associated rocks indicate low palaeolatitudes: Cryogenian deposits in South Australia accumulated at ≤10°, most other Cryogenian deposits at 54° during Proterozoic low-latitude glaciations, whereby the equator would be cooler than the poles, on average, and global seasonality would be greatly amplified.

  8. Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Matthias

    2014-09-11

    The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.

  9. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  10. Multilevel cycle of anthropogenic copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T E; van Beers, D; Bertram, M; Fuse, K; Gordon, R B; Gritsinin, A; Kapur, A; Klee, R J; Lifset, R J; Memon, L; Rechberger, H; Spatari, S; Vexler, D

    2004-02-15

    A comprehensive contemporary cycle for stocks and flows of copper is characterized and presented, incorporating information on extraction, processing, fabrication and manufacturing, use, discard, recycling, final disposal, and dissipation. The analysis is performed on an annual basis, ca. 1994, at three discrete governmental unit levels--56 countries or country groups that together comprise essentially all global anthropogenic copper stocks and flows, nine world regions, and the planet as a whole. Cycles for all of these are presented and discussed, and a "best estimate" global copper cycle is constructed to resolve aggregation discrepancies. Among the most interesting results are (1) transformation rates and recycling rates in apparently similar national economies differ by factors of two or more (country level); (2) the discard flows that have the greatest potential for copper recycling are those with low magnitude flows but high copper concentrations--electronics, electrical equipment, and vehicles (regional level); (3) worldwide, about 53% of the copper that was discarded in various forms was recovered and reused or recycled (global level); (4) the highest rate of transfer of discarded copper to repositories is into landfills, but the annual amount of copper deposited in mine tailings is nearly as high (global level); and (5) nearly 30% of copper mining occurred merely to replace copper that was discarded. The results provide a framework for similar studies of other anthropogenic resource cycles as well as a basis for supplementary studies in resource stocks, industrial resource utilization, waste management, industrial economics, and environmental impacts.

  11. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  12. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  13. Annual Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annual report presents research programmes and basic investigations of the Institute for Transuranium Elements. In Basic Safety Research on Nuclear Fuels, studies of the fracture and evaporation behaviour of UO 2 , simulating different degrees of burn-up, were continued. The Study of Safety Aspects of Fuel Operation and Handling dealt with an investigation of the operational limits of advanced fuels and with the transport and dispersion of radioactive aerosol particles in nuclear facilities. Actinide Determination and Recycling activities were mainly concerned with an evaluation of the technical possibilities to transmute long-lived nuclear waste constituents into shorter-lived fission products. The results of an earlier irradiation test were evaluated, and minor-actinide containing oxide fuel pins which had been irradiated in the PHENIX reactor were analysed. Progress was made in the Characterization of Waste Forms and of High Burn-Up Fuel. In the context of efforts to model the consequences of water intrusion into an underground fuel deposit (Project COCAIN), existing models (FUTURE, MITRA, CHEMIF) were adapted and used to characterize the initial state of an LWR fuel which had been subject to several irradiation cycles. In Actinide Research the accent was on the preparation and on structural and physical studies of actinide compounds with heavy fermion properties and with a particular magnetic behaviour. Experimental investigations on the attenuation of sound waves by aerosols and theoretical studies concerning the optimization of acoustic cavities for aerosol conditioning were carried out during the reporting period under the heading Exploratory Research. Support to the Directorate General XVII (Energy) on safeguarding fissile materials concentrated on the preparation of work in on-site analytical laboratories in Sellafield and La Hague. In this context, a portable compact K-edge absorption spectrometer was constructed and an expert system for the

  14. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  15. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  16. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 13, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2005. The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency?s iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2005/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environment; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to Safety and Security discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate

  17. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Artiklens formål er at diskutere oplevede kvaliteter og adfærdsaspekter af mobilitet med udgangspunkt i spørgsmålet om cykling i byer og relationen mellem design og adfærd. Artiklen tager afsæt i et studie forløb der involverede studerende fra Urban Design, Industriel Design Arkitektskolen Aarhus...... og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  18. Safe cycling!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  19. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  20. Like father, like son: the intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather; Biello, Katie Brooks; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-03-01

    Strong evidence exists to support an intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood, yet such a cycle has not been studied. We examined whether paternal adolescent fatherhood (i.e., father of study participant was age 19 years or younger when his first child was born) and other factors derived from the ecological systems theory predicted participant adolescent fatherhood. Data included 1496 young males who were interviewed annually from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine the effect of paternal adolescent fatherhood on participant adolescent fatherhood. Sons of adolescent fathers were 1.8 times more likely to become adolescent fathers than were sons of older fathers, after other risk factors were accounted for. Additionally, factors from each ecological domain-individual (delinquency), family (maternal education), peer (early adolescent dating), and environment (race/ethnicity, physical risk environment)-were independent predictors of adolescent fatherhood. These findings support the need for pregnancy prevention interventions specifically designed for young males who may be at high risk for continuing this cycle. Interventions that address multiple levels of risk will likely be most successful at reducing pregnancies among partners of young men.

  1. William T. Grant Foundation 2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Grant Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The William T. Grant Foundation was founded in 1936 to support strong social science research focused on "the enrichment of life, with a primary interest in people and in their adjustment to the world in which they live." Today, its funding priorities reflect this interest in research that affects young people's lives. This Annual Report…

  2. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Future ocean hypercapnia driven by anthropogenic amplification of the natural CO2 cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ben I; Sasse, Tristan P

    2016-01-21

    High carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in sea-water (ocean hypercapnia) can induce neurological, physiological and behavioural deficiencies in marine animals. Prediction of the onset and evolution of hypercapnia in the ocean requires a good understanding of annual variations in oceanic CO2 concentration, but there is a lack of relevant global observational data. Here we identify global ocean patterns of monthly variability in carbon concentration using observations that allow us to examine the evolution of surface-ocean CO2 levels over the entire annual cycle under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We predict that the present-day amplitude of the natural oscillations in oceanic CO2 concentration will be amplified by up to tenfold in some regions by 2100, if atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise throughout this century (according to the RCP8.5 scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The findings from our data are broadly consistent with projections from Earth system climate models. Our predicted amplification of the annual CO2 cycle displays distinct global patterns that may expose major fisheries in the Southern, Pacific and North Atlantic oceans to hypercapnia many decades earlier than is expected from average atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We suggest that these ocean 'CO2 hotspots' evolve as a combination of the strong seasonal dynamics of CO2 concentration and the long-term effective storage of anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans that lowers the buffer capacity in these regions, causing a nonlinear amplification of CO2 concentration over the annual cycle. The onset of ocean hypercapnia (when the partial pressure of CO2 in sea-water exceeds 1,000 micro-atmospheres) is forecast for atmospheric CO2 concentrations that exceed 650 parts per million, with hypercapnia expected in up to half the surface ocean by 2100, assuming a high-emissions scenario (RCP8.5). Such extensive ocean hypercapnia has detrimental implications for

  20. Space distribution and cycles yearly and semiannual of the precipitation in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Freddy; Mesa, Oscar; Poveda, German; Velez, Jaime; Hoyos, Carlos; Mantilla, Ricardo; Barco, Janet; Cuartas, Adriana; Montoya, Maria; Botero, Blanca

    1999-01-01

    The analyses of Colombia's mean annual rainfall distribution and of its annual and semi-annual cycle shown in this paper is the result of a wider research project on Colombia's water budget. The rainfall map is based upon tropical, rain gage data, maps produced in previous studies, large-scale climatic analysis and various interpolation techniques. Kriging with drift was used for the interpolation of the annual rainfall, taking previous maps as the drift term. For the monthly values ordinary kriging was used. The amplitude and phase of the annual and semi-annual cycle of precipitation was estimated by means of Fourier transform. Annual and semi-annual cycles of precipitation over Colombia reflect the passage of the inter tropical converge zone

  1. Manejo cultural do maracujazeiro-amarelo em ciclo anual visando à convivência com o vírus do endurecimento dos frutos: um estudo de caso Handling of the of yellow passion fruit plant in annual cycle aiming the coexistence with the pwv (passion fruit woodiness virus: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Costa Sampaio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de caso teve por objetivo analisar a qualidade dos frutos e a produtividade em t/ha de maracujá-amarelo, em dois ciclos anuais, plantados, respectivamente, nos dias 04-10-04 (1º plantio e 20-08-05 (2º plantio. As mudas da seleção Afruvec foram formadas em tubetes no interior de estufa com tela antiafídeo. O pomar, nos dois ciclos produtivos, foi irrigado por gotejamento, adotando-se uma densidade de 1.600 plantas/ha. O 1º plantio foi erradicado no dia 13-07-05, em função de o pomar apresentar a totalidade das plantas com sintomas típicos do vírus do endurecimento dos frutos (PWV nas folhas e frutos. No 1º e no 2º plantios, os sintomas tiveram início no dia 26-01-05 e no dia 04-01-06, respectivamente. Não houve necessidade de eliminação de plantas em ambos os plantios, já que o início dos sintomas de PWV ocorreu quando as plantas se encontravam em pleno florescimento. Pelos resultados, pode-se concluir que o manejo adotado regionalmente, com plantio em ciclo anual, permitiu uma ampliação do período de colheita, decorrente da antecipação de plantio no 2º ano; uma produtividade de 16,94 kg/planta e 18,39 kg/planta, no 1º e 2º anos, respectivamente; um aumento da rentabilidade na safra de 2006 em função: da maior produção, melhor cotação dos frutos para mesa e indústria, e aproveitamento dos investimentos realizados no 1º ano. As técnicas empregadas promoveram uma eficiente redução do potencial de inóculo regional, favorecendo uma sustentabilidade na produção.This case study aimed to analyze the quality of fruits and productivity in t/ha of the yellow passion fruit in two annual cycles, respectively on October 4th, 2004 (1st planting and August 20th, 2005 (2nd planting. In the 1st planting it was eradicated on the July 13th, 2005, in function of the orchard presenting the totality of the plants with typical symptoms of PWV in fruits and leaves. The seedlings of the selection Afruvec were formed in

  2. 1998 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the refining, distribution and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI's responsibilities include (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. This annual review summarizes industry operations and trends within the crude oil and petroleum products industry. In 1998, Canada's 19 CPPI member refineries processed an average of 1.6 million barrels of crude oil per day. The CPPI developed a policy position on climate change and continued its strong support of the Canadian Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. It initiated a major consumer information campaign regarding gasoline prices. It held a pollution prevention workshop to discuss issues related to air, land and water quality. It launched a website (www.cppi.ca) as another mechanism to provide its audience with information about the industry. Across Canada, CPPI's regional offices supported a number of industry initiatives, such as the work in Dartmouth, NS, on a Risk-based Correction Action process for the clean-up of sites contaminated with petroleum products, discussions on the development of a used oil program for Quebec, regulatory reform in Ontario, and support by the Calgary office in the implementation of used oil recycling programs in the Prairies. CPPI also participated in discussions concerning the establishment of standards regarding sulphur and benzene in gasoline, and the future regarding the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT for transportation fuels. It was also reported that CPPI members are on track towards achieving a 65 per cent reduction in refinery benzene emissions between 1993 and 2000. tabs., figs

  3. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  4. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  5. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  6. CSIR Annual report 1990

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 26 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1990.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  8. CSIR Annual report 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 33 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1995.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  11. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  12. 55th Annual

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1990-01-01

    Jan 1, 1990 ... At the invitation of the Madhya Pradesh. Council of Science and Technology, the. Barkatullah University and the Regional. Research laboratory, Bhopal, the 55th Annual. Meeting of the Academy was held at the. Tagore Bhawan, Bhopal from 10 to 13. November 1989. One of the best organized Annual.

  13. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  14. BNFL Annual Report and Accounts 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited's (BNFL)'s 1996 Annual Report documents the high quality, cost-effective nuclear fuel cycle services which the company offers both to customers in the United Kingdom and abroad. Performance in the fields of fuel manufacture and enrichment, fuel reprocessing and recycling, transport and waste management over the last year is described. Investment in research programs in areas of the Company's technological expertise is also covered, as well as its involvement in an increasingly competitive world market. (UK)

  15. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  16. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  17. Seasonality, climate cycles and body size evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, T.A.; van Dam, J.; Kooi, B.W.; Tuenter, E.

    2009-01-01

    The seasonality hypothesis states that climates characterized by large annual cycles select for large body sizes. In order to study the effects of seasonality on the evolution of body size, we use a model that is based on physiological rules and first principles. At the ecological time scale, our

  18. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the ... tool is based on a sample 28-day menstrual cycle, but every woman is different in how ...

  19. Electron dynamics in metals and semiconductors in strong THz fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors and metals respond to strong electric fields in a highly nonlinear fashion. Using single-cycle THz field transients it is possible to investigate this response in regimes not accessible by transport-based measurements. Extremely high fields can be applied without material damage...

  20. Annual report and balance 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents the CNEA's (National Atomic Energy Commission) activities during the year 2003. The first part is devoted to the general objectives and accomplishments of the Organization. The second part describes the programs and projects in different fields such as reactors and nuclear power plants, fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, radioisotopes and radiation, research and development in basic sciences and engineering, decommissioning of nuclear installations, etc. The evolution of the human resources and the training activities are outlined in the third part of the report. The CNEA's nuclear centers are described in part 4 and the technical assistance services and production activities in part 5. Nuclear safety and safeguards are covered in the 6th section. Parts 7 and 8 present the information on inter institutional affairs and on the CNEA related enterprises respectively. The last part is the financial accounting

  1. Annual report 1998-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This is the Annual Report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 1999 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1998-1999. The Activities covered in this Report include the CANDU Reactor Business, with excellent progress reported on the construction of two 700 MWe-class CANDU reactors in Qinshan, China. In the Republic of Korea, Wolsong Unit entered into commercial operation and Wolsong Unit 4 achieved sustained nuclear reaction. The Report also covers AECL's R and D and Waste Management programs. In the R and D section, the report outlines the development of the CANFLEX fuel bundle, Fuel Channels, Reactor Safety, Code Validation, Fuels and Fuel Cycles as well as Heavy Water production. Progress in the Waste Management program is also discussed.

  2. Annual report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the Annual Report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 1999 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1998-1999. The Activities covered in this Report include the CANDU Reactor Business, with excellent progress reported on the construction of two 700 MWe-class CANDU reactors in Qinshan, China. In the Republic of Korea, Wolsong Unit entered into commercial operation and Wolsong Unit 4 achieved sustained nuclear reaction. The Report also covers AECL's R and D and Waste Management programs. In the R and D section, the report outlines the development of the CANFLEX fuel bundle, Fuel Channels, Reactor Safety, Code Validation, Fuels and Fuel Cycles as well as Heavy Water production. Progress in the Waste Management program is also discussed

  3. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  4. Annual cycle of shoot development in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    Cytohistology and the development and morphogenesis of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) shoots were studied. Three types were recognized: short shoots, long shoots entirely preformed in the bud (Epf long), and long shoots partially preformed in the bud (heterophyllous). The three shoot types varied not only in the size and number of internodes...

  5. Annual cycles of soil and water temperatures at Hubbard Brook

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Anthony Federer

    1973-01-01

    Soil temperatures in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire decline very slowly from December to March and are restricted from falling below OºC by insulation of snow and organic matter. Soil in the hardwood forest on a moderate south slope warms rapidly in the spring leafless period after snowmelt and reaches a maximum temperature in...

  6. Synchronized Northern Hemisphere climate change and solar magnetic cycles during the Maunder Minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Sho, Kenjiro; Nakatsuka, Takeshi

    2010-11-30

    The Maunder Minimum (A.D. 1645-1715) is a useful period to investigate possible sun-climate linkages as sunspots became exceedingly rare and the characteristics of solar cycles were different from those of today. Here, we report annual variations in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose in central Japan during the Maunder Minimum. We were able to explore possible sun-climate connections through high-temporal resolution solar activity (radiocarbon contents; Δ(14)C) and climate (δ(18)O) isotope records derived from annual tree rings. The tree-ring δ(18)O record in Japan shows distinct negative δ(18)O spikes (wetter rainy seasons) coinciding with rapid cooling in Greenland and with decreases in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature at around minima of decadal solar cycles. We have determined that the climate signals in all three records strongly correlate with changes in the polarity of solar dipole magnetic field, suggesting a causal link to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). These findings are further supported by a comparison between the interannual patterns of tree-ring δ(18)O record and the GCR flux reconstructed by an ice-core (10)Be record. Therefore, the variation of GCR flux associated with the multidecadal cycles of solar magnetic field seem to be causally related to the significant and widespread climate changes at least during the Maunder Minimum.

  7. IRSN annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    IRSN, a public authority with industrial and commercial activities, was set up under Article 5 of French Act No. 2001-398 of May 9, 2001, enacted through Order No. 2002-254 of February 22, 2002. This Order was amended on April 7, 2007. The Institute is placed under the joint authority of the Ministries of Defense, the Environment, Industry, Research, and Health. It is the nation's public service expert in nuclear and radiation risks, and its activities cover all the related scientific and technical issues. Its areas of specialization include the environment and radiological emergency response, human radiation protection in both a medical and professional capacity, and in both normal and post-accident situations, the prevention of major accidents, nuclear reactor safety, as well as safety in plants and laboratories, transport and waste treatment, and nuclear defense expertise. IRSN interacts with all parties concerned by these risks (public authorities, in particular nuclear safety and security authorities, local authorities, companies, research organizations, stakeholders' associations, etc.) to contribute to public policy issues relating to nuclear safety, human and environmental protection against ionizing radiation, and the protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and transport against the risk of malicious acts. This document is the 2011 annual report of IRSN. It presents the Organization, Progress and main activities in 2011, Transparency and communications policy, safety and radiation protection culture of IRSN. The main activities in 2011 are presented in details: 1 - Safety: Safety of existing facilities: Monitoring reactors, Monitoring fuel cycle facilities and experimental reactors, Containment and fire, Natural hazards, Fuels, Accidents, About defense; Conducting assessments of future facilities: Future waste repositories, Reactors of the future; 2 - Security and non-proliferation: Protection against malicious act; Activities of the advisory

  8. NEA 2015 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, William D. IV; Ha, Jaejoo; Nieh, Ho; Hah, Yeonhee; Siemann, Michael; Gulliford, Jim; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Gannon-Picot, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The year 2015 continued to be one of significant change, both in relation to the Agency and the global context within which it operates. As countries around the world plan aggressive nuclear power plant construction programmes, prepare to phase out and decommission plants, or to both build and retire plants simultaneously, issues of economics, waste management, public communication and nuclear safety continue to dominate the global discussion regarding nuclear power. As many countries work to absorb the outcome of the COP21 negotiations at the end of 2015, it is becoming increasingly likely that the future of nuclear power will be determined in great respect by non-traditional suppliers and new entrant countries. As reflected in this year's Annual Report, the NEA completed a significant revision of its management structure, which, it is hoped, will enable it to be more flexible, more efficient and more focused on the issues of greatest concern to its member countries. Our members provided input via the process of developing the new Strategic Plan of the Nuclear Energy Agency: 2017-2022, reaffirming their desire to maintain a sharp focus on nuclear safety as our most important mission area, while also reaffirming the vital importance of the NEA as a leading forum for technology cooperation, economic analysis and scientific investigation. In that respect, the NEA's new role as the institutional home of the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) continues the Agency's coverage of complex issues associated with the deployment of new nuclear power plants. The NEA also launched the Nuclear Innovation 2050 initiative in 2015, through which NEA hopes to develop a coordinated international agenda for priority nuclear technology research and development on issues ranging from advanced fuel cycles to improved technology and methods for decommissioning retired plants. In all, 2015 was a year of both continued success for the NEA and a

  9. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  10. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  11. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  12. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  13. Women's Comedy Preferences during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Zillman, Dolf

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that premenstrual and menstrual women preferred comedy over alternative choices more strongly than did women midway through the cycle. Suggests that this preference reflects a desire to overcome the hormonally mediated noxious mood states that are characteristically associated with the premenstrual and menstrual phases of the cycle. (JD)

  14. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus...... model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working...... in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine...

  15. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  16. Ultrafast control of strong light–matter coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Panna, Dmitry; Whittaker, David M.; Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Hayat, Alex

    2018-01-01

    We dynamically modulate strong light–matter coupling in a GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity using intense ultrashort laser pulses tuned below the interband exciton energy, which induce a transient Stark shift of the cavity polaritons. For 225-fs pulses, shorter than the cavity Rabi cycle period of 1000 fs, this shift decouples excitons and cavity photons for the duration of the pulse, interrupting the periodic energy exchange between photonic and electronic states. For 1500-fs pulses, longer than the Rabi cycle period, however, the Stark shift does not affect the strong coupling. The two regimes are marked by distinctly different line shapes in ultrafast reflectivity measurements—regardless of the Stark field intensity. The crossover marks the transition from adiabatic to diabatic switching of strong light–matter coupling.

  17. Links between annual, Milankovitch and continuum temperature variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Peter; Curry, William

    2006-05-18

    Climate variability exists at all timescales-and climatic processes are intimately coupled, so that understanding variability at any one timescale requires some understanding of the whole. Records of the Earth's surface temperature illustrate this interdependence, having a continuum of variability following a power-law scaling. But although specific modes of interannual variability are relatively well understood, the general controls on continuum variability are uncertain and usually described as purely stochastic processes. Here we show that power-law relationships of surface temperature variability scale with annual and Milankovitch-period (23,000- and 41,000-year) cycles. The annual cycle corresponds to scaling at monthly to decadal periods, while millennial and longer periods are tied to the Milankovitch cycles. Thus the annual, Milankovitch and continuum temperature variability together represent the response to deterministic insolation forcing. The identification of a deterministic control on the continuum provides insight into the mechanisms governing interannual and longer-period climate variability.

  18. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Beier, C.

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... respiration from October to March was 22% and 30% of annual flux, respectively, suggesting that both cold-season carbon gain and loss were important in the annual carbon cycle of the ecosystem. Model fit of R-E of a classic, first-order exponential equation related to temperature ( second year; R-2 = 0......) of 2.5 by the modified model. The model introduces R-photo, which describes the part of respiration being tightly coupled to the photosynthetic rate. It makes up 5% of the assimilated carbon dioxide flux at 0 degrees C and 35% at 20 degrees C implying a high sensitivity of respiration to photosynthesis...

  19. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  20. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  1. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  2. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  3. Strong Equatorial Seasonality during Early Eocene greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arpita; Sarkar, Anindya

    2017-04-01

    A warm greenhouse climate, punctuated by a series of rapid warming events (known as hyperthermals), is characteristic of the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene period. Rapid addition of 13C depleted carbon to the exogenic carbon cycle, in an otherwise overall higher atmospheric CO2 level, is thought to set off the hyperthermal events. For understanding the fate of ongoing global warming and response of the climate system and biota, researchers for past few decades are paying more attention to comprehend this climatic enigma. Existing proxies from the most distinct hyperthermal event i.e., PETM indicate that the mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) was comparatively higher (by ˜8 ˚ C) at high latitude and to a lesser extent towards the equator. Apart from the prominent hyperthermal events the rest of the Early Eocene was significantly warmer and thought to be more equable compare to present. Terrestrial proxy records from the mid-latitude regions indicated that the Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Minimum Winter Temperature (MWT) was high, thus reducing the seasonality or difference between MWT and Maximum Summer Temperature (MST). In absence of proxy data from the low latitude region, a ≥40 ˚ C summer temperature was predicted assuming a mild Eocene temperature gradient of ˜0.4 ˚ C/ ˚ latitude and mid-latitude temperature data. Even question was raised about the existence of the tropical rain forest in such climatic extreme. Recent pollen census data, on contrary, suggest proliferation of the tropical rain forest during this climatic extreme. Important in this context is that there is a very few direct evidence of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene MAT and seasonality data from the low latitude/equatorial regions. To resolve this issue, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of larger benthic foraminifera (Nummulites burdigalensis) were measured in laser based carbonate device attached with the Delta V advantage continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer

  4. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  5. An optimized chronology for a stalagmite using seasonal trace element cycles from Shihua Cave, Beijing, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, F.; Baker, A.; Marjo, C.; Duan, W.; Li, X.; Coleborn, K.; Akter, R.; Nagra, G.

    2017-12-01

    Stalagmites play an increasingly important role in the paleoclimatic reconstruction from seasonal to orbital timescales. One of the important reasons is that 230Th-dating can provide an absolute age enabling more accurate knowledge of the stalagmite growth. Additionally, annual trace element and optical layers can provide complementary method for determining a precise age and seasonal resolution. The trace elements of a stalagmite (XMG) in Beijing Shihua Cave, which is located in the East Asian monsoon region, were analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS and compared with stalagmite laminae. The results show that: (1) the polished section of the topmost 4 mm of stalagmite XMG has obvious bi-optical layers (fluorescence and visible light) under a conventional transmission microscope. In the rest of the sample laminae are not observed using this method. (2) The variations of P/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca and Mg/Ca show seasonal cycles throughout the sample. Sr/Ca is inversely correlated to P/Ca, and its peaks correspond with the (non-fluorescing) white layers, which deposit in late winter and spring when the climate is dry. The peaks of P/Ca match closely with the (fluorescing) opaque layers, because P is a soil-derived element which increases in the high rainfall monsoon period. (3) The PCA of the five trace elements showed that the cycles of PC1 could represent the annual cycle. This stalagmite was deposited over 148 ± 4 years through peak counting and the cycles of PC1 correspond well with the annual layers. Trace element cyclicity as shown by PC1 can increase the accuracy of stalagmite dating, especially in the absence of obvious laminae. The trace elements can be used as the marker of seasonal changes in a strongly contrasting wet-dry monsoon climate regime. Keywords: high-precision dating; LA-ICP-MS; stalagmite; trace elements; seasonal cycles; Shihua Cave

  6. Reproductive cycles in tropical intertidal gastropods are timed around tidal amplitude cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Kerr, Kecia; Contolini, Gina; Ochoa, Isis

    2017-08-01

    Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides. Two of the species ( Crepidula cf. marginalis and Nerita scabricosta ) showed nonuniform reproduction, but without clear peaks in timing relative to tidal or lunar cycles. The other 4 species show clear peaks in reproduction occurring every 2 weeks. In 3 of these species ( Cerithideopsis carlifornica var. valida, Littoraria variegata , and Natica chemnitzi ), hatching occurred within 4 days of the maximum amplitude tides. Siphonaria palmata exhibit strong cycles, but reproduction occurred during the neap tides. Strong differences in the intensity of reproduction of Cerithideopsis carlifornica , and in particular, Littoraria variegata , between the larger and smaller spring tides of a lunar month indicate that these species time reproduction with the tidal amplitude cycle rather than the lunar cycle. For those species that reproduce during both the wet and dry seasons, we found that reproductive timing did not differ between seasons despite strong differences in temperature and precipitation. Overall, we found that most (4/6) species have strong reproductive cycles synchronized with the tidal amplitude cycle and that seasonal differences in abiotic factors do not alter these cycles.

  7. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of energy exchange above a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Launiainen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve-years of eddy-covariance measurements conducted above a boreal Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, were analyzed to assess the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface conductance (gs and energy partitioning. The gs had distinct annual course, driven by the seasonal cycle of the Scots pine. Low gs (2–3 mm s−1 in April cause the sensible heat flux to peak in May–June while evapotranspiration takes over later in July–August when gs is typically 5–7 mm s−1. Hence, during normal years Bowen ratio decreases from 4–6 in April to 0.7–0.9 in August. Sensitivity of gs to ambient vapor pressure deficit (D was relatively constant but the reference value at D = 1 kPa varied seasonally and between years. Only two drought episodes when volumetric soil moisture content in upper mineral soil decreased below 0.15 m3 m−3 occurred during the period. Below this threshold value, transpiration was strongly reduced, which promoted sensible heat exchange increasing Bowen ratio to 3–4. Annual evapotranspiration varied between 218 and 361 mm and accounted between 50% and 90% of equilibrium evaporation. The forest floor contributed between 16 and 25% of the total evapotranspiration on annual scale. The fraction stayed similar over the observed range of environmental conditions including drought periods. The inter-annual variability of evapotranspiration could not be linked to any mean climate variable while the summertime sensible heat flux and net radiation were well explained by global radiation. The energy balance closure varied annually between 0.66 and 0.95 and had a distinct seasonal cycle with worse closure in spring when a large proportion of available energy is partitioned into sensible heat.

  8. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  9. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  10. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  11. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  12. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  13. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  14. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  15. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  16. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  17. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  18. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  19. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. USRDS - Annual Data Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Data Report Comprehensive statistics on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States...

  1. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  2. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  3. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  4. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  5. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  6. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  7. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  8. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  9. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  10. Annual Market Intelligence Report

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Novie; Jones, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This report is the first Annual Market Intelligence Report (AMIR) produced by TCRC. Since 2005, TCRC has produced Quarterly Market Intelligence Report (QMIR). These reports provided estimated meal numbers on board based on forecasted passenger numbers. Due to changes in the way in which some data is reported, it was no longer possible to produce reports quarterly, hence the development of this annual report. Past reports and other TCRC Publications could be accessed online at http://epubs.s...

  11. <strong>Cell survival, cell death and cell cycle pathways are interconnected: Implications for cancer therapystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddika, S; Ande, SR; Panigrahi, S

    2007-01-01

    The partial cross-utilization of molecules and pathways involved in opposing processes like cell survival, proliferation and cell death, assures that mutations within one signaling cascade will also affect the other opposite process at least to some extent, thus contributing to homeostatic...... regulatory circuits. This review highlights some of the connections between opposite-acting pathways. Thus, we discuss the role of cyclins in the apoptotic process, and in the regulation of cell proliferation. CDKs and their inhibitors like the INK4-family (p16(Ink4a), p15(Ink4b), p18(Ink4c), p19(Ink4d......)), and the Cip1/Waf1/Kip1-2-family (p21(Cip1/Waf1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2)) are shown both in the context of proliferation regulators and as contributors to the apoptotic machinery. Bcl2-family members (i.e. Bcl2, Bcl-X(L) Mcl-1(L); Bax, Bok/Mtd, Bak, and Bcl-X(S); Bad, Bid, Bim(EL), Bmf, Mcl-1(S)) are highlighted...

  12. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  13. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  14. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  15. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.

  16. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  17. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  18. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  19. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  20. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  1. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  2. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sudying vole and lemming cycles using drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dramatic and regular inter-annual population fluctuations of small rodents, often referred to as voles and lemming cycles, are a well-known features of northern ecosystems. These population cycles of herbivores are synchronous at large spatial scales and have been shown to cause corresponding fluctuations in plant abundance. However, these regular plant cycles are only apparent at large spatial scales. Demographic stochasticity of rodent populations at smaller spatial scales and different responses of plant communities with different community traits are likely mechanisms driving this scale dependence, but moderate scale data (in-between satellites and manual recordings in study plots) are currently limiting our understanding of their relative importance. Understanding at which spatial scales we have synchronous plant cycles, and the mechanisms underpinning this pattern is of vital importance to understand processes like inter-annual variation in carbon fluxes or to predict future vegetation changes. I here show that by combining data from manually recorded subplots and satellite observation with RGB photos and multispectral sensor recordings from drones we can get the moderately scaled data needed to address these questions. I here show data on at which spatial scales regular interannual rodent cycles are synchronous and how rodent cycles influence different plants and communities based on their traits. I will, based on the results presented above, discuss future possibilities and limitations to study population dynamics of herbivores and plants with data derived from drones with special focus on temporal and spatial data.

  4. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  5. Modelling persistence in annual Australia point rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Whiting

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual rainfall time series for Sydney from 1859 to 1999 is analysed. Clear evidence of nonstationarity is presented, but substantial evidence for persistence or hidden states is more elusive. A test of the hypothesis that a hidden state Markov model reduces to a mixture distribution is presented. There is strong evidence of a correlation between the annual rainfall and climate indices. Strong evidence of persistence of one of these indices, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, is presented together with a demonstration that this is better modelled by fractional differencing than by a hidden state Markov model. It is shown that conditioning the logarithm of rainfall on PDO, the Southern Oscillation index (SOI, and their interaction provides realistic simulation of rainfall that matches observed statistics. Similar simulation models are presented for Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth. Keywords: Hydrological persistence,hidden state Markov models, fractional differencing, PDO, SOI, Australian rainfall

  6. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  7. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  8. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  9. [The M-cycle of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antholz, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Crime development measured by means of the changes in police recorded crime statistics (criminal offences per 100.000 inhabitants) shows periodical cycles, which can be described by the capital letter M. Starting from a low rate of criminality, crime rises over 1-3 years followed by an interim decline lasting for about one year. Then crime increases again for approximately 2 years to a second peak. After that, crime strongly declines to the next low point over a period of about two years. The course of this development is not uniform with equal amplitudes, but resembles an M-curve. Since 1950, seven such M-cycles have been observed with the 3rd M-cycle from 1965-1973, the 4th M-cycle from 1973-1984, the 5th M-cycle from 1984-1994, the 6th M-cycle from 1994-2005 and the 7th M-cycle from 2005-2010 being particularly distinct. The M-curve of crime may be explained by the M-form of the business cycle. Since World War II, the M-cycle of crime and the M-cycle of the economy have run approximately parallel. Up to the first large oil crisis, the M-cycle of crime preceded the economic situation by 1-2 years, whereas since 1976 it has followed the economic development with a time lag of one to two years.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  11. 2013 NEA Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    concerned with nuclear and radiation safety issues: the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). However, the follow-up to Fukushima continues to involve all areas of the Agency's work, as member countries look to implement practical measures and improvements based on lessons learnt. The NEA will continue to offer its direct assistance to the Japanese authorities in addressing remaining significant challenges, including environmental remediation and recovery, the management of radioactive waste and the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors. This Annual Report provides an overview of NEA activities for 2013, ranging from specific follow-up to the Fukushima Daiichi accident to further work in the areas of nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, nuclear law and nuclear energy development and the fuel cycle. While it is clear that Fukushima has had a profound effect on the nuclear energy sector, its development is set to continue in the coming years. Reflecting the need for secure supplies of low-carbon electricity, the use of nuclear power is projected to increase in a number of countries, notably in those that are seeking to diversify their energy mixes and to respond to global climate change objectives. The decision to introduce or to further develop the use of nuclear energy is an important one, which requires robust legal and regulatory frameworks and, first and foremost, an absolute commitment to safety. Table of contents: I. Message from the Director-General; II. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident and NEA Follow-up; III. Nuclear Power in 2013; IV. Technical Programmes: Nuclear Development and the Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Safety and Regulation, Radioactive Waste Management, Radiological Protection, Nuclear Science, Data Bank, Legal Affairs, Joint Projects and Other Co

  12. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  13. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  14. The effects of warming and nitrogen addition on soil nitrogen cycling in a temperate grassland, northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Na Ma

    Full Text Available Both climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition are predicted to affect soil N cycling in terrestrial biomes over the next century. However, the interactive effects of warming and N deposition on soil N mineralization in temperate grasslands are poorly understood.A field manipulation experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming and N addition on soil N cycling in a temperate grassland of northeastern China from 2007 to 2009. Soil samples were incubated at a constant temperature and moisture, from samples collected in the field. The results showed that both warming and N addition significantly stimulated soil net N mineralization rate and net nitrification rate. Combined warming and N addition caused an interactive effect on N mineralization, which could be explained by the relative shift of soil microbial community structure because of fungal biomass increase and strong plant uptake of added N due to warming. Irrespective of strong intra- and inter-annual variations in soil N mineralization, the responses of N mineralization to warming and N addition did not change during the three growing seasons, suggesting independence of warming and N responses of N mineralization from precipitation variations in the temperate grassland.Interactions between climate warming and N deposition on soil N cycling were significant. These findings will improve our understanding on the response of soil N cycling to the simultaneous climate change drivers in temperate grassland ecosystem.

  15. G-proteins and the inositol cycle in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bominaar, Anthony; van der Kaay, Jeroen; Kesbeke, F.; Snaarjagalska, BE.; van Haastert, Peter; MILLIGAN, G; WAKELAM, MJO; KAY, J

    1990-01-01

    The inositol cycle in Dictyostelium disocideum was studied both in vitro and in vivo. The results are compared to the inositol cycle as it is known from higher eukaryotes. Although there is a strong resemblance the cycles are different at some essential points. In comparison to higher eukaryotes, in

  16. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  17. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  18. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  19. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  20. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  1. Refining the cheatgrass-fire cycle in the Great Basin: Precipitation timing and fine fuel composition predict wildfire trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S; Welty, Justin L; Arkle, Robert S

    2017-10-01

    Larger, more frequent wildfires in arid and semi-arid ecosystems have been associated with invasion by non-native annual grasses, yet a complete understanding of fine fuel development and subsequent wildfire trends is lacking. We investigated the complex relationships among weather, fine fuels, and fire in the Great Basin, USA. We first modeled the annual and time-lagged effects of precipitation and temperature on herbaceous vegetation cover and litter accumulation over a 26-year period in the northern Great Basin. We then modeled how these fine fuels and weather patterns influence subsequent wildfires. We found that cheatgrass cover increased in years with higher precipitation and especially when one of the previous 3 years also was particularly wet. Cover of non-native forbs and native herbs also increased in wet years, but only after several dry years. The area burned by wildfire in a given year was mostly associated with native herb and non-native forb cover, whereas cheatgrass mainly influenced area burned in the form of litter derived from previous years' growth. Consequently, multiyear weather patterns, including precipitation in the previous 1-3 years, was a strong predictor of wildfire in a given year because of the time needed to develop these fine fuel loads. The strong relationship between precipitation and wildfire allowed us to expand our inference to 10,162 wildfires across the entire Great Basin over a 35-year period from 1980 to 2014. Our results suggest that the region's precipitation pattern of consecutive wet years followed by consecutive dry years results in a cycle of fuel accumulation followed by weather conditions that increase the probability of wildfire events in the year when the cycle transitions from wet to dry. These patterns varied regionally but were strong enough to allow us to model annual wildfire risk across the Great Basin based on precipitation alone.

  2. CSIR Annual report 1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty seventh annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1981 to 31 December 1981. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1981, certified...

  3. CSIR Annual report 1982

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty eighth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1982 to 31 December 1982. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1982, certified...

  4. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  5. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  6. OMS 1987 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Studies (OMS) progress during 1987 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of technology in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in five sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the Institute on…

  7. Folklife Annual, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Alan, Ed.; Hardin, James, Ed.

    This annual publication is intended to promote the documentation and study of the folklife of the United States, to share the traditions, values, and activities of U.S. folk culture, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of ideas and issues in folklore and folklife. The articles in this collection are: (1) "Eating in the Belly…

  8. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  9. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  10. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  11. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  12. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  13. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  14. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  15. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  16. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  17. 52nd Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1987-01-01

    Jan 1, 1987 ... At the invitation of the Banaras Hindu. University, Varanasi, the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Academy was held in the BHU campus from Friday 7 to Monday 10 November 1986. The Meeting began with the inaugural function in the newly completed University. Auditorium, Swatantrata Bhavan, at 6 p.m. on.

  18. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  19. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  20. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  1. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  2. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  3. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  4. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  5. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  6. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  7. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  8. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  9. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  10. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  11. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  13. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  14. NIKHEF Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report 1982, the NIKHEF research programs of high-energy physics, nuclear physics and radiochemistry is described in a wide context. Next, the reports of the individual projects of section-H and section-K are described in detail. Finally, the report gives some statistical information of publications, colloquia and co-workers. (Auth.)

  15. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  18. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  19. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  20. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  1. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary and detailed reports are presented of current research during 1987 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics. (H.W.). 61 refs.; 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  2. PTB annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The annual report presents general information on the institution's activities and the various departments, and reports on scientific work in the field of metrology and safety engineering. Brief scientific accounts refer to work in the domains of mechanics and acoustics, electricity, heat, optics, industrial metrology, atomic physics, technical and scientific services, collection and disposal of radioactive waste. (DG) [de

  3. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  4. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  5. RTE annual results 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the results of the RTE (Electric power Transport Network). The year 2005 is marked by the new status of RTE, as a limited company. The financial good performances, the market, the open network, the environmental policy, the human resources and the european and international relations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  6. CSIR Annual report 1962

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the eighteenth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1962 to 31 December 1962. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1962, certified...

  7. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  8. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  9. Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacz, M.; Zielinska, M.

    2011-06-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw describes the activities of Laboratory in 2010. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments at HIL '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' Appendices '' where general information on HIL activities are described. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Heavy Ion Laboratory prof. K. Rusek is also given.

  10. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  11. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  12. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  13. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  14. Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.; Skalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given

  15. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  16. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  17. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  18. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  19. NIKHEF Annual Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF) during its first year. Following a general introduction to the research areas in which NIKHEF is involved, 29 brief reports from the project groups are presented. Details concerning personnel, participation in councils and committees, finances, publications, colloquia and participation in congresses and schools are included. (Auth.)

  20. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  1. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  2. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  3. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  4. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  5. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  7. 57th Annual Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1992-01-01

    Jan 1, 1992 ... At the invitation of the National Chemical. Laboratory, Pune, the 57th Annual Meeting of the Academy was held at Pune ftom 8 to 11. November 1991. The Meeting began with the inaugural session on the morning of Friday, 8 November at the National Chemical laboratory (NCl). Auditorium. Dr R A ...

  8. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  9. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  10. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  11. CSIR Annual report 1963

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the nineteenth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1963, to the 31st December 1963. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  12. Innovation and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Festré, Agnès

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this chapter is to assess the originality of Schumpeter's theory of business cycles. The first section outlines the distinctive features of Schumpeter's approach to business cycles and economic dynamics. Section two looks at the mechanisms constituting the cycle in Schumpeter's two major contributions on this subject, the Theory of Economic Development (1911) and Business Cycles (1939).

  13. The fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the fuel cycle is presented. The following fuel cycle steps are described: (1) Front of the fuel cycle (Mining and milling; Treatment; Refining, conversion and enrichment; Fuel fabrication); (2) Use of fuel in nuclear reactors; (3) Back end of the fuel cycle (Interim storage of spent fuel; spent fuel reprocessing; Final disposal of spent fuel)

  14. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  15. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  16. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  17. Annual report - Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S A - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The annual report of 1998 of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S A - Brazilian company responsible for the industrial activities of the nuclear fuel cycle - introduces the next main topics: mineral resource directory main actions; industrial directory main actions; finance and administration directory main actions; transparency; environment, safety and quality; the company; and financial statements

  18. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project annual report 93/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project exists to develop fusion technologies and apply them worldwide in today's advanced fusion projects and to apply these technologies in fusion and tritium research facilities. CFFTP concentrates on developing capability in fusion fuel cycle systems, in tritium handling technologies and in remote handling. This is an annual report for CFFTP and as such also includes a financial report

  19. Annual report 2000. Department of wastes disposal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report presents the missions, the organization, the researches progress, the events, the publications and the personnel formation of the Department of wastes disposal and storage in the year 2000, one of the CEA fuel cycle Direction. (A.L.B.)

  20. Prediction of solar cycle 24 based on the Gnevyshev-Ohl-Kopecky rule and the three-cycle periodicity scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    2008-10-01

    An examination of the maximum yearly values of the conventional sunspot number Rz of all cycles revealed fluctuations of various intervals in the high periodicity region (exceeding 11 years), namely 2 cycles (Hale, 22 years), 3 cycles (TRC, three-cycle) and longer intervals. The 2-cycle spacings had the smallest amplitudes. According to the G-O (Gnevyshev-Ohl) rule (Gnevyshev and Ohl, 1948), the even-numbered series of the maxima of annual mean Wolf sunspot numbers Rz are followed by higher amplitude odd-numbered series. Kopecky (1950) generalized this relation to annual mean Wolf numbers corresponding to equivalent phases of the adjacent even-odd 11-year cycles. Therefore, we would call it the G-O-K rule. For the data of 28 cycles (cycle -4 to cycle 23), it was found that four pairs (~29%) from the fourteen even-odd pairs showed failure of the G-O-K rule. In the remaining ten pairs, the magnitudes of the odd cycles were well-correlated with the magnitudes of the preceding even cycles, but it was impossible to tell whether it would be a normal pair following the G-O-K rule or a possible case of failure. A much stronger sequence was the three-cycle sequence (TRC, low, high, higher). The 2-cycle oscillations were embedded into the TRC until the G-O-K rule failures occurred as in cycle 23. The patterns of cycle 17 (low), 18 (high), 19 (higher); 20 (low), 21 (high), 22 (higher) were noticed and used by Ahluwalia (1995, 1998) to predict a low value for cycle 23, which was accurate. However, in the earlier data, the preceding sequence (14, 15, 16) was rather uncertain, and before that for seven cycles (cycles 8-14), there were no TRC sequences at all. During the twelve cycles -4 to 7, there were only three isolated TRC sequences (one doubtful). In view of this chequered history of TRC, it is doubtful whether the present TRC pattern (cycles 17 23) would persist in the near future. Spectral analysis showed that in the first half (cycles -4 to 9), larger periodicities

  1. Prediction of solar cycle 24 based on the Gnevyshev-Ohl-Kopecky rule and the three-cycle periodicity scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the maximum yearly values of the conventional sunspot number Rz of all cycles revealed fluctuations of various intervals in the high periodicity region (exceeding 11 years, namely 2 cycles (Hale, 22 years, 3 cycles (TRC, three-cycle and longer intervals. The 2-cycle spacings had the smallest amplitudes. According to the G-O (Gnevyshev-Ohl rule (Gnevyshev and Ohl, 1948, the even-numbered series of the maxima of annual mean Wolf sunspot numbers Rz are followed by higher amplitude odd-numbered series. Kopecky (1950 generalized this relation to annual mean Wolf numbers corresponding to equivalent phases of the adjacent even-odd 11-year cycles. Therefore, we would call it the G-O-K rule. For the data of 28 cycles (cycle −4 to cycle 23, it was found that four pairs (~29% from the fourteen even-odd pairs showed failure of the G-O-K rule. In the remaining ten pairs, the magnitudes of the odd cycles were well-correlated with the magnitudes of the preceding even cycles, but it was impossible to tell whether it would be a normal pair following the G-O-K rule or a possible case of failure. A much stronger sequence was the three-cycle sequence (TRC, low, high, higher. The 2-cycle oscillations were embedded into the TRC until the G-O-K rule failures occurred as in cycle 23. The patterns of cycle 17 (low, 18 (high, 19 (higher; 20 (low, 21 (high, 22 (higher were noticed and used by Ahluwalia (1995, 1998 to predict a low value for cycle 23, which was accurate. However, in the earlier data, the preceding sequence (14, 15, 16 was rather uncertain, and before that for seven cycles (cycles 8-14, there were no TRC sequences at all. During the twelve cycles −4 to 7, there were only three isolated TRC sequences (one doubtful. In view of this chequered history of TRC, it is doubtful whether the present TRC pattern (cycles 17–23 would persist in the near future. Spectral analysis showed that in the first half (cycles −4 to 9, larger

  2. Health and safety annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    BNFL operates 6 sites in the United Kingdom concerned with the nuclear fuel cycle. The annual report on occupational health and safety gives information on all aspects of health and safety within BNFL with special reference to radiation doses received by the workforce and radiation protection measures taken by the company. BNFL's safety policy is set out. Radiation doses to all workers have remained low. Other industrial accidents are also listed and its safety measures for transport, radioactive effluents and in the event of an incident, are mentioned briefly. (UK)

  3. 1996 annual report; Rapport annuel 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This 1996 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and external communication with some budgetary informations. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the condensed matter and life sciences, the advanced technologies, the protection and transfer of knowledge and technologies, the environmental activities, the management and processing of nuclear wastes, the nuclear protection and safety, the technical and scientific information, the teaching and training, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (J.S.).

  4. 1997 annual report; Rapport annuel 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This 1997 issue of the annual report of the French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEA organization, activities, human resources, international relations and communication with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the national defence, the fuel cycle, the nuclear reactors, the nuclear protection and safety, the advanced technologies, the quasi-particles, the effects of ionizing radiations on humans, the medical imagery, the transfer of technology, the protection and valorization of knowledge, the radioactive wastes and spent fuels management, the training and teaching, the scientific prizes, the committees, councils and commissions. (O.M.)

  5. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  6. The carbon cycle and hurricanes in the United States between 1900 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Devendra; Liu, Shuguang; Oeding, Jennifer

    2014-06-06

    Hurricanes cause severe impacts on forest ecosystems in the United States. These events can substantially alter the carbon biogeochemical cycle at local to regional scales. We selected all tropical storms and more severe events that made U.S. landfall between 1900 and 2011 and used hurricane best track database, a meteorological model (HURRECON), National Land Cover Database (NLCD), U. S. Department of Agirculture Forest Service biomass dataset, and pre- and post-MODIS data to quantify individual event and annual biomass mortality. Our estimates show an average of 18.2 TgC/yr of live biomass mortality for 1900-2011 in the US with strong spatial and inter-annual variability. Results show Hurricane Camille in 1969 caused the highest aboveground biomass mortality with 59.5 TgC. Similarly 1954 had the highest annual mortality with 68.4 TgC attributed to landfalling hurricanes. The results presented are deemed useful to further investigate historical events, and the methods outlined are potentially beneficial to quantify biomass loss in future events.

  7. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate and landscape influence on indicators of lake carbon cycling through spatial patterns in dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Seekell, David A; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are strongly influenced by both climate and the surrounding landscape, yet the specific pathways connecting climatic and landscape drivers to the functioning of lake ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that the links that exist between spatial patterns in climate and landscape properties and the spatial variation in lake carbon (C) cycling at regional scales are at least partly mediated by the movement of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic component of the landscape. We assembled a set of indicators of lake C cycling (bacterial respiration and production, chlorophyll a, production to respiration ratio, and partial pressure of CO2 ), DOC concentration and composition, and landscape and climate characteristics for 239 temperate and boreal lakes spanning large environmental and geographic gradients across seven regions. There were various degrees of spatial structure in climate and landscape features that were coherent with the regionally structured patterns observed in lake DOC and indicators of C cycling. These different regions aligned well, albeit nonlinearly along a mean annual temperature gradient; whereas there was a considerable statistical effect of climate and landscape properties on lake C cycling, the direct effect was small and the overall effect was almost entirely overlapping with that of DOC concentration and composition. Our results suggest that key climatic and landscape signals are conveyed to lakes in part via the movement of terrestrial DOC to lakes and that DOC acts both as a driver of lake C cycling and as a proxy for other external signals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Annual report 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a Crown Corporation and reports to parliament through the Minister of Natural Resources. As an annual report, financial statements are an integral element, financial analysis and review are also ongoing. AECL is very active in marketing the science culture which is key to public understanding and acceptance of the nuclear industry. In commercial operations, the CANDU is still the flagship to be marketed in many countries. AECL is the main producer of medical isotopes for the global market. AECL and MDS Nordion signed agreements to secure the ongoing supply of isotopes and to build and operate two MAPLE reactors at the Chalk River site. Activities at AECL are focused on improved economics, further enhanced safety systems and fuel cycle flexibility in the research and product development programs. Waste management and nuclear sciences i e. health and environmental sciences are ongoing studies. Site refurbishment focuses on replacing and refurbishing major facilities to meet business needs.

  10. Annual report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a Crown Corporation and reports to parliament through the Minister of Natural Resources. As an annual report, financial statements are an integral element, financial analysis and review are also ongoing. AECL is very active in marketing the science culture which is key to public understanding and acceptance of the nuclear industry. In commercial operations, the CANDU is still the flagship to be marketed in many countries. AECL is the main producer of medical isotopes for the global market. AECL and MDS Nordion signed agreements to secure the ongoing supply of isotopes and to build and operate two MAPLE reactors at the Chalk River site. Activities at AECL are focused on improved economics, further enhanced safety systems and fuel cycle flexibility in the research and product development programs. Waste management and nuclear sciences i e. health and environmental sciences are ongoing studies. Site refurbishment focuses on replacing and refurbishing major facilities to meet business needs

  11. Annual report 1994-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions financially aided by DAE during the year 1994-95 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research establishments, nuclear power plants, heavy water plants, nuclear fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production facilities, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. These activities cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers, parallel processing etc. The activities are described under the headings: introduction, the year at a glance, nuclear power, non-power sectors, public sector undertakings, support to research, services etc.. Other activities of DAE include international relations, emergency planning, training, technology transfer etc. Service activities include materials management, construction, publicity and information etc. The text is illustrated with a number of coloured photographs. A chart showing the organisational structure of atomic energy administration of the country and a map of India showing locations of various atomic energy establishments, spread all over the country are also included in this Annual Report of the Department of Atomic Energy. (M.G.B.)

  12. Inelastic strong interactions at high energies. Annual progress report, June 1, 1983-May 1, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suranyi, P.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods giving increasingly more precise, but physically equivalent results were introduced for the investigation of U(1) lattice theories. The mass gap and string tension were calculated and deconfining phase transition points were estimated in Hamiltonian lattice theories by employing the variational and WKB methods and by constructing periodic Gaussian models. At weak coupling U(1) lattice theories (global or gauge) of d-dimension were shown to be equivalent to Z (integer valued) or Z(2) spin theories of d-1 dimensions. A systematic method for performing dimensional reduction on theories constructed in (D+n)-dimensional space-times, with or without torsion, which admit n Killing vectors was developed. For the case of n abelian Killing vectors the field contents and their equations of motion for the corresponding (d+n)-dimensional theories were completely worked out. An extended conformal theory of gravity was constructed and its local symmetries were compared to those of Einstein and Weyl. The extension to superspace was also studied

  13. IBD patients in remission strongly prefer annual telephone calls by IBD nurse - compared to outpatient visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Hentze, Runa; Markussen, Toto

    extend they were willing to change to SM compared to current routine appointments. Results: 87 % of the patients ‘agreed’ or ‘almost agreed’ to adopt the SM approach. Many patients comment that it was an excellent and timesaving idea. Those who had doubts were mainly older males with a long history....... Conclusion: SM seems to be very well accepted of IBD patients before hand. Special attention has to be taken to disabled patients and patients with special needs. Furthermore the IBD nurses must act on a high professional level....

  14. CTBTO Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    Despite various challenges, the Preparatory Commission in 2011 managed to build on its efforts in promoting the Treaty and expanding the capabilities of its verification regime. The Commission continued to enjoy strong political support and registered notable progress in universalization of the Treaty. With ratification of the Treaty by Ghana and Guinea, the number of ratifying States reached 155. The approval of the ratification of the Treaty by the Parliament of Indonesia in December 2011 was another key development that received worldwide media attention. In 2011, as a result of coordinated efforts of the States hosting facilities of the International Monitoring System (IMS), local operators, States Signatories and the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS), further progress was made in expanding the coverage and data availability in all IMS technologies. The number of certified IMS stations and radionuclide laboratories reached 270, representing 80% of the total foreseen by the Treaty. The number of certified IMS noble gas systems increased to 8, which is 20% of the planned network. Moreover, with the certification of an auxiliary seismic station in Bangladesh (AS7), the number of such stations reached 100. This achievement marks an increase in the data available from the verification regime, especially from radionuclide and auxiliary seismic stations. The major project to repair IMS hydroacoustic station HA3 and infrasound station IS14 (Chile), which were destroyed by a tsunami in 2010, continued to proceed well. The procurement process for HA3 was started. Efforts were being made to return IS14 to full operation in 2012. The PTS succeeded in further consolidating infrasound and noble gas systems into the operations of the International Data Centre (IDC). At the end of the year, 47 infrasound and 8 noble gas systems were in provisional operation. Efforts were also made to further enhance the atmospheric transport modelling capabilities and to continue

  15. Temperature fine-tunes Mediterranean Arabidopsis thaliana life-cycle phenology geographically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, A; Vidigal, D S; James, P M A; Fortin, M-J; Méndez-Vigo, B; Hilhorst, H W M; Bentsink, L; Alonso-Blanco, C; Picó, F X

    2018-01-01

    To understand how adaptive evolution in life-cycle phenology operates in plants, we need to unravel the effects of geographic variation in putative agents of natural selection on life-cycle phenology by considering all key developmental transitions and their co-variation patterns. We address this goal by quantifying the temperature-driven and geographically varying relationship between seed dormancy and flowering time in the annual Arabidopsis thaliana across the Iberian Peninsula. We used data on genetic variation in two major life-cycle traits, seed dormancy (DSDS50) and flowering time (FT), in a collection of 300 A. thaliana accessions from the Iberian Peninsula. The geographically varying relationship between life-cycle traits and minimum temperature, a major driver of variation in DSDS50 and FT, was explored with geographically weighted regressions (GWR). The environmentally varying correlation between DSDS50 and FT was analysed by means of sliding window analysis across a minimum temperature gradient. Maximum local adjustments between minimum temperature and life-cycle traits were obtained in the southwest Iberian Peninsula, an area with the highest minimum temperatures. In contrast, in off-southwest locations, the effects of minimum temperature on DSDS50 were rather constant across the region, whereas those of minimum temperature on FT were more variable, with peaks of strong local adjustments of GWR models in central and northwest Spain. Sliding window analysis identified a minimum temperature turning point in the relationship between DSDS50 and FT around a minimum temperature of 7.2 °C. Above this minimum temperature turning point, the variation in the FT/DSDS50 ratio became rapidly constrained and the negative correlation between FT and DSDS50 did not increase any further with increasing minimum temperatures. The southwest Iberian Peninsula emerges as an area where variation in life-cycle phenology appears to be restricted by the duration and severity

  16. Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Krausz, Ferenc; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.

    2018-04-01

    The advent of visible-infrared laser pulses carrying a substantial fraction of their energy in a single field oscillation cycle has opened a new era in the experimental investigation of ultrafast processes in semiconductors and dielectrics (bulk as well as nanostructured), motivated by the quest for the ultimate frontiers of electron-based signal metrology and processing. Exploring ways to approach those frontiers requires insight into the physics underlying the interaction of strong high-frequency (optical) fields with electrons moving in periodic potentials. This Colloquium aims at providing this insight. Introduction to the foundations of strong-field phenomena defines and compares regimes of field-matter interaction in periodic systems, including (perfect) crystals as well as optical and semiconductor superlattices, followed by a review of recent experimental advances in the study of strong-field dynamics in crystals and nanostructures. Avenues toward measuring and controlling electronic processes up to petahertz frequencies are discussed.

  17. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  18. Nagra annual report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This annual report made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) takes a look at the cooperative’s activities and work done in 2013. Nagra’s task is recapitulated. Developments in 2013 concerning legislation, inventories of radioactive materials, sectorial planning and scientific and technical aspects are examined. Work done in the rock laboratories, in the public relations sector and consulting areas is looked at. Nagra’s organizational structure with its management, commissions and auditors is commented on and an organigram of the head office is presented. On the financial side of things, the annual financial statement with incomes, cash flow and accumulated accounts is presented as is the report made by the statutory auditors. An appendix to the report contains details on waste inventories and volumes, a list publications made in 2012 as well as Internet addresses and a glossary

  19. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  20. Annual recertification: fun? Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1994-01-01

    Learning is critical to fostering a knowledge base required for maintaining currency and furthering professional development. In the ever-changing field of nephrology, most skills practised in nursing are considered to be sanctioned medical acts or added nursing skills. Therefore, annual recertification of the skills designated as sanctioned medical acts is an expectation of the College of Nurses of Ontario. The Wellesley Hospital policy indicates one time only or annual approval of the added nursing skills. The article will discuss the use of games as a creative, non-threatening educational tool in the recertification/re-approval process currently in place at The Wellesley Hospital, renal programs. In the past two years, several games or alternative teaching strategies have been utilized to assist the staff in preparing for recertification. This paper will examine the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing alternative teaching formats. Commentary regarding the response of staff nurses, nursing management and education will be highlighted.

  1. 1986 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the reasearch activity carried out during 1986 by the Fusion Department of the Italian Commision for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). The report outlines the main results obtained by the three major projects of the Fusion Department (Fusion Physics, Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and Fusion Reactor Engineering), plus the divisional project Inertial Confinement mentioned separately because of its particular scientific content. Most of the research work was performed by the Fusion Department at its location at the ENEA Frascati Energy Research Center, but some work was also done elsewhere, or with recourse to other ENEA departments. The research activity described in this annual report was carried out with the frame of the Association Euratom-ENEA on Fusion, with the exception of some minor activities

  2. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  3. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  6. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  8. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  10. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  11. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  12. NAGRA Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This annual report presents the highlights of the activities carried out by the Swiss National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes NAGRA during the year 2010. These include reviews by various commissions of the NAGRA co-operative's proposals for possible sites for nuclear waste repositories. Also, the enhancements made concerning information facilities for the general public at the co-operative's rock laboratories are mentioned. The operation of initial satellite-based precision measurement systems for movements in the earth's crust is noted. Organisational aspects and international co-operation are discussed. This annual report also looks at NAGRA's organisational structures and its commercial accounts. Appendices provide details on waste inventories and volumes and publications made in 2010. A selection of relevant internet addresses is also provided

  13. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  14. IKF - annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Steuer, E.

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute during 1982 together with a list of publications. The work concerns nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, high-energetic heavy ion physics, heavy ion-atom collisions, nuclear solidstate physics, solid-state particle detectors, the application of nuclear methods and mass spectroscopy, ion source development, instrumental development and data processing, interdisciplinary cooperation, as well as the Van de Graaf accelerator facilities. (HSI) [de

  15. NSLS annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out

  16. NSLS annual report 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaffky, R.; Thomlinson, W. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The first comprehensive Annual Report of the National Synchrotron Light Source comes at a time of great activity and forward motion for the facility. In the following pages we outline the management changes that have taken place in the past year, the progress that has been made in the commissioning of the x-ray ring and in the enhanced utilization of the uv ring, together with an extensive discussion of the interesting scientific experiments that have been carried out.

  17. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The 1979 annual report of HMI presents information on the major scientific findings of this year in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry, data processing and electronics as well as on the scientific cooperation with universities, institutions, and the industry. The general development of HMI, its structure and organisation are reviewed. A detailed list of publications and lectures (also by foreign guests of HMI) in the various fields of research is given. (RB) [de

  18. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    In part 1, the annual report informs of the organizational and administrative development of the Bundesanstalt, in its 2nd part it presents a survey of scientific activities in 1976, examinations carried out, measuring devices and operational equipment given permission to, and cooperation in national and international bodies. The 3rd part contains scientific summaries of activities published and not published, which were either concluded in the year under review or which came to some interim results. (orig.) [de

  19. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  20. TIARA annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 95 papers and brief descriptions on the status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author)