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Sample records for strong adverse pressure

  1. A parametric study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monty, J.P.; Harun, Z.; Marusic, I.

    2011-01-01

    There are many open questions regarding the behaviour of turbulent boundary layers subjected to pressure gradients and this is confounded by the large parameter space that may affect these flows. While there have been many valuable investigations conducted within this parameter space, there are still insufficient data to attempt to reduce this parameter space. Here, we consider a parametric study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers where we restrict our attention to the pressure gradient parameter, β, the Reynolds number and the acceleration parameter, K. The statistics analyzed are limited to the streamwise fluctuating velocity. The data show that the mean velocity profile in strong pressure gradient boundary layers does not conform to the classical logarithmic law. Moreover, there appears to be no measurable logarithmic region in these cases. It is also found that the large-scale motions scaling with outer variables are energised by the pressure gradient. These increasingly strong large-scale motions are found to be the dominant contributor to the increase in turbulence intensity (scaled with friction velocity) with increasing pressure gradient across the boundary layer.

  2. Evolution of a Planar Wake in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Mateer, George G.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of improving the predictability of high-lift systems at maximum lift conditions, a series of fundamental experiments were conducted to study the effects of adverse pressure gradient on a wake flow. Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter. Data were obtained for several cases of adverse pressure gradient, producing flows ranging from no reversed flow to massively reversed flow. While the turbulent Reynolds stresses increase with increasing size of the reversed flow region, the gradient of Reynolds stress does not. Computations using various turbulence models were unable to reproduce the reversed flow.

  3. LES of the adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Pullin, D.I.; Harun, Z.; Marusic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at high Re is studied. • Wall-model LES works well for nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layer. • Relationship of skin-friction to Re and Clauser pressure parameter is explored. • Self-similarity is observed in the velocity statistics over a wide range of Re. -- Abstract: We describe large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flat-plate turbulent boundary layer in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the domain of the flow coupled to a wall model that explicitly accounts for the presence of a finite pressure gradient. The LES are designed to match recent experiments conducted at the University of Melbourne wind tunnel where a plate section with zero pressure gradient is followed by section with constant adverse pressure gradient. First, LES are described at Reynolds numbers based on the local free-stream velocity and the local momentum thickness in the range 6560–13,900 chosen to match the experimental conditions. This is followed by a discussion of further LES at Reynolds numbers at approximately 10 times and 100 times these values, which are well out of range of present day direct numerical simulation and wall-resolved LES. For the lower Reynolds number runs, mean velocity profiles, one-point turbulent statistics of the velocity fluctuations, skin friction and the Clauser and acceleration parameters along the streamwise, adverse pressure-gradient domain are compared to the experimental measurements. For the full range of LES, the relationship of the skin-friction coefficient, in the form of the ratio of the local free-stream velocity to the local friction velocity, to both Reynolds number and the Clauser parameter is explored. At large Reynolds numbers, a region of collapse is found that is well described by a simple log-like empirical relationship over two orders of magnitude. This is expected to be useful for constant adverse-pressure

  4. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  5. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  6. Origin of strong coupling in lithium under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasinathan, D.; Koepernik, K.; Kuneš, Jan; Rosner, H.; Pickett, W. E.

    460-462, - (2007), s. 133-136 ISSN 0921-4534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * lithium * high pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2007

  7. Direct numerical simulation of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layer subjected to adverse pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hirofumi; Kono, Amane; Houra, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of DNS. • The detailed turbulent statistics and structures in various thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers having APG are discussed. • It is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification. • In the case of strong stable stratification with or without APG, the flow separation is observed in the downstream region. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate and observe turbulent heat transfer structures and statistics in thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers subjected to a non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient (APG) by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). DNSs are carried out under conditions of neutral, stable and unstable thermal stratifications with a non-equilibrium APG, in which DNS results reveal heat transfer characteristics of thermally-stratified non-equilibrium APG turbulent boundary layers. In cases of thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers affected by APG, heat transfer performances increase in comparison with a turbulent boundary layer with neutral thermal stratification and zero pressure gradient (ZPG). Especially, it is found that the friction coefficient and Stanton number decrease along the streamwise direction due to the effects of stable thermal stratification and APG, but those again increase due to the APG effect in the case of weak stable thermal stratification (WSBL). Thus, the analysis for both the friction coefficient and Stanton number in the case of WSBL with/without APG is conducted using the FIK identity in order to investigate contributions from the transport equations, in which it is found that both Reynolds-shear-stress and the mean convection terms

  8. Instability waves and transition in adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Rikhi; Zaki, Tamer A.; Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-05-01

    Transition to turbulence in incompressible adverse-pressure-gradient (APG) boundary layers is investigated by direct numerical simulations. Purely two-dimensional instability waves develop on the inflectional base velocity profile. When the boundary layer is perturbed by isotropic turbulence from the free stream, streamwise elongated streaks form and may interact with the instability waves. Subsequent mechanisms that trigger transition depend on the intensity of the free-stream disturbances. All evidence from the present simulations suggest that the growth rate of instability waves is sufficiently high to couple with the streaks. Under very low levels of free-stream turbulence (˜0.1 % ), transition onset is highly sensitive to the inlet disturbance spectrum and is accelerated if the spectrum contains frequency-wave-number combinations that are commensurate with the instability waves. Transition onset and completion in this regime is characterized by formation and breakdown of Λ vortices, but they are more sporadic than in natural transition. Beneath free-stream turbulence with higher intensity (1-2 % ), bypass transition mechanisms are dominant, but instability waves are still the most dominant disturbances in wall-normal and spanwise perturbation spectra. Most of the breakdowns were by disturbances with critical layers close to the wall, corresponding to inner modes. On the other hand, the propensity of an outer mode to occur increases with the free-stream turbulence level. Higher intensity free-stream disturbances induce strong streaks that favorably distort the boundary layer and suppress the growth of instability waves. But the upward displacement of high amplitude streaks brings them to the outer edge of the boundary layer and exposes them to ambient turbulence. Consequently, high-amplitude streaks exhibit an outer-mode secondary instability.

  9. Low diastolic blood pressure and adverse outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi

    2018-07-15

    It remains unknown whether a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increases the risks of cardiovascular events and death in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We used data from the TOPCAT trial. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Hazard ratios (HRs) were analyzed for DBPs of <60, 60-69, 70-79, and ≥90 mm Hg in comparison with a DBP of 80-89 mm Hg using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. This study included 3417 patients with HFpEF who had a controlled blood pressure. In the mean follow-up period of 3.0 years, 881 patients experienced at least one confirmed primary outcome event. Compared with patients with a DBP of 80-89 mm Hg, the adjusted HRs for primary outcome events were significantly higher in those with DBPs of <60 mm Hg (HR: 2.19 [95% confidence interval,1.72-2.78]) and 60-69 mm Hg (HR: 1.52 [1.23-1.87]). Similarly, the adjusted HRs for all-cause death, major cardiovascular events, and hospitalization for heart failure, but not stroke, were significantly higher in patients with a DBP of <70 mm Hg. A relationship between a low DBP and adverse outcomes was found in HFpEF patients with a systolic blood pressure of ≥120 mm Hg; however, a low systolic blood pressure with a DBP of ≥70 mm Hg was not associated with these event risks. A low DBP increased the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with HFpEF. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  11. Strong stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability by material strength at Mbar pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H S; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Remington, B A

    2009-11-19

    Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure effective lattice viscosity are presented. Using a laser created ramped drive, vanadium samples are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the sample in the solid-state. Comparisons with simulations and theory indicate that the high pressure, high strain rate conditions trigger a phonon drag mechanism, resulting in the observed high effective lattice viscosity and strong stabilization of the RT instability.

  12. Characterization of Rare Reverse Flow Events in Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Fuchs, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Time-resolved tomographic flow fields measured in the viscous sublayer region of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to an adverse pressure gradient (APG) are examined with the aim to resolve and characterize reverse flow events at Reτ = 5000. The fields were measured using a novel high resolution tomographic particle tracking technique. It is shown that this technique is able to fully resolve mean and time dependent features of the complex three-dimensional flow with high accuracy down to very near-wall distances ( 10 μm). From time resolved Lagrangian particle trajectories, statistical information as well as instantaneous topological features of near-wall flow events are deduced. Similar to the zero pressure gradient case (ZPG), it was found that individual events with reverse flow components still occur relatively rarely under the action of the pressure gradient investigated here. However, reverse flow events comprised of many individual events, are shown to appear in relatively organized groupings in both spanwise and streamise directions. Furthermore, instantaneous measurements of reverse flow events show that these events are associated with the motion of low-momentum streaks in the near-wall region. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures and the individual project Grant KA1808/8-2 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  13. STRONG SOLAR WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES: INTERPLANETARY SOURCES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GEOSYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector

  14. STRONG SOLAR WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES: INTERPLANETARY SOURCES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GEOSYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Xie, Yanqiong [College of Meteorology and Oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Xu, Xiaojun, E-mail: pbzuo@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China)

    2015-10-20

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector.

  15. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  16. A preliminary investigation of boundary-layer transition along a flat plate with adverse pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E

    1938-01-01

    Boundary-layer surveys were made throughout the transition region along a smooth flat plate placed in an airstream of practically zero turbulence and with an adverse pressure gradient. The boundary-layer Reynolds number at the laminar separation point was varied from 1,800 to 2,600. The test data, when considered in the light of certain theoretical deductions, indicated that transition probably began with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The extent of the transition region, defined as the distance from a calculated laminar separation point to the position of the first fully developed turbulent boundary-layer profile, could be expressed as a constant Reynolds number run of approximately 70,000. Some speculations are presented concerning the application of the foregoing concepts, after certain assumptions have been made, to the problem of the connection between transition on the upper surface of an airfoil at high angles of attack and the maximum lift.

  17. Riblet drag reduction in mild adverse pressure gradients: A numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model several differently sized scalloped riblets using LES. • Riblets were modeled in both ZPG and mild APG and compared to each other and to a baseline (flat plate) case. • Scalloped riblets in the mild APG reduce drag only slightly more than those in ZPG. • Maximum values of streamwise turbulence intensities, streamwise vorticity, and TKE are proportional to riblet width. • Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence energy production scale with riblet drag reduction. - Abstract: Riblet films are a passive method of turbulent boundary layer control that can reduce viscous drag. They have been studied with great detail for over 30 years. Although common riblet applications include flows with Adverse Pressure Gradients (APG), nearly all research thus far has been performed in channel flows. Recent research has provided motivation to study riblets in more complicated turbulent flows with claims that riblet drag reduction can double in mild APG common to airfoils at moderate angles of attack. Therefore, in this study, we compare drag reduction by scalloped riblet films between riblets in a zero pressure gradient and those in a mild APG using high-resolution large eddy simulations. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship between drag reduction and pressure gradient, we simulated several different riblet sizes that encompassed a broad range of s"+ (riblet width in wall units), similarly to many previously published experimental studies. We found that there was only a slight improvement in drag reduction for riblets in the mild APG. We also observed that peak values of streamwise turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and streamwise vorticity scale with riblet width. Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence kinetic energy production however scale with the ability of the riblet to reduce skin-friction.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background-The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are

  19. Relation between change in blood pressure in acute stroke and risk of early adverse events and poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else C; Murray, Gordon D; Bath, Philip M W

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST) found no benefits of candesartan in acute stroke. In the present analysis we aim to investigate the effect of change in blood pressure during the first 2 days of stroke on the risk of early adverse events and poor outcome....

  20. Pressure and intracorporal acceleration measurements in pigs exposed to strong shock waves in a free field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassout, P.; Franke, R.; Parmentier, G.; Evrard, G.; Dancer, A.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs

  1. TP53 mutations in myelodysplastic syndrome are strongly correlated with aberrations of chromosome 5, and correlate with adverse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Smith, Alexander E; Mian, Syed A; Mohamedali, Azim M; Krishnamurthy, Pramila; Lea, Nicholas C; Gäken, Joop; Pennaneach, Coralie; Ireland, Robin; Czepulkowski, Barbara; Pomplun, Sabine; Marsh, Judith C; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence/prognostic impact of TP53 mutation in 318 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, and to correlate the changes to cytogenetics, single nucleotide polymorphism array karyotyping and clinical outcome. The median age was 65 years (17-89 years) and median follow-up was 45 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 27-62 months]. TP53 mutations occurred in 30 (9.4%) patients, exclusively in isolated del5q (19%) and complex karyotype (CK) with -5/5q-(72%), correlated with International Prognostic Scoring System intermediate-2/high, TP53 protein expression, higher blast count and leukaemic progression. Patients with mutant TP53 had a paucity of mutations in other genes implicated in myeloid malignancies. Median overall survival of patients with TP53 mutation was shorter than wild-type (9 versus 66 months, P disappearance of the mutant clone or emergence of new clones, suggesting an early occurrence of TP53 mutations. A reduction in mutant clone correlated with response to 5-azacitidine, however clones increased in non-responders and persisted at relapse. The adverse impact of TP53 persists after adjustment for cytogenetic risk and is of practical importance in evaluating prognosis. The relatively common occurrence of these mutations in two different prognostic spectrums of MDS, i.e. isolated 5q- and CK with -5/5q-, possibly implies two different mechanistic roles for TP53 protein. © 2013 Crown copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  2. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidez Romero, Rene; Murguía Romero, Miguel; Esparza Romero, Julián; Díaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Medrano Donlucas, Gabriel; Ramos Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Gallardo Ortíz, Itzell A; Tapia Pancardo, Diana C Tapia-Pancardo C; Méndez Cruz, A René; Jiménez Flores, J Rafael; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between abdominal obesity (AOb) and the other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Mexicans in a cross-sectional survey completed during a 4 year period. This cross-sectional study reports on components and prevalence of MetS by using Alberti et al. (16) criteria, as well as association between AOb and elevated blood pressure (BP) of 2,993 Mexican university students, ages 17 to 25 years (66% women) from central and northern Mexico, over a 4-year survey (2010-2013). The most prevalent MetS components in the total sample were low HDL-C concentration (43.6%) and AOb (41.1%). MetS prevalence was 11.8%, more men than women were classified with MetS (14.3% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.01). BP was the MetS component with the lowest prevalence (8.6%). A strong association between AOb and altered BP with in both men and women was found (OR 4.3, IC95% 2.5-7.4). Even BP was the component with the lowest prevalence, AOb was more strongly associated with it. This fact, could explain the prevalence of hypertension among young Mexican adults.

  3. SIGNIFICANT ENHANCEMENT OF H{sub 2} FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES UNDER STRONG RAM PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Benjamin; Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-05-10

    We show for the first time that H{sub 2} formation on dust grains can be enhanced in disk galaxies under strong ram pressure (RP). We numerically investigate how the time evolution of H i and H{sub 2} components in disk galaxies orbiting a group/cluster of galaxies can be influenced by the hydrodynamical interaction between the gaseous components of the galaxies and the hot intracluster medium. We find that compression of H i caused by RP increases H{sub 2} formation in disk galaxies before RP rapidly strips H i, cutting off the fuel supply and causing a drop in H{sub 2} density. We also find that the level of this H{sub 2} formation enhancement in a disk galaxy under RP depends on the mass of its host cluster dark matter halo, the initial positions and velocities of the disk galaxy, and the disk inclination angle with respect to the orbital plane. We demonstrate that dust growth is a key factor in the evolution of the H i and H{sub 2} mass in disk galaxies under strong RP. We discuss how the correlation between H{sub 2} fractions and surface gas densities of disk galaxies evolves with time in the galaxies under RP. We also discuss whether galaxy-wide star formation rates (SFRs) in cluster disk galaxies can be enhanced by RP if the SFRs depend on H{sub 2} densities.

  4. EDF - 2015 full-year results: all targets reached, Strong operating performance in adverse market conditions, 2018 ambition reiterated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    A key player in energy transition, the EDF Group is an integrated electricity company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, energy supply and trading, energy services. A global leader in low-carbon energies, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, hydropower, new renewable energies and thermal energy. The Group is involved in supplying energy and services to approximately 37.6 million customers, of which 27.8 million in France. The Group generated consolidated sales of Euro 75 billion in 2015, of which 47.2% outside of France. EDF is listed on the Paris Stock exchange. EDF achieved all its targets in 2015. The year was marked by strong operational performance, reflecting the significant efforts the teams made. With the end of the regulated Yellow and Green Tariffs, most clients turned to EDF. Nuclear output reached its highest level, since 2011 in France, and since 2005 in the United Kingdom. EDF is also continuing its significant development in renewable energy, with an additional 1 GW of net installed capacity. The transformation of EDF Group is essential in the unfavourable market conditions. EDF has embarked on this transformation, and is accelerating innovation to serve the energy transition

  5. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Białowieża National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Białowieża National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest

  6. Involvement of Inflammation and Adverse Vascular Remodelling in the Blood Pressure Raising Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Ng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil thermoxidation during deep frying generates harmful oxidative free radicals that induce inflammation and increase the risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, aortic morphometry, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, fresh palm oil (FPO, one-time-heated palm oil (1HPO, five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO, or ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO. Feeding duration was six months. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. After six months, the rats were sacrificed and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. FPO group showed significantly lower blood pressure than all other groups. Blood pressure was increased significantly in 5HPO and 10HPO groups. The aortae of 5HPO and 10HPO groups showed significantly increased thickness and area of intima-media, circumferential wall tension, and VCAM-1 than other groups. Elastic lamellae were disorganised and fragmented in 5HPO- and 10HPO-treated rats. VCAM-1 expression showed a significant positive correlation with blood pressure. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil causes blood pressure elevation, adverse remodelling, and increased VCAM-1, which suggests a possible involvement of inflammation.

  7. Dynamics of pollutant indicators during flood events in a small river under strong anthropogenic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.

    2017-04-01

    In densely populated regions, human activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. In order to assess water and pollutants dynamics and their mass-balance in strongly modified river system, it is important to take into account high flow events as a significant fraction of water and pollutants loads may occur during these short events which are generally underrepresented in classical mass balance studies. A good example of strongly modified river systems is the Zenne river in and around the city of Brussels (Belgium).The Zenne River (Belgium) is a rather small but dynamic rain fed river (about 10 m3/s in average) that is under the influence of strong contrasting anthropogenic pressures along its stretch. While the upstream part of its basin is rather characterized by agricultural land-use, urban and industrial areas dominate the downstream part. In particular, the city of Brussels (1.1M inhabitants) discharges in the Zenne River amounts of wastewater that are large compared to the natural riverine flow. In order to assess water and pollutants dynamics and their mass-balance in the Zenne hydrographic network, we followed water flows and concentrations of several water quality tracers during several flood episodes with an hourly frequency and at different locations along the stretch of the River. These parameters were chosen as indicators of a whole range of pollutions and anthropogenic activities. Knowledge of the high-frequency pollutants dynamics during floods is required for establishing accurate mass-balances of these elements. We thus report here the dynamics of selected parameters during entire flood events, from the baseline to the decreasing phase and at hourly frequency. Dynamics at contrasting locations, in agricultural or urban environments are compared. In particular, the

  8. Social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Levy, Sheldon; Pico, Jose; Luben, Robert N; Surtees, Paul G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for hypertension and has been shown to affect response to treatment for psychiatric illnesses. We investigate the relationship between a history of social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use. A total of 1,186 participants selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study (531 men and 655 women, aged 42 to 80 years) had attended two health checks at which blood pressure measurements were taken; were taking antihypertensive medication at the second, but not the first health check; and had completed a questionnaire assessment of their social and psychological circumstances which included details of traumatic experiences in childhood and of adverse life events, long-term difficulties, and perceived stress in adulthood. Experience of recent loss events in adulthood was associated with a smaller reduction in systolic blood pressure after starting hypertension treatment (β = 1.78, 95 % confidence interval 0.15-3.40, per life event), independently of age, sex, preexisting health conditions, cigarette smoking history, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity. Results from this study suggest that stress caused by recent losses may be associated with reduced effectiveness of treatment for hypertension. Subject to replication, these findings may help determine the specific physiological mechanisms by which medication treatment effectiveness is affected by stress.

  9. Left Ventricular Geometry and Blood Pressure as Predictors of Adverse Progression of Fabry Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Johannes; Bijnens, Bart; Störk, Stefan; Ritter, Christian O; Liu, Dan; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In spite of several research studies help to describe the heart in Fabry disease (FD), the cardiomyopathy is not entirely understood. In addition, the impact of blood pressure and alterations in geometry have not been systematically evaluated. In 74 FD patients (mean age 36±12 years; 45 females) the extent of myocardial fibrosis and its progression were quantified using cardiac magnetic-resonance-imaging with late enhancement technique (LE). Results were compared to standard echocardiography complemented by 2D-speckle-tracking, 3D-sphericity-index (SI) and standardized blood pressure measurement. At baseline, no patient received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). After 51±24 months, a follow-up examination was performed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in patients with vs. without LE: 123±17 mmHg vs. 115±13 mmHg; P = 0.04. A positive correlation was found between SI and the amount of LE-positive myocardium (r = 0.51; PAUC = 0.785; P<0.05). LV geometry as assessed by the sphericity index is altered in relation to the stage of the Fabry cardiomyopathy. Although patients with FD are not hypertensive, the SBP has a clear impact on the progression of the cardiomyopathy.

  10. Left Ventricular Geometry and Blood Pressure as Predictors of Adverse Progression of Fabry Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Krämer

    Full Text Available In spite of several research studies help to describe the heart in Fabry disease (FD, the cardiomyopathy is not entirely understood. In addition, the impact of blood pressure and alterations in geometry have not been systematically evaluated.In 74 FD patients (mean age 36±12 years; 45 females the extent of myocardial fibrosis and its progression were quantified using cardiac magnetic-resonance-imaging with late enhancement technique (LE. Results were compared to standard echocardiography complemented by 2D-speckle-tracking, 3D-sphericity-index (SI and standardized blood pressure measurement. At baseline, no patient received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. After 51±24 months, a follow-up examination was performed.Systolic blood pressure (SBP was higher in patients with vs. without LE: 123±17 mmHg vs. 115±13 mmHg; P = 0.04. A positive correlation was found between SI and the amount of LE-positive myocardium (r = 0.51; P<0.001 indicating an association of higher SI in more advanced stages of the cardiomyopathy. SI at baseline was positively associated with the increase of LE-positive myocardium during follow-up. The highest SBP (125±19 mmHg and also the highest SI (0.32±0.05 was found in the subgroup with a rapidly increasing LE (ie, ≥0.2% per year; n = 16; P = 0.04. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including SI, SBP, EF, left ventricular volumes, wall thickness and NT-proBNP adjusted for age and sex showed SI as the most powerful parameter to detect rapid progression of LE (AUC = 0.785; P<0.05.LV geometry as assessed by the sphericity index is altered in relation to the stage of the Fabry cardiomyopathy. Although patients with FD are not hypertensive, the SBP has a clear impact on the progression of the cardiomyopathy.

  11. Spectral shifting strongly constrains molecular cloud disruption by radiation pressure on dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissl, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to test the hypothesis that radiation pressure from young star clusters acting on dust is the dominant feedback agent disrupting the largest star-forming molecular clouds and thus regulating the star-formation process. Methods: We performed multi-frequency, 3D, radiative transfer calculations including both scattering and absorption and re-emission to longer wavelengths for model clouds with masses of 104-107 M⊙, containing embedded clusters with star formation efficiencies of 0.009-91%, and varying maximum grain sizes up to 200 μm. We calculated the ratio between radiative and gravitational forces to determine whether radiation pressure can disrupt clouds. Results: We find that radiation pressure acting on dust almost never disrupts star-forming clouds. Ultraviolet and optical photons from young stars to which the cloud is optically thick do not scatter much. Instead, they quickly get absorbed and re-emitted by the dust at thermal wavelengths. As the cloud is typically optically thin to far-infrared radiation, it promptly escapes, depositing little momentum in the cloud. The resulting spectrum is more narrowly peaked than the corresponding Planck function, and exhibits an extended tail at longer wavelengths. As the opacity drops significantly across the sub-mm and mm wavelength regime, the resulting radiative force is even smaller than for the corresponding single-temperature blackbody. We find that the force from radiation pressure falls below the strength of gravitational attraction by an order of magnitude or more for either Milky Way or moderate starbust conditions. Only for unrealistically large maximum grain sizes, and star formation efficiencies far exceeding 50% do we find that the strength of radiation pressure can exceed gravity. Conclusions: We conclude that radiation pressure acting on dust does not disrupt star-forming molecular clouds in any Local Group galaxies. Radiation pressure thus appears unlikely to regulate the star

  12. Separation Dynamics of Controlled Internal Flow in an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of fluidic actuation on the dynamic evolution of aggressive internal flow separation is investigated at speeds up to M = 0.4 within a constant-width diffuser branching off of a primary flow duct. It is shown that a spanwise array of fluidic actuators upstream of the separation actively controls the flow constriction (and losses) within the diffuser and consequently the local pressure gradient at its entrance. The effectiveness of the actuation, as may be measured by the increased flow rate that is diverted through the diffuser, scales with its flow rate coefficient. In the presence of actuation (0.7% mass fraction), the mass flow rate in the primary duct increases by 10% while the fraction of the diverted mass flow rate in the diffuser increases by more than 45%. The flow dynamics near separation in the absence and presence of actuation are characterized using high speed particle image velocimetry and analyzed using proper orthogonal and spectral decompositions. In particular, the spectral contents of the incipient boundary layer separation are compared in the absence and presence of actuation with emphasis on the changes in local dynamics near separation as the characteristic cross stream scale of the boundary layer increases with separation delay.

  13. Communication: Thermodynamics of condensed matter with strong pressure-energy correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Bøhling, Lasse; Schrøder, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We show that for any liquid or solid with strong correlation between its NVT virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations, the temperature is a product of a function of excess entropy per particle and a function of density, T = f(s)h(ρ). This implies that (1) the system's isomorphs (curve...

  14. Midregional-proAtrial Natriuretic Peptide and High Sensitive Troponin T Strongly Predict Adverse Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Repair of Mitral Valve Regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wöhrle

    Full Text Available It is not known whether biomarkers of hemodynamic stress, myocardial necrosis, and renal function might predict adverse outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous repair of severe mitral valve insufficiency. Thus, we aimed to assess the predictive value of various established and emerging biomarkers for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE in these patients.Thirty-four patients with symptomatic severe mitral valve insufficiency with a mean STS-Score for mortality of 12.6% and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 19.7% undergoing MitraClip therapy were prospectively included in this study. Plasma concentrations of mid regional-proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP, Cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and soluble ST-2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 were measured directly before procedure. MACE was defined as cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF.During a median follow-up of 211 days (interquartile range 133 to 333 days, 9 patients (26.5% experienced MACE (death: 7 patients, rehospitalization for HF: 2 patients. Thirty day MACE-rate was 5.9% (death: 2 patients, no rehospitalization for HF. Baseline concentrations of hsTnT (Median 92.6 vs 25.2 ng/L, NT-proBNP (Median 11251 vs 1974 pg/mL and MR-proANP (Median 755.6 vs 318.3 pmol/L, all p<0.001 were clearly higher in those experiencing an event vs event-free patients, while other clinical variables including STS-Score and logistic EuroSCORE did not differ significantly. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, NT-proBNP and in particular hsTnT and MR-proANP above the median discriminated between those experiencing an event vs event-free patients. This was further corroborated by C-statistics where areas under the ROC curve for prediction of MACE using the respective median values were 0.960 for MR-proANP, 0.907 for NT-proBNP, and 0.822 for hsTnT.MR-proANP and hsTnT strongly

  15. Dynamic high pressure induced strong and weak hydrogen bonds enhanced by pre-resonance stimulated Raman scattering in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Fabing; Gong, Nan; Li, Zhanlong; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2017-12-11

    355 nm pulsed laser is employed to excite pre-resonance forward stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) of liquid water at ambient temperature. Due to the shockwave induced dynamic high pressure, the obtained Raman spectra begin to exhibit double peaks distribution at 3318 and 3373 cm -1 with the input energy of 17 mJ,which correspond with OH stretching vibration with strong and weak hydrogen (H) bonds. With laser energy rising from 17 to 27 mJ, the Stokes line at 3318 cm -1 shifts to 3255 and 3230 cm -1 because of the high pressure being enlarged. When the energy is up to 32 mJ, only 3373 cm -1 peak exists. The strong and weak H bond exhibit quite different energy dependent behaviors.

  16. Generalized virial theorem and pressure relation for a strongly correlated Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Shina

    2008-01-01

    For a two-component Fermi gas in the unitarity limit (i.e., with infinite scattering length), there is a well-known virial theorem, first shown by J.E. Thomas et al. A few people rederived this result, and extended it to few-body systems, but their results are all restricted to the unitarity limit. Here I show that there is a generalized virial theorem for FINITE scattering lengths. I also generalize an exact result concerning the pressure to the case of imbalanced populations

  17. High pressure sample container for thermal neutron spectroscopy and diffraction on strongly scattering fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, P.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of the construction and performance of a container for thermal neutron scattering on a fluid sample with about 1.5 cm -1 macroscopic cross section (neglecting absorption). The maximum pressure is about 900 bar. The container is made of 5052 aluminium capillary with inner diameter 0.75 mm and wall thickness 0.25 mm; it covers a neutron beam with a cross section of 9 X 2.5 cm 2 . The container has been successfully used in neutron diffraction and time-of-flight experiments on argon-36 at 120 K and several pressures up to 850 bar. It is shown that during these measurements the temperature gradient over the sample as well as the error in the absolute temperature were both less than 0.05 K. Subtraction of the Bragg peaks due to container scattering in diffraction experiments may be dfficult, but seems feasible because of the small amount of aluminium in the neutron beam. Correction for container scattering and multiple scattering in time-of-flight experiments may be difficult only in the case of coherently scattering samples and small scattering angles. (Auth.)

  18. Reynolds stress structures in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at the verge of separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.; Sekimoto, A.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.

    2018-04-01

    Mean Reynolds stress profiles and instantaneous Reynolds stress structures are investigated in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) at the verge of separation using data from direct numerical simulations. The use of a self-similar APG-TBL provides a flow domain in which the flow gradually approaches a constant non-dimensional pressure gradient, resulting in a flow in which the relative contribution of each term in the governing equations is independent of streamwise position over a domain larger than two boundary layer thickness. This allows the flow structures to undergo a development that is less dependent on the upstream flow history when compared to more rapidly decelerated boundary layers. This APG-TBL maintains an almost constant shape factor of H = 2.3 to 2.35 over a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range of Re δ 2 = 8420 to 12400. In the APG-TBL the production of turbulent kinetic energy is still mostly due to the correlation of streamwise and wall-normal fluctuations, 〈uv〉, however the contribution form the other components of the Reynolds stress tensor are no longer negligible. Statistical properties associated with the scale and location of sweeps and ejections in this APG-TBL are compared with those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing from the same inlet profile, resulting in momentum thickness based range of Re δ 2 = 3400 to 3770. In the APG-TBL the peak in both the mean Reynolds stress and the production of turbulent kinetic energy move from the near wall region out to a point consistent with the displacement thickness height. This is associated with a narrower distribution of the Reynolds stress and a 1.6 times higher relative number of wall-detached negative uv structures. These structures occupy 5 times less of the boundary layer volume and show a similar reduction in their streamwise extent with respect to the boundary layer thickness. A significantly lower percentage

  19. Application of Confined Blasting in Water-Filled Deep Holes to Control Strong Rock Pressure in Hard Rock Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxuan Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In extra-thick coal seams, mining operations can lead to large-scale disturbances, complex overburden structures, and frequent and strong strata behavior in the stope, which are serious threats to mine safety. This study analyzed the overburden structure and strata behavior and proposed the technique of confined blasting in water-filled deep holes as a measure to prevent strong rock pressure. It found that there are two primary reasons for the high effectiveness of the proposed technique in presplitting hard coal and rock. First, the fracture water enables much more efficient transfer of dynamic load due to its incompressibility. Second, the subsequent expansion of water can further split the rock by compression. A mechanical model was used to reveal how the process of confined blasting in water-filled deep holes presplit roof. Moreover, practical implementation of this technique was found to improve the structure of hard, thick roof and prevent strong rock pressure, demonstrating its effectiveness in roof control.

  20. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Fry, R C; Balakrishnan, P; Navas-Acien, A; Oliver-Williams, C; Howard, A G; Cole, S A; Haack, K; Lange, E M; Howard, B V; Best, L G; Francesconi, K A; Goessler, W; Umans, J G; Tellez-Plaza, M

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with cardiovascular disease in populations, but the relationship of Cd with hypertension has been inconsistent. We studied the association between urinary Cd concentrations, a measure of total body burden, and blood pressure in American Indians, a US population with above national average Cd burden. Urinary Cd was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and adjusted for urinary creatinine concentration. Among 3714 middle-aged American Indian participants of the Strong Heart Study (mean age 56 years, 41% male, 67% ever-smokers, 23% taking antihypertensive medications), urinary Cd ranged from 0.01 to 78.48 μg g -1 creatinine (geometric mean=0.94 μg g -1 ) and it was correlated with smoking pack-year among ever-smokers (r 2 =0.16, Pyears), and urinary Cd was similarly elevated in light- and never-smokers (geometric means of 0.88 μg g -1 creatinine for both categories). Log-transformed urinary Cd was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure in models adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, body mass index, smoking (ever vs never, and cumulative pack-years) and kidney function (mean blood pressure difference by lnCd concentration (β)=1.64, P=0.002). These associations were present among light- and never-smokers (β=2.03, P=0.002, n=2627), although not significant among never-smokers (β=1.22, P=0.18, n=1260). Cd was also associated with diastolic blood pressure among light- and never-smokers (β=0.94, P=0.004). These findings suggest that there is a relationship between Cd body burden and increased blood pressure in American Indians, a population with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  1. Association between Selective Beta-adrenergic Drugs and Blood Pressure Elevation: Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.

  2. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  3. Colonization of a territory by a stochastic population under a strong Allee effect and a low immigration pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2015-06-01

    We study the dynamics of colonization of a territory by a stochastic population at low immigration pressure. We assume a sufficiently strong Allee effect that introduces, in deterministic theory, a large critical population size for colonization. At low immigration rates, the average precolonization population size is small, thus invalidating the WKB approximation to the master equation. We circumvent this difficulty by deriving an exact zero-flux solution of the master equation and matching it with an approximate nonzero-flux solution of the pertinent Fokker-Planck equation in a small region around the critical population size. This procedure provides an accurate evaluation of the quasistationary probability distribution of population sizes in the precolonization state and of the mean time to colonization, for a wide range of immigration rates. At sufficiently high immigration rates our results agree with WKB results obtained previously. At low immigration rates the results can be very different.

  4. Blood Pressure Elevation Associated with Topical Prostaglandin F2α Analogs: An Analysis of the Different Spontaneous Adverse Event Report Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Kawakami, Haruna; Inoue, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    Topical prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) analogs are widely used as the first line of therapy for glaucoma. Systemic PGF2α is suggested to increase blood pressure. Some ophthalmic formulations with β-receptor blocking or α-receptor stimulating actions are reported to cause systemic adverse events such as a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between topical PGF2α analogs and blood pressure elevation. We analyzed the reports obtained from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database from the first quarter of 2004 until the end of 2015 and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database from April 2004 to January 2016 for signal detection using reporting odds ratio (ROR), a method of disproportionality analyses. Signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. Preferred terms in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities were utilized to define blood pressure elevation. A total of 6156081 reports from the FAERS and 351226 reports from the JADER were analyzed. The significant RORs with 95% CI were calculated to be 1.82 (95% CI: 1.55-2.13) for bimatoprost, 1.69 (95% CI: 1.53-1.85) for latanoprost, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.82-2.59) for travoprost from the FAERS. From the JADER, 5.01 (95% CI: 1.59-15.8) was calculated for bimatoprost and 8.02 (95% CI: 2.94-21.9) for tafluprost. The resulting data suggest the necessity for further clinical research on blood pressure elevation associated with topical PGF2α analogs and close monitoring.

  5. Can adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes be predicted when blood pressure becomes elevated? Secondary analyses from the CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Singer, Joel; Lee, Terry; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K; Logan, Alexander G; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G; Moutquin, Jean Marie

    2016-07-01

    For women with chronic or gestational hypertension in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study, NCT01192412), we aimed to examine whether clinical predictors collected at randomization could predict adverse outcomes. This was a planned, secondary analysis of data from the 987 women in the CHIPS Trial. Logistic regression was used to examine the impact of 19 candidate predictors on the probability of adverse perinatal (pregnancy loss or high level neonatal care for >48 h, or birthweight hypertension, preeclampsia, or delivery at blood pressure within 1 week before randomization. Continuous variables were represented continuously or dichotomized based on the smaller p-value in univariate analyses. An area-under-the-receiver-operating-curve (AUC ROC) of ≥0.70 was taken to reflect a potentially useful model. Point estimates for AUC ROC were hypertension (0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.74) and delivery at hypertension develop an elevated blood pressure in pregnancy, or formerly normotensive women develop new gestational hypertension, maternal and current pregnancy clinical characteristics cannot predict adverse outcomes in the index pregnancy. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  6. Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary pressure associated with strong spontaneous breathing effort may worsen lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Akinori; Matsuura, Nariaki; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure could be generated by strong spontaneous breathing and exacerbate lung injury even when plateau pressure is limited to ventilation, each combined with weak or strong spontaneous breathing effort. Inspiratory pressure for low tidal volume ventilation was set at 10 cm H2O and tidal volume at 6 mL/kg. For moderate tidal volume ventilation, the values were 20 cm H2O and 7-9 mL/kg. The groups were: low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, and moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong. Each group had the same settings for positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O. Respiratory variables were measured every 60 mins. Distribution of lung aeration and alveolar collapse were histologically evaluated. Low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong showed the most favorable oxygenation and compliance of respiratory system, and the best lung aeration. By contrast, in moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, the greatest atelectasis with numerous neutrophils was observed. While we applied settings to maintain plateau pressure at ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, transpulmonary pressure rose >33 cm H2O. Both minute ventilation and respiratory rate were higher in the strong spontaneous breathing groups. Even when plateau pressure is limited to mechanical ventilation, transpulmonary pressure and tidal volume should be strictly controlled to prevent further lung injury.

  7. Evolution of the Fermi surface of the strongly correlated f electron system under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Endo, M; Nakayama, M; Takei, H; Kimura, N; Kunii, S; Terashima, T; Uji, S; Matsumoto, T

    2002-01-01

    We report our recent developments of experimental systems for measuring the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressures. The dHvA effect of CeB sub 6 has been studied under both hydrostatic and uniaxial pressures and the effects of the pressures on the electronic structure are discussed.

  8. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering; Electrons correles sous haute pression: une approche par diffusion inelastique des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, J.P

    2007-06-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  9. CCR2+ Monocyte-Derived Infiltrating Macrophages Are Required for Adverse Cardiac Remodeling During Pressure Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindiya Patel, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although chronic inflammation is a central feature of heart failure (HF, the immune cell profiles differ with different underlying causes. This suggests that for immunomodulatory therapy in HF to be successful, it needs to be tailored to the specific etiology. Here, the authors demonstrate that monocyte-derived C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2+ macrophages infiltrate the heart early during pressure overload in mice, and that blocking this response either pharmacologically or with antibody-mediated CCR2+ monocyte depletion alleviates late pathological left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, T-cell expansion, and cardiac fibrosis. Hence, suppression of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages may be an important immunomodulatory therapeutic target to ameliorate pressure-overload HF. Key Words: cardiac remodeling, heart failure, inflammation, macrophages, T cells

  10. Influence of heat treatments on thermoelectric power of pressure vessel steels: effect of microstructural evolutions of strongly segregated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houze, M.

    2002-12-01

    Thermoelectric power measurement (TEP) is a very potential non destructive evaluation method considered to follow ageing under neutron irradiation of pressure vessel steel of nuclear reactor. Prior to these problems, the aim of this study is to establish correlations between TEP variations and microstructural evolutions of pressure vessel steels during heat treatments. Different steels, permitting to simulate heterogeneities of pressure vessel steels and to deconvoluate main metallurgical phenomenons effects were studied. This work allowed to emphasize effect on TEP of: austenitizing and cooling conditions and therefore of microstructure, metallurgical transformations during tempering (recovery, precipitation of alloying elements), and particularly molybdenum precipitation associated to secondary hardening, residual austenite amount or partial austenitizing. (author)

  11. Quasi-isentropic compressibility of a strongly nonideal deuterium plasma at pressures of up to 5500 GPa: Nonideality and degeneracy effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochalov, M. A., E-mail: postmaster@ifv.vniief.ru; Il’kaev, R. I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A. L.; Blikov, A. O.; Ogorodnikov, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Iosilevskii, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    We report on the experimental results on the quasi-isentropic compressibility of a strongly nonideal deuterium plasma that have been obtained on setups of cylindrical and spherical geometries in the pressure range of up to P ≈ 5500 GPa. We describe the characteristics of experimental setups, as well as the methods for the diagnostics and interpretation of the experimental results. The trajectory of metal shells that compress the deuterium plasma was detected using powerful pulsed X-ray sources with a maximal electron energy of up to 60 MeV. The values of the plasma density, which varied from ρ ≈ 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} to ρ ≈ 6 g/cm{sup 3}, which corresponds to pressure P ≈ 5500 GPa (55 Mbar), were determined from the measured value of the shell radius at the instant that it was stopped. The pressure of the compressed plasma was determined using gasdynamic calculations taking into account the actual characteristics of the experimental setups. We have obtained a strongly compressed deuterium plasma in which electron degeneracy effects under the conditions of strong interparticle interaction are significant. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical models of a strongly nonideal partly degenerate plasma. We have obtained experimental confirmation of the plasma phase transition in the pressure range near 150 GPa (1.5 Mbar), which is in keeping with the conclusion concerning anomaly in the compressibility of the deuterium plasma drawn in [1].

  12. Liver Stiffness Reflecting Right-Sided Filling Pressure Can Predict Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tatsunori; Ohtani, Tomohito; Kioka, Hidetaka; Tsukamoto, Yasumasa; Onishi, Toshinari; Nakamoto, Kei; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Sengoku, Kaoruko; Chimura, Misato; Hashimoto, Haruko; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Sawa, Yoshiki; Sakata, Yasushi

    2018-01-12

    This study sought to investigate whether elevated liver stiffness (LS) values at discharge reflect residual liver congestion and are associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Transient elastography is a newly developed, noninvasive method for assessing LS, which can be highly reflective of right-sided filling pressure associated with passive liver congestion in patients with HF. LS values were determined for 171 hospitalized patients with HF before discharge using a Fibroscan device. The median LS value was 5.6 kPa (interquartile range: 4.4 to 8.1; range 2.4 to 39.7) and that of right-sided filling pressure, which was estimated based on LS, was 5.7 mm Hg (interquartile range: 4.1 to 8.2 mm Hg; range 0.1 to 18.9 mm Hg). The patients in the highest LS tertile (>6.9 kPa, corresponding to an estimated right-sided filling pressure of >7.1 mm Hg) had advanced New York Heart Association functional class, high prevalence of jugular venous distention and moderate/severe tricuspid regurgitation, large inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, high serum direct bilirubin level, and a similar left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the lower tertiles. During follow-up periods (median: 203 days), 8 (5%) deaths and 33 (19%) hospitalizations for HF were observed. The patients in the highest LS group had a significantly higher mortality rate and HF rehospitalization (hazard ratio: 3.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 6.83; p direct bilirubin and brain natriuretic peptide levels, LS values were predictive of worse outcomes, even after adjustment for these indices. These data suggest that LS is a useful index for assessing systemic volume status and predicting the severity of HF, and that the presence of liver congestion at discharge is associated with worse outcomes in patients with HF. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  14. Model-based decision making in early clinical development: minimizing the impact of a blood pressure adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Mark; Addy, Carol; Wu, Yunhui; Stoch, S Aubrey; Pourkavoos, Nazaneen; Groff, Michelle; Xu, Yang; Wagner, John; Gottesdiener, Keith; Shadle, Craig; Wang, Hong; Manser, Kimberly; Winchell, Gregory A; Stone, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    We describe how modeling and simulation guided program decisions following a randomized placebo-controlled single-rising oral dose first-in-man trial of compound A where an undesired transient blood pressure (BP) elevation occurred in fasted healthy young adult males. We proposed a lumped-parameter pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model that captured important aspects of the BP homeostasis mechanism. Four conceptual units characterized the feedback PD model: a sinusoidal BP set point, an effect compartment, a linear effect model, and a system response. To explore approaches for minimizing the BP increase, we coupled the PD model to a modified PK model to guide oral controlled-release (CR) development. The proposed PK/PD model captured the central tendency of the observed data. The simulated BP response obtained with theoretical release rate profiles suggested some amelioration of the peak BP response with CR. This triggered subsequent CR formulation development; we used actual dissolution data from these candidate CR formulations in the PK/PD model to confirm a potential benefit in the peak BP response. Though this paradigm has yet to be tested in the clinic, our model-based approach provided a common rational framework to more fully utilize the limited available information for advancing the program.

  15. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation of model calculations to experimentally determined data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.

    1998-01-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.)

  16. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation between model calculations and experimentally determined data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density 37 refs, 15 figs

  17. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation of model calculations to experimentally determined data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed. This report discusses a number of models which possibly can be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved model predicts a substantial bentonite swelling pressure also in a saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is sufficiently high. This means in practice that the buffer in a KBS-3 repository will give rise to an acceptable swelling pressure, but that the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost if the system is exposed to brines. (orig.). 14 refs.

  18. Bentonite swelling pressure in strong NaCl solutions. Correlation between model calculations and experimentally determined data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.

    1997-12-01

    A number of quite different quantitative models concerning swelling pressure in bentonite clay have been proposed by different researchers over the years. The present report examines some of the models which possibly may be used also for saline conditions. A discrepancy between calculated and measured values was noticed for all models at brine conditions. In general the models predicted a too low swelling pressure compared to what was experimentally found. An osmotic component in the clay/water system is proposed in order to improve the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. Calculations of this osmotic component is proposed to be made by use of the clay cation exchange capacity and Donnan equilibrium. Calculations made by this approach showed considerably better correlation to literature laboratory data, compared to calculations made by the previous conservative use of the thermodynamic model. A few verifying laboratory tests were made and are briefly described in the report. The improved thermodynamic model predicts substantial bentonite swelling pressures also in saturated sodium chloride solution if the density of the system is high enough. In practice, the model predicts a substantial swelling pressure for the buffer in a KBS-3 repository if the system is exposed to brines, but the positive effects of mixing bentonite into a backfill material will be lost, since the available compaction technique does not give a sufficiently high bentonite density

  19. Comparison of MHD pressure losses of liquid-lithium flows in coaxial and parallel ducts, passing through strong transverse magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trommer, G.

    1979-08-01

    This report deals with theoretical calculations of MHD pressure losses of liquid-lithium flows in tubes of circular cross-section exposed to strong magnetic fields. Some simplifying assumptions were introduced, yielding an analytical solution which allows the pressure drop and losses in double tubes of coaxial geometry to be compared with those in normal flow pipes. The investigations show that coaxial ducts require much more pumping power than normal ones under similar conditions. This great difference of the properties of the two duct types will decrease if the pipes are embedded in materials of good electrical conductivity. In this case the normal duct will afford a drastic increase in the pressure drop, while the coaxial one will be nearly unaffected. But even under these conditions the losses of the latter will dominate. (orig.)

  20. Methanol and ethanol vapor conversion in gas discharge with strongly non-uniform distribution of electric field on atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Zavada, L.M.; Kotyukov, O.V.; Kudin, D.V.; Rodionov, S.V.; Pis'menetskoj, A.S.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The barrierless gas discharge of negative polarity with strongly non-uniform distribution of electrical field in the methanol and ethanol vapour was studied. It is shown that level of methanol and ethanol conversion depended from power consumed by the discharge and exposition time for gas mixture in discharge zone. The condition for deep conversion of the methanol and ethanol vapours were determined. The water and carbon dioxide are the end products for the methanol and ethanol conversion. Formaldehyde and formic acid are the intermediates products in the conversion of methanol. And ethanol has a number of different compounds, including acetic acid, acetaldehyde, etc.

  1. Temporal genetic stability in natural populations of the waterflea Daphnia magna in response to strong selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Marshall, Hollie; Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Chaturvedi, Anurag; Thomas, Kelley W; Pfrender, Michael E; Spanier, Katina I; De Meester, Luc

    2016-12-01

    Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant egg banks are an unbiased representation of populations and hence of the species' evolutionary potential, especially in the presence of strong environmental selection. We address this key question using the water flea Daphnia magna, which produces dormant stages that accumulate in biological archives over time. We assess temporal genetic stability in three biological archives, previously used in resurrection ecology studies showing adaptive evolutionary responses to rapid environmental change. We show that neutral genetic diversity does not decline with the age of the population and it is maintained in the presence of strong selection. In addition, by comparing temporal genetic stability in hatched and unhatched populations from the same biological archive, we show that dormant egg banks can be consulted to obtain a reliable measure of genetic diversity over time, at least in the multidecadal time frame studied here. The stability of neutral genetic diversity through time is likely mediated by the buffering effect of the resting egg bank. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Geological heritage under strong urbanization pressure: El-Mokattam and Abu Roash as examples from Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMaksoud, Kholoud M.; Al-Metwaly, Wael M.; Ruban, Dmitry A.; Yashalova, Natalia N.

    2018-05-01

    Urban geological heritage is prone to anthropogenic pressure linked to urbanization. In order to understand the necessity of conservation of such a heritage located in two areas of Cairo (Egypt), namely El-Mokattam and Abu Roash, their assessment is undertaken. It is established that the both areas possess geological heritage. As much as five types of the latter are represented in each of them. The most important in El-Mokattam is geomorphological type (the Mokattam Mountain itself), and the most important in Abu Roash are palaeogeographical (facies and palaeoecosystems) and structural (outcrop-scale fold and faults) types. In the both areas, the geological heritage is destroyed because of rapid and often uncontrolled (even illegal) urbanization. According to the results of the satellite images interpretation, the urban area has grown by 1.4 times in El-Mokattam and 3.4 times in Abu Roash during the period of 2000-2017 when many unique objects were damaged and destroyed. Some aesthetic properties have been also lost, which has decreased the important of these objects to tourists, as well as many students and researchers. Assigning official protected status and possible geopark creation can facilitate efficient conservation of the urban geological heritage of Cairo.

  3. An ionization pressure gauge with LaB6 emitter for long-term operation in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Pedersen, T. S.; Marquardt, M.; Singer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report here on a potentially significant improvement in the design of neutral pressure gauges of the so-called ASDEX-type which were first used in the Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment (ASDEX). Such gauges are considered state-of-the-art and are in wide use in fusion experiments, but they nonetheless suffer from a relatively high failure rate when operated at high magnetic field strengths for long times. This is therefore a significant concern for long-pulse, high-field experiments such as Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and ITER. The new design is much more robust. The improvement is to use a LaB6 crystal instead of a tungsten wire as the thermionic emitter of electrons in the gauge. Such a LaB6 prototype gauge was successfully operated for a total of 60 h in B = 3.1 T, confirming the significantly improved robustness of the new design and qualifying it for near-term operation in W7-X. With the LaB6 crystal, an order of magnitude reduction in heating current is achieved, relative to the tungsten filament based gauges, from 15-20 A to 1-2 A. This reduces the Lorenz forces and the heating power by an order of magnitude also and is presumably the reason for the much improved robustness. The new gauge design, test environment setup at the superconducting magnet, and results from test operation are described.

  4. Epidemiology of dyslipidaemia in professional drivers: results of RACER-ABPM (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzowski, Bartosz; Płatek, Anna E; Szymański, Filip M; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Kotkowski, Marcin; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2018-01-01

    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases. In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.

  5. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND HI IMAGING OF STRONG RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING IN THE COMA SPIRAL NGC 4921: DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING AND EVIDENCE FOR MAGNETIC BINDING IN THE ISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Abramson, Anne [Yale University Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Bravo-Alfaro, Hector, E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS/UPMC, 98bis, Boulevard Arago F-75014, Paris (France)

    2015-08-15

    Remarkable dust extinction features in the deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) V and I images of the face-on Coma cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4921 show in unprecedented ways how ram pressure strips the ISM from the disk of a spiral galaxy. New VLA HI maps show a truncated and highly asymmetric HI disk with a compressed HI distribution in the NW, providing evidence for ram pressure acting from the NW. Where the HI distribution is truncated in the NW region, HST images show a well-defined, continuous front of dust that extends over 90° and 20 kpc. This dust front separates the dusty from dust-free regions of the galaxy, and we interpret it as galaxy ISM swept up near the leading side of the ICM–ISM interaction. We identify and characterize 100 pc–1 kpc scale substructure within this dust front caused by ram pressure, including head–tail filaments, C-shaped filaments, and long smooth dust fronts. The morphology of these features strongly suggests that dense gas clouds partially decouple from surrounding lower density gas during stripping, but decoupling is inhibited, possibly by magnetic fields that link and bind distant parts of the ISM.

  7. On a free boundary problem for a strongly degenerate quasilinear parabolic equation with an application to a model of pressure filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, R.; Frid, H.; Karlsen, K.H.

    2002-07-01

    We consider a free boundary problem of a quasilinear strongly degenerate parabolic equation arising from a model of pressure filtration of flocculated suspensions. We provide definitions of generalized solutions of the free boundary problem in the framework of L2 divergence-measure fields. The formulation of boundary conditions is based on a Gauss-Green theorem for divergence-measure fields on bounded domains with Lipschitz deformable boundaries and avoids referring to traces of the solution. This allows to consider generalized solutions from a larger class than BV. Thus it is not necessary to derive the usual uniform estimates on spatial and time derivatives of the solutions of the corresponding regularized problem requires in the BV approach. We first prove existence and uniqueness of the solution of the regularized parabolic free boundary problem and then apply the vanishing viscosity method to prove existence of a generalized solution to the degenerate free boundary problem. (author)

  8. Can adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes be predicted when blood pressure becomes elevated? Secondary analyses from the CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study) randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magee, Laura A.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Singer, Joel; Lee, Terry; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E.; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K.; Logan, Alexander G.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G.; Moutquin, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. For women with chronic or gestational hypertension in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study, NCT01192412), we aimed to examine whether clinical predictors collected at randomization could predict adverse outcomes. Material and methods. This was a planned, secondary analysis

  9. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  10. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    . Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...

  11. Morning pulse pressure is associated more strongly with elevated albuminuria than systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushigome, Emi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Mineoka, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Naoko; Senmaru, Takafumi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-09-01

    Recently, focus has been directed toward pulse pressure as a potentially independent risk factor for micro- and macrovascular disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship between pulse pressure taken at home and elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study. Home blood pressure measurements were performed for 14 consecutive days in 858 patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationship between systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure in the morning or in the evening and urinary albumin excretion using univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, we measured area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) to compare the ability to identify elevated albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine, of systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure. Morning systolic blood pressure (β=0.339, Ppressure (β=0.378, PAUC for elevated albuminuria in morning systolic blood pressure and morning pulse pressure were 0.668 (0.632-0.705; PAUC of morning pulse pressure was significantly greater than that of morning systolic blood pressure (P=0.040). Our findings implicate that morning pulse pressure is associated with elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, which suggests that lowering morning pulse pressure could prevent the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  13. Peak Pressures and PaO2/FiO2 Ratios Are Associated With Adverse Outcomes in Patients on Mechanical Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jeremy; Edriss, Hawa; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    Patients requiring mechanical ventilation can have complications related to their underlying diseases and hospital-related events. It is possible that easily obtained information early in the course of mechanical ventilation can provide information about important outcomes. Medical records from 281 episodes of mechanical ventilation in the medical intensive care unit were reviewed to collect information on patient demographics, admitting diagnoses, laboratory tests, duration of mechanical ventilation, the development of ventilator-associated events and mortality. Ventilator pressures from day 2 were analyzed for this study. Most patients (72.7%) were ≥50 years, 53.8% were men and 66.3% had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25kg/m(2).The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II score was 13.6 ± 5.9. The median initial PaO2/FiO2 was 240 with interquartile range of 177-414. The median duration of ventilation was 4 days (interquartile range: 2-9 days). A PaO2/FiO2 ratio 500, and a BMI > 30kg/m(2) was associated with decreased mortality compared with normal BMIs. A PaO2/FiO2 ratio 30kg/m(2) were all associated with having a ventilator-associated event. There was a positive correlation between peak pressure (day 2) and the duration of ventilation (r = 0.263, P = 0.007). Easily available information collected on day 2 of mechanical ventilation can help identify patients at risk for poor outcomes, including the duration of mechanical ventilation, the development of ventilator-associated complications and mortality. Prospective studies measuring peak pressures are needed to evaluate the utility of this simple measurement in the management of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. High-pressure cells for study of condensed matter by diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering at low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Strassle, Th; Podlesnyak, A.; Keller, L.; Fak, B.; Mesot, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and implemented series of new original clamp high-pressure cells for neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering at low temperatures. The cells design allows one to place them in the standard cryostats or cryomagnets used on neutron sources. Some results obtained for ZnCr2Se4 are demonstrated as an example.

  15. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  16. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  17. The evolution of systolic blood pressure as a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk and the effectiveness of fixed-dose ARB/CCB combinations in lowering levels of this preferential target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques MouradHypertension Unit, Avicenne Hospital – AP-HP and Paris XIII University Bobigny, FranceAbstract: Elevated blood pressure is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Although targets for both diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP are defined by current guidelines, DBP has historically taken precedence in hypertension management. However, there is strong evidence that SBP is superior to DBP as a predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, achieving control of SBP is assuming greater importance amongst an aging population. In spite of the growing recognition of the importance of SBP in reducing cardiovascular risk and the emphasis by current guidelines on SBP control, a substantial proportion of patients still fail to achieve SBP targets, and SBP control is achieved much less frequently than DBP control. Thus, new approaches to the management of hypertension are required in order to control SBP and minimize cardiovascular risk. Fixed-dose combination (FDC therapy is an approach that offers the advantages of multiple drug administration and a reduction in regimen complexity that favors compliance. We have reviewed the latest evidence demonstrating the efficacy in targeting SBP of the most recent FDC products; combinations of the calcium channel blocker (CCB, amlodipine, with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, valsartan or olmesartan. In addition, results from studies with new classes of agent are outlined.Keywords: hypertension, systolic blood pressure, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, combination therapy

  18. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  19. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  20. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 1: Health as a Contributor to Adaptive Capacity and as an Outcome from Pressures Coping with Climate Related Adversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Parkinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role farmers’ health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers’ responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer’s rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1 and one including pre-existing health (model 2. The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers’ health as a barrier to undertaking farm work accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1, and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health.

  1. Pressure drop and heat transfer of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow in a helical tube under a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Momozaki, Yoichi

    2000-01-01

    For the reduction of a large magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop of a liquid metal single-phase flow, a liquid metal two-phase flow cooling system has been proposed. As a fundamental study, MHD pressure drops and heat transfer characteristics of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. A strong transverse magnetic field relevant to the fusion reactor conditions was applied to the mercury single-phase flow and the air-mercury two-phase flow in a helically coiled tube that was inserted in the vertical bore of a solenoidal superconducting magnet. It was found that MHD pressure drops of a mercury single-phase flow in the helically coiled tube were nearly equal to those in a straight tube. The Nusselt number at an outside wall was higher than that at an inside wall both in the mercury single-phase flow in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. The Nusselt number of the mercury single-phase flow decreased, increased and again decreased with an increase in the magnetic flux density. MHD pressure drops did not decrease appreciably by injecting air into a mercury flow and changing the mercury flow into the air-mercury two-phase flow. Remarkable heat transfer enhancement did not appear by the air injection. The injection of air into the mercury flow enhanced heat transfer in the ranges of high mercury flow rate and low magnetic flux density, possibly due to the agitation effect of air bubbles. The air injection deteriorated heat transfer in the range of low mercury flow rates possibly because of the occupation of air near heating wall

  2. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  3. [Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Gong, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is a new antiepileptic drug. The results of clinical trials suggest that oxcarbazepine is well tolerated and has less drug interactions. It is being used more and more widely in clinical practice, but its adverse effects should not be ignored. The most common adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are usually related to the central nervous system and digestive system, including fatigue, drowsiness, diplopia, dizziness, nausea and vomit. The common skin adverse reaction is rash. Long-term use of oxcarbazepine may also cause hyponatremia. This article reviews the literature from China and overseas about the adverse effets of oxcarbazepine over the last 10 years in order to find information about rational clinical use of oxcarbazepine.

  4. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  5. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  6. Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to them, an equilibrium boundary layer might exist if the pressure ... of adverse pressure gradient on the turbulent boundary layer at the flat plate for ..... of a constant-pressure turbulent layer to the sudden application of an sudden.

  7. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  8. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  9. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task , related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

  10. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses the rehabilitation of important chronic conditions from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method: Firstly, Ne......://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ . III. In-depth-relaxation is evidenced as the result of regular practice of medical meditation comprising various practical meditation settings by NGOs whereof some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation combines savings on health care costs...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  11. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  12. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees Jan; Spechler, Philip A.; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N.; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R.; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Background Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Methods Impulsivity was estimated

  13. Dendritic cells pulsed with tumor cells killed by high hydrostatic pressure induce strong immune responses and display therapeutic effects both in murine TC-1 and TRAMP-C2 tumors when combined with docetaxel chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Štěpánek, Ivan; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Šímová, Jana; Truxová, I.; Moserová, I.; Fučíková, J.; Bartunkova, J.; Špíšek, R.; Reiniš, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2016), s. 953-964 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011032; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : dendritic cells * docetaxel * high hydrostatic pressure * immunotherapy * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.079, year: 2016

  14. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  15. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  16. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  17. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  18. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  19. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Childhood adversity and adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen; Rodgers, Bryan

    2006-05-01

    To explore how recalled childhood adversity affects trait measures of personality in three age cohorts of an Australian adult population and to examine the effects of particular adversities on adult personality traits. A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in the age bands of 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were interviewed at the outset of a longitudinal community study of psychological health in the Canberra region of Australia. In the initial interview, subjects answered 17 questions about domestic adversity and three questions on positive aspects of upbringing to age 16 years. Personality traits were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scales and a measure of dissocial behaviours. Higher levels of childhood adversity substantially increase the risk of high neuroticism (OR = 2.6) and negative affect (OR = 2.6), less for behavioural inhibition (OR = 1.7) and for dissocial behaviour (OR = 1.7). No significant effect is seen for extraversion, psychoticism or behavioural activation. Age and gender had little effect on the pattern of risk. Maternal depression has significant and substantial independent effects on measures of neuroticism and negative affect as well as most other measures of personality. Childhood domestic adversity has substantial associations with clinically important aspects of personality: neuroticism and negative affect. Only small effects are seen on behavioural inhibition and dissocial behaviour, and no significant effect on extraversion and behavioural activation. These unexpected findings contradict clinical belief. Maternal psychological ill-health is pre-eminent among adversities predicting later disadvantageous traits, even for those traits that had only the slightest association with childhood adversity. Consequences of childhood adversity prevail throughout the lifespan in men and women equally. The study underlines the importance of childhood domestic

  1. Childhood Adversity and Pain Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dokyoung Sophia; Meagher, Mary W

    Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing. Both groups underwent heat pain threshold and temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) testing after reporting depressive symptoms. TSSP refers to a progressive increase in pain intensity with repetition of identical noxious stimuli and is attributed to central sensitization. Changes in pain ratings over time (slope) were computed for TSSP sensitization and decay of subsequent aftersensations. The high-adversity group showed greater TSSP sensitization (meanslope, 0.75; SDpositive slope, 1.78), and a trend toward a slower decay (meanslope, -11.9; SD, 3.4), whereas the low-adversity group showed minimal sensitization (meanslope, 0.07; SDnear-zero slope, 1.77), F(1,123) = 5.84, p = .017 and faster decay (meanslope, -13.1; SD, 3.4), F(1,123) = 3.79, p = .054. This group difference remained significant even after adjusting for adult depressive symptoms (p = .033). No group difference was found in heat pain threshold (p = .85). Lastly, the high-adversity group showed blunted cardiac and skin conductance responses. These findings suggest that enhancement of central sensitization may provide a mechanism underlying the pain hypersensitivity and chronicity linked to childhood adversity.

  2. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  3. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  4. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  5. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  6. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  7. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  8. Embolia cutis medicamentosa: an unusual adverse reaction to terlipressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos-Gatopoulos, Polychronis; Kostantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis G.; Dimitriadis, George D.; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Terlipressin is a synthetic long-acting analog of vasopressin widely used to control variceal bleeding by lowering portal venous pressure. We report an unusual adverse reaction to terlipressin in a 78-year-old patient with esophageal variceal bleeding who developed skin necrosis soon after treatment initiation. Skin biopsy revealed embolia cutis medicamentosa. PMID:29118569

  9. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  10. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  11. Nurse-perceived Patient Adverse Events and Nursing Practice Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hee Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of patient adverse events in Korean hospitals as perceived by nurses and examine the correlation between patient adverse events with the nurse practice environment at nurse and hospital level. Methods: In total, 3096 nurses working in 60 general inpatient hospital units were included. A two-level logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: At the hospital level, patient adverse events included patient falls (60.5%, nosocomial infections (51.7%, pressure sores (42.6% and medication errors (33.3%. Among the hospital-level explanatory variables associated with the nursing practice environment, ‘physician- nurse relationship’ correlated with medication errors while ‘education for improving quality of care’ affected patient falls. Conclusions: The doctor-nurse relationship and access to education that can improve the quality of care at the hospital level may help decrease the occurrence of patient adverse events.

  12. Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2018-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions can be caused by a wide range of therapeutics. Adverse drug reactions affect many bodily organ systems and vary widely in severity. Milder adverse drug reactions often resolve quickly following withdrawal of the casual drug or sometimes after dose reduction. Some adverse drug reactions are severe and lead to significant organ/tissue injury which can be fatal. Adverse drug reactions also represent a financial burden to both healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, a number of stakeholders would benefit from development of new, robust biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognostication of adverse drug reactions. There has been significant recent progress in identifying predictive genomic biomarkers with the potential to be used in clinical settings to reduce the burden of adverse drug reactions. These have included biomarkers that can be used to alter drug dose (for example, Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and azathioprine dose) and drug choice. The latter have in particular included human leukocyte antigen (HLA) biomarkers which identify susceptibility to immune-mediated injuries to major organs such as skin, liver, and bone marrow from a variety of drugs. This review covers both the current state of the art with regard to genomic adverse drug reaction biomarkers. We also review circulating biomarkers that have the potential to be used for both diagnosis and prognosis, and have the added advantage of providing mechanistic information. In the future, we will not be relying on single biomarkers (genomic/non-genomic), but on multiple biomarker panels, integrated through the application of different omics technologies, which will provide information on predisposition, early diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanisms. Impact statement • Genetic and circulating biomarkers present significant opportunities to personalize patient therapy to minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. ADRs are a significant heath issue

  13. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  14. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  15. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  18. Adverse fetal outcome in road accidents: Injury mechanism study and injury criteria development in a pregnant woman finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Pérès, J; Behr, M

    2016-12-01

    This study documents the development of adverse fetal outcome predictors dedicated to the analysis of road accidents involving pregnant women. To do so, a pre-existing whole body finite element model representative of a 50th percentile 26 weeks pregnant woman was used. A total of 8 accident scenarios were simulated with the model positioned on a sled. Each of these scenarios was associated to a risk of adverse fetal outcome based on results from real car crash investigations involving pregnant women from the literature. The use of airbags and accidents involving unbelted occupants were not considered in this study. Several adverse fetal outcome potential predictors were then evaluated with regard to their correlation to this risk of fetal injuries. Three predictors appeared strongly correlated to the risk of adverse fetal outcome: (1) the intra uterine pressure at the placenta fetal side area (r=0.92), (2) the fetal head acceleration (HIC) (r=0.99) and (3) area of utero-placental interface over a strain threshold (r=0.90). Finally, sensitivity analysis against slight variations of the simulation parameters was performed and assess robustness of these criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and Mental Health of Employees in ... CAs were measured in three forms (family adversities (CAFam), personal adversities ... Age of employees ranged between 18-65 years.

  20. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  1. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  2. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  3. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  4. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Walkíria Valeriano; de Andrade Gomes Silva, Maria Irene; Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Dantas de Oliveira, Klébya Hellen; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Sérgio Silva, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04), as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  5. Categorization of States Beyond Strong and Weak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tikuisis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discourse on poor state performers has suffered from widely varying definitions on what distinguishes certain weak states from others. Indices that rank states from strong to weak conceal important distinctions that can adversely affect intervention policy. This deficiency is addressed by grouping states according to their performance on three dimensions of statehood: authority, legitimacy, and capacity. The resultant categorization identifies brittle states that are susceptible to regime change, impoverished states often considered as aid darlings, and fragile states that experience disproportionately high levels of violent internal conflict. It also provides a quantifiable means to analyze transitions from one state type to another for more insightful intervention policy.

  6. Adverse reactions associated with acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, E A; Bateman, D N

    2009-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most common agents deliberately ingested in self-poisoning episodes and a leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Acetylcysteine is widely acknowledged as the antidote of choice for paracetamol poisoning, but its use is not without risk. Adverse reactions, often leading to treatment delay, are frequently associated with both intravenous and oral acetylcysteine and are a common source of concern among treating physicians. A systematic literature review investigating the incidence, clinical features, and mechanisms of adverse effects associated with acetylcysteine. A variety of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine have been described ranging from nausea to death, most of the latter due to incorrect dosing. The pattern of reactions differs with oral and intravenous dosing, but reported frequency is at least as high with oral as intravenous. The reactions to the intravenous preparation result in similar clinical features to true anaphylaxis, including rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and rarely hypotension, but are caused by nonimmunological mechanisms. The precise nature of this reaction remains unclear. Histamine now seems to be an important mediator of the response, and there is evidence of variability in patient susceptibility, with females, and those with a history of asthma or atopy are particularly susceptible. Quantity of paracetamol ingestion, measured through serum paracetamol concentration, is also important as higher paracetamol concentrations protect patients against anaphylactoid effects. Most anaphylactoid reactions occur at the start of acetylcysteine treatment when concentrations are highest. Acetylcysteine also affects clotting factor activity, and this affects the interpretation of minor disturbances in the International Normalized Ratio in the context of paracetamol overdose. This review discusses the incidence, clinical features, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Robert F; Chapman, Daniel P; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie; Williamson, David F; Croft, Janet B; Giles, Wayne H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common adverse childhood experiences to a male's risk of impregnating a teenager. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man's own age at the time; his history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. At least one adverse childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two adverse childhood experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each adverse childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no adverse childhood experiences, a male with at least five adverse childhood experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the adverse childhood experiences was reduced 64-100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four

  8. Strong adverse prognostic impact of hyperglycemic episodes during adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Arnulf; Vaupel, Peter; Stockinger, Marcus; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Mainz (Germany); Struss, Hans-Garlich [University Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Giese, Alf [University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In comparison to normal brain tissue, glioblastomas exhibit significantly increased glucose uptake. Brain edema is a common complication during adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, leading to a requirement for glucocorticoid treatment. Glucocorticoid treatment frequently causes considerable deregulation of blood glucose levels. Therefore, episodes of hyperglycemia may contribute to radio- and/or chemoresistance. This study comprises a retrospective analysis of the influence of hyperglycemic episodes (HEs) during adjuvant therapy on the overall survival of 106 glioblastoma multiforme patients. The occurrence of one or more deregulated blood glucose value(s) > 10 mM is associated with a reduction in median overall survival from 16.7 to 8.8 months. A significantly poorer overall survival of patients with hyperglycemia could also be detected in subgroup analyses of patients with complete tumor resection and complete treatment according to the EORTC 22891/26891 trial protocol, as well as in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. A history of diabetes mellitus had no influence on prognosis. Our data suggest that the observed negative impact of elevated blood glucose levels on overall survival may not solely be explained by the patients' poorer general condition; the elevated blood glucose concentration itself may play a pathogenetic role. This could be due to increased activity of antioxidant systems, elevated expression of DNA damage response proteins and protection of hypoxic tumor cells against apoptosis combined with hypoxia-mediated radioresistance. A possible prognostic impact of elevated blood glucose levels during the period of adjuvant (chemo-) radiotherapy of glioblastoma should be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial. (orig.) [German] Glioblastome zeigen im Vergleich mit normalem Gehirngewebe eine deutlich vermehrte Glukoseaufnahme. Im Rahmen der adjuvanten Radio(chemo)therapie von Glioblastomen treten vielfach Hirnoedeme auf, die eine Glukokortikoidgabe erforderlich machen. Hierdurch kommt es haeufig zu nicht unerheblichen Blutzuckerentgleisungen. Es stellt sich die Frage, ob Hyperglykaemieepisoden waehrend der adjuvanten Therapie zu einer Radio- und/oder Chemoresistenz beitragen koennen. Die Studie analysiert retrospektiv den Einfluss von Hyperglykaemieepisoden waehrend der adjuvanten Therapie auf das Gesamtueberleben von 106 Patienten mit Glioblastoma multiforme. Das Auftreten von einer oder mehreren Entgleisungen des Blutzuckers mit Werten > 10 mM war mit einer Verminderung des medianen Gesamtueberlebens von 16,7 Monaten auf 8,8 Monate verbunden. Ein signifikant schlechteres Gesamtueberleben von Patienten mit Blutzuckerentgleisungen liess sich auch in Subgruppenanalysen von vollstaendig resezierten und vollstaendig nach EORTC-22891/26891-Protokoll therapierten Patienten sowie in einer multivariaten Cox-Analyse (Cox proportional hazards) nachweisen. Ein manifester Diabetes mellitus als Vorerkrankung hatte keinen Einfluss auf die Prognose. Unsere Daten weisen darauf hin, dass der beobachtete negative Einfluss erhoehter Blutglukosekonzentrationen auf das Gesamtueberleben moeglicherweise nicht allein mit einem schlechteren Allgemeinzustand der Patienten zu erklaeren ist und der Hyperglykaemie selbst somit eine pathogenetische Bedeutung zukaeme. Dies koennte in einer erhoehten Aktivitaet antioxidativer Systeme, gesteigerter Expression von Proteinen der DNA-Schadensantwort und in einem Schutz hypoxischer Tumorzellen vor Apoptose bei gleichzeitig erhoehter hypoxiebedingter Radioresistenz begruendet sein. Ein moeglicher prognostischer Einfluss von Blutzuckerentgleisungen waehrend der Phase der adjuvanten Radio(chemo)therapie sollte in einer prospektiven klinischen Studie untersucht werden. (orig.)

  9. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  10. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  11. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  12. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  13. [Management of adverse drug effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G

    2000-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are still considered one of the main problems of drug therapy. ADRs are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, decreased compliance and therapeutic success as well as high direct and indirect medical costs. Several considerations have to come into play when managing a potential ADR. It is critical to establish an accurate clinical diagnosis of the adverse event. Combining information about drug exposure together with considering other possible causes of the reaction is crucial to establish a causal relationship between the reaction and the suspected drug. Identification of the underlying pathogenesis of an ADR together with the severity of the reaction will have profound implications on continuation of drug therapy after an ADR. Since spontaneous reports about ADRs are a key stone of a functioning post-marketing surveillance system and therefore play a key role in improving drug safety, health care professionals are highly encouraged to report ADRs to a local or national organization. However, because the majority of ADRs is dose-dependent and therefore preventable, individualization of pharmacotherapy may have a major impact on reducing such events.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  15. Production of poinsettia (Euphorbia Pulcherrima) with light emitting diodes compared with the traditional high pressure sodium lamp

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Sabir

    2017-01-01

    Use of chemical are commonly used as tools for the commercial pot plant producers to grow strong, dwarfed, and compact plants. Although, these growth regulators have adverse effects on human health and the environment. So, this issue has motivated researchers to search for alternative methods for growth regulation. The aim of this study was to test light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different light qualities alone or in combination with high pressure sodium lamps (HPSs), to investigate their e...

  16. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  17. Managing adverse effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, James N; Ramamurthy, Chethan; Borghaei, Hossein

    2018-05-01

    Remarkable efficacy has been achieved in a variety of cancer types by targeting immune checkpoints. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor ipilimumab, the programmed death 1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and the programmed death ligand 1 inhibitors atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab are the agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of certain advanced malignancies. These agents mark a departure from both standard cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. However, they are associated with a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can manifest as a wide range of autoimmune phenomena. The irAEs can affect any system in the body and in rare cases are life-threatening. It is critical for the practicing medical oncologist to recognize and promptly treat any irAEs that may develop.

  18. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  19. [Chorionicity and adverse perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Laureano, Carla; Branco, Miguel; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Pinheiro, Adelaide; Silva, Maria Isabel; Almeida, Maria Céu

    2005-01-01

    Considering the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in diamniotic monochorionic twins, the authors evaluated and compared the adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. A retrospective study was conducted in all twin deliveries that occurred in the Obstetric Unit of Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto, for a period of tree years (from the 1st of January 1999 until the 31st of December 2001). From de 140 diamniotic twin pregnancies studied, we considered two groups according to the chorionicity: monochorionic and dichorionic. We compared multiple parameters as, epidemiologic data, adverse obstetric outcome, gestacional delivery age, type of delivery and the morbidity, the mortality and the follow-up of the newborn. The statistic tests used were the X2 and the t student. From the 140 twin pregnancies included in the study, 66% (92 cases) presented dichorionic placentation and 34% (48 cases) were monochorionic. In the group of monochorionic pregnancies, we observed highly difference related to pathology of amniotic fluid (14.5% vs 2.2%), discordant fetal growth (41.6% vs 22.8%) and rate of preterm delivery (66.6% vs 32.6%). Related to the newborn we verified that they had a lower average birth weight (1988g vs 2295g), a highly rate of weight discordancy (23% vs 15.3%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2.2% vs 0%) and IUGR (6.6% vs 1.6%), statistically significant in the monochorionic group. Also the perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher in the monochorionic pregnancies (93.7 per thousand vs 21.7 per thousand). The high rate of morbidity and mortality related to the monochorionic twin pregnancies, implies the need of a correct identification of the type of chorionicity and also a high standard of prenatal surveillance in prenatal specialised health centers.

  20. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  1. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  2. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  3. Validating administrative data for the detection of adverse events in older hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackroyd-Stolarz S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stacy Ackroyd-Stolarz,1,2 Susan K Bowles,3–5 Lorri Giffin6 1Performance Excellence Portfolio, Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 3Geriatric Medicine, Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 4College of Pharmacy and Division of Geriatric Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 5Department of Pharmacy at Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 6South Shore Family Health, Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, Canada Abstract: Older hospitalized patients are at risk of experiencing adverse events including, but not limited to, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, fall-related injuries, and adverse drug events. A significant challenge in monitoring and managing adverse events is lack of readily accessible information on their occurrence. Purpose: The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to validate diagnostic codes for pressure ulcers, fall-related injuries, and adverse drug events found in routinely collected administrative hospitalization data. Methods: All patients 65 years of age or older discharged between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2011 from a provincial academic health sciences center in Canada were eligible for inclusion in the validation study. For each of the three types of adverse events, a random sample of 50 patients whose records were positive and 50 patients whose records were not positive for an adverse event was sought for review in the validation study (n=300 records in total. A structured health record review was performed independently by two health care providers with experience in geriatrics, both of whom were unaware of the patient's status with respect to adverse event coding. A physician reviewed 40 records (20 reviewed by each health care provider to establish interrater agreement. Results: A total of 39 pressure ulcers, 56 fall

  4. The cost of nurse-sensitive adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Sharon Holcombe

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for nursing leaders to determine the cost of adverse events and effective levels of nurse staffing. The growing transparency of quality and cost outcomes motivates healthcare leaders to optimize the effectiveness of nurse staffing. Most hospitals have robust cost accounting systems that provide actual patient-level direct costs. These systems allow an analysis of the cost consumed by patients during a hospital stay. By knowing the cost of complications, leaders have the ability to justify the cost of improved staffing when quality evidence shows that higher nurse staffing improves quality. An analysis was performed on financial and clinical data from hospital databases of 3,200 inpatients. The purpose was to establish a methodology to determine actual cost per case. Three diagnosis-related groups were the focus of the analysis. Five adverse events were analyzed along with the costs. A regression analysis reported that the actual direct cost of an adverse event was dollars 1,029 per case in the congestive heart failure cases and dollars 903 in the surgical cases. There was a significant increase in the cost per case in medical patients with urinary tract infection and pressure ulcers and in surgical patients with urinary tract infection and pneumonia. The odds of pneumonia occurring in surgical patients decreased with additional registered nurse hours per patient day. Hospital cost accounting systems are useful in determining the cost of adverse events and can aid in decision making about nurse staffing. Adverse events add costs to patient care and should be measured at the unit level to adjust staffing to reduce adverse events and avoid costs.

  5. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  6. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  7. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Guo, Abra; Zhang, Shelley; Jagannathan, Desikan; Toldo, Luca; Tao, Cui; Smith, Barry

    2014-01-01

    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term 'adverse event' denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of adverse events and of the factors (e

  8. Hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Monika [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J.W. Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan, Old Residency Road, Ratanada, Jodhpur 342011 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sedrakian, Armen, E-mail: sedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J.W. Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-01-17

    Compact stars with strong magnetic fields (magnetars) have been observationally determined to have surface magnetic fields of order of 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15} G, the implied internal field strength being several orders larger. We study the equation of state and composition of dense hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic fields in a range expected in the interiors of magnetars. Within the non-linear Boguta–Bodmer–Walecka model we find that the magnetic field has sizable influence on the properties of matter for central magnetic field B⩾10{sup 17} G, in particular the matter properties become anisotropic. Moreover, for the central fields B⩾10{sup 18} G, the magnetized hypernuclear matter shows instability, which is signalled by the negative sign of the derivative of the pressure parallel to the field with respect to the density, and leads to vanishing parallel pressure at the critical value B{sub cr}≃10{sup 19} G. This limits the range of admissible homogeneously distributed fields in magnetars to fields below the critical value B{sub cr}.

  9. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, whic...

  10. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Carver; Charles S. Carver; Sheri L Johnson; Sheri L Johnson; Michael E McCullough; Daniel E Forster; Jutta eJoormann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which w...

  11. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  12. Predictive models for pressure ulcers from intensive care unit electronic health records using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Newton, Cheryl; Vermillion, Brenda; Hyun, Sookyung; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu

    2017-07-05

    We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers

  13. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  14. Childhood adversity and insomnia in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Raffeld, Miriam R; Slopen, Natalie; Hale, Lauren; Dunn, Erin C

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between exposure to childhood adversity and insomnia, with an emphasis on the role of adversity type, timing, and accumulation (i.e., the number of specific types of adversities the child reported being exposed to). Our analytic sample comprised 9582 adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative population-based sample. We examined the association between 18 different types of retrospectively reported adversities (capturing interpersonal violence, accidents and injuries, social network or witnessing events, and other adverse events) and risk of self-reported past-year insomnia. We also examined whether the age at first exposure to adversity was associated with the risk of insomnia, and whether exposure to a greater number of different types of adversities (ie, accumulation) conferred an elevated risk of insomnia. In addition, we performed a sensitivity analysis excluding adolescents with a past-year diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or generalized anxiety disorder. Almost one-third of adolescents reported insomnia, with a higher prevalence among girls and those from racial/ethnic minority groups. Adolescents exposed to at least one childhood adversity of any type (59.41%) were more likely than their nonexposed peers to experience insomnia (across adversities, prevalence ratios (PRs) ranged from 1.31 to 1.89). Risk of insomnia differed based on the age at first exposure to adversity as well as the type of adversity. Adolescents exposed to a greater number of different types of adversities had a higher risk of insomnia compared to those experiencing fewer adversities. These results were similar, by and large, to those obtained after excluding adolescents with at least one of the four past-year psychiatric disorders. Exposure to adversity confers an elevated risk of insomnia. This association varied by type

  15. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  16. strong>PRAYER INDUCED ANALGESIAstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    , 40 healthy subjects (20 highly religious protestants and 20 non-religious men and women) received painful electrical stimulation during prayer to God, ‘secular prayer’ and a ‘pain only’ condition. Subjects were continuously monitored with a Task Force Monitor (heart rate variability, blood pressure...

  17. 16 CFR 901.7 - Adverse determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse determination. 901.7 Section 901.7... APPLICATION FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT § 901.7 Adverse determination. (a) If, after... of the information before it that it cannot make a favorable determination in connection with the...

  18. Etanercept An Overview of Dermatologic Adverse Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, Lidian L. A.; Dowlatshahi, Emmilia A.; Limpens, C. E. Jacqueline M.; de Rie, Menno A.; Bos, Jan D.; Spuls, Phyllis I.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of dermatologic adverse events of etanercept described in the literature (including all study types, case reports, and surveys) and to present information on the occurrence, severity, treatment, and course of these adverse events. Data Sources: MEDLINE

  19. Adverse reactions to intravascularly administered contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, T.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis is formulated about the mechanisms causing adverse reactions to contrast media. Contrast media act in two ways. They stimulate the mast cells to release histamine and leukotrienes, and they inhibit the enzymes which otherwise degrade leukotrienes. Thus individuals, especially those with a history of allergy, are easily exposed to undue amounts of leukotrienes and these are responsible for the adverse reactions. (orig.)

  20. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  1. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  2. Strong to fragile transition in a model of liquid silica

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Badro, James; Gillet, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    The transport properties of an ionic model for liquid silica at high temperatures and pressure are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. With increasing pressure, a clear change from "strong" to "fragile" behaviour (according to Angell's classification of glass-forming liquids) is observed, albeit only on the small viscosity range that can be explored in MD simulations.. This change is related to structural changes, from an almost perfect four-fold coordination to an imperfect fi...

  3. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  4. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Carver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed Anger/Aggression, Extrinsic focus, Agreeableness, and Engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower Agreeableness and to higher Anger/Aggression and Extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection.

  5. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  7. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chi-Yi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R

    2010-11-01

    Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries. Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM-IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries. Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators.

  8. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  9. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  10. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  11. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  12. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  13. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  14. Elevated blood pressure in offspring of rats exposed to diverse chemicals during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse intrauterine environments are associated with increased risk of later disease, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. As a potential bioindicator of such an adverse environment, we measured blood pressure (BP), renal nephron endowment, renal glucocorticoid rec...

  15. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Juha; Kurki, Tapio; Kekki, Minnamaija; Kuusisto, Minna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, Tiina; Nieminen, Anja; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-21.2; p = 0.014), an...

  17. Periodontal Disease and Bacterial Vaginosis Increase the Risk for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Juha; Kurki, Tapio; Kekki, Minnamaija; Kuusisto, Minna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, Tiina; Nieminen, Anja; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.Methods. We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses.Results. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4–21.2; p = 0.014), and ...

  18. Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Luca; Innamorati, Marco; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED. In addition, mediating factors between the association of adverse life experiences, obesity and BED were examined. Results The majority of studies (87%) report that adverse life experiences are a risk factor for developing obesity and BED. More precisely a positive association between traumatic experiences and obesity and PTSD and obesity were found, respectively, in 85% and 86% of studies. Finally, the great majority of studies (90%) between trauma and the development of BED in adulthood strongly support this association. Meanwhile, different factors mediating between the trauma and obesity link were identified. Discussion and conclusions Although research data show a strong association between life adverse experiences and the development of obesity and BED, more research is needed to explain this association. PMID:28092189

  19. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  20. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  1. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  2. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  3. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  4. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs

  5. Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse upshot: A Case Review of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Historically, the lack of highly skilled labour in South Africa has been linked to the legacy of ...

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  8. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  9. LOFT fuel rod pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure sensors selected for measuring fuel rod pressure within the LOFT reactor exhibited stable, repeatable operating characteristics during calibrations at temperatures up to 800 0 F and pressures to 2500 psig. All sensors have a nominal sensitivity of .5 millivolts per psi, decreasing monotonically with temperature. Output signal increases linearly with increasing pressure up to 2000 psig. For imposed slow and rapid temperature variations and for pressure applied during these tests, the sensor indicates a pressure at variance with the actual value by up to 15% of reading. However, the imposed temperature rates of change often exceeded the value of -10 0 F/sec. specified for LOFT. The series of tests in an autoclave permit creation of an environment most closely resembling sensor operating conditions within LOFT. For multiple blowdowns and for longtime durations the sensor continued to provide pressure-related output signals. For temperature rates up to -87 0 F/sec, the indicated pressure measurement error remained less than 13% of reading. Adverse effects caused by heating the 1/16 inch O.D. signal cable to 800 0 F contributed only insignificantly to the noted pressure measurement error

  10. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  11. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  12. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  13. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  14. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  15. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  16. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  17. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  18. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  19. HLA Association with Drug-Induced Adverse Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Lang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs remain a common and major problem in healthcare. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN with mortality rate ranges from 10% to more than 30%, can be life threatening. A number of recent studies demonstrated that ADRs possess strong genetic predisposition. ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes. For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B∗57:01. The incidences of abacavir hypersensitivity are much higher in Caucasians compared to other populations due to various allele frequencies in different ethnic populations. The antithyroid drug- (ATDs- induced agranulocytosis are strongly associated with two alleles: HLA-B∗38:02 and HLA-DRB1∗08:03. In addition, HLA-B∗15:02 allele was reported to be related to carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN, and HLA-B∗57:01 in abacavir hypersensitivity and flucloxacillin induced drug-induced liver injury (DILI. In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs.

  20. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  1. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  2. Childhood adversity and midlife suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Clark, C; Smuk, M; Power, C; Davidson, T; Rodgers, B

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey. Childhood adversity was prospectively assessed at the ages of 7, 11 and 16 years. Suicidal ideation at midlife was assessed by the depressive ideas subscale of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were measured by the Rutter scales at 16 years. Life events, periods of unemployment, partnership separations and alcohol dependence were measured through adulthood. Illness in the household, paternal absence, institutional care, parental divorce and retrospective reports of parental physical and sexual abuse predicted suicidal ideation at 45 years. Three or more childhood adversities were associated with suicidal ideation at 45 years [odds ratio (OR) 4.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-6.94]. Psychological distress at 16 years partially mediated the associations of physical abuse (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.29-5.75), sexual abuse (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.90-11.16) with suicidal ideation. Adult life events partially mediated the association of parental divorce (OR 6.34, 95% CI -7.16 to 36.75) and physical (OR 9.59, 95% CI 4.97-27.88) and sexual abuse (OR 6.59, 95% CI 2.40-38.36) with suicidal ideation at 45 years. Adversity in childhood predicts suicidal ideation in midlife, partially mediated by adolescent internalizing and externalizing disorders, adult life events and interpersonal difficulties. Understanding the pathways from adversity to suicidal ideation can inform suicide prevention and the targeting of preventive

  3. Associations of adversity in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in mid-adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Fraser, Abigail; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2018-02-01

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess associations of various types of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. At study enrolment, women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=3612) retrospectively reported: lack of maternal care, maternal overprotection, parental mental illness, household dysfunction, sexual abuse, physical and emotional abuse, and neglect in childhood. Approximately 23 years later, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial distensibility were assessed (mean age 51 years). We examined associations of each specific type of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity with CVD risk factors. No specific type of psychosocial adversity was consistently associated with the CVD risk factors. There was evidence that a one standard deviation greater cumulative psychosocial adversity was associated with 0.51cm greater waist circumference (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02cm, 1.00cm, p=0.04) and a lower arterial distensibility, even after adjustment for age, ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic position. We found no consistent evidence that any specific type of psychosocial adversity, or cumulative psychosocial adversity in childhood, is associated with CVD risk factors in adult women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  5. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  6. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  7. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  8. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  9. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  10. Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuberculin skin testing: Spectrum of adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ramar; Bahuguna, Amit; Dhadwal, Bhumesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) is one of the primary diagnostic modalities recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Even after acceptance as a diagnostic modality and stern standardization, TST has its own flaws that include a spectrum of adverse reactions. We report a series of cases with a spectrum of adverse reactions occurring with a higher frequency than present in the available evidence. The study has some demerits such as being a retrospective one with interobserver variation and lack of histopathological confirmation. The observation is presented to accentuate the fact that adverse reactions are not a rarity and that further studies are required to establish the cause and exact incidence of the same.

  12. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  13. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  14. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  15. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  16. Statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events: data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakaeda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA were reviewed to assess the muscular and renal adverse events induced by the administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins and to attempt to determine the rank-order of the association. METHODS: After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin were analyzed. Authorized pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Myalgia, rhabdomyolysis and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level were focused on as the muscular adverse events, and acute renal failure, non-acute renal failure, and an increase in blood creatinine level as the renal adverse events. RESULTS: Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, signals were detected for 4 statins with respect to myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level, but these signals were stronger for rosuvastatin than pravastatin and atorvastatin. Signals were also detected for acute renal failure, though in the case of atorvastatin, the association was marginal, and furthermore, a signal was not detected for non-acute renal failure or for an increase in blood creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Data mining of the FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, is useful for examining statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events. The data strongly suggest the necessity of well-organized clinical studies with respect to statin-associated adverse events.

  17. Statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events: data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kadoyama, Kaori; Okuno, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Adverse event reports (AERs) submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed to assess the muscular and renal adverse events induced by the administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) and to attempt to determine the rank-order of the association. After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin were analyzed. Authorized pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Myalgia, rhabdomyolysis and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level were focused on as the muscular adverse events, and acute renal failure, non-acute renal failure, and an increase in blood creatinine level as the renal adverse events. Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, signals were detected for 4 statins with respect to myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level, but these signals were stronger for rosuvastatin than pravastatin and atorvastatin. Signals were also detected for acute renal failure, though in the case of atorvastatin, the association was marginal, and furthermore, a signal was not detected for non-acute renal failure or for an increase in blood creatinine level. Data mining of the FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, is useful for examining statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events. The data strongly suggest the necessity of well-organized clinical studies with respect to statin-associated adverse events.

  18. Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood. ... childhood adversity have similar levels of depression, acute and chronic health. ... to explain the pathways linking childhood adversity to physical health in adulthood.

  19. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  20. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  1. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  2. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  3. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide.

  4. Childhood Adversity and Men’s Relationships in Adulthood: Life Course Processes and Racial Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348

  5. The association between cumulative adversity and mental health: considering dose and primary focus of adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Giora; Shrira, Amit; Shmotkin, Dov

    2012-09-01

    The study addressed the dose-response model in the association of cumulative adversity with mental health. Data of 1,725 participants aged 50+ were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Measures included an inventory of potentially traumatic events, distress (lifetime depression, depressive symptoms), and well-being (quality of life, optimism/hope). The maximal effect of cumulative trauma emerged in the contrast between 0-2 and 3+ events, where the higher number of events related to higher distress but also to higher well-being. While self-oriented adversity revealed no, or negative, association with well-being, other-oriented adversity revealed a positive association. The study suggests an experiential dose of cumulative adversity leading to a co-activation of distress and well-being. The source of this co-activation seems to be other-oriented adversity.

  6. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  7. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  8. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  9. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  10. Adverse events while awaiting myocardial revascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Stuart J.; da Costa, Bruno R.; Beumer, Berend

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to estimate adverse event rates while awaiting myocardial revascularization and review criteria for prioritizing patients. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed on 19 January 2015, to identify English-language, original, observational studies reportin...

  11. .Network analytics for adverse outcome pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) organize toxicological knowledge from the molecular level up to the population level, providing evidence-based causal linkages at each step. The AOPWiki serves as a repository of AOPs. With the international adoption of the AOP framework, the AOPw...

  12. Eccentric vision : adverse interactions between line segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.J.; Bouma, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with adverse interactions between line stimuli ineccentric vision. Bothcontrast thresholdandjust noticeable difference of slanthave been measured for a test line as a function of the distance from a number of surrounding lines. Test lines were either parallel or perpendicular to the

  13. An Adverse Reaction in the Pediatric Sleep Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Reppucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (NIPBL gene mutation. On a PSG, central sleep apnea (central apnea-hypopnea index of 19/hour and nocturnal hypoventilation (transcutaneous CO2 > 50 mmHg for 53% of the night were found. A positive pressure initiation study was aborted because the patient developed a serious adverse reaction. The differential diagnosis included a skin fragility condition versus an allergic contact dermatitis to the interface; this could be from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface or from the plastic of the interface itself. A skin biopsy was performed which was normal. The reaction was likely secondary to an allergic contact dermatitis from the povidone-iodine solution used to clean the NiPPV interface. The patient is currently tolerating NiPPV.

  14. The AFFORD clinical decision aid to identify emergency department patients with atrial fibrillation at low risk for 30-day adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Tyler W; Storrow, Alan B; Jenkins, Cathy A; Abraham, Robert L; Liu, Dandan; Miller, Karen F; Moser, Kelly M; Russ, Stephan; Roden, Dan M; Harrell, Frank E; Darbar, Dawood

    2015-03-15

    There is wide variation in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to derive and internally validate the first prospective, ED-based clinical decision aid to identify patients with AF at low risk for 30-day adverse events. We performed a prospective cohort study at a university-affiliated tertiary-care ED. Patients were enrolled from June 9, 2010, to February 28, 2013, and followed for 30 days. We enrolled a convenience sample of patients in ED presenting with symptomatic AF. Candidate predictors were based on ED data available in the first 2 hours. The decision aid was derived using model approximation (preconditioning) followed by strong bootstrap internal validation. We used an ordinal outcome hierarchy defined as the incidence of the most severe adverse event within 30 days of the ED evaluation. Of 497 patients enrolled, stroke and AF-related death occurred in 13 (3%) and 4 (aid included the following: age, triage vitals (systolic blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, supplemental oxygen requirement), medical history (heart failure, home sotalol use, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, electrical cardioversion, cardiac ablation, frequency of AF symptoms), and ED data (2 hours heart rate, chest radiograph results, hemoglobin, creatinine, and brain natriuretic peptide). The decision aid's c-statistic in predicting any 30-day adverse event was 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.65, 0.76). In conclusion, in patients with AF in the ED, Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter Outcome Risk Determination provides the first evidence-based decision aid for identifying patients who are at low risk for 30-day adverse events and candidates for safe discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  16. Rethinking childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James E; Davidson, Sean L; Maclachlan, Laura; Newton, Julia L; Watson, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have consistently shown increased rates of childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, such aetiopathogenic studies of CFS are potentially confounded by co-morbidity and misdiagnosis particularly with depression. Purpose: We examined the relationship between rates of childhood adversity using two complimentary approaches (1) a sample of CFS patients who had no lifetime history of depression and (2) a modelling approach. Methods: Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) administered to a sample of 52 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome and 19 controls who did not meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder (confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Subsequently, Mediation Analysis (Baye's Rules) was used to establish the risk childhood adversity poses for CFS with and without depression. Results: In a cohort of CFS patients with depression comprehensively excluded, CTQ scores were markedly lower than in all previous studies and, in contrast to these previous studies, not increased compared with healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that CTQ scores correlated with the number of depressive symptoms during the lifetime worst period of low mood. The probability of developing CFS given a history of childhood trauma is 4%, a two-fold increased risk compared to the general population. However, much of this risk is mediated by the concomitant development of major depression. Conclusions: The data suggests that previous studies showing a relationship between childhood adversity and CFS may be attributable to the confounding effects of co-morbid or misdiagnosed depressive disorder. Abbreviations: CFS: Chronic fatigue syndrome; CTQ: Childhood trauma questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; CA: Childhood adversity; P : Probability.

  17. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, N; Kamangar, P Bahrami; Azadbakht, M; Amini, A; Amiri, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the abnormalities in sperm after exposure to hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure acting on the cells is one of the fundamental environmental mechanical forces. Disorders of relationship between the cells and this mechanical force, such as when pressure varies beyond physiological limits, can lead to disease or pathological states. Sperm exposed to different range of hydrostatic pressure within male reproductive system and after entering the female reproductive system. Sexually mature male NMRI mice, 8-12 weeks-old were sperm donors. Sperms were separated from the caudal epididymis and maintained in Ham's F-10 culture medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and divided into control and treatments. Sperm suspensions in the treatments were placed within pressure chamber and were subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure of 25, 50 and 100 mmHg (treatment I, II and III) above atmospheric pressure for 2 and 4 h. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability were assessed and compared with control. Results showed that hydrostatic pressure dependent on ranges and time manner reduced sperm quality due to adverse effect on viability, motility , morphology, DNA integrity and fertilizing ability in all of treatments, especially after 4h (phydrostatic pressure reduces sperm quality as a consequence of adverse effects on sperm parameters and may cause male infertility or subfertility (Tab. 5, Ref. 5).

  18. Population attributable fractions of psychopathology and suicidal behaviour associated with childhood adversities in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversities are strong predictors of psychopathology and suicidality. However, specific adversities are associated with different outcomes, with cross-national variations reported. The current study examined rates of adversities reported in Northern Ireland (NI), and associations between adverse childhood experiences and psychopathology and suicidal behaviour were explored. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), conducted as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative (2004-2008); response rate 68.4% (n = 1,986). The on-line survey used, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to examine psychopathology and associated risk factors in the NI population. Prevalence rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversities were calculated, with gender and age variations explored. Females were more likely to experience sexual abuse. Individuals who grew up during the worst years of the civil conflict in NI experienced elevated levels of childhood adversities. Participants who endured childhood adversities were more likely to have mental health problems but variations in risk factors were found for different disorders. Parental mental illness was associated with all disorders however, with ORs ranging from 2.20 for mood disorders to 4.07 for anxiety disorders. Population attributable fractions (PAF) estimated the reduction in psychopathology and suicidal behaviour in the population if exposure to adverse childhood events had not occurred. The highest PAF values were revealed for parental mental illness and sexual abuse. The findings indicate that a substantial proportion of psychopathology and suicide risk in NI are attributable to childhood adversities, providing support for early intervention and prevention initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  20. Noise Radiation Of A Strongly Pulsating Tailpipe Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peizi, Li; Genhua, Dai; Zhichi, Zhu

    1993-11-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve the problem of the propagation of a strongly pulsating flow in an exhaust system tailpipe. For a strongly pulsating exhaust, the flow may shock at the pipe's open end at some point in a pulsating where the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. The method fails if one insists on setting the flow pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure as the pipe end boundary condition. To solve the problem, we set the Mach number equal to 1 as the boundary condition when the flow pressure exceeds its critical value. For a strongly pulsating flow, the fluctuations of flow variables may be much higher than their respective time averages. Therefore, the acoustic radiation method would fail in the computation of the noise radiation from the pipe's open end. We simulate the exhaust flow out of the open end as a simple sound source to compute the noise radiation, which has been successfully applied in reference [1]. The simple sound source strength is proportional to the volume acceleration of exhaust gas. Also computed is the noise radiation from the turbulence of the exhaust flow, as was done in reference [1]. Noise from a reciprocating valve simulator has been treated in detail. The radiation efficiency is very low for the pressure range considered and is about 10 -5. The radiation efficiency coefficient increases with the square of the frequency. Computation of the pipe length dependence of the noise radiation and mass flux allows us to design a suitable length for an aerodynamic noise generator or a reciprocating internal combustion engine. For the former, powerful noise radiation is preferable. For the latter, maximum mass flux is desired because a freer exhaust is preferable.

  1. Different drinking motives, different adverse consequences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Eichenberger, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This study, which builds on previous research demonstrating that drinking motives are associated with adverse consequences, investigates the associations between drinking motives and non-alcohol-attributed adverse consequences and disentangles alcohol-related and direct......, differences across countries were tested in a multigroup analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect (via alcohol use) was greater for injuries and academic problems than for more general outcomes such as life dissatisfaction and negative body image. For social, enhancement and coping motives, we found positive...... indirect effects (via alcohol use) on injuries and academic problems; the association was negative for conformity motives. The direct effect, that is, the effect above and beyond alcohol use, indicated more negative consequences among those who tended to drink more frequently for coping motives. More...

  2. Adverse selection model regarding tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of introducing a tax on tobacco consumption can be studied trough an adverse selection model. The objective of the model presented in the following is to characterize the optimal contractual relationship between the governmental authorities and the two type employees: smokers and non-smokers, taking into account that the consumers’ decision to smoke or not represents an element of risk and uncertainty. Two scenarios are run using the General Algebraic Modeling Systems software: one without taxes set on tobacco consumption and another one with taxes set on tobacco consumption, based on an adverse selection model described previously. The results of the two scenarios are compared in the end of the paper: the wage earnings levels and the social welfare in case of a smoking agent and in case of a non-smoking agent.

  3. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  4. Pengaruh Negative Framing dan Adverse Selection terhadap Eskalasi Komitmen

    OpenAIRE

    Arimawan, Muhammad Sandi; Sukirno, Sukirno

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1) Pengaruh negative framing terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (2) Pengaruh adverse selection terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (3) Pengaruh negative framing dan adverse selection secara bersama-sama terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (4) Pengaruh negative framing terhadap eskalasi komitmen dimoderasi locus of control, (5) Pengaruh adverse selection terhadap eskalasi komitmen dimoderasi locus of control, (6) Pengaruh negative framing dan adverse selection se...

  5. The lesser of two adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chayan; Egan, John

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to complex systems are interconnected processes involved in providing high-quality patient care. A case study and a root cause analysis (RCA) illustrate a patient safety effort with unintended consequences. A 38-year-old woman presented to the hospital for odynophagia and vomiting. The patient developed Mobitz type 2, second-degree heart block temporally associated with the administration of intravenous ondansetron. RESPONSE TO THE EVENT: An Ishikawa, or fishbone, diagram conducted to enumerate potential contributing factors indicated that a key factor appeared to be an institutional restriction against using intravenous (i.v.) promethazine, which resulted in ondansetron being the only readily available i.v. anti-emetic on formulary. The anesthesia department requested that i.v. promethazine be removed from all operating and recovery room automated medication dispensing machines. The pharmacy department, given the realization that individual departments were taking independent action regarding promethazine, discussed the matter with the medical director, who issued a memo banning the use of i.v. promethazine. An institutional ban on i.v. anti-emetics such as promethazine may have resulted in an increase in the use of ondansetron and contributed to this adverse reaction. The reason to restrict promethazine is not well reported in the literature. In limiting the use of promethazine for patient safety concerns, the inadvertent increase in adverse reactions of the alternative medication, ondansetron, may have been overlooked. The resultant RCA underscores the need for careful cataloguing of adverse medication effects. Stakeholders should anticipate as many "downstream effects" of quality and patient safety improvements as possible. Comprehensive reporting of adverse medication effects will augment the emerging science of patient safety.

  6. The pharmacist and adverse drug reaction reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K

    1982-08-01

    During premarketing trials, the number of patients exposed to a drug and the length of exposure to a drug are both limited. After marketing, many thousands, frequently millions, of patients are exposed to the drug over considerably longer periods of time, and adverse drug reactions not previously recognized appear. Because of these factors, postmarketing surveillance is extremely important. Pharmacists can contribute to drug safety and improved patient care by understanding and actively participating in the Food and Drug Administration's Spontaneous Reporting Program.

  7. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  8. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) to enhance EDC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, which organizes information concerning measureable changes that link initial biological interactions with a chemical to adverse effects that are meaningful to risk assessment and management, can aid this process. This presentation outlines the ways in which the AOP framework has already been employed to support EDSP and how it may further enhance endocrine disruptor assessments in the future. Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway

  9. Adverse mood symptoms with oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Segebladh, Birgitta

    2012-04-01

    In spite of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) having been available for more than 50 years, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence of truly COC-related adverse mood symptoms and about the underlying biological mechanisms of proposed changes in mood and affect. Precise estimates of COC-related adverse mood symptoms are not available due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. In prospective trials the frequency of women who report deteriorated mood or deteriorated emotional well-being varies between 4 and 10%, but it can be assumed that the causal relation in these prevalence rates is overestimated. Adverse mood symptoms and somatic symptoms are most pronounced during the pill-free interval of the treatment cycles, but whether extended COC regimens would be more favorable in this respect is not known. COCs with anti-androgenic progestagens, such as drospirenone and desogestrel, appear more favorable in terms of mood symptoms than progestagens with a more androgenic profile. Available data suggest that lower doses of ethinylestradiol could be beneficial. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  11. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  12. Genetic variants determining survival and fertility in an adverse African environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Pijpe, Jeroen; Böhringer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Human survival probability and fertility decline strongly with age. These life history traits have been shaped by evolution. However, research has failed to uncover a consistent genetic determination of variation in survival and fertility. As an explanation, such genetic determinants have been...... selected in adverse environments, in which humans have lived during most of their history, but are almost exclusively studied in populations in modern affluent environments. Here, we present a large-scale candidate gene association study in a rural African population living in an adverse environment...

  13. Adulthood Stressors, History of Childhood Adversity, and Risk of Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Conron, Kerith J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. Purpose This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. Methods The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004–2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8% increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3% increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3% increased risk compared with a 2.5% increased risk in the low-level adversity group. Conclusions Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration. PMID:21238860

  14. Serious adverse events with infliximab: analysis of spontaneously reported adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Gartlehner, Gerald; Powell, Gregory E; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    Serious adverse events such as bowel obstruction, heart failure, infection, lymphoma, and neuropathy have been reported with infliximab. The aims of this study were to explore adverse event signals with infliximab by using a long period of post-marketing experience, stratifying by indication. The relative reporting of infliximab adverse events to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was assessed with the public release version of the adverse event reporting system (AERS) database from 1968 to third quarter 2005. On the basis of a systematic review of adverse events, Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms were mapped to predefined categories of adverse events, including death, heart failure, hepatitis, infection, infusion reaction, lymphoma, myelosuppression, neuropathy, and obstruction. Disproportionality analysis was used to calculate the empiric Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (EB05, EB95) for adverse event categories. Infliximab was identified as the suspect medication in 18,220 reports in the FDA AERS database. We identified a signal for lymphoma (EB05 = 6.9), neuropathy (EB05 = 3.8), infection (EB05 = 2.9), and bowel obstruction (EB05 = 2.8). The signal for granulomatous infections was stronger than the signal for non-granulomatous infections (EB05 = 12.6 and 2.4, respectively). The signals for bowel obstruction and infusion reaction were specific to patients with IBD; this suggests potential confounding by indication, especially for bowel obstruction. In light of this additional evidence of risk of lymphoma, neuropathy, and granulomatous infections, clinicians should stress this risk in the shared decision-making process.

  15. Heterogeneous but “Standard” Coding Systems for Adverse Events: Issues in Achieving Interoperability between Apples and Oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L.; Fung, Kin Wah; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring adverse events (AEs) is an important part of clinical research and a crucial target for data standards. The representation of adverse events themselves requires the use of controlled vocabularies with thousands of needed clinical concepts. Several data standards for adverse events currently exist, each with a strong user base. The structure and features of these current adverse event data standards (including terminologies and classifications) are different, so comparisons and evaluations are not straightforward, nor are strategies for their harmonization. Three different data standards - the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) and the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) terminologies, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) classification - are explored as candidate representations for AEs. This paper describes the structural features of each coding system, their content and relationship to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and unsettled issues for future interoperability of these standards. PMID:18406213

  16. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel; Bramlage, Peter; Elsaesser, Amelie; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 ± 9 years) received adenosine (140 μg/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 ± 11.7 versus 82.4 ± 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 ± 1.9% versus 97 ± 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 ± 24.0 versus 140.9 ± 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 ± 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 ± 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  17. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  18. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design

  19. Disclosure of Adverse Events in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing attention to issues of patient safety, preventable adverse events (AEs) continue to occur, causing direct and consequential injuries to patients, families, and health care providers. Pediatricians generally agree that there is an ethical obligation to inform patients and families about preventable AEs and medical errors. Nonetheless, barriers, such as fear of liability, interfere with disclosure regarding preventable AEs. Changes to the legal system, improved communications skills, and carefully developed disclosure policies and programs can improve the quality and frequency of appropriate AE disclosure communications. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. [Adverse drug reaction reporting in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Kolia; Chassagnol, Isabelle; Brion, Nathalie; Cléro, Joël; Degrèze, Nathalie; Lambert, Yves

    2004-01-01

    A regional survey was performed between June and September 2002, to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of emergency physicians regarding adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting in a French district. 100 questionnaires completed by physicians working in emergency departments and/or mobile intensive care units were analysed. The frequency of ADRs encountered by emergency practitioners was estimated at > or = 0.73 per year and per physician. The ADR notification rate in emergency medicine was estimated at advertising ADR reporting procedures could help to improve the notification rate in emergency medicine.

  1. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bogaczewicz; Tomasz Sobów

    2017-01-01

    Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine anal...

  2. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    , although two trials indicated that foam overlays caused adverse skin changes. Meta-analysis of three trials suggest that Australian standard medical sheepskins prevent pressure ulcers (RR 0.56 95% CI 0.32 to 0.97).  People at high risk of developing pressure ulcers should use higher-specification foam mattresses rather than standard hospital foam mattresses. The relative merits of higher-specification constant low-pressure and alternating-pressure support surfaces for preventing pressure ulcers are unclear, but alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context. Medical grade sheepskins are associated with a decrease in pressure ulcer development. Organisations might consider the use of some forms of pressure relief for high risk patients in the operating theatre.

  3. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  4. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (PConsumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P=0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (Preporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity.

  5. Ranking adverse drug reactions with crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B

    2015-03-23

    There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  6. Development of a Pediatric Adverse Events Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Kirkendall, Eric S; Gumbs-Petty, Brenda; Quinn, Theresa; Steen, A; Hicks, Amanda; McMahon, Ann; Nicholas, Savian; Zhao-Wong, Anna; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Turner, Mark; Herreshoff, Emily; Jones, Charlotte; Davis, Jonathan M; Haber, Margaret; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) established the Pediatric Terminology Harmonization Initiative to establish a core library of terms to facilitate the acquisition and sharing of knowledge between pediatric clinical research, practice, and safety reporting. A coalition of partners established a Pediatric Terminology Adverse Event Working Group in 2013 to develop a specific terminology relevant to international pediatric adverse event (AE) reporting. Pediatric specialists with backgrounds in clinical care, research, safety reporting, or informatics, supported by biomedical terminology experts from the National Cancer Institute's Enterprise Vocabulary Services participated. The multinational group developed a working definition of AEs and reviewed concepts (terms, synonyms, and definitions) from 16 pediatric clinical domains. The resulting AE terminology contains >1000 pediatric diseases, disorders, or clinical findings. The terms were tested for proof of concept use in 2 different settings: hospital readmissions and the NICU. The advantages of the AE terminology include ease of adoption due to integration with well-established and internationally accepted biomedical terminologies, a uniquely temporal focus on pediatric health and disease from conception through adolescence, and terms that could be used in both well- and underresourced environments. The AE terminology is available for use without restriction through the National Cancer Institute's Enterprise Vocabulary Services and is fully compatible with, and represented in, the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. The terminology is intended to mature with use, user feedback, and optimization. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Classifying Adverse Events in the Dental Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Obadan-Udoh, Enihomo; Maramaldi, Peter; Etolue, Jini; Yansane, Alfa; Stewart, Denice; White, Joel; Vaderhobli, Ram; Kent, Karla; Hebballi, Nutan B; Delattre, Veronique; Kahn, Maria; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Ramoni, Rachel B; Walji, Muhammad F

    2017-06-30

    Dentists strive to provide safe and effective oral healthcare. However, some patients may encounter an adverse event (AE) defined as "unnecessary harm due to dental treatment." In this research, we propose and evaluate two systems for categorizing the type and severity of AEs encountered at the dental office. Several existing medical AE type and severity classification systems were reviewed and adapted for dentistry. Using data collected in previous work, two initial dental AE type and severity classification systems were developed. Eight independent reviewers performed focused chart reviews, and AEs identified were used to evaluate and modify these newly developed classifications. A total of 958 charts were independently reviewed. Among the reviewed charts, 118 prospective AEs were found and 101 (85.6%) were verified as AEs through a consensus process. At the end of the study, a final AE type classification comprising 12 categories, and an AE severity classification comprising 7 categories emerged. Pain and infection were the most common AE types representing 73% of the cases reviewed (56% and 17%, respectively) and 88% were found to cause temporary, moderate to severe harm to the patient. Adverse events found during the chart review process were successfully classified using the novel dental AE type and severity classifications. Understanding the type of AEs and their severity are important steps if we are to learn from and prevent patient harm in the dental office.

  8. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) consists of one or more biologically based, computational models describing key event relationships linking a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. A qAOP provides quantitative, dose–response, and time-course predictions that can support regulatory decision-making. Herein we describe several facets of qAOPs, including (a) motivation for development, (b) technical considerations, (c) evaluation of confidence, and (d) potential applications. The qAOP used as an illustrative example for these points describes the linkage between inhibition of cytochrome P450 19A aromatase (the MIE) and population-level decreases in the fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). The qAOP consists of three linked computational models for the following: (a) the hypothalamic-pitutitary-gonadal axis in female FHMs, where aromatase inhibition decreases the conversion of testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), thereby reducing E2-dependent vitellogenin (VTG; egg yolk protein precursor) synthesis, (b) VTG-dependent egg development and spawning (fecundity), and (c) fecundity-dependent population trajectory. While development of the example qAOP was based on experiments with FHMs exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, we also show how a toxic equivalence (TEQ) calculation allows use of the qAOP to predict effects of another, untested aromatase inhibitor, iprodione. While qAOP development can be resource-intensive, the quan

  9. Medicaid program choice, inertia and adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, James; Yelowitz, Aaron; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, Kentucky implemented Medicaid managed care statewide, auto-assigned enrollees to three plans, and allowed switching. Using administrative data, we find that the state's auto-assignment algorithm most heavily weighted cost-minimization and plan balancing, and placed little weight on the quality of the enrollee-plan match. Immobility - apparently driven by health plan inertia - contributed to the success of the cost-minimization strategy, as more than half of enrollees auto-assigned to even the lowest quality plans did not opt-out. High-cost enrollees were more likely to opt-out of their auto-assigned plan, creating adverse selection. The plan with arguably the highest quality incurred the largest initial profit margin reduction due to adverse selection prior to risk adjustment, as it attracted a disproportionate share of high-cost enrollees. The presence of such selection, caused by differential degrees of mobility, raises concerns about the long run viability of the Medicaid managed care market without such risk adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adverse Outcome Pathway Networks II: Network Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Angrish, Michelle M; Fortin, Marie C; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Leonard, Marc; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Munn, Sharon; O'Brien, Jason M; Pollesch, Nathan L; Smith, L Cody; Zhang, Xiaowei; Knapen, Dries

    2018-02-28

    Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks. First, graph theory-based approaches for identifying important topological features are illustrated using two example AOP networks derived from existing AOP descriptions. Second, considerations for identifying the most significant path(s) through an AOP network from either a biological or risk assessment perspective are described. Finally, approaches for identifying interactions among AOPs that may result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic responses, or previously undefined emergent patterns of response, are introduced. Along with a companion article (Knapen et al. part I), these concepts set the stage for development of tools and case studies that will facilitate more rigorous analysis of AOP networks, and the utility of AOP network-based predictions, for use in research and regulatory decision-making. Collectively, this work addresses one of the major themes identified through a SETAC Horizon Scanning effort focused on advancing the AOP framework. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  12. Adverse reactions to iotroxate at intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, U.

    1987-01-01

    The number and type of adverse reactions to meglumine iotroxate at intravenous infusion cholangiography, performed one day prior to elective cholecystectomy, were recorded in a prospective investigation of 196 asymptomatic, anicteric patients. One hundred ml (50 mg I/ml) of contrast medium was infused over a period of 30 minutes. Only 2 minor (1%) and no severe or fatal reactions were noted. A review of the literature on the use of iotroxate in 2492 patients, including those in the present investigation, revealed a complication rate of 3.5% (3.0% minor, 0.3% moderate and 0.2% severe reactions) at infusion of iotroxate (5.0-8.0 g I) over a period of 30 to 120 minutes. This compared favourably with the 5% complication rate (4% minor, 0.5% moderate and 0.5% severe reactions) at infusion of iodoxamate and the 9% complication rate (5% minor, 1% moderate and 3% severe reactions) at infusion of ioglycamide. Irrespective of the contrast agent used, the frequency of adverse reactions at infusion was found to be 3 times lower than when equal amounts (5.0-5.6 g I) of the same medium were injected. It is concluded that, at present, infusion of iotroxate in an amount which approximates to the transportation maximum of the liver is the least toxic way of performing intravenous cholangiography with an optimum filling of the bile ducts. (orig.)

  13. Accelerating Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) development ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework is increasingly being adopted as a tool for organizing and summarizing the mechanistic information connecting molecular perturbations by environmental stressors with adverse outcomes relevant for ecological and human health outcomes. However, the conventional process for assembly of these AOPs is time and resource intensive, and has been a rate limiting step for AOP use and development. Therefore computational approaches to accelerate the process need to be developed. We previously developed a method for generating computationally predicted AOPs (cpAOPs) by association mining and integration of data from publicly available databases. In this work, a cpAOP network of ~21,000 associations was established between 105 phenotypes from TG-GATEs rat liver data from different time points (including microarray, pathological effects and clinical chemistry data), 994 REACTOME pathways, 688 High-throughput assays from ToxCast and 194 chemicals. A second network of 128,536 associations was generated by connecting 255 biological target genes from ToxCast to 4,980 diseases from CTD using either HT screening activity from ToxCast for 286 chemicals or CTD gene expression changes in response to 2,330 chemicals. Both networks were separately evaluated through manual extraction of disease-specific cpAOPs and comparison with expert curation of the relevant literature. By employing data integration strategies that involve the weighting of n

  14. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  16. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  17. An adverse drug event manager facilitates spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Klarskov, Pia; Borgeskov, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is used for continuous risk-benefit evaluation of marketed pharmaceutical products and for signal detection. The Adverse Drug Event Manager (ADEM) is a service offered to clinicians employed at hospitals in the Capital Region......%). The drugs most frequently reported were lisdexamphetamine (n = 40), rivaroxaban (n = 16) and warfarin (n = 15) (vaccines excluded). In 13 out of 484 reports, the ADR was associated with a fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that an ADEM promotes and facilitates spontaneous ADR...

  18. Strong field interaction of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The Review covers recent progress in laser-matter interaction at intensities above 10 18 W cm -2 . At these intensities electrons swing in the laser pulse with relativistic energies. The laser electric field is already much stronger than the atomic fields, and any material is instantaneously ionized, creating plasma. The physics of relativistic laser-plasma is highly non-linear and kinetic. The best numerical tools applicable here are particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, which provide the most fundamental plasma model as an ensemble of charged particles. The three-dimensional (3D) PIC code Virtual Laser-Plasma Laboratory runs on a massively parallel computer tracking trajectories of up to 10 9 particles simultaneously. This allows one to simulate real laser-plasma experiments for the first time. When the relativistically intense laser pulses propagate through plasma, a bunch of new physical effects appears. The laser pulses are subject to relativistic self-channelling and filamentation. The gigabar ponderomotive pressure of the laser pulse drives strong currents of plasma electrons in the laser propagation direction; these currents reach the Alfven limit and generate 100 MG quasistatic magnetic fields. These magnetic fields, in turn, lead to the mutual filament attraction and super-channel formation. The electrons in the channels are accelerated up to gigaelectronvolt energies and the ions gain multi-MeV energies. We discuss different mechanisms of particle acceleration and compare numerical simulations with experimental data. One of the very important applications of the relativistically strong laser beams is the fast ignition (FI) concept for the inertial fusion energy (IFE). Petawatt-class lasers may provide enough energy to isochorically ignite a pre-compressed target consisting of thermonuclear fuel. The FI approach would ease dramatically the constraints on the implosion symmetry and improve the energy gain. However, there is a set of problems to solve before the FI

  19. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  20. FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): Latest Quartely Data Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. The database...

  1. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup; Lauenborg, Jeannet; Breum, Birger Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery.......The aim of this study was to describe the risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome after bariatric surgery....

  2. Common adverse drug reactions with psychiatric medications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common adverse drug reactions with psychiatric medications and an approach to their management: Adverse drug reactions are as important in psychiatric practice as they are in any other branch of medicine.

  3. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  4. Adverse Outcome Pathway Network Analyses: Techniques and benchmarking the AOPwiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: As the community of toxicological researchers, risk assessors, and risk managers adopt the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) paradigm for organizing toxicological knowledge, the number and diversity of adverse outcome pathways and AOP networks are continuing to grow. This ...

  5. Arabic translation and cultural adaptation of Liverpool Adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Adverse drug event, Epilepsy, Older adults, Cronbach's alpha, Liverpool Adverse Events. Profile, Seizure ... uncommon symptoms such as memory loss [5]. Age is a known .... to control seizures and minimize their side effects. [22].

  6. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. The two sides of adversity: the effect of distant versus recent adversity on updating emotional content in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M; Armstrong, Laura Marie; Orejuela-Dávila, Ana I; Alverio, Tabitha

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that adversity can have both adaptive and maladaptive effects, yet the emotional and working memory processes that contribute to more or less adaptive outcomes are unclear. The present study sought to investigate how updating emotional content differs in adolescents who have experienced past, recent, or no adversity. Participants who had experienced distant adversity (N = 53), no adversity (N = 58), or recent adversity only (N = 20) performed an emotion n-back task with emotional facial expressions. Results revealed that the distant adversity group exhibited significantly faster reaction times (RTs) than the no adversity and recent adversity only groups. In contrast, the recent adversity only group exhibited significantly slower RTs and more errors than the distant adversity and no adversity groups. These results suggest an emotion and executive control pathway by which both the benefits and negative effects of adversity may be conferred. Results also highlight the importance of time in assessing the impact of adversity.

  8. Periodontal treatment for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Karimbux, Nadeem; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Periodontal treatment might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. The efficacy of periodontal treatment to prevent preterm birth, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality was evaluated using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. METHODS: An existing systematic review was updated...... risk of random errors. RESULTS: Thirteen randomized clinical trials evaluating 6283 pregnant women were meta-analyzed. Four and nine trials had low and high risk of bias, respectively. Overall, periodontal treatment had no significant effect on preterm birth (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.......79 [0.57-1.10]) or low birth weight (0.69 [0.43-1.13]). Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that futility was not reached for any of the outcomes. For populations with moderate occurrence (periodontal treatment was not efficacious for any of the outcomes...

  9. Consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. Since 2003 in Denmark, consumers have been able to report ADRs directly to the authorities. The objective of this study was to compare ADRs reported by consumers with ADRs...... medicines on level 1 of the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. ADR reports from consumers were compared with reports from other sources (physicians, pharmacists, lawyers, pharmaceutical companies and other healthcare professionals). Chi-square and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated...... to investigate the dependence between type of reporter and reported ADRs (classified by ATC or SOC). FINDINGS: We analysed 6319 ADR reports corresponding to 15 531 ADRs. Consumers reported 11% of the ADRs. Consumers' share of 'serious' ADRs was comparable to that of physicians (approximately 45%) but lower than...

  10. Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, Jacoline C; De Bruin, Marie L; Koopmanschap, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause considerable mortality and morbidity but no recent reviews are currently available for the European region. Therefore, we performed a review of all epidemiological studies quantifying ADRs in a European setting that were published between 1 January 2000 and 3...... September 2014. Included studies assessed the number of patients who were admitted to hospital due to an ADR, studies that assessed the number of patients who developed an ADR during hospitalization, and studies that measured ADRs in the outpatient setting. In total, 47 articles were included in the final...... review. The median percentage of hospital admissions due to an ADR was 3.5 %, based on 22 studies, and the median percentage of patients who experienced an ADR during hospitalization was 10.1 %, based on 13 studies. Only five studies were found that assessed ADRs occurring in the outpatient setting...

  11. Consequences of emergency contraceptives: the adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomin, Anne; Keller, Valentin; Daraï, Emile; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) offers women an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancy following intercourse. Despite the constant improvement of availability of different molecules and techniques already existing (Yuzpe regimen, levonorgestrel, intrauterine device) and the emergence of ulipristal acetate, the numbers of unintended pregnancies and unplanned births could still be reduced. This review will evaluate all the information about the potential adverse effects and tolerability of each method of EC by putting them in balance with their safety and effectiveness. A literature search until December 2013 was performed to identify all trials studying the safety data available concerning EC. Different means of EC have been demonstrated to be generally safe and well tolerated. These data support women information in order to improve use and efficacy of EC.

  12. Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals and their reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.

    1988-01-01

    Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are uncommon and the great majority that do occur are relatively trivial and require little or no treatment. Reporting schemes for such reactions are in operation in a number of countries but they vary in their effectiveness and the best collect only a minority of cases; only 10-15% of total reactions in the United Kingdom, for instance. Radiopharmaceutical reaction reports in the UK for the period 1982-1987 are summarised in a table and then discussed. Reliable incidence figures for such reactions are difficult to obtain. The UK figure is estimated here to be near 1 per 2000. The great majority of reactions reported are of an idiopathic hypersensitivity nature and are related to the chemical form of the material; radiation has very rarely caused recognisable problems since the discontinuance of colloid gold for lymphatic clearance studies. The value of such reaction reports is their role as a forewarning to doctors

  13. Seamless prevention of adverse events from tattooing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The boom in tattooing has been paralleled by more frequent adverse events, which may be localised in the skin or systemic and manifested clinically or latent. Infections, allergic reactions from red-coloured tattoos and papulo-nodular reactions from black tattoos dominate. Mild complaints are very...... orchestration of a multi-targeted strategy. High-priority elements of this strategy shall facilitate a qualified 'go' or 'no go' decision by the customer before the tattoo is made and should involve informed consent, qualification of the tattooist and the parlour, including supplies of inks etc., and attention......, which needs attention and timely action to prevent additional cases and epidemic outbreaks, are part of this seamless strategy, along with optimised medical therapy and research....

  14. The oral microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobb CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Cobb,1 Patricia J Kelly,2 Karen B Williams,3 Shilpa Babbar,4 Mubashir Angolkar,5 Richard J Derman6 1Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, 2Department of Public Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Biomedical & Health Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 4Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women’s Health, Division of Maternal & Fetal Medicine, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 5Department of Public Health, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC, KLE University, Karnataka, India; 6Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Significant evidence supports an association between periodontal pathogenic bacteria and preterm birth and preeclampsia. The virulence properties assigned to specific oral pathogenic bacteria, for example, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Filifactor alocis, Campylobacter rectus, and others, render them as potential collaborators in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Several pathways have been suggested for this association: 1 hematogenous spread (bacteremia of periodontal pathogens; 2 hematogenous spread of multiple mediators of inflammation that are generated by the host and/or fetal immune response to pathogenic bacteria; and 3 the possibility of oral microbial pathogen transmission, with subsequent colonization, in the vaginal microbiome resulting from sexual practices. As periodontal disease is, for the most part, preventable, the medical and dental public health communities can address intervention strategies to control oral inflammatory disease, lessen the systemic inflammatory burden, and ultimately reduce the potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the oral, vaginal, and placental microbiomes, considers their potential impact on preterm labor, and the future

  15. [Nursing role in reporting adverse drug reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Garaicoechea, Ana; Reis-Carvalho, Joana; Ripa-Aisa, Irantzu; Jiménez-Mendoza, Ana; Díaz-Balén, Almudena; Oroviogoicoechea, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous report system, in which suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) are reported by healthcare workers, is currently one of the primary methods to prevent and discover new and serious ADR to marketed medicinal products. The collaboration of nursing professionals with this task makes it possible to improve patient safety and to reduce ADR costs. Although a total of 781 cases of ADR cases were reported in Navarra in 2011, only 7.33% were reported by nurses. The objectives werw to determine the factors that influence nurses in reporting of ADR, and second, to devise strategies which help to increase reporting. A bibliographic search for articles that included the words: reacciones adversas medicamentosas (adverse drug reactions), notificación (reporting) and enfermería (nursing) was conducted using the PubMed and Cinhal databases. A total of 107 articles were retrieved, of which 27 were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The conclusion learned by reading and analyzing the selected articles was that the factors that affect the notification depend on the attitude of the notifier, as well as personal and professional factors. The main strategies to encourage notification are education and training, motivation, and the availability of facilitating tools. The main factors that have an influence on under-notification are the lack of knowledge and motivation among professionals. To solve the problem of under-notification, the main actions and strategies to undertake are education, motivation and persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating Angiogenic Factors and the Risk of Adverse Outcomes among Haitian Women with Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa I March

    Full Text Available Angiogenic factors are strongly associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes among women with preterm preeclampsia (PE in developed countries. We evaluated the role of angiogenic factors and their relationship to adverse outcomes among Haitian women with PE.We measured plasma antiangiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1 and proangiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF levels in women with PE (n=35 compared to controls with no hypertensive disorders (NHD (n=43 among subjects with singleton pregnancies that delivered at Hospital Albert Schweitzer (HAS in Haiti. We divided the preeclamptic women into two groups, early onset (≤ 34 weeks and late onset (>34 weeks and examined relationships between sFlt1/PlGF ratios on admission and adverse outcomes (abruption, respiratory complications, stroke, renal insufficiency, eclampsia, maternal death, birth weight 34 weeks with no adverse outcome.PE-related adverse outcomes are common in women in Haiti and are associated with profound angiogenic imbalance regardless of gestational age at presentation.

  17. Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy does not increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra A; Morawska, Alina; Bogossian, Fiona; Wittkowski, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is a potential risk factor for various birth complications. This study aimed to explore psychological factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. Symptoms of psychological distress, individual characteristics, and medical complications were assessed at two time points antenatally in 285 women from Australia and New Zealand; birth outcomes were assessed postpartum, between January 2014 and September 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of psychological distress to adverse birth outcomes. Medical complications during pregnancy, such as serious infections, placental problems and preeclampsia, and antenatal cannabis use, were the factors most strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, accounting for 22 percent of the total variance (p pregnancy and an orientation toward a Regulator mothering style were associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, after controlling for medical complications, these were no longer associated. Our study results indicate that antenatal depressive and/or anxiety symptoms were not independently associated with adverse birth outcomes, a reassuring finding for women who are already psychologically vulnerable during pregnancy.

  18. Population pressures: threat to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The desire for political freedom and representative government is spreading throughout the world. The stability of democratic bodies is dependent on wise leaders, foreign aid, and slowing population growth. Rapid population growth strains political institutions and increases pressure on services. A Population Crisis Committee study found that only a few democratic countries with serious demographic pressures remained stable. The most stable countries were ones with lower levels of population pressure. Most of the 31 unstable countries were in Africa and in a band stretching from the Middle East to South Asia, and almost all had serious demographic pressures. Only 5 stable countries had high or very high demographic pressures. Since countries in the world are interdependent, population pressures have adverse consequences everywhere. Population pressures in the developing world are considered enhanced by the rapid growth of cities. Both the developed and the developing world face the problems of clogged highways, loss of wilderness, polluted lakes and streams, and stifling smog and acid rain conditions. The sociopolitical implications of demographic changes vary from country to country, but rapid growth and maldistribution of population strains existing political, social, and economic structures and relations between nations. Urban areas are the arena for clashes of cultures, competition for scarce housing and jobs, the breakdown of traditional family and social structures, and juxtapositions of extreme wealth next to extreme poverty. The growth of independent nation states since the 1940s has not allowed much time for development of effective political institutions. There are many obstacles to national unity and popular political participation. The potential for political instability is correlated with a number of factors: large youth populations in overcrowded cities with too high expectations and limited opportunities, diverse and intense ethnic and religious

  19. 20 CFR 655.207 - Adverse effect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse effect rates. 655.207 Section 655.207... Agricultural Employment § 655.207 Adverse effect rates. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the adverse effect rates for all agricultural and logging employment shall be the prevailing wage rates in the...

  20. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamkar, N.H.; Lewis, D.J.; van den Bos, W.; Morton, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive

  1. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  2. 7 CFR 1900.55 - Adverse action procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse action procedures. 1900.55 Section 1900.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals § 1900.55 Adverse action procedures. (a) If...

  3. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  4. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify the adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make this...

  5. Clayey landslide initiation and acceleration strongly modulated by soil swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William; Smith, Joel B.; Wang, Gonghui; Jiang, Yao; Roering, Joshua J.

    2018-01-01

    Largely unknown mechanisms restrain motion of clay-rich, slow-moving landslides that are widespread worldwide and rarely accelerate catastrophically. We studied a clayey, slow-moving landslide typical of thousands in northern California, USA, to decipher hydrologic-mechanical interactions that modulate landslide dynamics. Similar to some other studies, observed pore-water pressures correlated poorly with landslide reactivation and speed. In situ and laboratory measurements strongly suggested that variable pressure along the landslide's lateral shear boundaries resulting from seasonal soil expansion and contraction modulated its reactivation and speed. Slope-stability modeling suggested that the landslide's observed behavior could be predicted by including transient swell pressure as a resistance term, whereas modeling considering only transient hydrologic conditions predicted movement 5–6 months prior to when it was observed. All clayey soils swell to some degree; hence, our findings suggest that swell pressure likely modulates motion of many landslides and should be considered to improve forecasts of clayey landslide initiation and mobility.

  6. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  7. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  8. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  9. Genetic Effects on Longitudinal Changes from Healthy to Adverse Weight and Metabolic Status – The HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Kvaløy

    Full Text Available The complexity of obesity and onset and susceptibility of cardio-metabolic disorders are still poorly understood and is addressed here through studies of genetic influence on weight gain and increased metabolic risk longitudinally.Twenty seven previously identified obesity, eating disorder or metabolic risk susceptibility SNPs were tested for association with weight or metabolically related traits longitudinally in 3999 adults participating both in the HUNT2 (1995-97 and HUNT3 (2006-08 surveys. Regression analyses were performed with changes from normal weight to overweight/obesity or from metabolically healthy to adverse developments with regards to blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides or metabolic syndrome as outcomes. Additionally, a sub-sample of 1380 adolescents was included for testing association of nine SNPs with longitudinal weight gain into young adulthood.The most substantial effect on BMI-based weight gain from normal to overweight/obesity in adults was observed for the DRD2 variant (rs6277(OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P = 3.9x10(-4, adj. P = 0.015. DRD2 was not associated with BMI on a cross-sectional level. In the adolescent sample, FTO (rs1121980 was associated with change to overweight at adulthood in the combined male-female sample (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09-1.49, P = 3.0x10(-3, adj. P = 0.019 and in females (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23-1.91, P = 1.8x10(-4, adj. P = 0.003. When testing for association to longitudinal adverse developments with regard to blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose, only rs964184 (ZNF259/APOA5 was significantly associated to unfavourable triglyceride changes (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36-2.03, P = 5.7x10(-7, adj. P = 0.001. Pleiotropic effects on metabolic traits, however, were observed for several genetic loci cross-sectionally, ZNF259/APOA5, LPL and GRB14 being the most important.DRD2 exhibits effects on weight gain from normal weight to overweight/obesity in adults, while, FTO is associated to

  10. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  11. Equation of state of strange quark matter in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of strange quark matter (SQM) in strong magnetic fields H up to 10 20 G are considered at zero temperature within the MIT bag model. The effects of the pressure anisotropy, exhibiting in the difference between the pressures along and perpendicular to the field direction, become essential at H>H t h , with the estimate 10 17 t h 18 G. The longitudinal pressure vanishes in the critical field H c , which can be somewhat less or larger than 10 18 G, depending on the total baryon number density and bag pressure. As a result, the longitudinal instability occurs in strongly magnetized SQM. The appearance of such instability sets the upper bound on the magnetic field strength which can be reached in the interior of a neutron star with the quark core. The longitudinal and transverse pressures as well as the anisotropic equation of state of SQM are determined under the conditions relevant for the cores of magnetars

  12. A new class of strongly coupled plasmas inspired by sonoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, Alexander; Plateau, Guillaume; Kappus, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2014-10-01

    Sonoluminescence originates in a strongly coupled plasma with a near liquid density and a temperature of ~10,000 K. This plasma is in LTE and therefore, it should be a general thermodynamic state. To test the universality of sonoluminescence, similar plasma conditions were generated using femtosecond laser breakdown in high pressure gases. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals both transport and thermodynamic properties of a strongly coupled plasma. A blackbody spectrum, which persists long after the exciting laser has turned off, indicates the presence of a highly ionized LTE microplasma. In parallel with sonoluminescence, this thermodynamic state is achieved via a considerable reduction in the ionization potential. We gratefully acknowledge support from DARPA MTO for research on microplasmas. We thank Brian Naranjo, Keith Weninger, Carlos Camara, Gary Williams, and John Koulakis for valuable discussions.

  13. Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)

  14. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  15. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  16. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  18. Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse...

  19. Studies Comparing Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Home Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Abdalla, Marwah; Falzon, Louise; Townsend, Raymond R.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more commonly recommended for assessing out-of-clinic blood pressure than home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). We conducted a systematic review to examine whether ABPM or HBPM is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or mortality. Of 1,007 abstracts published through July 20, 2015, nine articles, reporting results from seven cohorts, were identified. After adjustment for blood pressure on HBPM, blood pressure on ABPM was associated with an increased risk of outcomes in two of four cohorts for systolic blood pressure and two of three cohorts for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for blood pressure on ABPM, systolic blood pressure on HBPM was associated with outcomes in zero of three cohorts; an association was present in one of two cohorts for diastolic blood pressure on HBPM. There is a lack of strong empiric evidence supporting ABPM or HBPM over the other approach for predicting cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:26822864

  20. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  1. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  2. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  3. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  4. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  5. Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class

  6. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  7. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  8. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  9. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...

  10. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  11. Velocity Profiles and Skin Friction on a Ribletted Flat Plate in Adverse Pressure Gradient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branam, Richard

    1997-01-01

    .... The skin friction drag coefficients were calculated using a numerical integration technique to determine an average value and scaled to the platform area of the plate to compare results with smooth plate values...

  12. [Pharmacotherapy of hyperthyreosis--adverse drug reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Ludwig; Bürgi, Ulrich; Fattinger, Karin

    2011-06-01

    The antithyroid drugs mainly include thioimidazole (carbimazole, methimazole=thiamazole) and propylthiouracil. After absorption, carbimazole is rapidly metabolized to methimazole and thus switching between these two drugs should not be considered in case of side effects. Furthermore, in case of side effects, sometimes even cross reactions between thioimidazoles and propylthiouracil occur. Common and typical adverse reactions of antithyroid drugs include dose dependent hypothyroidism and thus thyroid function should be repeatedly checked while the patient is on antithyroid drugs. Furthermore, pruritus and rash may develop. In this case, one might try to switch from thioimidazoles to propylthiouracil or vice versa. Antithyroid drugs may cause mild dose dependent neutropenia or severe allergy-mediated agranulocytosis, which typically occurs during the first three months of treatment, has an incidence of 3 per 10,000 patients and cross reactivity between thioimidazoles to propylthiouracil may occur. Rarely, antithyroid drugs can cause aplastic anemia. Mainly propylthiouracil, but sometimes also methimazole may lead to an asymptomatic transient increase in liver enzymes or to severe, even lethal liver injury of cholestatic or hepatocellular pattern. Since propylthiouracil associated liver injury was observed increasingly among children and adolescent, it has been suggested to prefer thioimidazoles for these patients. Because of these potential serious adverse effects, physicians should advise patients to immediately seek medical help if they get a fever or sore throat or malaise, abdominal complaints or jaundice, respectively. Furthermore, arthralgias may develop in 1-5% of patients under both antithyroid drugs. Since arthralgias may be the first symptom of more serious immunologic side effects, it is recommended to stop the antithyroid drug in this case. Drug induced polyarthritis mainly develops during the first month of therapy, whereas ANCA-positive vasculitis is

  13. Patterns in neurosurgical adverse events: endovascular neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Judith M; Ziewacz, John E; Panchmatia, Jaykar R; Bader, Angela M; Pandey, Aditya S; Thompson, B Gregory; Frerichs, Kai; Gawande, Atul A

    2012-11-01

    As part of a project to devise evidence-based safety interventions for specialty surgery, the authors sought to review current evidence in endovascular neurosurgery concerning the frequency of adverse events in practice, their patterns, and current methods of reducing the occurrence of these events. This review represents part of a series of papers written to consolidate information about these events and preventive measures as part of an ongoing effort to ascertain the utility of devising system-wide policies and safety tools to improve neurosurgical practice. Based on a review of the literature, thromboembolic events appeared to be the most common adverse events in endovascular neurosurgery, with a reported incidence ranging from 2% to 61% depending on aneurysm rupture status and mode of detection of the event. Intraprocedural and periprocedural prevention and rescue regimens are advocated to minimize this risk; however, evidence on the optimal use of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents is limited. Furthermore, it is unknown what proportion of eligible patients receive any prophylactic treatment. Groin-site hematoma is the most common access-related complication. Data from the cardiac literature indicate an overall incidence of 9% to 32%, but data specific to neuroendovascular therapy are scant. Manual compression, compression adjuncts, and closure devices are used with varying rates of success, but no standardized protocols have been tested on a broad scale. Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the more common causes of hospital-acquired renal insufficiency, with an incidence of 30% in high-risk patients after contrast administration. Evidence from medical fields supports the use of various preventive strategies. Intraprocedural vessel rupture is infrequent, with the reported incidence ranging from 1% to 9%, but it is potentially devastating. Improvements in device technology combined with proper endovascular technique play an important role in reducing

  14. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  15. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  16. Constructing Adverse Outcome Pathways: a Demonstration of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) provides a conceptual framework to evaluate and integrate chemical toxicity and its effects across the levels of biological organization. As such, it is essential to develop a resource-efficient and effective approach to extend molecular initiating events (MIEs) of chemicals to their downstream phenotypes of a greater regulatory relevance. A number of ongoing public phenomics (high throughput phenotyping) efforts have been generating abundant phenotypic data annotated with ontology terms. These phenotypes can be analyzed semantically and linked to MIEs of interest, all in the context of a knowledge base integrated from a variety of ontologies for various species and knowledge domains. In such analyses, two phenotypic profiles (PPs; anchored by genes or diseases) each characterized by multiple ontology terms are compared for their semantic similarities within a common ontology graph, but across boundaries of species and knowledge domains. Taking advantage of publicly available ontologies and software tool kits, we have implemented an OS-Mapping (Ontology-based Semantics Mapping) approach as a Java application, and constructed a network of 19383 PPs as nodes with edges weighed by their pairwise semantic similarity scores. Individual PPs were assembled from public phenomics data. Out of possible 1.87×108 pairwise connections among these nodes, about 71% of them have similarity scores between 0.2 and the maximum possible of 1.0.

  17. Maternal Periodontitis, Preeclampsia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourandokht Afshari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Preeclampsia is a considerable problem of pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction and placental hypoxia are the current hypothesis of preeclampsia. Chronic inflammation, including periodontitis may provoke systemic maternal and placental pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction, which represent a significant risk factor for diseases of vascular origin. So this study was carried out to evaluate the possible relationship between periodontitis and preeclampsia. Methods: A total of 360 pregnant women were included, corresponding to 180 pregnant women with mild or sever periodotitis in one group and 180 pregnant women with periodontal health in the other group. Periodontitis was determined by the sum of all pockets with pocket probing depth (PPD ≥4mm and bleeding on probing. periodontal health was defined as the absence of PPD≥ 4mm. Then two groups evaluated to determine the presence of preeclampsia. After delivery, Child weight at birth and gestational age was also evaluated. Chi square and t test analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: There was statistically significant difference between two groups in presence of preeclampsia (p=0.003. Women who had a worse periodontal condition were at higher risk for preeclampsia. In addition, birth weight and gestational age was statistically lower in the case group than the control group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The results indicate that the presence and severity of peridontitis increase the risk for occurrence of preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Advancing the Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework - an ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of scientists to conduct whole organism toxicity tests to understand chemical safety has been significantly outpaced by the rapid synthesis of new chemicals. Therefore, to increase efficiencies in chemical risk assessment, scientists are turning to mechanistic-based studies, making greater use of in vitro and in silico methods, to screen for potential environmental and human health hazards. A framework that has gained traction for capturing available knowledge describing the linkage between mechanistic data and apical toxicity endpoints, required for regulatory assessments, is the adverse outcome pathway (AOP). A number of international activities have focused on AOP development and plausible applications to regulatory decision-making. These interactions have prompted dialog between research scientists and regulatory communities to consider how best to use the AOP framework in risk assessment. While expert-facilitated discussions have been instrumental in moving the science of AOPs forward, it was recognized that a survey of the broader scientific community would aid in identifying shortcomings and guiding future initiatives for the AOP framework. To that end, a ?‘Horizon Scanning’ exercise was conducted to solicit questions from the global scientific and regulatory communities concerning the challenges or limitations that must be addressed to realize the full potential of the AOP framework in research and regulatory decision making. The m

  19. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  20. [Management of adverse effects with antituberculosis chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Wada, Masako

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis has now become a curable disease with chemotherapy. So it is natural that the present issues in tuberculosis management are focused on how to complete standard chemotherapy. In this context, management of adverse effects constitutes an essential part of antituberculosis chemotherapy, as well as directly observed therapy. In this symposium, discussions were held about three major subjects on this issue. First, hepatotoxicity develops frequently and has sometimes fatal outcome, which makes it the most problematic adverse effect. "Management of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy" was published by the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis (JST) in 2006. Dr. Shinsho Yoshiba evaluated this recommendation and pointed out that the criteria for discontinuation of drug based on AST, ALT and bilirubin levels is too sensitive and the concept of predicting fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is lacking. He stressed the importance of monitoring serum prothrombin time for predicting FHF. Next, allergic drug reaction such as fever or skin rash often causes distress, although rarely fatal. As isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RFP) are key drugs for the cure, readministration of these drugs is often attempted by desensitization therapy. "Recommendation about desensitization therapy of antituberculosis drugs" was also published by JST in 1997. Dr. Yoshihiro Kobashi reported high success rates of 79 percent for INH and 75 percent for RFP according to this recommendation. He also reported correlated factor with the success, such as the longer period from the discontinuation to the desensitization therapy and lower doses of drugs at starting desensitization. Finally, we sometimes experience transient worsening of radiographical findings and general symptoms during antituberculosis chemotherapy. This is presumed to be due to allergic reaction to dead bacilli without requiring discontinuation of the drug. Differential diagnosis includes drug-induced pneumonia requring

  1. Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, a new source of nicotine exposure was introduced to the United States market, the electronic cigarette (ECIG) or "e-cigarette". Since then, the USA ECIG market has been doubling annually. Despite their widespread popularity, there is a paucity of existing data regarding ECIG toxicity. We report the experience of a statewide poison system. The database of a statewide poison system was queried for human ECIG exposures from 2010 (when Poisindex code first generated) through 2012. Year, age, manner and route of exposure, estimate exposure amount, product concentration, if evaluated at healthcare facility and symptoms were recorded. A total of 35 cases were identified--4 in 2010, 12 in 2011, 19 in 2012. Age range 8 months-60 years. Reported symptoms were mild and transient. Five patients were evaluated in an emergency department and none were admitted. Product concentrations ranged from 4 to 30 mg of nicotine per ml. Poison centers are likely to see an increase in exposures to ECIG given their growing popularity. Our modest results suggest that adverse effects and accidental exposures to ECIG cartridges are unlikely to result in serious toxicity.

  2. [Cutaneous adverse reactions to tattoos and piercings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, J; Silvestre, J F

    2009-10-01

    Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications. Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic infections secondary to breach of the epidermal barrier, acute and delayed inflammatory reactions with different histopathological patterns, the appearance of benign and malignant tumors on tattooed areas of skin, and certain dermatoses triggered by isomorphic phenomena. Piercing-related complications are similar, though some, such as pyogenic skin infections, are much more common due to the delayed wound healing after piercing in certain sites. We must differentiate between complications that are independent of the site of piercing, and specific complications, which are closely related to the body area pierced. The rate of complications after performing piercings or tattoos depends on the experience of the artist, the hygiene techniques applied, and the postprocedural care by the customer. However, some of these complications are unpredictable and depend on factors intrinsic to the patient. In this article, we review the most common decorative techniques of body art, with particular focus on the potential cutaneous complications and their management.

  3. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  4. Adverse consequences of neonatal antibiotic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics have not only saved lives and improved outcomes, but they also influence the evolving microbiome. This review summarizes reports on neonatal infections and variation in antibiotic utilization, discusses the emergence of resistant organisms, and presents data from human neonates and animal models demonstrating the impact of antibiotics on the microbiome, and how microbiome alterations impact health. The importance of antibiotic stewardship is also discussed. Infections increase neonatal morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of infections can be subtle, prompting clinicians to empirically start antibiotics when infection is a possibility. Antibiotic-resistant infections are a growing problem. Cohort studies have identified extensive center variations in antibiotic usage and associations between antibiotic exposures and outcomes. Studies of antibiotic-induced microbiome alterations and downstream effects on the developing immune system have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between antibiotics and adverse outcomes. The emergence of resistant microorganisms and recent evidence linking antibiotic practice variations with health outcomes has led to the initiation of antibiotic stewardship programs. The review encourages practitioners to assess local antibiotic use with regard to local microbiology, and to adopt steps to reduce infections and use antibiotics wisely.

  5. Effects of pressurization procedures on calibration results for precise pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, Hiroaki; Kobata, Tokihiko

    2010-01-01

    The output of electromechanical pressure gauges depends on not only the currently applied pressure, but also the pressurization history. Thus, the calibration results of gauges are affected by the pressurization procedure. In this paper, among several important factors influencing the results, we report the effects of the interval between the calibration cycles and the effects of the preliminary pressurizations. In order to quantitatively evaluate these effects, we developed a fully automated system that uses a pressure balance to calibrate pressure gauges. Subsequently, gauges containing quartz Bourdon-type pressure transducers were calibrated in a stepwise manner for pressures between 10 MPa and 100 MPa. The typical standard deviation of the data over three cycles was reduced to a few parts per million (ppm). The interval between the calibration cycles, which ranges from zero to more than 12 h, exerts a strong influence on the results in the process of increasing the pressure, where at 10 MPa the maximum difference between the results was approximately 40 ppm. The preliminary pressurization immediately before the calibration cycle reduces the effects of the interval on the results in certain cases. However, in turn, the influence of the waiting time between the preliminary pressurization and the main calibration cycle becomes strong. In the present paper, we outline several possible measures for obtaining calibration results with high reproducibility

  6. Dual field theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137

  7. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  8. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  9. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups....... However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description...

  10. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, JiHyeon; Lee, HeeYoung; Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary's teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010-2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton's preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p contrast media-induced adverse reactions. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo algorithm causality evaluation afforded similar results.

  11. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  12. Statin-associated muscle-related adverse effects: a case series of 354 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Stephanie; Evans, Marcella A; Denenberg, Julie O; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-06-01

    To characterize the properties and natural history of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin)-associated muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Patient-targeted postmarketing adverse-effect surveillance approach coupling survey design with an open-ended narrative. University-affiliated health care system. Three hundred fifty-four patients (age range 34-86 yrs) who self-reported muscle-related problems associated with statin therapy. Patients with perceived statin-associated MAEs completed a survey assessing statin drugs and dosages; characteristics of the MAEs; time course of onset, resolution, or recurrence; and impact on quality of life (QOL). Cases were assessed for putative drug adverse-effect causality by using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale criteria and were evaluated for inclusion in groups for which mortality benefit with statins has been shown. Patients reported muscle pain (93%), fatigue (88%), and weakness (85%). Three hundred patients (85%) met literature criteria for probable or definite drug adverse-effect causality. Ninety-four percent of atorvastatin usages (240/255) generated MAEs versus 61% of lovastatin usages (38/62, pstatins reproduced MAEs in 100% of 39 rechallenges versus 73% (29/40) with lower potency rechallenges (pstatin initiation varied (median 14 wks); some MAEs occurred after long-term symptom-free use. Recurrence with rechallenge had a significantly shorter latency to onset (median 2 wks). The MAEs adversely affected all assessed functional and QOL domains. Most patients with probable or definite MAEs were in categories for which available randomized controlled trial evidence shows no trend to all-cause mortality benefit with statin therapy. This study complements available information on the properties and natural history of statin-associated MAEs, affirming dose dependence and strong QOL impact. The data indicating a dose-dependent relationship between MAE risk and recurrence suggest

  13. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  14. Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)

  15. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  16. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.

  17. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  18. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  19. Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data

  20. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  1. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  2. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  3. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  4. Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mujahid

    2008-01-01

    Research findings indicate that the use of mobile phones may lead to a number of symptoms such as headache, impaired concentration and memory, and also fatigue. The present study was designed to investigate whether the symptoms of ill health reported by young people may be associated with the use of mobile phone (MP) and to analyze its influence on health and development of medical students. The questionnaire was designed specifically for this study and contained items regarding health condition and health complaints as well as the frequency of MP use. The response rate was 86.6% (286 of 330 forms, completed by 73.77% males and 26.22% females). Most of the subjects (83.57%) had some knowledge about the adverse effects of MP use. 76.92% of the students carried one mobile, and 23.08% more than one. 55.94%, of the subjects reported the average daily MP use of less than 30 min, 27.97%, of 30-60 min, 11.53%, of 60-90 min and 4.54% of more than 90 min. 16.08% of the subjects complained of headache and 24.48% of fatigue. Impaired concentration was reported by 34.27% of respondents, memory disturbances by 40.56%, sleeplessness by 38.8%, hearing problems by 23.07%, and facial dermatitis by 16.78%. The sensation of warmth within the auricle and behind/around the ear was reported by 28.32%. Out of 286 subjects who participated in this study, 44.4% related their symptoms to mobile phone use. The findings of the present study indicate that mobile phones play a large part in the daily life of medical students. Therefore, its impact on psychology and health should be discussed among the students to prevent the harmful effects of mobile phone use.

  5. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine analogues used in standard doses, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, skin reactions, hypotension, convulsions, extrapyramidal symptoms and visual disturbances. Psychiatric side effects of chloroquine seem to be rare, but may manifest in a wide range of symptoms, such as confusion, disorientation, ideas of persecution, agitation, outbursts of violence, loss of interest, feeling sad, suicidal ideas and impaired insight. There is also a report of a manic episode with psychotic features in the course of bipolar disorder, and another case report of persecutory delusions, anxiety, derealisation and visual illusions triggered by chloroquine. The duration of psychiatric symptoms usually ranges from one to two weeks, and symptoms usually disappear within several days following cessation of chloroquine usage and starting psychiatric treatment where indicated. This article reviews the case studies of patients diagnosed with mental disorders resulting from the use of chloroquine, and discusses the management in such cases.

  6. Adverse Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish N. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs were developed with the prime object of minimizing gastrointestinal adverse effects, which are seen with the use of traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Their long-term use is limited by the development of hypertension, edema, and congestive heart failure in a significant proportion of patients. NSAIDs block the activity of both COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, which mediate the enzymatic conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2 and other prostaglandin (PG metabolites. It is well established that the cardiovascular profile of COX-2 inhibitors can be accounted for by inhibition of COX-dependent PG synthesis. Following the COX-mediated synthesis of PGH2 from arachidonate, PGH2 is metabolized to one of at least five bioactive PGs, including PGE2, PGI2, PGF2, PGD2, or thromboxane A2 (TXA2. These prostanoids have pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, altering platelet function and renal function, and they are acting either as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors. Although COX-1 and COX-2 exhibit similar biochemical activity in converting arachidonate to PGH2in vitro, the ultimate prostanoids they produce in vivo may be different due to differential regulation of COX-1 and COX-2, tissue distribution, and availability of the prostanoid synthases. PGs have been established as being critically involved in mitigating hypertension, helping to maintain medullary blood flow (MBF, promoting urinary salt excretion, and preserving the normal homeostasis of thrombosis, and the researchers found that the use of COX-2 inhibitors caused many serious complications in altering the normal body homeostasis. The purpose of the present research is to explain briefly the side effects of COX-2 inhibitors on the renal and cardiovascular system.

  7. Children and ADRs (Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleone Ettore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicines are prescribed to the paediatric population on an unlicensed or 'off-label' basis because they have not been adequately tested and/or formulated and authorized for use in appropriate paediatric age groups. Regulatory authorities also need to remind health professionals about the importance of their contribution towards the process of paediatric pharmacovigilance thanks to their reporting of adverse drug reactions. The lack of reliable data in the paediatric population is associated with specific problems including: limited availability of safety data due to the lack of clinical trials in the paediatric population; under- or over-dosing in some age groups due to the lack of pharmacokinetics data or dose-finding studies; maturation, growth and development of the paediatric population susceptible to drug-induced growth and development disorders as well as to delayed ADRs not findable in adults. Pre-marketing trials are able to provide information about the benefits of drugs but do not manage to establish a safety profile. Spontaneous reporting of suspected ADRs become an important means to promote reasonable warning signs. Therefore some ADRs may be known in their qualitative aspect and quantitative aspect only after successful marketing and use in the population during a "normal" use. When the drug is used in clinical practice in large unselected populations, epidemiological post-marketing studies are useful as they find their major confirmation in recalling all the events that occur during monitoring, with estimates of incidence of ADRs that can not be obtained by spontaneous reports. In these studies a significant role can be played by the Family Pediatricians with the participation to active pharmacovigilance projects.

  8. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  9. Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  11. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  12. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  13. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  14. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Niki H; Lewis, Daniel J; van den Bos, Wouter; Morton, J Bruce

    2017-08-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain's sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  17. Adverse events associated with pediatric exposures to dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Reynolds, Kate M; Kauffman, Ralph E; Banner, William; Bond, G Randall; Palmer, Robert B; Burnham, Randy I; Green, Jody L

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication. We sought to characterize adverse events associated with dextromethorphan in children dextromethorphan with ≥1 adverse event from multiple U.S. sources (National Poison Data System, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, manufacturer safety reports, news/media, medical literature) reported between 2008 and 2014. An expert panel determined the relationship between exposure and adverse events, estimated dose ingested, intent of exposure, and identified contributing factors to exposure. 1716 cases contained ≥1 adverse event deemed at least potentially related to dextromethorphan; 1417 were single product exposures. 773/1417 (55%) involved only one single-ingredient dextromethorphan product (dextromethorphan-only). Among dextromethorphan-only cases, 3% followed ingestion of a therapeutic dose; 78% followed an overdose. 69% involved unsupervised self-administration and 60% occurred in children dextromethorphan-only ingestion. Adverse events were predominantly associated with overdose, most commonly affecting the central nervous and autonomic systems.

  18. Clinical survey on adverse reaction of contrast media, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Hitoshi; Ishida, Osamu; Osawa, Tadashi

    1988-01-01

    This report is a final analysis of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media examined in 33,440 patients from 11 hospitals during the period from October 1983 through June 1986. Adverse reactions, such as nausea, exanthema and vomiting, to contrast media occurred in 2,523 patients (7.5 %), with the higher number occuring in patients aged 40 - 60, irrespective of sex. There were no significant alternations in vital signs. Patients positive for pretesting and having a history of allergy had higher incidences of adverse reactions (48 % and 52 %, respectively). A history of allergy is the most potential predictor for adverse reactions to contrast media. There was no definitive correlation between prior medication of contrast media and the occurrence of their adverse reactions. The relationship between the occurrence of adverse reactions and both kinds and dosage of contrast media was unknown. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults: a longitudinal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseltine Robert H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have been consistently linked to psychiatric difficulties in children and adults. However, the long-term effects of ACEs on mental health during the early adult years have been understudied. In addition, many studies are methodologically limited by use of non-representative samples, and few studies have investigated gender and racial differences. The current study relates self-reported lifetime exposure to a range of ACEs in a community sample of high school seniors to three mental health outcomes–depressive symptoms, drug abuse, and antisocial behavior–two years later during the transition to adulthood. Methods The study has a two-wave, prospective design. A systematic probability sample of high school seniors (N = 1093 was taken from communities of diverse socioeconomic status. They were interviewed in person in 1998 and over the telephone two years later. Gender and racial differences in ACE prevalence were tested with chi-square tests. Each mental health outcome was regressed on one ACE, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and SES to obtain partially standardized regression coefficients. Results Most ACEs were strongly associated with all three outcomes. The cumulative effect of ACEs was significant and of similar magnitude for all three outcomes. Except for sex abuse/assault, significant gender differences in the effects of single ACEs on depression and drug use were not observed. However, boys who experienced ACEs were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior early in young adulthood than girls who experienced similar ACEs. Where racial/ethnic differences existed, the adverse mental health impact of ACEs on Whites was consistently greater than on Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion Our sample of young adults from urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities reported high rates of adverse childhood experiences. The public health impact of childhood adversity is evident

  20. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  1. Non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of rivaroxaban

    OpenAIRE

    Christopoulou, Eliza C.; Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Elisaf, Moses S.

    2017-01-01

    The direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is useful in various indications that include venous deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis/treatment after knee/hip replacement surgery and prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Its mechanism of action has been mostly associated with hemorrhage-related adverse effects; thus a number of non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of the drug have received less attention or go unrecognized. These adverse effects mainly include li...

  2. Admissions and Readmissions Related to Adverse Events, 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    DRG is a classification system primarily used for billing purposes. It uses the principle and secondary diagnoses to assign clinical conditions to...This study assessed adverse events as they relate to readmissions in the Military Health System (MHS). Among 142,579 admissions with an adverse event...The following study retrospectively assessed admissions and readmissions for adverse events in the Military Health System (MHS) by quantifying

  3. Modelling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Jørgensen and Dau (J Acoust Soc Am 130:1475-1487, 2011) proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech...... subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of the intelligibility of speech signal is strongly affected, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast, the effects of this distortion can be predicted -successfully by the spectro-temporal modulation...... suggest that the SNRenv might reflect a powerful decision metric, while some explicit across-frequency analysis seems crucial in some conditions. How such across-frequency analysis is "realized" in the auditory system remains unresolved....

  4. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  5. Endocrine active agents: implications of adverse and non-adverse changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul M D; McIntyre, Barry S

    2002-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently in the process of developing screening and testing methodologies for the assessment of agents that may possess endocrine-like activity--the so-called endocrine disruptors. Moreover, the EPA has signaled its intention of placing information arising from such studies on the worldwide web. This has created significant interest in how such information may be used in risk assessment and by policymakers and the public in the potential regulation or deselection of specific chemical agents. The construction of lists of endocrine disruptors, although fulfilling the requirements of some parties, is really of little use when the nature of the response, the dose level employed, and the lifestage of the test species used are not given. Thus, we have already seen positive in vitro information available on the interaction with a receptor being used as a key indicator when the results of large, high quality in vivo studies showing no adverse changes have been ignored. Clearly a number of in vitro systems are available to ascertain chemical interaction with specific (mainly steroid) hormone receptors including a number of reporter gene assays. These assays only provide indicators of potential problems and should not be, in isolation, indicators of toxicity. Likewise, short-term in vivo screens such as the uterotrophic and Hershberger studies are frequently conducted in castrated animals and thus indicate the potential for a pharmacological response in vivo rather than an adverse effect. A number of new end points have been added to standard rodent testing protocols in the belief of providing more sensitivity to detect endocrine related changes. These include the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), developmental landmarks [vaginal opening (VO), preputial separation (PPS)], and in some studies the counting of nipples and areolae on males. AGD, VO, and PPS are all affected by the size of the pup in which they are measured

  6. Childhood abuse and psychotic experiences - evidence for mediation by adulthood adverse life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, V; Boydell, J; McGuire, P; Harris, V; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; MacCabe, J H; Morgan, C

    2017-10-09

    We have previously reported an association between childhood abuse and psychotic experiences (PEs) in survey data from South East London. Childhood abuse is related to subsequent adulthood adversity, which could form one pathway to PEs. We aimed to investigate evidence of mediation of the association between childhood abuse and PEs by adverse life events. Data were analysed from the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH, n = 1698). Estimates of the total effects on PEs of any physical or sexual abuse while growing up were partitioned into direct (i.e. unmediated) and indirect (total and specific) effects, mediated via violent and non-violent life events. There was strong statistical evidence for direct (OR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19-2.1) and indirect (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.32-1.72) effects of childhood abuse on PEs after adjustment for potential confounders, indicating partial mediation of this effect via violent and non-violent life events. An estimated 47% of the total effect of abuse on PEs was mediated via adulthood adverse life events, of which violent life events made up 33% and non-violent life events the remaining 14%. The association between childhood abuse and PEs is partly mediated through the experience of adverse life events in adulthood. There is some evidence that a larger proportion of this effect was mediated through violent life events than non-violent life events.

  7. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  8. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The adversative connectives aber and but in conversational corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülzow, Insa; Bartlitz, Victoria; Kuehnast, Milena; Golcher, Felix; Bittner, Dagmar

    2018-03-09

    We analyzed the conversational corpora of two German and two English children to investigate how the different use types of the adversative connectives aber and but influence the probability of monologically versus dialogically constructed utterances in the first year of use. Our findings show that children produce adversative connectives mainly in dialogic structures for illocutionary and theme-management purposes, but that the use types of adversative connectives lead to a different distribution of monologic and dialogic clause combinations. The results suggest that monologic and dialogic realizations as a function of text type must be considered when describing the developmental trajectory of the different use types of adversative connectives.

  10. Family Adversity and Resilience Measures in Pediatric Acute Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Donna M; Randell, Kimberly A; Dowd, M Denise

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact health across the life course. The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver ACEs, current adversity, and resilience in families seeking care in pediatric acute care settings. Study aims included identifying demographic characteristics, current adversities, and resilience measures associated with caregiver ACEs ≥4. A cross-sectional survey study design was used and a convenience sample (n = 470) recruited at emergency and urgent care settings of a large Midwest pediatric hospital system. Measures were self-reported. The original 10-item ACEs questionnaire measured caregiver past adversity. Current adversity was measured using the 10-item IHELP. The six-item Brief Resiliency Scale measured resilience, and WHO-5 Well-Being Index was used to measure depressive affect. Compared to participants with ACEs score of 0-3 participants with ACEs ≥4 were more likely to have multiple current adversities, increased risk of depression, and lower resilience. Caregivers using pediatric acute care settings carry a high burden of ACEs and current adversities. Caregiver ACEs are associated with current child experiences of adversity. Caregivers socioeconomic status and education level may not be an accurate indicator of a family's risks or needs. Pediatric acute care settings offer opportunities to access, intervene, and prevent childhood adversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Experimental study on the evolution of Peregrine breather with uniform-depth adverse currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Ma, Y.; Ma, X.; Dong, G.

    2018-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to study the evolution of Peregrine breather (PB) in a wave flume in finite depth, and wave trains were initially generated in a region of quiescent water and then propagated into an adverse current region for which the current velocity strength gradually increased from zero to an approximately stable value. The PB is often considered as a prototype of oceanic freak waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. In the experiment, the cases were selected with the relative water depths k0h (k0 is the wave number in quiescent water and h is the water depth) varying from 3.11 through 8.17, and the initial wave steepness k0a0 (a0 is the background wave amplitude) ranges between 0.065 and 0.120. The experimental results show the persistence of the breather evolution dynamics even in the presence of strong opposing currents. We have shown that the characteristic spectrum of the PB persists even on strong currents, thus making it a viable characteristic for prediction of freak waves. It was also found that the adverse currents tend to shift the focusing point upstream compared to the cases without currents. Furthermore, it was found that uniform-depth adverse currents can reduce the breather extension in time domain.

  12. The enhanced local pressure model for the accurate analysis of fluid pressure driven fracture in porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remij, E.W.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an enhanced local pressure model for modelling fluid pressure driven fractures in porous saturated materials. Using the partition-of-unity property of finite element shape functions, we describe the displacement and pressure fields across the fracture as a strong

  13. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  14. Turbine transducer developed for adverse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.R.; Edson, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest developments that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has made on a turbine transducer used in measurement of two-phase flow. It is operated in a modular configuration with a drag transducer to provide mass flow data. Current configurations allow its use in single modules or in multiples to provide flow profile information. The turbine can also provide mass flow data when used with associated instrumentation such as a densitometer. The transducer, which is the product of long investigations and test series, is subject to high vibration loading and high temperatures as well as a borated liquid environment; flow conditions range from all liquid to all steam and from ambient temperatures to over 600 0 F at pressures up to 2200 psi. Graphite bearing and carbide shaft materials were selected to provide corrosion resistance along with mechanical integrity, and resistance to wear. The new turbine design has met all operational requirements in actual use and in extended lifetime tests

  15. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  16. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  17. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  18. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  19. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  20. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  1. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  2. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  3. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  4. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-07

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How common are pressure sores ... likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in ...

  6. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  8. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  9. Identification of a Syndrome Class of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions to Mefloquine from Latent Class Modeling of FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie

    2017-03-01

    Although mefloquine use is known to be associated with a risk of severe neuropsychiatric adverse reactions that are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, specific combinations of neurologic or psychiatric reactions associated with mefloquine use are not well described in the literature. This study sought to identify a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with mefloquine use in reports of adverse events. Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports (n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs. A distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class was identified that was strongly and significantly associated with reports of mefloquine use (odds ratio = 3.92, 95% confidence interval 2.91-5.28), defined by a very high probability of symptoms of deliria (82.7%) including confusion and disorientation, and a moderate probability of other severe psychiatric and neurologic symptoms including dementia and amnesia (18.6%) and seizures (18.1%). The syndrome class was also associated with symptoms that are considered prodromal including anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and abnormal dreams, and neurological symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and paresthesias. This study confirms in FAERS reports the existence of a severe mefloquine neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with common symptoms that may be considered prodromal. Clinical identification of the characteristic symptoms of this syndrome class may aid in improving case finding in pharmacovigilance studies of more serious adverse reactions to the drug.

  10. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...

  11. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  12. Strong WW scattering at photon linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing strong interactions of longitudinally polarized weak vector bosons in the process γγ → ZZ at a photon linear collider. We make use of polarization of the photon beams and cuts on the decay products of the Z bosons to enhance the signal relative to the background of transversely polarized ZZ pairs. We find that the background overwhelms the signal unless there are strong resonant effects, as for instance from a technicolor analogue of the hadronic f 2 (1270) meson

  13. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  14. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  17. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  18. Strong cosmic censorship in de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Eperon, Felicity C.; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2018-05-01

    Recent work indicates that the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated by nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. It was argued that perturbations of such a black hole decay sufficiently rapidly that the perturbed spacetime can be extended across the Cauchy horizon as a weak solution of the equations of motion. In this paper we consider the case of Kerr-de Sitter black holes. We find that, for any nonextremal value of the black hole parameters, there are quasinormal modes which decay sufficiently slowly to ensure that strong cosmic censorship is respected. Our analysis covers both scalar field and linearized gravitational perturbations.

  19. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Heather A.; Basit, Saima; Harpsøe, Maria C.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Jess, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Existing data on pregnancy complications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are inconsistent. To address these inconsistencies, we investigated potential associations between IBD, IBD-related medication use during pregnancy, and pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, Apgar score, and congenital abnormalities. Methods We conducted a cohort study in >85,000 Danish National Birth Cohort women who were pregnant in the period 1996-2002 and had information on IBD, IBD-related medication use (systemic or local corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates), pregnancy outcomes and potential confounders. We evaluated associations between IBD and adverse pregnancy/birth outcomes using Cox regression and log-linear binomial regression. Results IBD was strongly and significantly associated with severe pre-eclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes and medically indicated preterm delivery in women using systemic corticosteroids during pregnancy (hazard ratios [HRs] >7). IBD was also associated with premature preterm rupture of membranes in women using local corticosteroid medications (HR 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-8.20) and with medically indicated preterm delivery (HR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99-3.68) in non-medicated women. Furthermore, IBD was associated with low 5-minute Apgar score in term infants (risk ratio [RR] 2.19, 95% CI 1.03-4.66). Finally, Crohn’s disease (but not ulcerative colitis) was associated with major congenital abnormalities in the offspring (RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06-3.21). No child with a congenital abnormality born to a woman with IBD was exposed to systemic corticosteroids in utero. Conclusion Women with IBD are at increased risk of severe pre-eclampsia, medically indicated preterm delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and delivering infants with low Apgar score and major congenital malformations. These associations are only partly explained by severe disease as reflected by systemic corticosteroid use

  20. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...

  1. 81-85 Community Awareness of Adverse Effects of No

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary

    - inflammatory drugs. They were also asked if ... seek treatment for the pain. Only 8% of the study participants knew some adverse effects caused by ... (35%) of them did not know of any adverse effects due to NSAIDs but 53% cited potential ...

  2. Adversity Quotient and Defense Mechanism of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Vibhawari B.; Uplane, Megha M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the relationship between Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Defense Mechanism (DM) of secondary school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain relationship between Adversity Quotient and Defense mechanism i. e. Turning against object (TAO), Projection (PRO), Turning against self (TAS), Principalisation…

  3. Adverse reaction to veterinary multivitamins and vitamin B complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been reported that dogs in South-western Nigeria react adversely to injectable veterinary multivitamins and human vitamin B complex preparations. Experimentation and interview survey were concurrently conducted to identify the type of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) that the indications produced. For the survey ...

  4. Adverse event reporting in cancer clinical trial publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Latif, Asma; McBride, Russell B; Stensland, Kristian D; Wisnivesky, Juan; Haines, Lindsay; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D

    2014-01-10

    Reporting adverse events is a critical element of a clinical trial publication. In 2003, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group generated recommendations regarding the appropriate reporting of adverse events. The degree to which these recommendations are followed in oncology publications has not been comprehensively evaluated. A review of citations from PubMed, Medline, and Embase published between Jan 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011, identified eligible randomized, controlled phase III trials in metastatic solid malignancies. Publications were assessed for 14 adverse event-reporting elements derived from the CONSORT harms extension statement; a completeness score (range, 0 to 14) was calculated by adding the number of elements reported. Linear regression analysis identified which publication characteristics associated with reporting completeness. A total of 175 publications, with data for 96,125 patients, were included in the analysis. The median completeness score was eight (range, three to 12). Most publications (96%) reported only adverse events occurring above a threshold rate or severity, 37% did not specify the criteria used to select which adverse events were reported, and 88% grouped together adverse events of varying severity. Regression analysis revealed that trials without a stated funding source and with an earlier year of publication had significantly lower completeness scores. Reporting of adverse events in oncology publications of randomized trials is suboptimal and characterized by substantial selectivity and heterogeneity. The development of oncology-specific standards for adverse event reporting should be established to ensure consistency and provide critical information required for medical decision-making.

  5. Adverse Cutaneous Reactions to Psychotropic Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Novais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are often implicated in cutaneous adverse drug reactions. While most of these reactions have a benign character, it is still important, however, to consider its role in the increasing stigma and treatment adherence. A small number of the cutaneous adverse drug reactions can develop into serious and potentially fatal conditions. Objectives: This article aims to review the most common cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients taking psychotropic drugs. Methods: In this study, a search was carried out in the MEDLINE database for English language articles published , from 1999 to 2014, using as keywords: psychiatric, psychotropic, cutaneous, adverse reaction, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsant, dementia. Information available from the Portuguese regulatory and supervising agency (Infarmed was also included.Results: 121 articles were found with reference to cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with psychotropic drugs. The drugs most frequently reported as associated with such adverse effects were anticonvulsants used as mood stabilizers, followed by the antipsychotics . The antidementia drugs were rarely associated with serious cutaneous adverse reactions. Discussion and Conclusion: Cutaneous drug adverse reactions are common in psychiatric clinical practice and typically are minor in severity. The most severe reactions are most often associated with the use of mood stabilizing medications. Some of these side effects can be solved with reduction or drug discontinuation. More severe cases should be referred to a specialist in dermatology.

  6. Adverse reactions to food: a synoptic review | Sanusi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of adverse reactions to food is not known for sure in Nigeria. There is also the confusion concerning terminology associated with adverse reactions to food which need a clarification. This short review brings together a condensed expert opinion on classification, definition and reactions to various foods.

  7. Practical management of adverse events related to apomorphine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Henriksen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The potential for adverse events is often cited as a barrier to the use of subcutaneous apomorphine therapy (intermittent injections and continuous infusion) in the management of Parkinson's disease. However, with proactive management most adverse effects are manageable if reported and tackled...... titration, initiation and long-term treatment, and discuss practical management strategies....

  8. 13 CFR 120.892 - Certifications of no adverse change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certifications of no adverse change. 120.892 Section 120.892 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.892 Certifications of no adverse...

  9. 3-12 Detection and Management of Adverse Drug React

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MINA SAN

    Detection and Management of Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Antiretroviral Drugs among. HIV/AIDS Patients in Kiambu ... of various adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs occurring in patients attending Comprehensive Care .... educational level, perception of ADRs, knowledge of ADRs, detection ...

  10. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357218574

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of

  11. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manu...

  12. Adverse reactions in voluntary whole blood donors: Experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole blood donation, generally considered as a safe procedure, may be sometimes associated with adverse reactions and injuries of variable severity during or after the blood donation process. There are few reports of adverse events related to blood donation in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  13. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the

  14. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the

  15. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  16. Adverse effects of ultraviolet irradiation in atopic dermatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, O.

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate adverse effects of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) in atopic dermatitis (AD). We focused on the two important adverse effects of UV: photosensitivity and skin cancer risk associated with calcineurin inhibitor treatment. In chapter 2 and 3 we found that

  17. The oral adverse effects of isotretinoin treatment in acne vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isotretinoin is the most effective therapy to treat severe acne vulgaris and its systemic adverse effects have been well documented, but little is known on dental side effects over the course of treatment. Objectives: This prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in ...

  18. Adverse outcome pathways: opportunities, limitations and open questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leist, M.; Ghallab, A.; Graepel, R.; Marchan, R.; Hassan, R.; Bennekou, S.H.; Limonciel, A.; Vinken, M.; Schildknecht, S.; Waldmann, T.; Danen, E.; Ravenzwaay, B. van; Kamp, H.; Gardner, I.; Godoy, P.; Bois, F.Y.; Braeuning, A.; Reif, R.; Oesch, F.; Drasdo, D.; Höhme, S.; Schwarz, M.; Hartung, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Beltman, J.; Vrieling, H.; Sanz, F.; Forsby, A.; Gadaleta, D.; Fisher, C.; Kelm, J.; Fluri, D.; Ecker, G.; Zdrazil, B.; Terron, A.; Jennings, P.; Burg, B. van der; Dooley, S.; Meijer, A.H.; Willighagen, E.; Martens, M.; Evelo, C.; Mombelli, E.; Taboureau, O.; Mantovani, A.; Hardy, B.; Koch, B.; Escher, S.; van Thriel, C.; Cadenas, C.; Kroese, D.; Water, B. van de; Hengstler, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a recent toxicological construct that connects, in a formalized, transparent and quality-controlled way, mechanistic information to apical endpoints for regulatory purposes. AOP links a molecular initiating event (MIE) to the adverse outcome (AO) via key events

  19. Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-08-13

    A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.

  20. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  1. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  2. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  3. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  4. Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)

  5. The stability of the strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted

  6. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  7. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  8. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  9. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  10. Strongly \\'etale difference algebras and Babbitt's decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašić, Ivan; Wibmer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of strongly \\'{e}tale difference algebras, whose role in the study of difference equations is analogous to the role of \\'{e}tale algebras in the study of algebraic equations. We deduce an improved version of Babbitt's decomposition theorem and we present applications to difference algebraic groups and the compatibility problem.

  11. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  12. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  13. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....

  14. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  15. Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.

  16. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  17. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  18. Steering neutral atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U

    2014-01-01

    The seminal strong-field tunnelling theory introduced by L V Keldysh plays a pivotal role. It has shaped our understanding of atomic strong-field processes, where it represents the first step in complex ionisation dynamics and provides reliable tunnelling rates. Tunnelling rates, however, cannot be necessarily equated with ionisation rates. Taking into account the electron dynamics in the Coulomb potential following the tunnelling process, the process of frustrated tunnelling ionisation has been found to lead to excited Rydberg atoms. Here, we excite He atoms in the strong-field tunnelling regime into Rydberg states. A high percentage of these Rydberg atoms survive in high intensity laser fields. We exploit this fact together with their high polarisability to kinematically manipulate the Rydberg atoms with a second elliptically polarised focused strong laser field. By varying the spatial overlap of the two laser foci, we are able to selectively control the deflection of the Rydberg atoms. The results of semi-classical calculations, which are based on the frustrated tunnelling model and on the ponderomotive acceleration, are in accord with our experimental data. (paper)

  19. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  20. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  1. Black holes and the strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of black holes developed by Hawking in asymptotically flat space-times is generalized so that black holes in the cosmological situations are included. It is assumed that the strong version of the Penrose cosmic censorship hypothesis holds. (author)

  2. Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Da [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of (China); Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pomarol, Alex [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física and IFAE-BIST,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or WW scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.

  3. The economic burden of nurse-sensitive adverse events in 22 medical-surgical units: retrospective and matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouaket, Eric; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'Amour, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of nurse-sensitive adverse events in 22 acute-care units in Quebec by estimating excess hospital-related costs and calculating resulting additional hospital days. Recent changes in the worldwide economic and financial contexts have made the cost of patient safety a topical issue. Yet, our knowledge about the economic burden of safety of nursing care is quite limited in Canada in general and Quebec in particular. Retrospective analysis of charts of 2699 patients hospitalized between July 2008 - August 2009 for at least 2 days of 30-day periods in 22 medical-surgical units in 11 hospitals in Quebec. Data were collected from September 2009 to August 2010. Nurse-sensitive adverse events analysed were pressure ulcers, falls, medication administration errors, pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Descriptive statistics identified numbers of cases for each nurse-sensitive adverse event. A literature analysis was used to estimate excess median hospital-related costs of treatments with these nurse-sensitive adverse events. Costs were calculated in 2014 Canadian dollars. Additional hospital days were estimated by comparing lengths of stay of patients with nurse-sensitive adverse events with those of similar patients without nurse-sensitive adverse events. This study found that five adverse events considered nurse-sensitive caused nearly 1300 additional hospital days for 166 patients and generated more than Canadian dollars 600,000 in excess treatment costs. The results present the financial consequences of the nurse-sensitive adverse events. Government should invest in prevention and in improvements to care quality and patient safety. Managers need to strengthen safety processes in their facilities and nurses should take greater precautions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Concurrent adversities and suicide attempts among Sami and non-Sami adolescents: the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Study (NAAHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about connections between adolescent suicide attempts (SA) and concurrent adversities. In a cross-sectional study, the authors wanted to investigate prevalences, additive effects of adversities, family and peer relations, gender, divorce and poverty, and ethnic differences between Sami and non-Sami youth. In an adolescent community population encompassing 4881 adolescents of 15-16 years of age, youth with and without self-reports of attempted suicide the last year were compared on 12 concurrent adversities, on scales assessing family and peer functioning, and on sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of attempted suicide the last year was 5.3%, and more girls (8.8%) than boys (1.8%). All 12 concurrent adversities were strongly related to SA. The suicide attempters reported two and a half times as many adversities as non-attempters. A strong multiple additive relationship was found. Multivariately, among boys, the strongest risk factors were suicide among friends (OR = 9.4), and suicide in the family or in the neighbourhood (OR = 4.8). Among girls, sexual abuse (OR = 5.2) and parent mental problems (OR = 4.6) were strongest related to SA. Suicide attempters reported more divorce and poverty, more conflicts with parents, and less family support and involvement. Totally, Sami youth reported more SA and more concurrent adversities than non-Sami peers. Adolescent suicide attempters are heavily burdened with concurrent adversities. Clinicians should be aware of gender differences in risk factors, and should ask about abuse and suicide or attempts among relatives and peers. A family perspective in clinical work is needed.

  5. Interaction of Strong Turbulence With Free Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Robert A.

    Spray from a nozzle, spilling breakers, and “rooster tails” from speeding boats are all examples of a turbulent flow with a free surface. In many cases like these, the free surface is difficult to discern as the volume of air in the fluid can exceed that of the water.In traditional studies, the free surface is simply defined as a continuous surface separating the fluid from air. The pressure at the surface is assumed to be atmospheric pressure and the fluid comprising the surface moves with the surface. While these conditions are sufficient for non-turbulent flows, such as nonbreaking water waves, and lead to the (albeit non-linear) dynamic and kinematic free surface boundary conditions that serve to provide sufficient conditions to determine the surface, they are not valid descriptions for a bubbly free surface in a highly turbulent regime, such as the roller in front of a spilling breaker or the propeller wash behind a ship.

  6. The rate of adverse events during IV conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamburger, Nathan T; Hancock, Raymond H; Chong, Chol H; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2012-01-01

    Conscious sedation has become an integral part of dentistry; it is often used to reduce anxiety or fear in some patients during oral surgery, periodontal surgery, implant placement, and general dentistry procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of adverse events during IV conscious sedation provided by credentialed general dentists and periodontists in the United States Air Force (USAF). Sedation clinical records (Air Force Form 1417) from calendar year 2009 were requested from all USAF bases. A total of 1,468 records were reviewed and 19 adverse events were noted in 17 patients. IV complication (infiltration) was the most common adverse event. The overall adverse event rate was 1.3 per 100 patients treated. The results of this study show that moderate sedation provided by general dentists and periodontists in the USAF has a low incidence of adverse events, and conscious sedation remains a viable option for providers for the reduction of anxiety in select patients.

  7. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2009-10-17

    For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest-that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  8. Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature

  9. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  10. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adulthood Aggression and Self-Esteem-A Study on Male Forensic Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Khodabandeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are stressful or traumatic events, including abuse and neglect. The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs occurring during childhood or adolescence; may lead to a wide range of physical and psychological health issues throughout a person’s lifespan. Children with ACEs, develops poor relation skills and low self-esteem, which may increase the likelihood of interpersonal problems and physical aggression in adult life. The current study examined the correlation among adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, self-esteem, and aggressive behavior.Materials and Methods: The sample included 350 adult male clients, accused of physical aggression in forensic setting. All participants completed interviews, focusing on different types of maltreatment prior to age 18, using the modified standardized Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questioner (ACE-IQ and self-esteem level by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.Results: The most commonly reported adverse experience was family dysfunction, mainly violence in the family that caused problems. Strong correlations were shown to exist between various ACEs and aggressive behavior. Negative correlation detected between self–esteem and all categories subjected for ACE except sexual abuse and community violence (P=0>.05.Conclusion: Much attention has been focused on adverse childhood experiences as risk factors for a spectrum of violence-related outcomes during adulthood.

  11. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  12. Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Debora Lee; Jerman, Petra; Silvério Marques, Sara; Koita, Kadiatou; Purewal Boparai, Sukhdip Kaur; Burke Harris, Nadine; Bucci, Monica

    2018-02-23

    Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected. Mental and behavioral health outcomes were excluded, as were physical health outcomes that were a direct result of adversity (i.e. abusive head trauma). Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. After identifying 15940 records, 35 studies were included in this review. Selected studies indicated that exposure to childhood adversity was associated with delays in cognitive development, asthma, infection, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. Studies on household dysfunction reported an effect on weight during early childhood, and studies on maltreatment reported an effect on weight during adolescence. Maternal mental health issues were associated with elevated cortisol levels, and maltreatment was associated with blunted cortisol levels in childhood. Furthermore, exposure to childhood adversity was associated with alterations of immune and inflammatory response and stress-related accelerated telomere erosion. Childhood adversity affects brain development and multiple body systems, and the physiologic manifestations can be detectable in childhood. A history of childhood adversity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of developmental delay, asthma, recurrent infections requiring hospitalization, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. The variability in children's response to adversity suggests complex underlying mechanisms and poses a challenge in the development of uniform diagnostic guidelines. More large longitudinal studies are needed to better

  13. Plasma pressure and anisotropy inferred from the Tsyganenkomagnetic field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cao

    Full Text Available A numerical procedure has been developed to deduce the plasma pressure and anisotropy from the Tsyganenko magnetic field model. The Tsyganenko empirical field model, which is based on vast satellite field data, provides a realistic description of magnetic field configuration in the magnetosphere. When the force balance under the static condition is assumed, the electromagnetic <strong>J×B> force from the Tsyganenko field model can be used to infer the plasma pressure and anisotropy distributions consistent with the field model. It is found that the <strong>J×B> force obtained from the Tsyganenko field model is not curl-free. The curl-free part of the <strong>J×B> force in an empirical field model can be balanced by the gradient of the isotropic pressure, while the nonzero curl of the <strong>J×B> force can only be associated with the pressure anisotropy. The plasma pressure and anisotropy in the near-Earth plasma sheet are numerically calculated to obtain a static equilibrium consistent with the Tsyganenko field model both in the noon-midnight meridian and in the equatorial plane. The plasma pressure distribution deduced from the Tsyganenko 1989 field model is highly anisotropic and shows this feature early in the substorm growth phase. The pressure anisotropy parameter αP, defined as αP=1-PVertP, is typically ~0.3 at x ≈ -4.5RE and gradually decreases to a small negative value with an increasing tailward distance. The pressure anisotropy from the Tsyganenko 1989 model accounts for 50% of the cross-tail current at maximum and only in a highly localized region near xsim-10RE. In comparison, the plasma pressure anisotropy inferred from the Tsyganenko 1987 model is much smaller. We also find that the boundary

  14. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  15. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  16. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P Z G; Aranas, E B; Millen, J; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2016-10-21

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  18. Interaction of Energetic Particles with Discontinuities Upstream of Strong Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Mikhail; Diamond, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Acceleration of particles in strong astrophysical shocks is known to be accompanied and promoted by a number of instabilities which are driven by the particles themselves. One of them is an acoustic (also known as Drury's) instability driven by the pressure gradient of accelerated particles upstream. The generated sound waves naturally steepen into shocks thus forming a shocktrain. Similar magnetoacoustic or Alfven type structures may be driven by pick-up ions, for example. We consider the solutions of kinetic equation for accelerated particles within the shocktrain. The accelerated particles are assumed to be coupled to the flow by an intensive pitch-angle scattering on the self-generated Alfven waves. The implications for acceleration and confinement of cosmic rays in this shock environment will be discussed.

  19. Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, David

    In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses

  20. Mesotherapy-induced panniculitis treated with dapsone: case report and review of reported adverse effects of mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer; Rao, Babar

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a procedure involving the injection of substances into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Used in Europe for decades in the treatment of various medical conditions and cosmetic fat dissolution, the technique only recently became widely available in the United States. Mesotherapy has been surrounded by controversy pertaining to efficacy and has been associated with localized complications, including allergic reactions, necrosis, and infections. Panniculitis is a rare adverse reaction to mesotherapy that may result from injection pressure, local trauma, or the type of injected substances. Treatment options for complications are limited. We report a case of mesotherapy-induced panniculitis successfully treated with dapsone. This case illustrates one of the potential adverse effects of mesotherapy and suggests that dapsone may be effective in the treatment of panniculitis resulting from such injections. Reported adverse effects associated with mesotherapy are also reviewed.

  1. A Modern Method to Monitor Office Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliya Khazan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and management of hypertension relies on accurate and precise blood pressure (BP measurements and monitoring techniques. Variability in traditional office based BP readings can contribute to misclassification and potential misdiagnosis of hypertension, leading to inappropriate treatment and possibly avoidable adverse drug events. Both home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM can improve characterization of BP status over traditional office values and can predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; however, they are limited by availability and/or practical use in many situations. Available in-office blood pressure measuring methods include manual auscultation, automated oscillometric, and automated office blood pressure (AOBP devices. A strong correlation exists between AOBP and awake ABPM measurements and has been linked to better prediction of end-organ damage and white coat response compared to standard office BP methods. While AOBP does not provide nocturnal BP readings, it can be utilized in several outpatient settings, and has the capability to decrease utilization of ABPM, white coat effect, and improve optimization of cardiovascular assessment, evaluation, and therapeutic assessment in clinical practice. Hypertension affects over 80 million adults in the United States (US and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [1]. The condition’s ubiquitous nature and broad impact potentially makes understanding the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension key elements of managing cardiovascular risk. Though much attention is paid to the treatment of hypertension, from 2009 to 2012, 45.9% of US patients with hypertension were uncontrolled [1]. Appreciating the aspects of proper assessment of blood pressure is crucial and creates the foundation for approaching hypertension management. Until recently, hypertension was defined as an appropriately

  2. Adverse life events and delinquent behavior among Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study on the protective role of parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2014-01-01

    Past research provides strong evidence that adverse life events heighten the risk of delinquent behavior among adolescents. Urban informal (slum) settlements in sub-Saharan Africa are marked by extreme adversity. However, the prevalence and consequences of adverse life events as well as protective factors that can mitigate the effects of exposure to these events in slum settlements is largely understudied. We examine two research questions. First, are adverse life events experienced at the individual and household level associated with a higher likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya? Second, are parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem protective against delinquency in a context of high adversity? We used cross-sectional data from 3,064 males and females aged 12-19 years who participated in the Transitions to Adulthood Study. We examined the extent to which a composite index of adverse life events was associated with delinquent behavior (measured using a composite index derived from nine items). We also examined the direct and moderating effects of three protective factors: parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem. Fifty-four percent of adolescents reported at least one adverse life event, while 18% reported three or more adverse events. For both males and females, adversity was positively and significantly associated with delinquency in bivariate and multivariate models. Negative associations were observed between the protective factors and delinquency. Significant adverse events × protective factor interaction terms were observed for parental monitoring (females and males), religiosity (males), and self-esteem (females). Similar to research in high income countries, adverse life events are associated with an increased likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya, a low-income country. However, parental monitoring, religiosity, and self-esteem may

  3. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  4. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  5. Strongly not relatives Kähler manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedda Michela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study Kähler manifolds that are strongly not relative to any projective Kähler manifold, i.e. those Kähler manifolds that do not share a Kähler submanifold with any projective Kähler manifold even when their metric is rescaled by the multiplication by a positive constant. We prove two results which highlight some relations between this property and the existence of a full Kähler immersion into the infinite dimensional complex projective space. As application we get that the 1-parameter families of Bergman-Hartogs and Fock-Bargmann-Hartogs domains are strongly not relative to projective Kähler manifolds.

  6. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  7. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  8. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  9. New strong interactions above the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for a new higher-color quark sector, based on Pomeron physics in QCD, are briefly described. The electroweak symmetry-breaking, Strong CP conservation, and electroweak scale CP violation, that is naturally produced by this sector is also outlined. A further consequence is that above the electroweak scale there will be a radical change in the strong interaction. Electroweak states, in particular multiple W's and Z's, and new, semi-stable, very massive, baryons, will be commonly produced. The possible correlation of expected phenomena with a wide range of observed Cosmic Ray effects at and above the primary spectrum knee is described. Related phenomena that might be seen in the highest energy hard scattering events at the Fermilab Tevatron, some of which could be confused with top production, are also briefly discussed

  10. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  11. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...

  12. Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability

  13. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  14. Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra

    2017-12-01

    The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  15. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.

  16. Electrons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1985-05-01

    We first describe the average one-particle spectrum in the presence of a strong magnetic field together with random impurities for a Gaussian distribution, and generalized using a supersymmetric method. We then study the effect of Coulomb interactions on an electron gas in a strong field, within the approximation of a projection on the lowest Landau level. At maximal density (or filling fraction ν equal to unity) the quantum mechanical problem is equivalent to a soluble classical model for a two-dimensional plasma. As ν decreases, more states come into play. Laughlin has guessed the structure of the ground state and its low lying excitations for certain rational values of the filling fraction. A complete proof is however missing, nor is it clear what happens as ν becomes so small that a ''crystalline'' structure becomes favoured. Our presentation shows a link with functions occurring in combinatorics and analytic number theory, which seems not to have been fully exploited

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  18. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  19. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Strong disorder RG approach of random systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igloi, Ferenc; Monthus, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    There is a large variety of quantum and classical systems in which the quenched disorder plays a dominant ro-circumflex le over quantum, thermal, or stochastic fluctuations: these systems display strong spatial heterogeneities, and many averaged observables are actually governed by rare regions. A unifying approach to treat the dynamical and/or static singularities of these systems has emerged recently, following the pioneering RG idea by Ma and Dasgupta and the detailed analysis by Fisher who showed that the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yield asymptotic exact results if the broadness of the disorder grows indefinitely at large scales. Here we report these new developments by starting with an introduction of the main ingredients of the strong disorder RG method. We describe the basic properties of infinite disorder fixed points, which are realized at critical points, and of strong disorder fixed points, which control the singular behaviors in the Griffiths-phases. We then review in detail applications of the RG method to various disordered models, either (i) quantum models, such as random spin chains, ladders and higher dimensional spin systems, or (ii) classical models, such as diffusion in a random potential, equilibrium at low temperature and coarsening dynamics of classical random spin chains, trap models, delocalization transition of a random polymer from an interface, driven lattice gases and reaction diffusion models in the presence of quenched disorder. For several one-dimensional systems, the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yields very detailed analytical results, whereas for other, mainly higher dimensional problems, the RG rules have to be implemented numerically. If available, the strong disorder RG results are compared with another, exact or numerical calculations